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CHAPTER 13: REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH






Fertilisation and Development of a Zygote



NEXUS SPM BIOLOGY FORMS 4 & 5
Page 471 (Extra Graphic)















Supplementary Materials for
3(b) blastomere
cells
divide
cells
divide

Fallopian
tube
ovary
secondary
oocyte
endometrium
uterus
(2) Fertilisation
(3) Development of Zygote
(4) Implantation
(1) Ovulation
2(a) second polar body
nucleus
of sperm
nucleus
of ovum
2(b)
(1a-b) secondary oocyte
first polar body (see point 6 and
Fig. 13.6, page 465, Nexus SPM
Text)
3(a) zygote divides
inner cell mass
trophoblast



fluid-filled cavity
(3e-f) blastocyst
first polar
body
2(a) meiosis II
completes
2(a) sperm enters
3(a) two-celled embryo
3(c) four-celled embryo
3(c) eight-celled embryo
(3c-d) morula
endometrium



simple columnar epithelium
blood vessel
blastocyst
Fertilisation and development of a zygote
Time: 2 days
Time: 3 days
simple columnar epithelium
Time: 1.5 days
Time: 0
Time: 4 days
Time: 5 days
Time: 6 days
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1. The following is a summary of the main events shown in the above diagram.
Ovulation
(a) During ovulation, the mature follicle in the ovary ruptures and releases a
secondary oocyte (together with a first polar body) into the Fallopian tube.
(b) The secondary oocyte is already undergoing meiosis II, but stops at
metaphase II.
Fertilisation
(a) When the head of a sperm enters the secondary oocyte, it triggers the
completion of meiosis II in the secondary oocyte (which is now called an
ovum) and the formation of a second polar body (see point 10 and Figure 13.6
page 465, Nexus SPM Biology)
(b) Fertilisation occurs when the chromosomes of the sperm and the ovum
combine to form a diploid zygote.
(c) The first and second polar bodies degenerate soon after.
Development of the zygote
(a) Approximately 30- 36 hours after fertilization, the first mitotic division of
the zygote forms a two-celled embryo.
(b) Blastomere is the name of the unspecialized cells of the embryo.
(c) The two-celled embryo divides repeatedly to form a four-celled embryo, then
an eight-celled embryo, and so on to produce a morula.
(d) The morula, which is a solid round ball of about 100 cells, reaches the
uterus in about 4 days after fertilization.
(e) The blastocyst (or blastula) forms when the cells of the morula arrange
themselves into a fluid-filled cavity.
(f) The blastocyst
consists of over 100 cells,
has an inner cell mass which forms the embryo,
has an outer layer of cells, called the trophoblast (which forms the future
placenta).
Implantation occurs when the blastocyst attaches to and embeds in the
endometrium of the uterus through its trophoblast.

2. Curriculum specifications requirements:
You are required to be able to
(a) describe what fertilisation is,
(b) describe in simple terms the early development of a zygote,
(c) name the two main stages (viz. morula and blastocyst) in the development of a zygote
in preparation for implantation.
(Reference: Unit 4.3 Understanding the early development of a zygote in humans,
page 34, Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools Curriculum Specifications
Biology Form 5, CDC, MOE, 2006)



NEXUS SPM BIOLOGY FORMS 4 & 5
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Supplementary Materials for
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Fertilisation and Development of a Zygote

1. Fertilization of the egg usually occurs
A in the ovary.
B in the uterus.
C within 1 hour of ovulation.
D in the upper 1/3 of the Fallopian tube.


Instructions: Questions 2 and 3 refer to the following diagram which shows the 8-cell stage
structure in the human fertilised egg.









2. How many times has cell division occurred to form the structure shown in the above
diagram?
A 2
B 3
C 4
D 5

3. In which part of the reproductive system should the 8-cell stage structure be found for
successful implantation of the future embryo?
A Ovary
B Uterus
C Cervix
D Oviduct

4. Which of the following best describes a morula?
A A solid ball of cells
B A loose ball of cells
C A hollow ball of cells
D A fluid-filled ball of cells

NEXUS SPM BIOLOGY FORMS 4 & 5
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Supplementary Materials for