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Autodesk ® Simulation Mechanical 2012

Part 1 – Seminar Notes

Autodesk ® Simulation Mechanical 2012 Part 1 – Seminar Notes

© 2011 Autodesk, Inc. All rights reserved.

Autodesk® Simulation Mechanical 2012 – Part 1 – Seminar Notes

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Published by:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

1

Overview

1

Software Installation, Services, and Support

1

Installing and Running Autodesk® Simulation

1

System Requirements

2

Subscription Center

4

Web Links

4

Tutorials

4

Webcasts and Web Courses

5

How to Receive Technical Support

5

Updates

6

Background of FEA

7

What is Finite Element Analysis?

7

Basic FEA Concepts

7

How Does Autodesk Simulation Work?

9

The General Flow of an Analysis in Autodesk Simulation

10

Stress and Strain Review

11

Equations Used in the Solution

11

Limits of Static Stress with Linear Material Models

12

Mechanical Event Simulation (MES) Overcomes Limitations

12

Hand-Calculated Example

13

Heat Transfer Review

13

Equations Used in the Solution

13

Linear Dynamics Review

14

Chapter 1: Using Autodesk® Simulation

15

Chapter Objectives

15

Navigating the User Interface

15

Commands

17

Using the Keyboard and Mouse

18

Introduction to the View Cube

19

Additional View Controls

20

Legacy View Controls in Autodesk Simulation

21

Steel Yoke Example

22

Opening and Meshing the Model

22

Setting up the Model

23

Analyzing the Model

27

Reviewing the Results

28

Creating an Animation

29

Generating a Report

29

Chapter 2: Static Stress Analysis Using CAD Solid Models

33

Chapter Objectives

33

Archiving a Model

33

Types of Brick Elements

34

Generating Meshes for CAD Models

35

Creating a Mesh

36

Model Mesh Settings – Options

37

Table of Contents

Tips for Modeling with CAD Solid Model Software for FEA

39

Simplify CAD Solid Models with Autodesk Fusion

40

Working with Various Unit Systems

41

Loading Options

43

Load Cases

44

Constraint Options

46

Modeling Symmetry and Antisymmetry

46

Design Scenarios

47

Load and Constraint Group

48

Local Coordinate Systems

49

Defining Materials and Using the Material Library Manager

50

Adding Material Libraries and Material Properties

52

Examples of Loads and Constraints

54

When to Use Displacement Boundary Elements

54

Using Local Coordinate Systems

55

Using Surface Variable Loads

58

Exercise A: Frame – Full to Quarter-Symmetry Model Comparison

63

Chapter 3: Results Evaluation and Presentation

65

Chapter Objectives

65

Background on How Results are Calculated

65

How to Evaluate Results

66

Displacement Results

66

Stress Results

68

Reaction Force Results

70

Inquiring on the Results at a Node

70

Graphing the Results

71

Presentation Options

73

Contour

Plots

73

Image File Creation

77

Animating FEA Results

78

Using the Configure Report Utility

79

Exercise B: Yoke – Evaluation of Results and Generation of a Report

81

Chapter 4: Midplane Meshing and Plate Elements

83

Chapter Objectives

83

Meshing Options

83

Element Options

87

Plate Theory and Assumptions

87

Loading Options

88

Example of Defining the Element Normal Point

89

Result Options

92

Exercise C: Midplane Meshing and Plate Element Orientation

95

Chapter 5: Meshing

97

Chapter Objectives

97

Refinement Options

97

Automatic Refinement Points

97

Global Refinement Options

99

Creating

Joints

101

Creating

Bolts

103

Mesh Convergence Testing

105

Performing a Mesh Study

106

Table of Contents

Exercise D: Yoke and Clevis Assembly

Chapter 6 Introduction to Contact

107

109

Chapter Objectives

109

Uses for Contact

109

Contact Options

109

Setting up Contact Pairs

109

Types of Contact

110

Friction

112

Surface Contact Direction

112

Contact Example

114

How to Model Shrink Fits:

114

Shrink Fit

Example

115

Case 1

117

Case 2

120

Result Options

121

Exercise E: Yoke Model with Contact

123

Chapter 7 Introduction to Linear Dynamics

125

Chapter Objectives

125

Modal Analysis

125

Lumped Masses

126

Load Stiffening

127

Example of Natural Frequency (Modal) Analysis

128

Meshing the Model

129

Adding Constraints

130

Defining the Materials

130

Analyzing the Model

130

Reviewing the Results

131

Critical Buckling Analysis

132

Setting Up a Critical Buckling Analysis

133

Result Options

134

Other Linear Dynamics Analyses

134

Exercise F: Concrete Platform

135

Chapter 8 Steady-State Heat Transfer

137

Chapter Objectives

137

3-D Radiator Example

137

Meshing the Model

138

Setting up the Model

139

Analyzing the Model

140

Reviewing the Results

141

Meshing Options

142

Thermal Contact

142

Element Options

143

Rod Elements

143

2-D Elements

143

Plate Elements

144

Brick and Tetrahedral Elements

145

Loading Options

147

Nodal Loads

147

Surface Loads

149

Element Loads

153

Body-to-Body Radiation

155

Table of Contents

Controlling Nonlinear Iterations

159

Result Options

161

Exercise G: Infrared Detector Model

163

Chapter 9 Transient Heat Transfer

165

Chapter Objectives

165

When to Use Transient Heat Transfer

165

Element

Options

165

Loading Options

165

Load Curves

166

Nodal Heat Source

167

Controlling Nodal and Surface Applied Temperatures

168

Result Options

168

Exercise H: Transistor Case Model

169

Chapter 10 Thermal Stress

171

Chapter Objectives

171

Multiphysics Overview

171

Performing a Thermal Stress Analysis

172

Exercise I: Disk Brake Rotor Heat-up and Stress

175

Appendix A – Finite Element Method Using Hand Calculations

177

Model Description and Governing Equations

179

Hand-Calculation of the Finite Element Solution

181

Autodesk ® Simulation Example

182

Appendix B – Analysis Types in Autodesk ® Simulation

185

Background on the Different Analysis Types

187

Choosing the Right Analysis Type for Your Application

194

Combining Analysis Types for Multiphysics

198

Appendix C – Linear Loads and Constraints

199

Nodal Loading

201

Edge Loading

206

Surface Loading

207

Element Loading

212

Constraints

215

Appendix D – Material Model Options

219

Introduction

Overview

This course will introduce you to the analysis products available within the Autodesk® Simulation Mechanical software. These capabilities include static stress with linear material models, heat transfer, and linear dynamics analyses. The course will focus exclusively on models originating from CAD solid modeling programs. You will learn the various meshing options available for creating solid and plate elements. The available load and constraint options for each of the covered analysis types will also be presented. You will learn how to evaluate the results of the analyses and how to create presentations of the results, including images, animations and HTML reports. This course is a prerequisite to the more advanced topic of Mechanic Event Simulation (MES) covered in the Part 2 training seminar.

Software Installation, Services, and Support

Installing and Running Autodesk® Simulation

The simulation software is distributed on DVDs with the exception of software for the Linux platform, which is distributed on CDs. In addition, the software may be downloaded from the Autodesk website. When you place the software DVD into a DVD-ROM drive, a launch dialog having four options will appear. If you want to set up the software on a client workstation, whether you will be using a license locked to a single computer or a network license, press the "Install Products" button. If using a network license, you must already have the license server software installed on a computer on the network. If you wish to create pre-configured deployments for installing the product on multiple client workstations, choose the "Create Deployments" command. If you want to set up the computer as a license server to control the number of concurrent users through a network, or, if you wish to install optional reporting tools, press the "Install Tools and Utilities" command. Finally, a fourth command on the launch screen, "Read the Documentation," leads to a screen from which you can access a ReadMe file and other installation and licensing guides.

During the product installation process, you will need to specify your name, the name of your organization. You will also need to enter the product serial number and the product key. Otherwise, you will be limited to a 30-day trial period. To customize the installation location on your computer, the components to be installed, and/or to specify a network license server, you will have to press the "Configuration" button that appears on one of the screens during the installation process. Then, follow the prompts, provide the required information, and click the "Configuration Complete" button to continue the installation process.

Any time after the installation, you will be able to start the software by using the available shortcut found in the "Start" menu folder, "All Programs: Autodesk: Autodesk Algor Simulation." The version number is included in the start menu folder name and shortcut. The name of the shortcut will depend upon which package has been purchased ("…Simulation Mechanical "…Simulation Multiphysics"). In the dialog that appears when the program is launched, you will be able to open an existing model or begin a new model. The simulation software will be used to create, analyze, and review the results of an analysis within a single user interface, regardless of the analysis type.

Introduction

System Requirements

We recommend the following system specifications for a Microsoft Windows® platform running Autodesk Simulation software. These specifications will allow you to achieve the best performance for large models and advanced analysis types.

32-Bit

Dual Core or Dual Processor Intel® 64 or AMD 64, 3 GHz or higher

2 GB RAM or higher (3 GB for MES and CFD applications)

30 GB of free disk space or higher

256 MB or higher OpenGL accelerated graphics card

DVD-ROM drive

Supported Operating Systems:

64-Bit *

Dual Core or Dual Processor Intel 64 or AMD 64, 3 GHz or higher

8 GB RAM or higher

100 GB of free disk space or higher

512 MB or higher OpenGL accelerated graphics card

DVD-ROM drive

Microsoft Windows 7 (32-bit and 64-bit editions)

Microsoft Vista™ (32-bit and 64-bit editions)

Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008

Microsoft Windows XP (32-bit and 64-bit editions)

Linux **

Other Requirements (All Platforms):

Mouse or pointing device

Sound card and speakers ***

Internet connection ***

Web browser with Adobe Flash Player 10 (or higher) plug-in ***

*

We recommend usage of a 64-bit version of the operating system to run large models of any analysis type and for Mechanical Event Simulation, CFD, and Multiphysics analyses. While a 32-bit machine can be configured for larger system memory sizes, architectural issues of the operating system limit the benefit of the additional memory.

**

Linux may be used as a platform for running the solution phase of the analysis only. It may be used for a distributed processing (or clustering) platform. However, pre- and post-processing is done in the graphical user interface, which must be installed and run on a Microsoft Windows platform.

***

These requirements are due to the use of multimedia in our product line and the availability of distance learning webcasts, software demos, and related media.

Minimum system requirements and additional recommendations for Linux platforms may be found on the Autodesk website. To navigate to the Autodesk Simulation web page, access the "Help" panel from the "Getting Started" tab. Then click on the "In-Product Help" button.

Introduction

Autodesk Simulation Help

Autodesk Simulation Help is available in two places—the In-Product Help and the Online Wiki Help, these resources contain the following information:

Documentation for all of the model creation options within the user interface

Documentation for all of the Autodesk Simulation analysis types

Documentation for all of the result options available within the user interface

Essential Skills videos (Online Wiki Help only)

Step-by-step examples that illustrate many modeling and analysis options

Meshing, modeling, and analysis tutorials (Online Wiki Help only)

How to Access the Help Files

Select the "Getting Started" tab. Click on the "In-Product Help" button. The title page of the Autodesk Simulation Help will appear.

You can navigate through the In-Product Help or Online Wiki Help via the table of contents to the left or by using the "Search" or "Index" tabs.

Features of the Help Files

Autodesk Simulation Help is a set of compiled help files that are installed with the software but are also accessible from the Autodesk website.

Hyperlinks and a table of contents make it easy to move quickly from topic to topic.

The Help window contains a standard Internet browser toolbar, so you can move forward and backward and print with ease.

so you can move forward and backward and print with ease. Figure I.1: Autodesk Simulation In-Product

Figure I.1: Autodesk Simulation In-Product Help

Introduction

Search the Help Files using Keywords

All of the pages in the Help files can be searched based on keywords.

The keywords are entered at the top of the "Search" tab on the left side of the In-Product Help or Online Wiki Help screen. Topics that match the search criteria are listed below.

Keywords are used to search the Help files. You may use single or multiple keywords.

Boolean operators (AND, OR, NEAR, and NOT) are available to enhance the search utility. Also, phrases may be enclosed in quotes to search only for a specific series of words.

Subscription Center

Along with your Autodesk Simulation software purchase, you have the option of purchasing various levels of Subscription Center access and support. The Subscription Center is accessible via the "key" icon near the right end of the program title bar and also via the "Help: Web Links" menu.

Through the Subscription Center, you can download software updates, service packs, and add- on applications. You can access training media, such as topical webcasts. Finally, you can also submit technical support requests via the Subscription Center.

Web Links

Within the Getting Started tab of the ribbon, in the HELP panel, there is a "Web Links" pull- out menu. The following content can be accessed via the web links within this menu:

Autodesk Simulation - product range

Subscription Center

Services and Support - information

Discussion Group

Training - course information

Autodesk Labs – where you may obtain free tools and explore developing technologies

Manufacturing Community

Tutorials

Tutorials are available that demonstrate many of the capabilities of the Autodesk Simulation software. Each analysis is presented through step-by-step instructions with illustrations to assist the user. The tutorials are accessed from the "Help: Tutorials" command and the associated model files are in the "\Tutorials\Models" subdirectory within the program installation folder. The tutorials will appear next to the user interface. You will be able to follow the steps using the software without switching between the two windows.

Introduction

Introduction Figure I.2: Autodesk Simulation Help panel Webcasts and Web Courses Webcasts focus on the capabilities

Figure I.2: Autodesk Simulation Help panel

Webcasts and Web Courses

Webcasts focus on the capabilities and features of the software, on new functionality, on accuracy verification examples, and on interoperability with various CAD solid modeling packages. These streaming media presentations are available for on-demand viewing from the Subscription Center via your web browser. Similarly, web courses are also available for on-demand viewing. Web courses are typically longer in duration than webcasts and focus on more in-depth training regarding the effective usage of your simulation software. The topics cover a wide variety of application scenarios.

For a list of available webcasts and web courses, follow the "Training" link from the home page of the Subscription Center. Choose the "Autodesk Algor Simulation" or “Autodesk Simulation” product in the "Browse the Catalog" list. This leads to the Autodesk Simulation e-Learning page, in which the available webcasts and web courses are listed according to topic.

How to Receive Technical Support

Technical support is reachable through several contact methods. The means you can use may depend upon the level of support that was purchased. For example, customers with "Silver" support must obtain their technical support from the reseller that sold them the software. "Gold" subscription customers may obtain support directly from Autodesk.

Five ways to contact Technical Support:

Reseller:

Subscription Center:

Autodesk Phone:

Autodesk E-mail:

Autodesk Fax:

Obtain phone, fax, and/or e-mail information from your reseller.

Access the Subscription Center from the link provided in the program interface. Click the Tech Support link on the left side of the page and then click on the "Request Support" link.

(412) 967-2700 [or in USA/Canada: (800) 482-5467]

(412) 967-2781

service.algor@autodesk.com

Introduction

When contacting Technical Support:

Have your contract number ready before contacting Technical Support.

Know the current version number of your software.

Have specific questions ready.

Remember, Technical Support personnel cannot perform, comment on, or make judgments regarding the validity of engineering work.

Updates

The software is updated with new functionality on a continual basis. The following three types of releases are provided:

1.

A major version: Indicated by the four-digit year of the software release (based upon the Autodesk fiscal year, not the calendar year)

2.

A "subscription" version: Customers with a current maintenance subscription are eligible for additional releases that may be made available between major product version releases. These are designated by the addition of the word "Subscription" after the major version number.

3.

A service pack: Incorporates minor improvements to a major or subscription release and is indicated by the letters "SP" and a service pack number after the major or subscription version number.

How to Determine the Software Version

Click on the "About" button in the" Help" panel. This dialog will display the version that you are using. In addition, the program title bar and the splash screen that appears at each program launch will indicate the major version number of the software. However, as with the start menu group name and program shortcut, it will not indicate the subscription and service pack variants.

How to Obtain an Update

Update notifications are provided via the "Communication Center" within the user interface. The Communication Center icon is located at the right end of the program window title bar. When new information is available the state of the Communication Center icon, changes. The Communication Center provides up-to-date product support information, software patches, subscription announcements, articles, and other product information through a connection to the Internet. Users may specify how frequently the Live Update information will be polled— on-demand, daily, weekly, or monthly. When a program update notification is received, the user will be given the option of downloading and installing it.

Introduction

Background of FEA

What is Finite Element Analysis?

Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computerized method for predicting how a real-world object will react to forces, heat, vibration, etc. in terms of whether it will break, wear out or

function according to design. It is called "analysis", but in the product design cycle it is used

to predict what will happen when the product is used.

The finite element method works by breaking a real object down into a large number (1,000s or 100,000s) of elements (imagine little cubes). The behavior of each element, which is regular in shape, is readily predicted by a set of mathematical equations. The computer then adds up all the individual behaviors to predict the behavior of the actual object.

The "finite" in finite element analysis comes from the idea that there are a finite number of

elements in the model. The structure is discretized and is not based on a continuous solution.

In any discrete method, the finer the increments, or elements, the more precise is the solution.

Previously, engineers employed integral and differential calculus, which broke objects down

into an infinite number of elements.

The finite element method is employed to predict the behavior of objects with respect to virtually all physical phenomena:

Mechanical stress (stress analysis)

Mechanical vibration (dynamics)

Heat transfer - conduction, convection, radiation

Fluid flow - both liquid and gaseous fluids

Electrostatic or MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems)

Basic FEA Concepts

Nodes and Elements

A node is a coordinate location in space where the degrees of freedom (DOFs) are defined.

The DOFs of a node represent the possible movements of this point due to the loading of the structure. The DOFs also represent which forces and moments are transferred from one element to the next. Also, deflection and stress results are usually given at the nodes.

An element is a mathematical relation that defines how the DOFs of one node relate to the next. Elements can be lines (beams or trusses), 2-D areas, 3-D areas (plates) or solids (bricks and tetrahedra). The mathematical relation also defines how the deflections create strains and stresses.

Introduction

Degrees of Freedom

The degrees of freedom at a node characterize the response and represent the relative possible motion of a node.

The type of element being used will characterize which DOFs a node will require.

Some analysis types have only one DOF at a node. An example of this is temperature in a thermal analysis.

A structural beam element, on the other hand, would have all of the DOFs shown in Figure I.3. "T" represents translational movement and "R" represents rotational movement about the X, Y and Z axis directions, resulting in a maximum of six degrees of freedom.

resulting in a maximum of six degrees of freedom. Figure I.3: Degrees of Freedom of a

Figure I.3: Degrees of Freedom of a Node

Element Connectivity – Conventional Bonding

Elements can only communicate to one another via common nodes. In the left half of Figure I.3, forces will not be transferred between the elements. Elements must have common nodes to transfer loads from one to the next, such as in the right half of Figure I.4.

No Communication Between the Elements

Communication Between the Elements

Between the Elements Communication Between the Elements Figure I.4: Communication through Common Nodes Element

Figure I.4: Communication through Common Nodes

Element Connectivity – "Smart Bonding"

With the introduction of "Smart Bonding" it is now possible to connect adjacent parts to each other without having to match the meshes (i.e., common nodes at part boundaries are no longer mandatory). This feature is available for both CAD and hand-built models and is applicable to the following analysis types:

Static Stress with Linear Material Models

Natural Frequency (Modal)

Transient Stress (Direct Integration)

Figure I.5, is a pictorial example of two adjacent parts that may be connected via smart bonding. Smart bonding is disabled by default for both new and legacy models (that is, those

Introduction

created prior to implementation of the smart bonding feature). The option may be changed within the "Contact" tab of the Analysis Parameters dialog. Note that where nodal coordinates fall within the default or user-specified tolerance of each other, they will be matched in the conventional manner. Other nodes along the bonded surfaces or edges – those at a relative distance greater than the tolerance – will be connected by means of multipoint constraint equations (MPCs). Also note that the "Use virtual imprinting" option within the "Model" dialog of the mesh settings options will minimize the likelihood that smart bonding will be needed or will occur for CAD-based assemblies. This option attempts to imprint smaller parts on larger parts where they meet, forcing them to have identical meshes.

where they meet, forcing them to have identical meshes. Figure I.5: Connection via "Smart Bonding" Types

Figure I.5: Connection via "Smart Bonding"

Types of Elements

The actual supported and calculated DOFs are dependent upon the type of element being used. A node with translational DOFs can move in the corresponding directions and can transmit/resist the corresponding forces. A node with rotational DOFs can rotate about the corresponding axes and can transmit/resist the corresponding moments.

Briefly, the general element types are as follows (more details will be given in later chapters):

Line elements: A line connecting 2 nodes (such as beams, trusses, springs, thermal rods, and others).

2-D elements: YZ-planar elements that are triangular or quadrilateral (3 or 4 lines enclosing an area).

3-D plates or shells: Planar or nearly planar elements in 3-D space. Each must be triangular or quadrilateral and they represent a thin part with a specified thickness.

Brick (solid) elements: Must be enclosed volumes with 4, 5, or 6 faces (triangular and/or quadrilateral) and with 4, 5, 6 or 8 corner nodes.

DOFs for element types:

Truss: Translation in X, Y and Z.

Beam: Both translation and rotation in X, Y and Z.

2-D: Translation in Y and Z.

Plate: Five degrees of freedom – out-of-plane rotation is not considered.

Brick: Translation in X, Y and Z.

How Does Autodesk Simulation Work?

The software transforms an engineering model with an infinite number of unknowns into a finite model.

This is an idealized mathematical model.

The model is defined by nodes, elements, loads and constraints.

Introduction

The user interface can be effectively used for the design, analysis and evaluation phases of a typical design process.

The simulation software can be extremely useful during the initial concept and design phase to identify areas that can be improved.

The simulation software can also be used to quickly evaluate a concept, saving time and engineering resources.

This does not necessarily replace the testing needed to evaluate a final design; however the goal is to minimize the prototype and testing stages of design.

The General Flow of an Analysis in Autodesk Simulation

Create a Mesh

Start the simulation program

Open your model in the FEA Editor environment

Select the analysis type

Create your mesh

Define the FEA Data

Assign the loads and constraints

Define the material

Define the analysis parameters

Run the Analysis

Review and Present Results

Review the desired result types

Save images and animations

Create presentations and HTML reports

Introduction

Stress and Strain Review

Equations Used in the Solution

A complex system can be broken into a finite number of regions (elements), each of which follows the equations below:

Where,

σ =

ε =

δ

=

F

A

σ

E

L

ε

0

dx

F =

AE

L

δ

Introduction

In practice, the direct inversion is extremely difficult and sometimes unstable. In FEA, matrices can be 50,000 x 50,000 or larger. As a result, other solution methods for this linear equation have been developed. All of these methods use the basic principles of a mathematical method called Gaussian Elimination. The details of this method will not be discussed here, but may be obtained from any numerical programming text.

Since differentiation cannot be performed directly on the computer, approximation techniques are used to determine the strain in the model. Since an approximation technique is used for the strains, the finer the mesh, the better the approximation of the strain. For a linear static analysis, stress has a linear relation to strain. Therefore, the stresses will have the same accuracy as the strains.

For more complex analyses, more terms are needed. The equation below is needed to represent a true dynamic analysis:

{f}= [m]{x}+[c]{x}+[K]{x}

where the additional matrices and vectors are,

m = mass, c = damping,

x = acceleration (second derivative of displacement versus time) x = velocity (first derivative of displacement versus time)

Limits of Static Stress with Linear Material Models

Deformations are small

Strains and rotations are small

Changes in stiffness through the model are small

Changes in boundary conditions are small

Changes in loading direction with deformations are small

Material remains in the linear elastic range

Mechanical Event Simulation (MES) Overcomes Limitations

MES supports:

Large deformations

Changing boundary conditions

Loads moving as the model moves or deforms

Nonlinear material behavior

Time-dependent loading

Large-scale motion

Event visualization capabilities:

Viewing results with respect to time using the Results environment

Animation tools

Introduction

MES simulates:

Motion

Impact

Real-time observation of deformations, stresses and strains

Failure due to the following: material yielding, local and structural buckling, permanent deformations - residual stress

MES capabilities are included within the Autodesk Simulation Mechanical product. It is also included within the higher-level Autodesk Simulation Multiphysics product.

For information and training regarding MES, refer to the Autodesk Simulation Mechanical – Part 2 training course.

Hand-Calculated Example

Refer to Appendix A for an example of displacement and stress results for a simple truss structure. A theoretical solution using fundamental equations is presented. In addition, a hand-calculated solution based on the finite element method is presented and its results compared with those obtained by the FEA software.

Heat Transfer Review

Equations Used in the Solution

Heat transfer, as applied to FEA, is actually a conduction problem. The heat loads are boundary conditions. The primary results are a temperature profile and the heat flux through the body of the structure.

Conduction is the flow of heat in the body of the structure. This is what is being solved in an FEA problem. The properties of conduction are controlled by the part definition. Only the thermal conductivity (k) is needed for a steady-state analysis. For a transient analysis, the mass density and specific heat will also be required. The governing equation is:

where:

q

=

kA   ∆ T

L

k = Thermal conductivity

A = Area

T = Change in temperature

L = Length

The two most common loads for a thermal analysis are convection and radiation loads. These loads are applied to a surface. The equation for the heat flow due to convection is:

where:

q

=

(

hA T

s

T

)

h = Convection coefficient

A = Area

T s = Temperature of the surface

T = Ambient temperature

Introduction

The equation for the heat flow due to radiation is:

q =

(

εσ

A V F

.

.

)(

4

T

4

T

b

)

where:

ε = Emissivity which describes the surface finish for gray bodies. (If ε = 1.0, it

is a true blackbody.)

σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant for radiation

A = Area

V.F. = View factor from the surface to the infinite source

T = Ambient temperature (in units of absolute temperature)

T b = Temperature of the node (in units of absolute temperature)

Linear Dynamics Review

Equation for Dynamic Analyses

The basic equation of dynamics is:

[m]{a}+[c]{v}+[k]{x}=0

where:

[m] = the mass matrix {a} = the acceleration vector [c] = the damping constant matrix {v} = the velocity vector [k] = the stiffness matrix {x} = the displacement vector

A natural frequency analysis provides the natural vibration frequencies of a part or assembly based on a linear eigenvalue solution. Because the above equation is solved in this linear solution, only mass and stiffness are taken into account. No damping is used. In addition, loads are ignored. As a result, actual displacement output is meaningless except to define the shape of the natural frequency mode. Note that loads are taken into account for a natural frequency with load stiffening analysis, assuming the loads produce membrane stresses that affect the stiffness of the structure.

Constraints have a very significant effect on the solution. When no boundary conditions or insufficient boundary conditions are used, rigid-body movement or modes will be found. Unlike a static solution, this is acceptable in a modal analysis.

Chapter

1

Chapter 1
Chapter 1

Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Chapter Objectives

Introduction to the user interface

Commands - Ribbon Keyboard Mouse View Cube and other view controls

Complete an example of using Autodesk Simulation

Overview of launching a Simulation from Autodesk Inventor and creating a mesh Overview of adding loads and constraints to a model Overview of defining material properties Overview of performing an analysis Overview of reviewing results Overview of generating a report

Navigating the User Interface

In this section, we will introduce you to the Autodesk Simulation user interface. This interface is the same for each of the available packages, including the Simulation Mechanical and Simulation Multiphysics products. The only difference will be with regard to which advanced features or capabilities are enabled.

We will begin with an overview of the major components of the graphical user interface. Then we will discuss the Ribbon, keyboard, mouse, View Cube, and additional view controls. Please note that the behavior of the keyboard, mouse and View Cube – as discussed within this manual – are based on the default program settings for a clean installation of the product. Many of the features to be discussed are customizable via tabs and settings within the "Application Options" dialog, reachable via the "Tools: Application Options" command.

Figure 1.1 on the next page, along with the legend that follows it introduces the major components of the user interface. This manual is based on Autodesk Simulation 2012. Users of other versions may encounter differences between their version and the interface described herein.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation Figure 1.1: Autodesk Simulation User Interface Interface Legend: A.

Figure 1.1: Autodesk Simulation User Interface

Interface Legend:

A. Application Menu: Files can be opened and accessed from the Application Menu. Other commands that are available here include Merge, Export and Archive.

B. Quick Access Bar: In addition to commonly used commands, customizable, the quick access bar displays the program name and version as well as providing links to the Autodesk Subscription Center and Communication Center

C. Ribbon tab: The Ribbon tab is located just below the title bar and contains the pull-down menus.

D. Ribbon commands: The Ribbon provides the user with quick access to many commands.

E. Tree View: The tree view has unique contents for each environment of the user interface. For the FEA Editor, it shows the parts list and the units, various properties, and loads that will be used for the analysis. In the Results environment, you will see a list of results presentations and other post- processing-specific content. The components of the analysis report will be listed in the tree view within the Report environment.

F. Display Area: The display area is where the modeling activity takes place. The title bar of the window displays the current environment and the model name. The FEA Editor environment is used to create the model, add the loads and constraints and perform the analysis. The Results environment is used to view results and to create images, graphs, and animations. The Report environment will be used to produce a formal report of the analysis, including desired results presentations. View Cube and Navigate bar are also in the Display area by default.

G. Miniaxis and Scale Ruler: The miniaxis shows your viewpoint with respect to the three- dimensional working area. The scale ruler gives you a sense of the model size,

H. Status Bar: The status bar displays important messages.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Commands

Autodesk Simulation accesses program functions through the ribbon, context menus, and quick access toolbar (QAT), in addition to the Application Menu. The available commands and menus vary for each program environment (FEA Editor, Results, and Report). The Ribbon is positioned at the top and is customizable by being able to move the panel positions within the same Ribbon tab.

able to move the panel positions within the same Ribbon tab. Figure 1.2: Autodesk Simulation Ribbon

Figure 1.2: Autodesk Simulation Ribbon

The commands are logically grouped into panels and tabs. For example, the Mesh tab includes Mesh, CAD Additions, Structured mesh and Refinement Point panels. Each panel will have specific commands, and so on. These commands can be added to the quick access toolbar, so that they can be easily accessed. This can be done by right clicking on the command in the panel and selecting "Add to Quick Access Toolbar" as shown in figure 1.2. Most of the tabs, panels, and commands will not appear until an existing model is opened or a new model is created. Figure 1.3 shows a typical context menu accessed after clicking a surface on the model and adding a load.

after clicking a surface on the model and adding a load. Figure 1.3: Autodesk Simulation Context

Figure 1.3: Autodesk Simulation Context Menu

In some cases there where will be too many commands to be all displayed on the panel. In these situations you can click on the panel options button to gain access to further commands as shown in figure 1.4.

to gain access to further commands as shown in figure 1.4. Figure 1.4: Additional Panel commands

Figure 1.4: Additional Panel commands

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Using the Keyboard and Mouse

The keyboard and mouse will both be used to operate within the user interface. The keyboard will be used to enter the required data for loads, constraints, material properties, and so on. It will also be used to modify the behavior of particular mouse operations. That is, certain keyboard keys, when held down, will change the behavior of the mouse.

The software supports a number of different mouse configurations. This document assumes that the default template for a new installation is in effect. However, user settings, or those retained from a prior Autodesk Simulation installation, may cause the behavior to differ from that described herein. To ensure that your mouse actions follow the descriptions in this book, access the "Tools: Application Options: Mouse Options" dialog and choose the "Autodesk Simulation" template. "Tools: Application Options: Mouse Options" dialog and choose the "Autodesk Simulation" template.

The left mouse button will be used to select items. How items are selected will
The left mouse button will be used to select items. How items are selected will depend upon
the selection mode chosen in the "Selection: Shape" pull-out menu or Ribbon. The type of
objects that are selected (such as lines, vertices, surfaces, parts, edges, or elements) will
depend upon the selection mode chosen in the "Selection: Select" pull-out menu or Ribbon.
Holding down the <Ctrl> key, while left-clicking on the object, will toggle the selection state
of the clicked object. That is, unselected objects will be added to the selection set and
previously selected items will be removed from the selection set. Holding down the <Shift>
key while left-clicking will only add clicked objects to the selection set (this will have no
effect on already selected items). Finally, holding both <Ctrl> and <Shift> while left-
clicking will only remove clicked objects from the selection set (this will have no effect on
items that are not already part of the current selection set).

Pressing the right mouse button with the cursor hovering over items in the tree view will access a context menu with commands relevant to the item under the cursor. When items are currently selected, either within the tree view or display area, the right-click context menu will display commands and options that are specifically relevant to the selected items. For example, if a surface is selected, only surface-based commands will appear in the context menu. You may right-click anywhere in the display area when items are selected to access the context menu. However, to access the context menu within the tree view area, you must right-click with the cursor positioned on one of the selected headings.that are not already part of the current selection set). If a mouse has a wheel,

with the cursor positioned on one of the selected headings. If a mouse has a wheel,

If a mouse has a wheel, rolling the wheel will zoom in or out on the model. Holding down the middle mouse button or wheel and dragging the mouse will rotate the model. Pressing the <Ctrl> key, while holding the middle button and dragging the mouse, will pan the model, moving it within the display area. Pressing the <Shift> key while dragging the mouse with the middle button down will zoom in and out, making the model larger as the mouse is moved upward and smaller as it is moved downward. You will likely find the use of the middle mouse button and wheel to be more convenient than choosing a command like "Rotate" or "Pan," clicking and dragging the mouse, and then pressing <Esc> to exit the command.

Finally, the X, Y, or Z key on the keyboard may be held down while dragging the mouse with the middle button held down. Doing so will rotate the model, as before, but constraining the rotation to be only about the corresponding X, Y, or Z global axis direction. You may also use the left and right cursor keys on the keyboard while holding down X, Y, or Z to rotate about these axes in fixed increments (15 degrees by default). The rotation increment is customizable via the "Tools: Application Options: Graphics: Miscellaneous" dialog.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Introduction to the View Cube

Autodesk ® Simulation Introduction to the View Cube As is true for the mouse, the software

As is true for the mouse, the software also supports a number of different view configurations. This document assumes that the default view options template and view navigation settings for a new installation are in effect. However, user settings, or settings retained from a prior Autodesk Algor Simulation or Autodesk Simulation installation, may cause the view orientations and behavior to differ from those described throughout this document. To ensure that your view commands follow the descriptions in this book, access the "Tools: Application Options:

Views Options" dialog and choose the "Autodesk Simulation" template.

Next, access the "Graphics" tab of the same "Options" dialog, select "Navigation Tools" from the items listed on the left side of the dialog, and click on the "View Cube" button. Click the "Restore Defaults" button followed by "OK" to exit the "View Cube Properties" dialog.

Finally, click the "Steering Wheel" button. Click the "Restore Defaults" button followed by "OK" to exit the "Steering Wheels Properties" dialog. Click "OK" to exit the "Options" dialog.

Users of other Autodesk® products, such as AutoCAD® or Autodesk® Inventor® will likely already be familiar with the View Cube and associated additional view controls.

The View Cube will be located in the upper right corner of the display by default but may be relocated. The appearance will change depending upon whether the view is aligned with a global plane and whether the cursor is near the cube or not. The View Cube, in its various appearances, is shown in Figure 1.5.

Cube, in its various appearances, is shown in Figure 1.5. Figure 1.5: View Cube Appearance (a)

Figure 1.5: View Cube Appearance

(a)

Cursor not near the View Cube

(b)

Cursor on View Cube (view not aligned to a standard face)

(c)

Cursor on View Cube (standard face view)

The six standard view names, as labeled on the cube faces, are the Top, Bottom, Front, Back, Left, and Right. These may be selected by clicking near visible face names on the cube, as shown in Figure 1.5 (b) or by clicking the triangular arrows pointing towards the adjacent faces, as shown in Figure 1.5 (c), which shows the cursor pointing to the arrow for the Bottom view.

In addition, there are clickable zones at each corner and along each edge of the View Cube. Clicking on a corner will produce an isometric view in which that particular corner is positioned near the center and towards you. Clicking an edge will produce an oblique view, rotated 45 degrees, Half-way between the views represented by the two adjacent faces. When the cursor is near the View Cube, a "Home" icon will appear above it and to the left, providing easy access to the home view. This is an isometric view having the corner between the Front, Right, and Top Faces centrally positioned and towards you by default. The home view may be redefined by right-clicking the Home icon and choosing the "Set Current View as Home" command while viewing the model positioned as desired.

When one of the six standard views is active and the cursor is near the View Cube, two curved arrows will appear above and to the right of the cube, as seen in Figure 1.5 (c). These

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

are used to rotate the model to one of the four possible variants of the particular standard view. Each click of an arrow will rotate the model 90 degrees in the selected direction.

When the face being viewed is changed via the View Cube, the model may move to the selected view in the manner that requires the least amount of motion. For example, say we are first looking at the Right view, with the word "Right" positioned upright (that is in the normal reading position). Now, if we click the downward arrow above the cube, the model will rotate 90 degrees to reveal the top face. The Top view will be rotated 90 degrees clockwise from the upright orientation (that is, the word "Top" will read in the vertically downward direction). Activating the "Keep scene upright" option will cause the Front, Back, Left, and Right views to automatically be oriented in the upright position (Top above, Bottom below) when changing to any of these views. You may, however, rotate the view after initial selection, if desired. Go to "Tools: Application Options: Graphics: Navigation Tools: View Cube" to locate the "Keep scene upright" setting. It is activated by default.

The point of this discussion is that whenever a new face is selected using the View Cube, the resultant view rotation may differ, depending upon the prior position of the model. If the resultant orientation is not what is desired, simply click one of the curved arrows to rotate the view.

Additional View Controls

Immediately below the View Cube is a pallet of additional view controls. This consists of seven tools, each of which may be individually enabled or disabled. All are on by default. Figure 1.6 shows the view control pallet.

From top to bottom, the seven tools are as follows:

Steering Wheels

Pan

Zoom

Orbit

Center

Previous View

Next View

Each of these icons, except for the Previous and Next commands, function as a toggle—clicking it once to activate a command and again to deactivate it. Several of the tools, such as Pan, Previous, and Next are self-explanatory

The "Zoom" tool includes a fly-out menu allowing the choice of one of four different zooming modes—Zoom, Zoom (Fit All), Zoom (Selected), and Zoom (Window). The first of these causes the model to become larger as the cursor is moved upward in the display area and smaller when it is moved downward. The Fit (All) mode encloses the extents of the whole model. After selecting objects in the display area, the Zoom (Selected) tool fits the selected items into the display area. Finally, after selecting the Zoom (Window) tool, you click and drag the mouse to draw a window defines the area you wish to expand to fill the display area.

The "Orbit" tool has two variants, selectable via a fly-out menu—Orbit, and Orbit (Constrained). The former allows the model to be rotated freely in any direction. The Constrained option causes the model to rotate only about the global Z-axis, similar to pressing the Z key while dragging the mouse with the middle button depressed.

The "Center" tool is used to center a point on the model within the display area. Click with the mouse to specify the desired center point after selecting the Center command. This point also becomes the display pivot point, about which the model pivots when being rotated.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

The "Steering Wheel" tool is customizable and, in its default setting, produces the Full Navigation Wheel shown in Figure 1.7. The full navigation wheel floats above the model view, following the cursor position. It provides an additional access method for several functions found elsewhere on the view tools pallet as well as a few additional functions.

the view tools pallet as well as a few additional functions. Figure 1.7: Full Navigation Wheel

Figure 1.7: Full Navigation Wheel

The "Rewind" button on the navigation wheel presents a timeline of thumbnails representing various views that have been used during the modeling session. Simply release the mouse button with the cursor positioned at the thumbnail representing the view to which you wish to jump. This is more convenient than pressing the previous or next view buttons multiple times.

For additional information concerning these view controls, consult the In-Product Help or Online Wiki Help.

Legacy View Controls in Autodesk Simulation

Traditional view controls and options are also provided via the View tab of the command ribbon at the top of the screen. Options for displaying or hiding the mesh or model shading may be found here as well as eight pre-defined, standard view orientations. The orientations will depend upon the currently active Views Options template (previously discussed in the "Introduction to the View Cube" section of this chapter).

There is also a "User-defined Views" dialog that may be used to save, modify, or restore custom views. Additional capabilities include a local zoom feature and display toggles for the scale ruler, mini axis, and perspective mode.

The "Local Zoom" feature displays a small rectangle that represents the area to be magnified. A larger rectangle shows an overlay of the magnified region. You may click on and drag the local zoom window to position it anywhere on the model within the display area. The size of the local zoom area and magnified overlay and also the zoom level can be customized via the "Application Menu: Options: Graphics: Local Zoom" dialog.

For additional information concerning the legacy view controls, consult the In-Product Help or Online Wiki Help.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Steel Yoke Example

This example is an introduction to static stress analysis with linear material models. The example will give step-by-step instructions to create a mesh and analyze a three-dimensional (3-D) model of a steel yoke under an applied force. There are three sections:

Setting up the model – Open the model in the FEA Editor environment and create the mesh on the model. Add the necessary forces and boundary conditions and define the model parameters. Visually check the model for errors with the Results environment. Analyzing the model – Analyze the model using the static stress with linear material models processor. Reviewing the results – View the displacements and stresses graphically using the Results environment.

Use the Inventor solid model, yoke.ipt, located in the "Chapter 1 Example Model\Input File" folder in the class directory (or extracted to your computer from the solutions archive) to create a simple model of the steel yoke shown in Figure 1.8. The right half of the small hole will be fixed. A force of 800 pounds will be applied to the left half of the large hole and acting towards the left, as shown in the figure. The yoke is made of Steel (ASTM-A36). Analyze the model to determine the displacements and stresses.

the model to determine the displacements and stresses. Figure 1.8: Steel Yoke Model Opening and Meshing

Figure 1.8: Steel Yoke Model

Opening and Meshing the Model

The FEA Editor environment is used to create a mesh for all solid models. You can open CAD solid models from any of the CAD solid modelers that Autodesk® Simulation supports. You can also open models of any of the universal CAD formats that are supported. Here we are going to access Autodesk® Simulation directly from Autodesk® Inventor®.

 

"Start: All Programs:

Press the Windows "Start" button and access the "All Programs" pull-out menu. Select the "Autodesk" folder and then the "Autodesk Inventor 2012" pull-out menu. Choose the "Autodesk Inventor Professional 2012 software" command.

Autodesk: Autodesk Inventor 2012: Autodesk Inventor Professional 2012"

Autodesk: Autodesk Inventor 2012: Autodesk Inventor Professional 2012"

"Getting Started: Launch: Click on the "Open" button in the Launch panel. Alternatively you select

"Getting Started: Launch:

Click on the "Open" button in the Launch panel. Alternatively you select “Open” from the quick access toolbar or Application Menu.

Open"

 

"Autodesk Inventor Parts (*.ipt)"

Select the "Autodesk Inventor Parts (*.ipt) option in the "Files of type:" drop-down box.

 

"Yoke.ipt"

Select the file "Yoke.ipt” in the “Chapter 1 Example Model \Input File” directory.

 

“Open”

Press the “Open” button.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Mouse

Select "Yes" to accept the warning

"Add-Ins: Start Simulation:

Select the "Add-Ins" tab. Click on the "Start Simulation button in the "Autodesk Simulation" panel.

Autodesk Simulation"

"Linear: Static Stress with Linear Material Models" "OK"

A

dialog will appear asking you to choose the analysis type

for the model. From the pull-out menu, choose "Linear:

Static Stress with Linear Material Models" and press the "OK" button.

The model will appear in the FEA Editor environment.

"Mesh: Mesh: 3D Mesh Settings" Select the "Mesh" tab. Click on the "3D Mesh Settings"

"Mesh: Mesh: 3D Mesh Settings"

Select the "Mesh" tab. Click on the "3D Mesh Settings" button in the "Mesh" panel.

 

"Mesh model"

Press the "Mesh model" button to create a mesh with the default options.

"View: Navigate: Orbit" Select the "View" tab. Click on the "Orbit" button in the

"View: Navigate: Orbit"

Select the "View" tab. Click on the "Orbit" button in the "Navigate" panel. Can also access Orbit from the Navigate Bar.

   

Click left mouse button and drag the mouse to rotate the

model and inspect the mesh all around it. This mesh appears

Mouse

to

be acceptable. When done inspecting the mesh, position

the model so that you can see the inside of the small hole as

shown in Figure 1.9. These surfaces will be constrained.

 

<Esc>

Press <Esc> to exit the rotate command.

Press <Esc> to exit the rotate command. Figure 1.9: Yoke Rotated to Select Constrained Surfaces

Figure 1.9: Yoke Rotated to Select Constrained Surfaces

Setting up the Model

The FEA Editor environment is also used to specify all of the element and analysis parameters for your model and to apply the loads and constraints. When you initially come into the FEA Editor environment with the yoke model, you will notice a red X on certain headings in the tree view. This signifies that this data has not yet been specified. You will need to eliminate all of the red Xs before analyzing the model. Since you have created a solid mesh, the

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

"Element Type" heading in the tree view is already set to "Brick" and the default "Element Definition" parameters have been accepted.

Adding Constraints

Constraints describe how a finite element model is tied down in space. If an object is welded down so that it can neither translate nor rotate, the object is fully constrained.

"Selection: Shape: Point" Select the "Selection" tab. Make sure the "Point" button is selected

"Selection: Shape: Point"

Select the "Selection" tab. Make sure the "Point" button is selected in the "Shape" panel.

"Selection: Select: Surfaces" Also make sure the "Surfaces" button is selected in the "Select"

"Selection: Select: Surfaces"

Also make sure the "Surfaces" button is selected in the "Select" panel.

 

Mouse

Click one of the surfaces on the right side of the small hole as oriented in Figure 1.9.

 

<Ctrl> Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the other surface on the right side of the small hole.

"Setup: Constraints: General Constraint" Select the "Setup" tab. Click on the "General

"Setup: Constraints: General Constraint"

Select the "Setup" tab. Click on the "General Constraint" button in the "Constraints" panel dialog shown in Figure 1.10 will appear.

The

panel dialog shown in Figure 1.10 will appear. The Figure 1.10: Surface Boundary Condition Dialog

Figure 1.10: Surface Boundary Condition Dialog

"Fixed"

Press the "Fixed" button. Note that all 6 of the checkboxes in the "Constrained DOFs" section to the left are activated. This means that the nodes on this surface will be totally constrained.

"OK"

Press the "OK" button to apply these boundary conditions. Now there will be green triangles on the nodes of the surface that was selected. This signifies a fully constrained boundary condition.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Adding Forces to the Model

In this section, you will add the 800 lb force in the –X direction to the large hole.

Mouse

Click and drag using the middle mouse button to rotate the model. Position it so that you can see the surfaces of the large hole where the load is to be applied (that is, the two quarter surfaces at the left side of the hole).

Mouse

Click on one of the surfaces on the left interior of the large hole to select it.

<Ctrl> Mouse

Holding down the <Ctrl> key, click on the other surface on the left side of the large hole.

"Loads: Forces…"

Click on the "Force" button in the "Loads" panel dialog shown in Figure 1.11 will appear.

The

panel dialog shown in Figure 1.11 will appear. The Figure 1.11: Surface Forces Dialog   -400

Figure 1.11: Surface Forces Dialog

 

-400

Type "-400" in the "Magnitude" field to add two forces of 400 pounds each in the negative X direction to the surfaces. This force will be evenly distributed across each surface. They will combine to produce the desired 800 pound load.

 

"X"

Select the "X" radio button in the "Direction" section to add surface forces in the X direction.

 

"OK"

Press the "OK" button to apply these surface forces. Now there will be green arrows on the surfaces that were selected. They are pointed in the negative X direction.

"View: Navigate: Top View" Select the "View" tab. Click on the options button to the

"View: Navigate: Top View"

Select the "View" tab. Click on the options button to the bottom of "Orientation" button in the "Navigate" panel. Select "Top View" from the pull-out menu. The model should now look like Figure 1.12. The View Cube can also be used to access the views

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation Figure 1.12: Yoke after Boundary Conditions and Loads are

Figure 1.12: Yoke after Boundary Conditions and Loads are Applied

Assigning the Parameters

Once the model has been constructed and the loads and constraints have been applied, use the FEA Editor environment to specify material properties.

Mouse

Right-click on the "Material" heading for Part 1.

"Edit Material…"

Select the "Edit Material…" command. The "Element Material Selection" dialog will appear.

"Steel (ASTM-A36)"

Highlight the "Steel (ASTM-A36)" item from the list of available materials as shown in Figure 1.13.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation Figure 1.13: Element Material Selection Dialog   "Edit

Figure 1.13: Element Material Selection Dialog

 

"Edit Properties"

Press the "Edit Properties" button to view the material properties associated with this steel.

 

"OK"

Press the "OK" button to exit the "Element Material Specification" dialog.

 

"OK"

Press the "OK" button to accept the information entered in the "Element Material Selection" dialog for Part 1.

 

Mouse

Accept the warning to override default material defined within Inventor.

"Analysis: Analysis: Check Model" Select the "Analysis" tab. Click on the "Check Model" button

"Analysis: Analysis: Check Model"

Select the "Analysis" tab. Click on the "Check Model" button in the "Analysis" panel.

"Tools: Environments: FEA Editor" Select the "Tools" tab. Press the "FEA Editor" button in the

"Tools: Environments: FEA Editor"

Select the "Tools" tab. Press the "FEA Editor" button in the "Environments" panel.

"View: Orientation: Isometric View" Select the "View" tab. Click on the options button to the

"View: Orientation: Isometric View"

Select the "View" tab. Click on the options button to the bottom of "Orientation" button in the "Navigate" panel. Select "Isometric View" from the pull-out menu.

Analyzing the Model

"Analysis: Analysis: Run Simulation" Select the "Analysis" tab. Click on the "Run Simulation"

"Analysis: Analysis: Run Simulation"

Select the "Analysis" tab. Click on the "Run Simulation" button in the "Analysis" panel. When completed, the model will be displayed in the Results environment and the von Mises stress will be displayed, as shown in Figure 1.14 below. Note the maximum stress value.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation Figure 1.14: Yoke Model as Displayed in the Results

Figure 1.14: Yoke Model as Displayed in the Results Environment

Reviewing the Results

"Results Contours: Stress: von Mises"

Note the maximum von Mises value.

"Results Contours:

Displacement: Displacement"

Select the "Results Contours" tab. Click on the "Displacement" button in the "Displacement" panel. Note the maximum displacement magnitude.

The maximum von Mises stress and maximum deflection should closely match the values in the table below.

Maximum von Mises Stress (psi)

Maximum Displacement (in)

~1,900

~0.0004

Viewing the Displaced Shape

Viewing the displaced shape is always the best way to get an overall understanding of how the model reacted to the applied load. A displaced model alone or a displaced model overlaid with a undisplaced model can be displayed.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

 

"Results Contours: Displaced Options"

Click on options next to "Show Displaced" button in the "Displacement" panel. Then select "Displaced Options" button.

 

"Transparent"

Select the "Transparent" radio button in the "Show Undisplaced Model As" section.

Mouse Press the button in the upper right corner of the

Mouse

Press the

Mouse Press the button in the upper right corner of the

button in the upper right corner of the

"Displaced Model Options" dialog.

Creating an Animation

" Results Contours: Captures: Select the "Results Contours" tab. Click on the "Start Animation"

" Results Contours: Captures:

Select the "Results Contours" tab. Click on the "Start Animation" button in the "Captures" panel.

Start Animation"

"Captures: Stop Animation" Click on the "Stop Animation" button in the "Captures" panel.

"Captures: Stop Animation"

Click on the "Stop Animation" button in the "Captures" panel.

 

The preceding steps animated the results within the display area but did not create an animation file that we can place in our report. In the following steps, we will export an animation file that can be included in the report or copied to and played on any computer.

"Animation: Save As AVI…" Click on the "Start Animate" button in the "Captures" panel. Then

"Animation: Save As AVI…"

Click on the "Start Animate" button in the "Captures" panel. Then select "Save As AVI" option.

 

"von Mises Stress Animation"

Rather than using the default file name, type "von Mises Stress Animation" into the "File name:" field.

 

"Save"

Press the "Save" button to save the animation to an AVI file format.

 

"No"

Press the "No" button when asked if you want to view the animation.

Generating a Report

In this section, you will automatically create an HTML report using the Report Configuration Utility.

"Tools: Report" Select the "Tools" tab. Click on the "Report" button in the

"Tools: Report"

Select the "Tools" tab. Click on the "Report" button in the "Environments" panel

"Tools: Setup: Configure" Select the "Configure" button in the "Setup" panel. This will open

"Tools: Setup: Configure"

Select the "Configure" button in the "Setup" panel. This will open the dialog shown in Figure 1.15.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation Figure 1.15: Report Configuration Utility N OTE : Clicking

Figure 1.15: Report Configuration Utility

NOTE:

Clicking on any of the checkboxes will toggle the inclusion state of the item (i.e. whether it is to be included or excluded from the HTML report). When selecting included portions of the report, to modify them. Click on the item name and not on the checkbox. This will select the item without toggling the checkbox state.

Mouse Activate the checkbox next to the "Logo" heading. This will include the default Autodesk®

Mouse

Activate the checkbox next to the "Logo" heading. This will include the default Autodesk® logo at the top of the report.

Note that you may also customize the logo by browsing to and selecting your own image file. Several different image file formats are supported. The logo size and alignment may also be adjusted by right-clicking on it and choosing the "Format Image" command. You may also select the image and then click and drag the handles that appear around the image border while it is selected to resize it.

Mouse

Select the "Project Name" heading.

Mouse:

Click and drag the mouse to select the text, "Design Analysis" and type "Yoke Design" to replace it.

Yoke Design

Mouse:

Click and drag the mouse to select the text, "Project Title Here" and replace this text by typing "Analysis of Yoke under 800 lbf Loading".

Analysis of Yoke under 800 lbf Loading

Mouse

Select the "Title and Author" heading.

Your Name

Type your name into the "Author" field.

Your Department

Type your department name into the "Department" field.

Mouse

Select the "Reviewer" heading.

Person who checked model

Type the name of the person who checked the model into the "Reviewer" field.

Department of person who checked the model

Enter the name of the department of the person who checked the model into the "Department" field.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Passed all FEA tests

Type "Passed all FEA tests" into the "Comments" field.

Mouse

Deselect the "Executive Summary" item by clicking on the associated checkbox. This item will be excluded from the report.

NOTES:

Text can be added as desired within the "Executive Summary" section using the built-in word processor features. A variety of font and paragraph styles are included, such as bullet or numbered lists, tables, tabs, and various text justification settings.

The following sections are automatically generated and cannot be modified. The analyst may only include or exclude these items or alter their order of appearance within the report:

Summary

Analysis Parameters

Parts

Element

Material

Loads

Constraints

Probes

Rotating Frames (applicable to fluid flow analysis)

Results Presentations

Processor Log Files Group

Code Checking – General

Code Checking – Detailed

Mouse

Deselect the "Results Presentations" checkbox. Rather than including the default image of the results window, we will include the previously generated animation.

 

Access the TREE pull-down menu and select the "Add "

AVI File(s)

command. This will allow you to include

"Tree: Add AVI File(s)

"

an animation file within the report. Alternately, you can right-click in the report tree area and choose the "Add AVI

 

File" command.

"von Mises Stress Animation.avi"

Browse to and select the previously created animation file "von Mises Stress Animation.avi".

"Open"

Press the "Open" button. A "von Mises Stress Animation" heading will appear in the report tree and it will be selected.

The default text within the "Header Text:" field will match the filename. We will leave it as is. Optional text may be placed in the report below the animation, if desired, by entering the desired text into the "Caption" field. We do not need to include a caption for this example.

Mouse

Click and drag the "von Mises Stress Animation" heading in the report tree and release it over the "Processor Log Files" heading. This will reorder the report, placing the animation immediately before the processor log files.

"Generate Report"

Press the "Generate Report" button. This will automatically bring up the report, which will appear as shown in Figure 1.16 below. You can scroll through and review the full report.

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation

Chapter 1: Example Using Autodesk ® Simulation N OTE : Figure 1.16: Completed Report The default

NOTE:

Figure 1.16: Completed Report

The default title image is the model as it currently appears within the FEA Editor environment. A different image may be substituted for this one and/or the image may be resized using the report configuration utility. To adjust the image size or alignment right-click on it and choose "Format Image" command. You may also select the image and then click and drag the handles that appear around the image border while it is selected to resize it.

A completed archive of this model (yoke.ach), including results, is located in the "Chapter 1 Example Model\Results Archive" folder in the class directory or in the copy of the solutions folders on your computer.

Chapter 2
Chapter
2

Static Stress Analysis Using CAD Solid Models

Chapter Objectives

Learn about working with model archives

Learn how to open and mesh CAD solid models

Learn how to work with multiple unit systems

Learn the types of loads available for static stress analysis

Learn how to use load cases

Learn the types of constraints available for static stress analysis

Learn about design scenarios

Learn how to use symmetry and antisymmetry

Learn how to define local coordinate systems

Learn how to use the Material Library Manager

Archiving a Model

Before getting into the specifics of working with CAD solid models and setting up static stress analyses, let us take a moment to discuss model archives. These will be referenced throughout this manual.

In the "Application" pull-down menu, there is a pull-out menu called "Archive". This menu has five choices: "Create", "Retrieve", "Manage Existing", "Repair", and "Delete"

The "Create" command will allow you to create a file with an .ach extension. This file is similar to a zip file format. When you select the "Create" command and select "Save", once the filename has been specified the following dialog will appear:

has been specified the following dialog will appear: Figure 2.1: Archive: Create Dialog Autodesk ®

Figure 2.1: Archive: Create Dialog

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Select either the "Model only" or "Model and results" radio button to save into the archive (.ach) file. Selecting the "Model and results" radio button allows you to conveniently store the model and its results in one compressed file. There is a "Comment" field noting the location and name of the file to be saved.

If you select the "Retrieve" command, then you can retrieve and uncompress an existing archive file for viewing or applying changes. You will be prompted to specify the location where the files are to be placed when extracted. You can also retrieve an archive using the "File: Open…" command by selecting "Autodesk Simulation Archive (*.ach)" as the file type to open.

The "Manage Existing" command allows you to see and manage an existing archive file. The dialog lists all of the files in the archive file and allows the user to remove or update any file.

If an archive file has become corrupt use the "Repair" command to fix it. You can also use the "Delete" command to delete archive files.

Types of Brick Elements

There are four possible geometrical configurations that can be used to create a brick element. These are displayed in Table 2.1

Table 2.1: Brick Element Geometry Configurations

8-noded Brick 6-noded Wedge 5-noded Pyramid 4-noded Tetrahedral
8-noded Brick 6-noded Wedge 5-noded Pyramid 4-noded Tetrahedral

8-noded Brick

6-noded Wedge

8-noded Brick 6-noded Wedge 5-noded Pyramid 4-noded Tetrahedral
8-noded Brick 6-noded Wedge 5-noded Pyramid 4-noded Tetrahedral

5-noded Pyramid

4-noded Tetrahedral

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Generating Meshes for CAD Models

In this chapter we will cover the basics of creating meshes for CAD models. This will be sufficient for completing the exercises in the first few chapters. The topic will be covered in more detail in Chapter 5, "Meshing."

Autodesk® Simulation is compatible with most FEA software products and most major CAD products. It works from native CAD files as well as STL, IGES, ACIS, and STEP files. For native CAD formats not directly supported, the models can typically be exported using one of the supported universal formats.

Meshing operations are performed on solid models and 3-D plate/shell models using quadrilateral or triangular elements representing the surface of the model.

The interface also offers enhanced user control over the geometric properties of the generated solid brick mesh. Users can control internal angles of quadrilaterals and quadrilateral warpage, adapting to requirements of some FEA systems.

At the lowest interface level, the simulation program retrieves an existing solid model for FEA processing from another source such as a CAD solid modeler or from another finite element program. The engineer can automatically improve the mesh for more accurate and faster FEA results. At the highest level, the engineer can intervene to enhance the model, including adding local mesh refinement, adding manually constructed elements, or merging in additional parts or assemblies.

CAD Solid Models Supported directly:

ACIS files (*.sat)

AutoCAD (*.dwg, *.dxf)

Inventor files (*.ipt, *.iam)

Inventor Fusion (*.dwg)

Mechanical Desktop (*.dwg)

IGES files (*.igs, *.iges)

STEP files (*.stp, *.step)

Stereolithography files (*.stl)

Note: More files can be brought into Autodesk Simulation via Autodesk Fusion

To open these models, access the "Application" pull-down menu, select the "Open" command, and select the file type you need in the CAD Files section of the "Files of type:" drop-down box. The model will be opened in the FEA Editor environment. You can also use the "Merge" command to create assembly files from multiple part or subassembly files. The models will be combined using the same position and orientation as the CAD solid models.

When you first open a CAD solid model in the user interface, you may be asked if you want to use a process called "surface-knitting." Whether or not you see a surface-knitting prompt depends upon the settings under "Application Menu: Options: CAD Import." The options for the "Knit surface on import" settings are "Yes" "No" and "Ask each time." This process is required if an internal or external fluid part is to be automatically derived within Autodesk Simulation from the imported CAD geometry. It also enhances mesh matching between parts by splitting the surfaces where two parts meet so that the two intersecting surfaces and their feature lines are identical for each part. If surface-knitting is performed, it also lets the user apply a load — such as pressure or convection — to a surface that partially intersects an adjacent part without having it act on the portion of the surface where the two parts meet. In

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

other words, the load will act everywhere on the surface except where it is coincident with another part, since this portion will actually be identified by a new surface number after knitting has been completed. After the model has been imported, you will need to re-import the original model if you want to change whether to knit the surfaces or not.

It is not necessary to perform surface-knitting on assemblies if the only purpose is to enhance mesh matching. Meshing features called "virtual imprinting" and "smart bonding" are sufficient to enhance connectivity between adjacent parts. Smart bonding was discussed in the "Introduction" chapter. Virtual imprinting identifies coincident surfaces between adjacent parts and meshes these intersecting regions one time, producing an identical mesh on both parts where they meet. It does not actually divide the larger surface into two subsurfaces as the surface- knitting operation does. So, if this behavior is desired or if fluid part derivation is to be performed, you must still do surface-knitting.

NOTE:

Creating a Mesh

By default, the surface-knitting operation is disabled for a new or clean installation of the current software version. For the purpose of this manual's exercises and examples, it will be assumed that the surface-knitting option is set to "No." If this is not the case for a given PC, either change the setting under "Application Menu:

Options: CAD Import" or simply answer "No" whenever prompted unless instructed otherwise. The setting may also be changed by clicking on the "Options" button within the File: Open dialog when a CAD file type is selected.

When a CAD solid model is opened in the FEA Editor environment and the "Mesh: 3D Mesh Settings" command is chosen; the "Model Mesh Settings" dialog pictured in Figure 2.2 will appear.

Settings" dialog pictured in Figure 2.2 will appear. Figure 2.2: Model Mesh Settings Dialog The "Solid"

Figure 2.2: Model Mesh Settings Dialog

The "Solid" radio button in the "Mesh type" section will be selected. By default, the program will automatically create a surface mesh on all parts and verify that they each enclose a watertight volume. The solid mesh will be generated during the analysis phase. The options specified in the "Model Mesh Settings" dialog will be applied, by default, to all of the parts in the model. If you want to apply certain mesh settings to a specific part(s), right-click on the part(s) in the display area or on the heading(s) for the part(s) in the tree views. Select the "CAD Mesh Options…" pull-out menu and then choose the "Part…" command. A dialog identical to the "Model Mesh Settings" dialog will appear. The mesh settings specified in this dialog will only be applied to the selected part(s). This functionality will allow you to mesh certain parts as brick elements and other parts as plate elements, for example.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Click on the slider bar in the "Mesh size" section and drag it to the desired mesh coarseness or fineness. Press the "Mesh model" button to create the mesh. When the mesh is complete, you will have the option to view the mesh results. Pressing the "View Mesh Results" button, within the "Mesh panel options; will access the "Meshing Results" dialog shown in Figure 2.3.

the "Meshing Results" dialog shown in Figure 2.3. Figure 2.3: Meshing Results Dialog If the "Model"

Figure 2.3: Meshing Results Dialog

If the "Model" button is depressed, the mesh results for the entire model will be displayed. If the "Part" button is depressed, you will be able to toggle through the results for each part in the assembly. After you are finished reviewing the mesh results, press the "Close" button.

Model Mesh Settings – Options

By pressing the "Options…" button within the "Model Mesh Settings" dialog, a different "Model Mesh Settings" dialog will appear. There are three icons on the left side of this dialog that will each access different options.

The "Surface" icon will access options that are used to control the surface mesh.

The "Solid" icon will access options that are used to control the solid mesh.

The "Model" icon will access options that will affect all parts of the model.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

The dialog accessed by the "Surface" icon is shown in Figure 2.4.

by the "Surface" icon is shown in Figure 2.4. Figure 2.4: Model Mesh Settings Dialog with

Figure 2.4: Model Mesh Settings Dialog with the Surface Icon Active

The options within the "Surface" section of the mesh

settings dialog control the size of the mesh, how to proceed when automatic mesh size reduction is necessary, and whether second order elements are to be generated.

Mesh Settings – "Surface" Section:

Mesh size section:

Size: The value in this field controls the size of the mesh that will be applied. The type of value shown depends on the selected option in the "Type" drop-down box. If the "Percent of automatic" option is selected, this value will be a ratio of the default mesh size that was determined when the model was opened in the FEA Editor environment. If the "Absolute mesh size" option is selected, this value will be the length of one side of an element in the current units system. The actual element length will typically vary slightly from the requested size because the number of elements along an edge or across a surface must be a whole number.

Type: In this drop-down box, you can choose to have the size defined as a percent of the default value calculated when the model was opened ("Percent of automatic") or an absolute size ("Absolute mesh size").

Retries section:

If a successful mesh cannot be formed with the currently specified mesh size, the mesh engine will try again after reducing the size by the value in the "Retry reduction factor" field. It will repeat this process, if necessary, until the number of retries specified in the "Number of retries" field is reached. If all of the retries fail, the original mesh size will be used and any problem surfaces will not be meshed.

Generate 2 nd order elements:

There is an option in the element definition screen to include midside nodes in the finite element solution for brick, shell, tetrahedron and certain other element types. When midside nodes are included, they are – by default – placed at the midpoint of straight

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

lines connecting the vertices of each element. This is true even when a surface mesh lies on a curved surface of a CAD-based model. Activating the "Generate 2 nd order elements" option causes midside node placement to be based on the surface of the CAD model so that they follow the curvature of the part(s). In other words, they don't have to lie along a straight line between two element corner vertices.

Mesh Settings – "Model" Section:

options within this section of the mesh settings dialog.

Please refer to Chapter 5 for information regarding

The options within the "Solid" section of the mesh

settings dialog are beyond the scope of this introductory level course. Please consult the program Help files for further information. The appropriate help file section may be accessed by pressing the "Help" button within the model mesh setting dialog or via the "Contents," "Index" or "Search" command in the HELP pull-down menu.

Mesh Settings – "Solid" Section:

Tips for Modeling with CAD Solid Model Software for FEA

Often, some FEA issues can be avoided by employing certain modeling techniques within the CAD software used to create the solid models. For example, large assemblies can result in large numbers of elements being created and will increase setup and analysis time, making it desirable to simplify the models. There are several guidelines to consider during CAD model creation that can simplify the FEA procedures and control the size of the FEA models.

Combine parts with the same material properties: Since each part has a single material, it is convenient to combine parts of the same material into a single part. This can be done in the CAD solid modeler. This will require you to only enter the material properties for one part instead of several.

Remove parts that are not relevant to the stress calculations: Some complicated assemblies can actually be legitimately simplified by eliminating some parts. The only reason some parts are in an assembly is to prevent other parts from moving in a particular direction. The effect of these parts can be replaced by properly constraining the model. Other parts are simply there to connect two parts together. This connection can be simulated by connecting the nodes of these parts.

Remove unnecessary details: Many assemblies have relatively small features such as fillets or holes that will not affect the stress results. These features will require a finer mesh size in their areas, which could result in significantly more elements. Removing or suppressing these features will reduce the analysis time. In the Autodesk Simulation menu, toolbar, and/or command ribbon for some of the CAD systems for which a direct transfer exists, there is a command entitled "Simply Model.". This command will allow you to quickly suppress features in your CAD model that are not necessary for the FEA model. Features that are suppressed will not be transferred to the simulation software.

Split surfaces: Many loads are applied to the surfaces of a model. If a load will only be applied to a portion of a CAD surface, it may be useful to split the surface in the CAD software so that the desired portion bears a unique surface identification. Another use of this would be to control how the surfaces are created along a cylindrical hole. The simulation software divides incoming cylindrical surfaces into two semicircular surfaces. These may be rotated 90 degrees from how you would need them in order to properly apply a load to 180 degrees of the cylinder, for example. Splitting the surface in the CAD software would allow you to control this and to create load application areas wherever desired.

this and to create load application areas wherever desired. Inventor Parameters are now available within Autodesk

Inventor Parameters are now available within Autodesk Simulation and can be used to modify the component directly within Autodesk Simulation

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Simplify CAD Solid Models with Autodesk Fusion

As an alternative Autodesk Fusion can be also used to simplify cad models as shown below in figure 2.5

used to simplify cad models as shown below in figure 2.5 Figure 2.5: Simplifying models in

Figure 2.5: Simplifying models in Autodesk Fusion

Once the model has been simplified then the model can then be sent to Autodesk Simulation using the "Autodesk Simulation" button in the "Simulation" panel. Fusion can open many CAD format files including, Alias, CatiaV5, Pro Engineer, Rhino, Solidworks and more. Once the model is within Autodesk Simulation further editing of the model is possible using the "CAD with Fusion" button in the "Edit" panel as shown in figure 2.6.

button in the "Edit" panel as shown in figure 2.6. Figure 2.6: Simplifying models in Autodesk

Figure 2.6: Simplifying models in Autodesk Fusion

Once the model has been further simplified the model can then be sent back to Autodesk Simulation and then model will be updated within Autodesk Simulation.

Fusion is ideal for components that have no feature history or are made up neutral CAD file formats as Fusion allows direct modeling capabilities.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Working with Various Unit Systems

It is possible to define element data, material data, geometry, and loads based on multiple unit systems. The analyst need not convert all input data to the same unit system as the one used to initially construct the model. Beneath the active design scenario heading in the tree view, there is a "Unit Systems" branch. Here, the "Model Units" and various pre-defined "Display Units" are listed. Figure 2.7 shows a typical model's tree view with the Unit Systems branch highlighted.

tree view with the Unit Systems branch highlighted. Figure 2.7: Tree View Showing Unit Systems Branch

Figure 2.7: Tree View Showing Unit Systems Branch

To choose alternate display and input units, simply double-click the heading showing the desired units, or right-click and choose the "Activate" command. Pre-defined unit systems can be altered by right-clicking on the heading and choosing the "Edit" command. A unit system may be renamed either by clicking on a heading that is already selected, thus entering a name editing mode, or by double-clicking the heading and specifying new name in Description field

The user may also create their own display unit systems which will be added to the list in the Unit Systems branch of the tree view. To do so, right-click on the top-level Unit System heading in the tree view and choose the "New…" command. A Unit System dialog will appear, as shown in Figure 2.8.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress Figure 2.8: Unit System Dialog All

Figure 2.8: Unit System Dialog

All data input fields have pull-down menu boxes associated with them, the available units for each item (force, length, time, temperature, and so forth). Begin by selecting the existing unit system that is closest to the desired system. To do this, first select the "Unit System" input field at the top of the dialog. A down-arrow button will appear at the right end of the field once it has been selected. Use this button to access the pull-down list of available systems and choose the one that is most similar to the system you wish to create. Then, access the list once more and choose the "Custom" option. This action will unlock all of the individual items in the "Corresponding Units" section below, so that they can be altered. By first choosing the most similar existing system, several of the fields may already bear the desired units designations for the new system, minimizing the number that you need to change. Choose the desired display and input units for the items that you wish to alter using the pull- down lists at each input field. Enter a unique name in the "Description" field for identification of the custom unit system in the model tree.

To make the new unit system available, for all future FEA models, to be created on the subject computer workstation, activate the "Add to tree for new models" checkbox. If you only want this unit system to be available for the current model, leave this box unchecked.

When an alternate unit system is activated, all data input screens will reflect the associated current input units. These will remain in effect until the unit system is changed once again. This facilitates inputting available model data that may be in differing unit systems. For example, you may have load data in English (in) units but your available material data may be in Metric mks (SI) or cgs units. Simply change to the appropriate unit system before accessing the input screens for the quantities or properties being defined. You will not have to manually perform the units conversions.

Alternate unit systems are also available within the Results environment. For example, a model can be constructed using mm for length with loads applied based on Newtons, degrees C, and Joules. By choosing the English (in BTU) system in the Results environment, analysis results will be presented using pounds per square inch (psi) for stresses and thermal results will be shown in units of BTUs (British Thermal Units) and degrees F.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Loading Options

In static stress analysis with linear material models, there are four different categories of loading: nodal, edge, surface and element. The loading options are listed below. Loading options for thermal analysis will be covered in Chapter 8, "Steady-State Heat Transfer" and in Chapter 9, "Transient Heat Transfer."

Nodal loading:

Nodal Force: Will apply a force along any vector to the selected nodes.

Nodal Lumped Mass: Will apply the effects of a mass concentrated at the point of attachment. For the mass moment of inertia (rotational inertia) about a given axis to have effect, the element type must support rotational DOFs.

Nodal Moment: Will apply a moment about any vector to the selected nodes. The nodes must be on an element type that supports rotational DOFs.

Nodal Prescribed Displacement: Applies a displacement along any vector to the node.

Nodal Temperatures: Applies a temperature to the selected node for use in a thermal stress analysis. Temperature data can also be mapped from a thermal analysis.

Nodal Voltages: Applies a voltage to the selected nodes for use in a piezoelectric analysis. Voltage data can also be mapped from an electrostatic analysis.

Edge loading:

Edge Force: Applies nodal forces to the nodes on an edge so that the magnitude is evenly distributed over the length.

Edge Prescribed Displacement: Applies nodal displacement boundaries to each node on the edge.

Surface loading:

Surface Force: Evenly distributes a force over the surface.

Surface Variable Load: Applies a pressure that will vary with position according to a mathematical function. Refer to the example at the end of this chapter.

Surface Pressure/Traction:

Applies pressures either normal to a surface or along a

specified direction.

Surface Hydrostatic Pressure: For brick elements, this applies a hydrostatic pressure which is zero at a specified Y-elevation and increases linearly in the -Y direction. The model must be oriented with the +Y direction being vertically upward. For plate elements, the model and hydrostatic pressure may have any orientation (see the "Hydrostatic Pressure Loads" heading under the "Loading Options" section of Chapter 4).

Surface Prescribed Displacement: Applies nodal displacement boundaries to each node on the surface.

Surface Temperature: Applies nodal temperatures to each node on the surface.

Surface Voltage: Applies nodal voltages to each node on the surface.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Element loading:

Accelerations/gravity: Will apply an acceleration load to the entire model. The parts must have a mass density defined.

Centrifugal loads: Will apply a centrifugal load perpendicular to a global axis to the entire model. The parts must have a mass density defined.

entire model. The parts must have a mass density defined. For additional details about the application

For additional details about the application and definitions of any of these preceding loads, refer to Appendix C.

NOTE:

Nodal loads may be defined at a remote point not on the model geometry and attached to a set of model nodes, edges, or surfaces using automatically generated line elements. Refer to the help files for additional information regarding the application of remote loads and constraints.

Loads applied to nodes, edges or surfaces can be copied and duplicated on other nodes, edges, or surfaces. This can be done by clicking on the load and right-clicking in the display area. Select the "Copy" command. Right-click on the node, edge or surface where you want to duplicate the load, and select the "Paste" command

Load Cases

When applying most loads, there is a "Load Case / Load Curve" field. This field will control which load case the load is applied in. Each load case will be analyzed separately. For example, if you want to see the effect of a 100 pound force applied in the X direction and a separate 500 pound force applied in the Y direction, you can place these forces in load case 1 and load case 2. If you also want to see the combined effect, you can copy these forces and apply them both in load case 3. When the analysis is performed, there will be three sets of results in the Results environment. You can toggle through the load cases using the "Next" and "Previous" options in the "Load Case Options" panel in the "Results Contours" tab.

Certain loads need load case multipliers in order to be applied. For instance, if you apply a pressure or a surface force, you need to assign a value in the "Pressure" column of the "Load Case Multipliers" table in the "Multipliers" tab of the "Analysis Parameters" dialog. This dialog is accessed either by selecting the "Parameters" button in the "Model Setup" panel in the "Setup" tab or by right-clicking on "Analysis Type" heading in the tree view and selecting the "Edit Analysis Parameters …" command. This multiplier is a global multiplier for all of your pressures and surface forces in your model. If you entered 1,000 psi for the pressure and put a load case multiplier for pressure of 2.0, your actual pressure in the model for that load case will be 2000 psi. The value in the "Index" column refers to the load case number

There are seven multipliers in the "Analysis Parameters" dialog for a static stress analysis:

Pressure:

This multiplier will multiply all pressures, tractions, surface forces, surface variable loads and beam distributed loads.

Accel/Gravity:

This multiplier will multiply the acceleration loads defined under the "Accel/Gravity" tab.

Rotation:

This multiplier will multiply the rotation rate specified under the "Centrifugal" tab.

Angular Accel:

This multiplier will multiply the angular acceleration specified under the "Centrifugal" tab.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Boundary:

This

multiplier

will

multiply

the

magnitude

of

all

displacement

boundary elements.

 

Thermal:

This multiplier does NOT directly multiply the magnitude of the temperature applied to each of the nodes in a model. Rather, it multiplies the thermal load as defined by the equation:

Thermal Load = (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) * (Nodal Temperature – Stress Free Reference Temperature)

So, the difference between the nodal temperature and the stress-free reference temperature (defined in the "Element Definition" dialog) is being multiplied. Therefore, a thermal multiplier of 2 will result in exactly double the stress relative to a thermal multiplier of 1, even for parts with non-zero stress free reference temperatures.

Voltage:

This multiplier will multiply the magnitude of the voltage applied to each of the nodes in a model.

You can combine these multipliers in any order and can turn off loads for different load cases by entering a zero for that column. Refer to Figure 2.9 for an example.

a zero for that column. Refer to Figure 2.9 for an example. Figure 2.9: Analysis Parameters

Figure 2.9: Analysis Parameters Dialog

The load case multipliers shown in Figure 2.7 would be used to model the following situations:

1. Only surface applied forces, pressures, and/or traction loads applied.

2. No load except for gravity.

3. No load except for thermal loads.

4. All loads listed in preceding items 1 through 3.

5. 1.5 times the surface applied forces, pressures, and/or traction loads combined with gravity and 1.25 times the thermal load.

Chapter 2: Working with CAD Solid Models and Static Stress

Constraint Options

In static stress analysis with linear material models, constraints can be applied to the model in three ways: to nodes, edges or surfaces. If a constraint is applied to a surface or edge, constraints will be applied to each node on the surface or edge.

General Constraint: Will constrain the node to which they are applied against translation or rotation along the specified direction.