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EDS 2005/CC-1

Crude Characterization
Training Services
EDS 2005/CC-2
Background Topics
Crude Assay Review
Crude Breakup Objectives
Important Topics to Emphasize
Procedure - Sample Problem
Class Problem
EDS 2005/CC-3
What is a crude breakup procedure?
Procedure to calculate fractional yields and
properties for a given crude oil assay
A crude breakup can also be called a crude
yield estimate for a given crude oil assay
In the past, many people in the industry have referred this procedure as performing
a crude breakup. This term is still used. A better term might be crude yield
estimate. This is what we are doing - we are predicting the yields and properties
that the actual crude and vacuum unit will generate when processing the crude
represented by the crude assay. This gives the same meaning tothe term when
yield estimate is applied to other (reaction) units in the refinery (such as FCC,
reforming, hydrotreating, etc.). However, with a crude unit, there is no reaction,
only separation occurring, so that is the major difference between a crude yield
estimate and other process unit yield estimates.
EDS 2005/CC-4
Understanding the terms and procedures used is
important to avoid misunderstandings between
ALL PARTIES between and within companies
Consistent procedure all parties agree with the
For example, need to be clear on cutpoint
Results represent product volumetric and quality
targets for crude and vacuum unit performance
These points cannot be emphasized enough. Countless hours (anddays) have been
spent clearing up the misunderstanding and miscommunication involved in a new
refinery design. The misunderstandings often involve the word cutpoint. I
distinguish between LP/Planning Cut Ranges for Yield and unit product
distillations. These are the 2 kind of cutpoints I worry about.
Some people will refer to a 650F diesel cutpoint - for one person, this is a LP cut
point for yield, for someone else this is an ASTM distillation endpoint (EP). The
same word is used but it can mean (significantly) different things!
EDS 2005/CC-5
Types of Laboratory Distillations
Physical Properties for Characterization
Specifications for Products
Background for Using Crude Assay
EDS 2005/CC-6
Engler D-86
Engler D-1160
- Run in a standard engler flask
- No packing
- No reflux
- Standardized
- Data not related to yield
Types of Laboratory Distillation
These are the basic laboratory distillations that are performed over the world.
They have been around a long time, and most everyone in the operating world is
familiar with them. Most laboratories have automated them to reduce costs and
increase sample processing capability.
EDS 2005/CC-7
TBP Distillation
- Done in column with 15 to 100 stgs
- High reflux rate > 5 to 1
- Give accurate comp distribution
Types of Laboratory Distillation
This is the basis for a crude assay. Most crude assays are performed using a True
Boiling Point (TBP) procedure. There is an official ASTM test method (D-2892 -
official title Distillation of Crude Petroleum (15-Theoretical Plate Column)).
However, the tests are not necessarily standardized in terms of the number of
theoretical plates and the amount of reflux. However, this is normally not
The key to a TBP distillation is the high number of fractionation stages and a high
level of reflux. This ensures a high level of fractionation between the cuts. Some
people even refer to this as perfect fractionation. Essentially we are getting a
very fine split between fractions with a TBP distillation (whichdoes not occur in the
real crude/vacuum towers, and in the D-86/D-1160 distillations).
EDS 2005/CC-8
D-2887 Simulated Distillation or Sim Dist
True Title Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum
Fractions by Gas Chromatography
As stated in the title, this is a GC method, and results are
provided on a wt% basis
Results are different from the TBP (just like the results
for the D-86/D-1160 are different from the TBP), but
closer to the TBP than the D-86 or D-1160
All distillations have interconversions to relate the
laboratory method to a TBP distillation (this is how the
simulator handles all of these distillations - they are
converted to TBP distillations
Types of Laboratory Distillations
This is a relatively new type of distillation laboratory test. From a laboratory
handling viewpoint, it is easier to handle than the traditional D-86/D-1160
distillations. The results are different than either the D-86/D-1160 distillations or a
TBP distillation. D-2887 distillations are provided on a wt% basis.
Most process simulators (Hysys, Aspenplus, ProII) allow you to enter any type of
distillation data. In the simulator, the internal working curve that the simulator uses
is a TBP curve. All of your input data to a simulator is converted to a TBP curve,
usually using published API or ASTM conversion methods.
EDS 2005/CC-9
Difference between TBP and ASTM distillation of the same material
Types of Laboratory Distillation
This plot shows, that if the same material is taken to a laboratory and given a TBP
and ASTM test, the resulting distillation plot will not be the same, even though the
sample material is the same.
EDS 2005/CC-10
EFV (Equilibrium Flash Vaporization)
- Relates to commercial
- Total vapor in
equilibrium with total
- Time consuming in
Types of Laboratory Distillation
This is another type of laboratory test that is not practiced much anymore due to
the high cost. In order to extract any useful information from this test, a large
number of runs must be performed.
In a simulator, this is the same as a flash calculation.
EDS 2005/CC-11
Table A - I
Crude and Residual Properties
Light Arabian Crude Assay
Table A - II
Light Hydrocarbon Analyses
TBP Cut Points
IBP - 60F
60 - 160F
Table 1 represents whole crude and residue properties. It shows how the
properties of the residue change as more distillate material is removed.
Table 2 represents the light hydrocarbon analysis. In many recent assays, this
includes a complete GC breakdown up through C9 or C10 material (very valuable
information for doing catalytic reforming (Platforming) yield estimates).
EDS 2005/CC-12
Table A - III
Gasolines and Naphthas
(60 - 200) (60 - 300) (60 - 400)
(200 - 300) (200 - 400) (300 - 400)
Light Arabian Crude Assay
Table A - IV
Kerosenes and Gas Oils
(300 - 400) (300 - 500) (300 - 600)
(400 - 500) (400 - 600)
(500 - 600) (600 - 800) (800 - 1000)
More data - representing the properties of interest for each cut.
If there is any concept I want you to take away from this class, it is the power of
the TBP Yield Curve.
This plot, for any crude assay, represents the yield compared tothe temperature the
yield occurs at.
It basically tells you how much naphtha, kerosene, diesel, gas oil, and residue you
will get from processing a particular crude in your refinery.
This tells you how much of a particular cut you will get (hence it is called the Yield
Curve). The other information we need to determine the profitability of running a
particular crude in our refinery is the properties of the various cuts.
EDS 2005/CC-13
Table A - V
Vol-% Yield vs. TBP Temperature
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Vol-% Yield
Light Arabian Crude Assay
EDS 2005/CC-14
Primary Objective - Predict commercial yields
and properties
Yields obtained from true boiling point (TBP)
distillation curve
Properties obtained from theoretical cuts
produced in the laboratory (tabulated in the
crude assay)
Crude Breakup Objectives
J ust repeating the purpose of doing a crude breakup (crude yieldestimate)
EDS 2005/CC-15
Theoretical yields are represented by the TBP
fractions prepared in the laboratory
Commercial yields do not match laboratory
(theoretical) yields - distillates are left in the
residue (a function of % overflash) and the
number of real trays and reflux is lower than
in the TBP distillation
This is stating the obvious, that there is a difference between a TBP distillation
(lots of reflux and trays) and real world distillation in a real crude and vacuum unit.
EDS 2005/CC-16
Predict: Yields and Properties
This shows the TBP Yield Curve, and how to use it to estimate yields.
EDS 2005/CC-17
Predict: Yields and Properties
This shows how we will use the property information in the assayto determine
More on this in the next few slides.
EDS 2005/CC-18
Some properties required to characterize hydrocarbon
fractions (to perform engineering calculations)
Others required to design a crude and vacuum unit
Others needed for design or operation of other units in
the refinery
How many properties you are looking for will depend on the end use for doing a
crude breakup - whether for hydrocarbon characterization (computer simulation),
unit design, or for yield estimating in other units.
EDS 2005/CC-19
API or sp. gr.
Boiling point/distillation
Molecular wt
Properties to Characterize Hydrocarbons
These are the properties that are required to characterize oil fractions for process
engineering calculations. You have had a session on Hydrocarbon Properties. In
that session you learned that in order to perform engineering calculations (such as
vapor liquid equilibrium, enthalpy calculations, etc.) you wouldneed to know the
oils boiling point (either CABP, MeABP, or some other average boiling point) in
order to calculate the other data we need to know if order to perform engineering
calculations (in order to perform heat and material balance calculations).
To do these calculations by hand, you need the boiling point, gravity, and UOP K,
and for some calculations, the mol wt. Then you need to look up the appropriate
data on the correct charts/data tables
For a modern simulator, all that is really needed is a boiling point and gravity. For
the whole crude, this comes in the form of a TBP boiling point curve and a gravity
curve generated from the mid volume % point in the assay.
EDS 2005/CC-20
UOP K (Characterization Factor)
API Gravity
API Gravity
Mol Weight
API Gravity
Mean ABP
API Technical Data Book
UOP Charts
Physical Properties for Characterization
To calculate UOP K, we need the gravity and boiling point (for distillate fractions)
and gravity and viscosity (for residue fractions), plus charts.
To calculate Molecular Weight, we need the gravity and a Mean Average Boiling
Point, plus charts.
EDS 2005/CC-21
Physical Properties from Process Simulator
Crude Characterization by Pseudo-Components:
Crude TBP, F
0 20 40 60 80 100

Crude TBP, F
500F NBP
450F NBP
Crude is divided into NBP normal boiling point components.
Components are generated based on the density and TBP curve
of the crude stream.
A process simulation model such as Hysys or Aspen will break up the crude TBP
curve into many smaller pseudo-components. The boiling range of each pseudo-
component is set by the user, and has associated with it an NBP or normal boiling
point which is the average boiling point for the component. For CDU simulation, a
typical pseudo-component boiling range might be 25F or 14C. A wider pseudo-
component boiling range, like 50F or 28C, may be used for VDU simulation since
the resolution required for accurate simulation of the vacuum tower system is not as
great, and there is a tradeoff in simulation convergence speed and the number of
components in the simulation file. The physical properties for each component are
determined by user supplied information on density profile versus TBP. Other
physical properties which can be profiled against crude TBP, such as wt% sulfur
and/or TAN, can also be inputted.
EDS 2005/CC-22
Acid Number
Pour Point
Other Properties for Crude Unit Design
For example, sulfur is used for metallurgy selection (as is H2S). Salt content is
used for desalter design. Acid number seriously affects metallurgy selection (it is
essentially a decision on whether the unit will be designed to process high acid
crudes). Viscosity affects exchanger design, piping design. High pour point
material requires heat tracing on process lines.
EDS 2005/CC-23
Mercaptan Sulfur
Octane Number
Cetane Number
Smoke Point
Cloud Point
Many Others (see Section 4.2 of text)
Properties Required by Other Units
In most modern refineries, the products off the crude unit are processed in
downstream process units (although this is not always the case in some parts of the
world for diesel and fuel oil especially).
Not every property is needed for every cut.
EDS 2005/CC-24
Flash Point
Freeze Point
Cetane Number
Pour point
Fuel Oils
Specifications for Products
These are some examples of properties needed for some crude/vacuum unit
products. When crude unit products are processed in downstreamunits, the
resulting products must ultimately meet final product specification.
The specifications needed for products will vary, depending on the ultimate user of
the information. If the use is for a refinery LP, all of this information is needed,
plus a lot more. If the naphtha is going to a catalytic reformer (hopefully a UOP
Platforming Unit), then not only is the distillation required, but also the PNA
content. If the complex contains a vacuum unit, the amount of contaminants in the
gas oil (metals and con carbon) are required. Depending on the residue processing
scheme (coker, visbreaker, hydrotreating) the number of properties that must be
estimated will have to accommodate the process units in the refinery.
EDS 2005/CC-25
Typical Crude Tower Product Inspections
ASTM D86 Dist*
Product Point Deg F API Flash, F Freeze, F
Light Naphtha 95% 285 77.8
EP 329
Heavy Naphtha 5% 245 54.0
95% 380
Kerosene 5% 375 44.4 135 > -50
95% 475
EP 515
Diesel 5% 450 36.6
95% 615
EP 670
Atm Gas Oil 5% 545 27.3
50% 663
Atm Resid 5% 542 12.9
* D2887 simulated distillation is now commonly used on AGO and heavier products.
EDS 2005/CC-26
Flash Zone Conditions
ASTM distillation
Degree of Fractionation
Typical Design Criteria
Topics Requiring Emphasis
EDS 2005/CC-27
Procedure is a set of guidelines not hard rules;
changes can be made depending on particular
customer needs
Biggest problem usually is missing or conflicting
data within the assay
I have performed this manual breakup several times, and have often modified
some of the data based on actual plant operating data (most often the estimate of
distillations has changed).
As mentioned above, the biggest problem is usually missing or conflicting data
within the assay.
EDS 2005/CC-28
Predicted yields and cutpoints must be compatible
with realistic flash zone operating conditions
This topic will be explored in detail in the crude
unit design talk
Flash Zone Conditions
There is a key point to be made here - the flash zone and furnace outlet have
definitive temperature limits. For crude columns, the furnace outlet temperature
typically must be limited between 660-725F (more paraffinic crudes (higher UOP
K) have a lower temperature limit). The limit is caused by cracking. At some
point in the 660-725F range, the crude will start to crack. This causes coking in
the heater (which then can cause a shutdown to clean the heater), can cause products
to go off specification do to color problems, and can overload the overhead system
with gas.
When predicting yields with this breakup procedure, it is certainly possible to show
more distillate product produced in the crude and vacuum towers than is possible in
a real plant.
In general, the crude tower lift (distillate product lift) and TBP cutpoint coincide
with the heater outlet (within 50F). Actually operating experience with a crude is
the best data available for how far this can be pushed.
For vacuum towers, somewhere between 1000 and 1050F AEBP (Atmospheric
Equivalent Boiling Point, more on this later) is usually the limit.
EDS 2005/CC-29
Estimating ASTM distillation of fractions is not
always easy
Method of estimating ASTM distillation of
commercial cuts given in this procedure should
be used only if other methods or information is
not available
Note the difference between theoretical and
commercial distillation
ASTM Distillation
This is the inaccurate portion of a manual crude breakup. The best data is actual
data, match with a simulation. If actual data is not present, a simulation, coupled
with data/experience from similar units is the best estimate.
The method shown in section 6.12 of the detailed procedure is very rough and
should only be used when the real or simulated data is not available (because it is
just a rule of thumb).
Lastly, remember - the crude assay was done in a TBP apparatus, while the real
crude unit has fewer trays and much less reflux than a TBP apparatus (although a
real crude unit has more trays/reflux than a D-86/D-1160 test). The amount of
fractionation really does depend on the number of trays and the amount of reflux in
each section of the crude column. This is covered in more detail in the crude unit
design talk.
It is a key point to remember that some of the properties we talked about can be
very seriously affected by fractionation performance. For example, in some
countries diesel pour/cloud/CFPP (these are cold flow properties) limit the amount
of heavy material that can be lifted into the diesel product in winter. And the
heaviest components have the most significant impact on these properties (in a
nonlinear manner). The fractionation tail can very seriously affect this, and is a
function of fractionation performance.
EDS 2005/CC-30
Difference between TBP and ASTM distillation of the same material
Types of Laboratory Distillation
This is the same slide that we saw before. It shows what happens when we use the
ASTM and TBP tests on the same sample.
EDS 2005/CC-31
Example - TBP Distilled Sample of 400-600F TPB Range Material
(Same Liquid Volume % of Crude as the Next Slide)
Note: Values shown arefor illustrativepurposes only and arenot meant to
represent any commercial operation.
Types of Laboratory Distillation
Ok, this is where is gets a little tricky.
What were saying here is, this is what we expect to see if we processedthe crude
in a TBP apparatus. The 400-600F cut from the TBP apparatus would have the
distillation shown above.
EDS 2005/CC-32
CA-R00-07 Note: Values shown arefor illustrativepurposes only and are
not meant to represent any commercial operation
Example - Commercially Distilled Sample of 400-600F TPB Range Material
(Same Liquid Volume % of Crude as Previous Slide)
Types of Laboratory Distillation
Ok, this is where we usually get really confused.
A cut range can be related to yield. In the crude assay (which is a TBP
distillation), we can say that the 400F- material represents the first 31.4 vol% of the
crude that boils over. At 600F- this represents the first 51.6 vol%. So, when we
refer to the 400-600F boiling range material, we are referring to crude that is in the
31.4-51.6 vol% yield pattern (20.2 vol% of the total crude).
Now, when we yield this 20.2 vol% of the crude in the 31.4-51.6% range, in a TBP
column is has a 400-600F distillation. However, in a real crude column, the
distillation is sloppier than this - in other words, we have material lighter than
400F in the front end of the product, and material heavier than 600F in the back
end of the product. So if we take this commercially distilledsample of the 31.4-
51.6% portion of the crude, it will have a distillation as shownabove.
If the same sample (material) is put into TBP and ASTM tests, they will always
have a graphical relationship as shown above.
The confusing part comes in realizing that, for the same position in crude (31.4-
51.6 vol% of the crude) a TBP distilled sample (from a crude assay) and the
commercially distilled sample (from the crude unit) - these samples have different
And, they also can have different properties as well, especiallycold properties,
such as cloud point, pour point, CFPP, freeze point - any property that does not
blend linearly.
EDS 2005/CC-33
Degree of Fractionation
Degree of Fractionation for Mixtures - Define
Difference between 5 vol-% of heavier cut and
95 vol-% of adjacent lighter cut
Negative gap
Typical for CDU Gap F
Naphtha -- Kerosene -25 to +40
Kerosene -- Diesel -50 to +30
Diesel -- Atm gas oil -150 to 0
Most refiners refer to gap as the ASTM 5% (heavier cut) - ASTM 95% (lighter
cut). This is the standard, worldwide definition. Some refiners use a 10%-90%
gap. So when you say gap, also say what youre definition is so that everyone is
clear on the definition.
I prefer to use gap, and if it is negative (which is common), tosimply use a
negative number. Many people in the industry use overlap when the gap becomes
These are typical gaps for a 3 draw crude unit. 4 draw crude unit will have
larger gaps because the cuts are smaller (more on why this is the case during the
crude unit talk - see charts PD 170 and PD 171).
The gap will also be significantly influenced by the amount and effectiveness of
side stripping steam or reboiled stripping.
EDS 2005/CC-34
Definitions: GAP (95% - 5%)
Degree of Fractionation
EDS 2005/CC-35
Typical Design Values
6 - 10 Fractionating Trays between Product Cuts
3 - 5 Vol% (on Crude) Overflash at Flash Zone
8 -10 Lbs Stripping Steam per Bbl Stripped Liquid
Typical Design Criteria
As mentioned above, these are typical design criteria. However, many crude have
fewer trays between cuts, and some have quite a few more. It all depends on the
needs of the refiner.
For stripping steam, the greatest need for stripping steam is inthe lightest sidecut
(usually kerosene), and in the atmospheric residue (crude columnbottoms). Many
units can operate with much lower levels of steam in the diesel/AGO cuts.
EDS 2005/CC-36
Definitions: Overflash (3-5%)
Typical Design Criteria
There are 2 overflash definitions. The one we will use is the one I have
encountered and consider to be the basic default definition. This says that the %
overflash is the flowrate of the liquid from the tray above the flash zone divided by
the total crude flow rate. For example, if the flow rate of the liquid from the tray
above the flash zone is 3000 BPSD and the total crude flow rate is 100,000 BPSD,
then the overflash rate will be 3%.
UOP has used another definition as well. However, to avoid confusion, I do not
want to explain it here. We actually no longer use this definition. If someone
wants to know what the old internal UOP definition is, I will behappy to explain it
after class.
Once again, the key point I want to emphasize is, that when you are taking to
someone and want to know what the overflash rate is, and they tell you 3%, then
ask them how they define overflash, and have them draw a sketch showing you the
definition as well (if you are not certain).
EDS 2005/CC-37
Before beginning, it can be useful to sketch a
block flow diagram or a fractionation scheme.
It is always a good idea to have a picture in hand, whether it is a block flow
diagram or a process flow diagram.
In the reference material, we have included a detailed, step by step procedure for a
manual crude breakup procedure. In this class, we will go through a sample
breakup using 2 methods - one using perfect fractionation, and the other (with the
same cutpoints) based on correction factors for imperfect fractionation.
Then, there will be an opportunity to work on a class problem using perfect
fractionation and imperfect fractionation.
EDS 2005/CC-38
Block Flow Diagram
Obtain Product Yields
Enter Product Yields on Block Flow Diagram
Diesel Fuel
Atmospheric Gas Oil
Reduced Crude
In any process design, one of the first tasks to be done is to determine the overall
process flow scheme. A block flow diagram is often used. Once the overall process
flow is known, an overall material balance should be prepared for the unit. In most
new unit designs, feed and product requirements are given as part of the design
For a crude unit design, product yields are determined from the design basis crude
assay. Products can be defined either by product quality specifications such as API,
ASTM Distillation, etc., or as product yield specifications suchas TBP cut points on
crude or combinations of both. In the first case, TBP cut points must be estimated
and the corresponding product properties determined. If the products do not meet
defined specifications, a new TBP cut point is selected and the entire process
repeated. When TBP cut points are specified, the expected or commercial volume
percent yield of each cut is read directly from the TBP distillation curve. In this
case, the properties of the cuts corresponding to this commercial yield must be
calculated to be consistent with the defined yield structure.
This sounds confusing, but it is best illustrated by example.
EDS 2005/CC-39
Equilibrium Flash Versus Perfect
Perfect fractionation is implied when one
uses TBP cutpoints to generate target
product volumes. In reality, fractionation
occurs or is predicted to occur, via
Equilibrium Flash Vaporization (EFV).
With EFV, some equilibrium light ends
will appear in the heavier cut, and some
equilibrium heavies will appear in the
lighter cut. For example, in stripping
section below the flash zone, some AGO,
diesel, and kerosene material that boils
lighter than the cutpoint in the TBP
distillation will still be in the
Atmospheric Residue leaving the column.
It is best to use a process simulator to
determine the level of this imperfect
Commercial Yield
EquilibriumLight Ends
EDS 2005/CC-40
Draw a simple Block Flow Diagram for a
Crude Distillation Unit
EDS 2005/CC-41
Block Flow Diagram
Wild Naphtha Kerosine
Heavy Gas Oil
Heavy Naphtha
Atmospheric Resid
Fuel Gas
Light Naphtha
Note that the number of products produced depends on the complexity of the unit.
More sidedraws are possible as are more light end products. Many refiners choose
to split naphtha in the Crude Unit and strip lighter materials from the LPG.
(Note that this is more of a process flow diagram than the blockflow diagram
(although this picture is missing many of the elements of a traditional process flow
diagram). Some people prefer a picture that depicts process vessels as opposed to
squares. It is really more of a personal preference).
EDS 2005/CC-42
Draw a Fractionation Scheme for the CDU
EDS 2005/CC-43
Use Oil Manager to input light ends and TBP
distillation data
Input density profile data
Input sulfur distribution data
Based on TBP cutpoints (perfect fractionation),
split crude into the following product cuts:
Crude Characterization Using Hysys
Process Simulator
EDS 2005/CC-44
Crude Characterization Using Hysys
Process Simulator
TBP Cutpoint Range, F Product
C6-200 Light Naphtha
200-375 Heavy Naphtha
375-525 Kerosine
525-600 Diesel
600-675 AGO
675+ Atm Resid
675-725 LVGO
725-1000 HVGO
1000+ Vacuum Resid
EDS 2005/CC-45
Tabulate the following properties for the products:
Yield, Vol% Crude
API Gravity
Wt% Sulfur
D86 50 Vol% Temp, F
TBP 50 Wt% Temp, F
Crude Characterization Using Hysys
Process Simulator
EDS 2005/CC-46
You have been provided with a detailed, step by
step manual crude breakup procedure. This is
in Section 6 of your reference material.
The best way to show the details is to do a sample
problem. Most of the steps are intuitive and
basic and can be most easily understood by doing
an example.
Procedure - Section 6
The purpose of the next slides is to provide an overview of the detailed procedure
that is provided in section 6 of your reference material.
After a this quick overview of the procedure from these Powerpoint slides, we will
perform a sample problem.
The reference material contains complete details if these are needed. However,
my experience has shown that we can capture most of the needed concepts by
quickly going over the procedure, and then performing a sample problem.
EDS 2005/CC-47
Check the bottoms sediment and water (BS&W)
content of the crude. If it is less than 0.5 vol-%,
make no adjustments.
If greater than 0.5 vol-%, adjust crude API to a
dry basis, and then continue.
Procedure - 6.1 Check BS&W
I do not believe I have encountered any crude assays that have listed the BS&W
(which stands for Bottoms Sediment and Water - the test involves putting the crude
oil in a centrifuge and measuring the sediment and water that are centrifuged out of
the crude oil). Thus, I personally have not made this adjustment.
The purpose of this step in the procedure is to ensure that excessive water is not
upsetting the results of the crude assay. If the BS&W is high, then you would
remove the BS&W quantity and renormalize the TBP distillation and gravity curve
without the BS&W quantity.
From a commercial point of view, you measure BS&W to measure howmuch
water and dirt you are paying. Actually, the crude contract normally calls for
subtracting sediment and water from the crude shipment - why would you want to
pay oil price for water?
Some refiners are moving toward more advanced methods of measuring BS&W,
such as Karl-Fisher for water determination and extraction for sedimentation
EDS 2005/CC-48
Procedure - 6.2, 6.3
Make plots of following data
A. Temperature vs. vol-% yield
B. API gravity vs. Mid-vol-% distilled and vol-% residual
C. Wt-% sulfur vs. mid-vol-% distilled and vol-% residual
D. UOP K vs. mid-vol-% distilled and vol-% residual
What is Mid-Volume Percent?
What is Volume percent Residual?
My mentor, who worked for UOP for over 40 years, constantly emphasized the
need to plot the data in order to see the data trends graphically. With modern
computers, we can get a tremendous amount of data in tables. However, unless this
data is plotted, you can often miss many of the discontinuities and trends in the data.
There are 2 other concepts which are being introduced here whichare very
important - Mid-Volume Percent and Volume Percent Residual.
EDS 2005/CC-49
Mid-volume percent is defined as half the
volume percent of a specific distillate cut plus
the total volume percent of all preceding
distillate cuts
Plotting the data is important - Tabular data
does not always make all trends clear
Procedure - 6.3 Mid-Volume Percent
For example, if we have a 300-400F TBP cut that represents the 20-30% fraction
of the crude (and if the cut properties are linear), then the mid-volume% point is
Similarly, if we had a much narrower 340-360F TBP cut that represents the 24-
26% fraction of the crude, the mid volume percent of the cut would still be 25%.
Thus, the Mid-Volume Percent is the midpoint of the cut.
EDS 2005/CC-50
Definitions: Mid-Volume Percent
In mathematical terms, we take the volume of crude that has already been distilled
over, and half of the volume of the cut in question. Add them together, and you
have the mid volume%.
Mid volume% is what we use to determine all DISTILLATE properties. We
match the mid volume percent with the appropriate chart/table for the distillate cut
in question.
So what do we do for residue (either atmospheric or vacuum)? We have a
different concept, called volume percent residual.
For this, examine Figure V-A-3 in the reference material.
For the whole crude, look at the 100% point on the x-axis. As distillate (light)
material is removed, we move to the left on the x-axis, representing how the
residue property is affected by the removal of the lighter material. The x-axis
represents volume percent remaining in residue from the original crude.
EDS 2005/CC-51
TBP cut ranges can be of two types
Normally, TBP cut ranges refer to commercial
This procedure also defines TBP cut ranges with
respect to product properties
Procedure - 6.4 TBP Cut Point Basis
For the purposes of this class, when we see TBP Cut Ranges quoted ( 300-400F )
we will assume this refers to the commercial yield as referencedto the TBP yield
curve from the crude assay.
As part of the detail of the procedure, we will also define a TBP cut range for
product properties. However, when we do this we will clearly state that this cut
range is for product properties.
Once again, this is simply another area for definition. When you are dealing with
someone else and quoting TBP cut ranges, make sure you know whether this is
referring to yield or properties.
EDS 2005/CC-52
TBP cut ranges for commercial yield
ASTM IBP-EP for product properties
TBP cut ranges for product properties
Procedure - 6.4 TBP Cut Point Basis
As you have noticed, I cant emphasize this enough.
EDS 2005/CC-53
(OR WITHIN) COMPANIES - one person says
385-525F kerosene and they are referring to
TBP cut point for commercial yield. The other
person hears 385-525F and believes it is an
ASTM distillation range.
Procedure - 6.4 TBP Cut Point Basis
EDS 2005/CC-54
Procedure - 6.5
1. TBP Cut Point
2. Cumulative Volume Percent
3. Nominal TBP Range, F
4. Cut Volume Percent
5. Correction Factor
6. Volume Percent for
7. Cumulative Volume Percent
8. Mid-Volume Percent
9. API Gravity
10. Corrected TBP Cut Point,
11. Corrected TBP Range, F
12. Est ASTM Initial Boiling
Point, F
13. Est ASTM End Point, F
14. Estimated ASTM 50
Percent Point, F
15. UOP Characterization
16. Molecular Weight
17. Weight Percent Sulfur
Prepare work table with following headings
We have provided the work table for you in the spreadsheet. Before computers,
this was all done on paper.
EDS 2005/CC-55
Perfect fractionation is implied when
one uses TBP cutpoints to generate
target product volumes. In reality,
fractionation occurs or is predicted to
occur, via Equilibrium Flash
Vaporization (EFV). With EFV, some
equilibrium light ends will appear in the
heavier cut, and some equilibrium
heavies will appear in the lighter cut.
For example, in stripping section below
the flash zone, some AGO, diesel, and
kerosene material that boils lighter than
the cutpoint in the TBP distillation will
still be in the Atmospheric Residue
leaving the column. It is best to use a
process simulator to determine the level
of this imperfect fractionation.
Commercial Yield
EquilibriumLight Ends
Weve seen this slide before. It provides a pictorial view of imperfect
EDS 2005/CC-56
The theoretical or laboratory yields should be adjusted
for imperfect fractionation. The approximate
empirical corrections are as follows:
- 1.00
Naphtha 0.99
Kerosene 0.97
Diesel 0.94
Gas Oil 0.94
Does one multiple or divide the theoretical yields in (4)
to obtain the yields for the commercial properties????
Imperfect Fractionation
These are the typical correction factors that UOP has traditionally used. With the
use of process simulation, there is no need to make this manual calculation, but
rather one can simulate product yields with rigorous predictionsof distillation
These are guidelines only - you need to use your engineering judgement and
experience in order to determine if these values fit your operation.
These represent typical crude column performance. If you have a bottlenecked
column, you may need to increase some of these correction factors. If you have a
lot of overflash or bottoms steam, you may need to move these numbers toward
EDS 2005/CC-57
Find the cumulative and mid volume percents
for the various cuts
Procedure - 6.7, 6.8
Volume Calculations
Simple algebra, as you can see in the spreadsheets and referencematerial.
EDS 2005/CC-58
Find the API gravity of each cut from the
plots of gravity vs. mid volume-% or %
Procedure - 6.9
Gravity (API) vs. Mid-Volume %
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Find TBP cut range for properties by reading
the % yield from column 7
Procedure - 6.10, 6.11
TBP Cut Range for Properties
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Use the following procedure only if better
methods are not available (computer
Procedure - 6.12, 6.13
Estimated ASTM Distillation
We have provided a rule of thumb that is very rough for estimating ASTM
distillations from the TBP cut ranges. THIS SHOULD ONLY BE USED IF
MORE ACCURATE DATA IS NOT AVAILABLE (real plant data or data from a
process simulator will be more accurate than the rules of thumbspresented here).
EDS 2005/CC-61
Crude Breakup
Relationship of TBP Cut Points to ASTM IBP
Estimated ASTM IBP
If TBP less than 300F
ASTM IBP = TBP Cut Point
If TBP > 300 up to 650F
If TBP > 650F
EDS 2005/CC-62
Crude Breakup
Relationship of TBP Cut Points to ASTM IBP
Estimated ASTM EP
If TBP less than 350F
ASTM EP = TBP Cut Point
If TBP greater than 750F
If TBP between 350 & 750 Interpolate
For the EndPoint plot, see Figure A-7 in the reference material.
EDS 2005/CC-63
IBP 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 5 EP
pct Over
This chart is used to connect the estimated IBP and EP from the rule of thumb
estimate. The other points on the distillation can then be estimated.
This chart came about from data gathered in the 1950s from well run US crude
units. The original purpose was to assist crude unit operators with identifying
properly operating columns. Plotting your distillations on thechart should yield a
straight line. Significant deviations from a straight line would indicate a problem
with the operation of the unit.
We use it for estimating distillations when no other data is available.
EDS 2005/CC-64
Do this if UOP K has not been previously plotted
vs. mid-volume percent
Calculate UOP K for distillate and residual cuts
from the data given in the assay - use either the
fundamental definition to find CABP or viscosity
and API for residual cuts
Procedure - 6.14
Plot UOP K Values from Assay
EDS 2005/CC-65
Find UOP K of cuts using UOP K vs. mid-
volume % plot
Procedure - 6.15
Record UOP K Values for Cuts
This is the basic way we determine properties for a cut - by using the mid-volume
percent (for distillate cuts) or volume percent residual (for residue cuts) to find out
the value of a particular property.
EDS 2005/CC-66
Use ASTM 50% point to double check UOP K
vs. R.E. charts B2 and B3. Make sure it is in
agreement: +- 0.05. Adjust ASTM 50% point
if necessary
Use ASTM 50% point to find MeABP, then use
R.E. charts B2 and B3 to find mol wt.
Procedure - 6.16
Double Check UOP K, Calculate Mol Wt.
You can double check the UOP K by using the estimated 50% point and the gravity
to see if the value matches up with the value from the mid-volume% plot. Doing
this would ensure that the data is consistent and valid.
To find the molecular weight, use the charts that were shown to you in the
Hydrocarbon Property session.
EDS 2005/CC-67
Using mid-volume percent of the cuts, find
percent sulfur in each cut from the plot of mid-
volume-% vs. sulfur for the assay
Use residual crude % vs. sulfur for the residue
Useful to check sulfur balance between whole
crude and sum of the cuts
Procedure - 6.17
Find Sulfur in Cuts
EDS 2005/CC-68
Other needed properties can be found by
plotting assay values vs. mid-volume-%\ (or
residual crude).
Methods for estimating flash zone conditions and
overhead receiver gas also given.
These calculations reinforce the principles
involved in characterizing crude unit products.
Process simulation is the preferred methodology
for performing the equivalent calculations.
Procedure - 6.18 to 6.21
Other Properties, Calculations
While using a process simulator will be the method used today, it is valuable to
double check simulation results using the process charts that have been presented to
you (or real operating data if you have it, that is the best source). This gives
greater confidence and validity to your simulation result.
EDS 2005/CC-69
Prepare a table for the desired cuts with columns
for API, UOP K, mol wt., BPSD, lb/h, mol/h, and
This will represent the unit material balance
Procedure - 6.22
Construct a Material Balance
EDS 2005/CC-70
Sample Problem
Work Table
Find Assay Data with TBP Distillation Data
TBP Cut Pt, F
Cum vol-%
Nom TBP Range
Cut vol-%
200 375
375 525
525 600
600 675
675 725
675 1,000
1,000 plus
Note: Entries in 2 and 4 represent commercial yields to be produced in the CDU.
Lab yields not equivalent to commercial yields.
The crude breakup can be based upon:
A. Yields for TBP cuts
B. Product quality
The UOP Crude Breakup Procedure uses 2 working calculations tools - a Work
Table and a Material Balance Table.
Both of these are now put into an Excel spreadsheet, and we will do the sample
problem as a demonstration of the procedure in class.
You will then do a class problem utilizing the spreadsheet as well.
EDS 2005/CC-71
Sample Problem
Work Table
Find Assay Data with API Gravity Information
Pt, F
for prop
TBP Range
Vac. Resid
The Work Table consists of at least 16 columns.
EDS 2005/CC-72
Sample Problem
Work Table
Use Empirical Method to Obtain ASTM Distillation?
Pt, F
Corr TBP
Vac. Resid
EDS 2005/CC-73
Sample Problem
Work Table
How can one get the UOP K and the Mol Wt?
Pt, F
Vac. Resid
EDS 2005/CC-74
In = Out
Crude = Products
Basis: Volume-Percent
Check the Weight-Percent In & Out
Make Necessary Changes
Sample Problem
Material Balance
Basis: You can choose to perform your crude breakup as either volume based or
weight based. UOP has traditionally chosen a volume basis.
However, as the sample problem will show, the crude will then not exactly weight
balance. UOP in the past has forced a weight and volume balance by adjusting
product gravities to achieve a weight balance.
Does this represent reality? No. In reality, the weight must balance, but the
volume will most likely not add up to 100%. This is because, in order to have a
100% volume balance, the products separated from the crude wouldhave to exhibit
ideal mixing properties. This does not happen exactly, becausewe are separating
C3- light ends which do not mix ideally volumetrically.
Usually the volume difference is less than 1% away from ideal.
This table is also included in the Crude Breakup Spreadsheet. It is a simple
material balance table.
Before the advent of computerized process simulators, the data shown in the above
material balance was needed to perform process calculations usesthe manual
process charts (specifically, you needed UOP K and molecular weight for these
With a modern process simulator, all you really need for your simulation input is a
distillation curve and a gravity curve. For crude units, you can get this 2 ways:
For an operating unit, you will most likely take product flowrates, gravities, and
product distillations and enter those into the simulators oil characterization tool.
You can then blend the whole crude as the sum of the net products.
If you are starting with a crude assay (either for designing a new crude unit or for
simulating how a new crude will behave in an existing unit) it is easier just to input
the whole crude TBP curve and whole crude gravity curve.
EDS 2005/CC-75
BPSD Lb/H Mol/H Vol-%
Gas Oil
Light Vac.
Gas Oil
Heavy Vac.
Gas Oil
Sample Problem
Material Balance
EDS 2005/CC-76
BPSD Lb/H Mol/H Vol-%
Lt. Naph
Hvy. Naph
Gas Oil
True Vac.
Gas Oil
Yielded Vac. Gas
Sample Problem
Material Balance - LVGO Properties
For the LVGO, we need to add up the slumped distillate range material in order to
calculate the yielded LVGO properties. In the Work Table, the LVGO shown there
is the perfectly fractionated TBP cut. For the material balance, we want to know
the properties of the commercially yielded LVGO, which will contain a fair amount
of distillate range material.
Thus, we need to arithmetically add these properties together. This has been done
in the spreadsheet.