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Nutrition Practice Test Questions
1. Fruits, vegetables and cereals are potent sources of:
a. Antioxidants
b. Unsaturated fat
c. Saturated fat
d. Freeradicals
2. The leading source of antioxidants in the U.S. diet is:
a. Citrus fruits
b. Spinach
c. Coffee
d. Egg yolks
3. The essential fatty acids that must be derived from the diet are:
a. Stearidonic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid
b. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid
c. Linoleic and alpha-linoleic acid
d. Gamma-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid
4. All of the following statements about omega-3 fatty acids are true except:
a. They help to maintain healthy triglycerideand high-density lipoprotein
b. They havesignificantly contributed to theobesity epidemic
c. They arenecessary for healthy infant growth and development
d. They play an important rolein theproduction of hormones that govern numerous metabolic
and biological processes
5. All of the following may be associated with scurvy except:
a. Loss of appetiteand irritability
b. Diarrheaand fever
c. Tenderness and swelling in legs
d. First symptomis altered mental status
6. The only fat-soluble antioxidant synthesized in the body is?
a. Vitamin D
b. Thiamine
c. Ascorbic acid
d. CoQ10
7. Good source of vitamin D include all except:
a. blueberries
b. Sunlight
c. Salmon, tunasardines and mackerel
d. Fortified milk and other dairy products
8. One of the fat-soluble vitamins involved in coagulation is:
a. Vitamin K
b. Vitamin A
c. Vitamin D
d. Vitamin E
9. Products that contain live microorganisms in sufficient numbers to alter intestinal
microflora and promote intestinal microbial balance are known as:
a. Antibiotics
b. Probiotics
c. Fruits and vegetables
d. Digestive enzymes
10. Nondigestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and activity of certain
bacteria in the colon are called:
a. Insolublefiber
b. Probiotics
c. Prebiotics
d. Cellulose
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11. A deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the diet causes:
a. Osteopenia
b Beri-beri
c. Protein malnutrition
d. Scurvy
12. Symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia may include all of the following except:
a. Extreme, intermittent facial pain in thejaw or cheek
b. Tingling or numbness on onesideof theface
c. Pain triggered by contact with thefaceor facial movements
d. Inability to swallow
13. All of the following are true about Tourette syndrome except:
a. Drug treatment completely eliminates symptoms
b. It is involuntary and may beachronic condition
c. Symptoms aregenerally most severeduring adolescence
d. Symptoms aregenerally detected in children
14. The USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise:
a. Limiting carbohydrates to 10 percent of daily calories
b. Limiting total fat intaketo 20 to 35 percent of calories
c. Limiting protein to 10 percent of daily calories
d. Limiting intakeof fats and oils to 10 percent of daily calories
15. All of the following statements about vitamin B3 (niacin) are true except:
a. It helps to releaseenergy in carbohydrates, fat, and protein
b. It improves blood lipid levels
c. Deficiency causes beriberi
d. It is involved in thesynthesis of sex hormones
16. The average American consumes approximately how much sodium per day?
a. 2,300 mg
b. 230 mg
c. 340 mg
d. 3,400 mg
17. All of the following are potentially modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis except:
a. Anorexianervosa
b. Chronically low intakeof calciumand vitamin D
c. Chronically low intakeof vitamins C and B6
d. Excessivealcohol consumption
18. Consuming fewer than 130 grams of carbohydrate per day may lead to:
a. Hypoglycemia
b. Kwashiorkor
c. Marasmus
d. Ketosis
19. Characteristics of successful dieters include all of the following except:
a. Maintaining a daily food journal
b. Counting calories
c. Adhering to astrict eating plan
d. Eliminating all carbohydrates fromtheir diets
20. Iron supplements are frequently recommended for all of the following except:
a. Women who arepregnant
b. Infants and toddlers
c. Teenagegirls
d. Post-menopausal women
Answers and Explanations
1. A: In addition to theabove-mentioned foods, legumes (including broad beans, pinto beans,
and soybeans) aregood sources of antioxidant vitamins and avariety of phytonutrients that
often act as antioxidants, protecting thecells of thebody fromthe damaging effect of free
radicals. Someof thebest sources of antioxidants areberries, ginger, pomegranate, sunflower
seeds, and walnuts.
2. C: Because most Americans do not consume the recommended number of servings of fruits
and vegetables each day, coffeeis theleading sourceof antioxidants in Americans' diets. It is
not becausecoffeeis especially high in antioxidants, but becauseAmericans drink so much of
it. Their morning coffeegives Americans nearly 1,300 mg daily of antioxidants in theformof
polyphenols.
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3. C: Although essential fatty acids arerequired for human metabolism, thebody does not
producelinoleic acid (LA or ?-6 or omega-6) and alpha-linoleic acid (LNA or ?-3 or omega-3),
and they must bederived fromthediet. Also known as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),
omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play vital roles in brain function as well as normal growth and
development.
4. B: In addition to the above-mentioned facts, omega-3 fatty acids arenecessary for the
structureof cell membranes, especially in thebrain and retina. Thecardioprotectiveeffects of
omega-3 fatty acids relateto improvements in blood pressure, cardiac function, and arterial and
vascular function as well as improved lipid metabolism, antiplatelet, and anti-inflammatory
effects.
5. D: Scurvy is caused by insufficient consumption of vitamin C. Although it is rare, older
adults, persons who abusealcohol, and thosewho eat adiet that does not contain fresh fruit and
vegetables may beat risk of developing scurvy. Along with theabove-mentioned symptoms,
persons with scurvy may suffer bleeding gums, petechial hemorrhageof theskin and mucous
membranes, bleeding in the eye, hyperkeratosis, and siccasyndrome.
6. D: CoenzymeQ10 (CoQ10) is afat-soluble quinone, avitamin-likecompound that is vital
for activities related to energy metabolism. CoQ10 is thecoenzymefor at least three
mitochondrial enzymes as well as enzymes in other parts of thecell and is involved in thekey
biochemical reactions that produceenergy in cells. It also is a freeradical scavenger and is
metabolized to ubiquinol, which prolongs the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. Thehighest
amounts of it arefound in themitochondriaof cells of organs with high-energy requirements
such as theheart muscle, liver, kidneys, and pancreas.
7. A: Humans obtain vitamin D fromtwo natural sources: sunlight and consumed food. Solar
UVB radiation penetrates theskin and converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3, which
is rapidly converted to vitamin D3. Along with theabove-mentioned foods, cod liver oil is a
potent sourceof vitamin D and someorangejuice, soy, and ricebeverages arefortified with
vitamin D.
8. A: Vitamin K1 is acofactor needed for the synthesis of someof thesubstances that help
blood to clot. In adults, low dietary intake of vitamin K may betheresult of chronic illness,
malnutrition, alcoholism, multipleabdominal surgeries, long-termparenteral nutrition,
malabsorption, gallbladder disease, liver disease, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease,
and long-termuseof drugs such as antibiotics and cholestyramine, which binds to bileacids,
preventing fat-solublevitamin absorption.
9. B: Probiotics protect against harmful bacteriain thefollowing ways: by penetrating and
binding to thesurfaces of harmful organisms; by stimulating thelining of thedigestivetract to
prevent penetration by pathogens; and by modifying immunoregulation. Probiotics havebeen
shown to relievetemporary abdominal bloating and to reduceintestinal gas.
10. C: Prebiotics areprimarily oligosaccharides-short chains of sugar molecules that can only
partially be digested. Most naturally occurring oligosaccharides arefound in plants. Prebiotics
areoften called bifidogenic factors becausethey primarily stimulategrowth of bifidobacteria.
Prebiotics work in concert with probiotics and havebeen found to producemany of thesame
health benefits.
11. B: Beri-beri is rarely seen in theUnited States becausemany foods arefortified with
thiamine. Persons at risk of developing beri-beri includethosewho abusealcohol, persons on
dialysis, and thosetaking high doses of diuretics as well as infants breastfed by mothers who
lack sufficient thiamine.
12. D: Trigeminal neuralgiais characterized by sudden onset of severepain that lasts less than a
minute. It presents most commonly in persons age50 and older and among women. The
frequency and severity of attacks recurs and remits, progressively worsening over time. While
thedisorder may bedebilitating, it is not lifethreatening.
13. A: Tourette Syndromeis characterized by tics - repetitive, involuntary behaviors,
vocalizations and movements such as eyeblinking, grimacing and shrugging, or jerky muscle
movements. Tics also may includeself-harmsuch as repetitively punching oneself as well as
coprolaliaand echolalia. Persons with Tourettesyndromefrequently suffer behavioral problems
such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention disorders, and repetitive behaviors.
14. B: TheUSDA Dietary Guidelines suggest that most dietary fats should beobtained from
sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, such as fish, nuts, and vegetable
oils. TheGuidelines also adviselimiting intakeof fats and oils high in saturated and/or trans
fatty acids.
15. C: In addition to theabove-mentioned actions, vitamin B3, also known as niacin or nicotinic
acid, is awater-solublevitamin that is necessary for cell respiration and supports thecirculation,
skin, nervous system, and secretion of bile. Insufficient niacin intakeis associated with
symptoms such as canker sores, depression, fatigue, indigestion, weakness, skin problems, and
inflammation. Chronic niacin deficiency is called pellagra.
16. D: TheaverageAmerican consumes about 50% moresodiumthan the2,300 mg per day
recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Excessivesodiumconsumption is
associated with increased risk for hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of
developing cardiovascular disease.
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17. C: Long-terminadequateintakeof calciumis associated with low bonemass, rapid bone
loss, and high risk of fracture. In addition to theabove-mentioned risk factors, chronic useof
glucocorticoids, someanticonvulsants, inactivity, smoking, and changes in sex hormones such
as amenorrhea, menopause, and low testosteronemay increase the risk for osteoporosis.
18. D: Low carbohydratediets promoteketosis, theprocess of breaking down fat as opposed to
carbohydrateto generateenergy. Ketones areacidic chemicals, which can build up in theblood
and urine. Diet-induced ketosis may beintentional as a treatment for somepeoplewith epilepsy,
however, for somepeople, long-termadherenceto avery low carbohydratediet may produce
damage to theliver and kidneys.
19. D: Along with theabove-mentioned characteristics, successful dieters monitor their weight,
practice portion control, increasephysical activity, and aimfor healthy realistic weight loss
ranging from10% to 20% of initial bodyweight in ayear. Successful dieters maintain their
motivation by celebrating the achievement of weight-loss milestones.
20. D: In addition to theabove-mentioned populations, supplemental iron may begiven to treat
anemiathat occurs during pregnancy or as aresult of heavy menstrual periods, kidney disease,
or chemotherapy. Supplemental iron also may berecommended for vegetarians and women who
arelactating. Iron requirements decreasefor post-menopausal women.
by Enoch Morrison
Last Updated: 04/08/2014
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Mamello Kayla Motlomelo Works at Mind Your Own Business
thanks a lot thk this is so helpful.
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Olusola Olarewaju Obafemi Awolowo University
thanks a bunch, it is very helpful
Reply Like Follow Post May 8 at 10:31pm
Saman Gill Khalsa College, Amritsar
sooooooi helpfulllll....
Reply Like Follow Post May 7 at 7:56am
Suhair Saeed Bahubaishi London, Ontario
thanx a lot very informative exam.
Reply Like Follow Post April 6 at 4:20pm
Mohamed Lokman Studied at Mugadishu University
Thank you for your effort. This was very helpful.
Reply Like Follow Post March 9 at 3:39am
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