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Digital Visual Interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Digital Visual Interface

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video interface standard designed to maximize the visual quality of digital display devices such as flat panel LCD computer displays and digital projectors. It was developed by an industry consortium, the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). It is designed for carrying uncompressed digital video data to a display. It is partially compatible with the High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) standard in digital mode (DVI-D).

Contents

1 Overview

1 Overview

2 Technical discussion

2 Technical discussion

3 Connector

3 Connector

4 Specifications

4 Specifications

4.1 Digital 4.1.1 Clock Timing Pecularities

4.1 Digital 4.1.1 Clock Timing Pecularities

4.1 Digital 4.1.1 Clock Timing Pecularities
4.2 Analog

4.2 Analog

5 Proposed successors

5 Proposed successors

6 References

6 References

Overview

The DVI interface uses a digital protocol in which the desired illumination of pixels is transmitted as binary data. When the display is driven at its native resolution, it will read each number and apply that brightness to the appropriate pixel. In this way, each pixel in the output buffer of the source device corresponds directly to one pixel in the display device, whereas with an analog signal the appearance of each pixel may be affected by its adjacent pixels as well as by electrical noise and other forms of analog distortion.

Previous standards such as the analog VGA were designed for CRT-based devices and thus did not use discrete time display addressing. As the analog source transmits each horizontal line of the image, it varies its output voltage to represent the desired brightness. In a CRT device, this is

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Digital Visual Interface (DVI)

Digital Visual Interface (DVI) A male DVI-D (single link) connector. Type Digital and analog computer Designer

A male DVI-D (single link) connector.

Type

Digital and analog computer

Designer

video connector Production history Digital Display Working

Designed

Group April 1999

Produced

1999 to present

Superseded by

External

Video signal

Data signal

DisplayPort

Specifications Yes Digital video stream. (Single) WUXGA 1920 × 1200 @ 60 Hz (Dual) WQXGA (2560 × 1600) @ 60 Hz Analog RGB video (-3 db at 400 MHz) R,G,B data + clock and display data channel

60 Hz (Dual) WQXGA (2560 × 1600) @ 60 Hz Analog RGB video (-3 db at
60 Hz (Dual) WQXGA (2560 × 1600) @ 60 Hz Analog RGB video (-3 db at

Bandwidth

(Single Link)

3.96

Gbit/s

(Dual Link)

7.92

Gbit/s

Max

1

devices

Digital Visual Interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

used to vary the intensity of the scanning beam as it moves

across the screen.

DVI cable connectors are designed in such a way as not to

allow the user to connect the cable in an incorrect position or orientation. DVI connectors are available in five models, differing in the way they handle analog or digital transfers.

In the digital transfer one or two channels are present. Video and monitor cards which are exclusively digital cannot be connected to analog, but can be connected to equipment that handles both analog and digital signals. The DVI standard also supports the Display Data Channel (DDC) and the Extended Display Identification Data (EDID), which allows computers to communicate with different monitor extensions.

"DVI-I" stands for "DVI-Integrated" and supports both digital and analog transfers, so it works with both digital and analog Visual Display Unit. "DVI-D" stands for "DVI-Digital" and supports digital transfers only.

Technical discussion

The data format used by DVI is based on the PanelLink serial format devised by the semiconductor manufacturer Silicon Image Inc. This uses Transition Minimized

Differential Signaling (TMDS). A single DVI link consists of

four twisted pairs of wire (red, green, blue, and clock) to

transmit 24 bits per pixel. The timing of the signal almost exactly matches that of an analog video signal. The picture

is transmitted line by line with blanking intervals between

each line and each frame, and without packetization. No

compression is used and there is no support for only transmitting changed parts of the image. This means that the whole frame is constantly re-transmitted. The specification (see below for link) does, however, include a paragraph on "Conversion to Selective Refresh" (under 1.2.2), suggesting this feature for future devices.

With a single DVI link, the largest resolution possible at 60 Hz is 2.75 megapixels (including blanking interval). For practical purposes, this allows a maximum screen resolution at 60 Hz of 1915 x 1436 pixels (standard 4:3 ratio), 1854 x 1483 pixels (5:4 ratio) or 2098 x 1311 (widescreen 8:5 ratio). The DVI connector therefore has provision for a second link, containing another set of red, green, and blue twisted pairs. When more bandwidth is required than is possible with a single link, the second link is enabled, and alternate pixels may be transmitted on each, allowing

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface

 

Protocol

3 × Transition Minimized

 

Differential

Signaling data

+

clock

Pins

29

Pin out

Signaling data + clock Pins 29 Pin out A female DVI-I socket from the front Pin

A female DVI-I socket from the front

Pin 1

TMDS Data 2- Digital red - (Link 1)

Pin 2

TMDS Data

Digital red +

2+

(Link 1)

Pin 3

TMDS Data

Pin 4

2/4 shield TMDS Data 4- Digital green - (Link 2)

Pin 5

TMDS Data

Digital green

4+

+

(Link 2)

Pin 6

DDC clock

Pin 7

DDC data

Pin 8

Analog

vertical sync

Pin 9

TMDS Data 1- Digital green - (Link 1)

Pin 10

TMDS Data

Digital green

1+

+

(Link 1)

Pin 11

TMDS Data

1/3 shield

Pin 12

TMDS Data 3- Digital blue - (Link 2)

Pin 13

TMDS Data

Digital blue +

3+

(Link 2)

Pin 14

+5 V

Power for

Pin 15

Ground

monitor when in standby Return for pin

Pin 16

Hot plug

14 and analog sync

detect

Digital Visual Interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

resolutions up to 4 megapixels at 60 Hz. The DVI specification mandates a fixed single link maximum pixel

clock frequency of 165 MHz, where all display modes that require less than this must use single link mode, and all those that require more must switch to dual link mode. When both links are in use, the pixel rate on each may exceed 165 MHz. The second link can also be used when more than

24 bits per pixel is required, in which case it carries the least

significant bits. The data pairs carry binary data at ten times

the pixel clock reference frequency, for a maximum data rate of 1.65 Gbit/s x 3 data pairs for a single DVI link.

Like modern analog VGA connectors, the DVI connector includes pins for the display data channel (DDC). DDC2 (a newer version of DDC) allows the graphics adapter to read the monitor's extended display identification data (EDID). If a display supports both analog and digital signals in one input, each input can host a distinct EDID. If both receivers are active, analog EDID is used.

The maximum length of DVI cables is not included in the specification since it is dependent on bandwidth

requirements (the resolution of the image being transmitted). In general, cable lengths up to 4.5 m (15 ft) will work for displays at resolutions of 1920 x 1200. Cable lengths up to

15 m (50 ft) can be used with displays at resolutions up to

1280 x 1024. For longer distances, to eliminate the video

degradation, the use of a DVI booster is recommended. DVI boosters may or may not use an external power supply.

Connector

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface

Pin 17

TMDS data 0- Digital blue -

Pin 18

(Link 1) and digital sync TMDS data 0+ Digital blue +

Pin 19

(Link 1) and digital sync

Pin 20

TMDS data 0/5 shield TMDS data 5- Digital red -

Pin 21

(Link 2) TMDS data 5+ Digital red + (Link 2)

Pin 22

TMDS clock

shield

Pin 23

TMDS clock+ Digital clock

 

+

(Links 1

Pin 24

TMDS clock-

and 2) Digital clock - (Links 1 and

 

2)

C1

Analog red

C2

Analog green

C3

Analog blue

C4

Analog

horizontal

sync

C5

Analog

Return for R,

ground

G

and B

signals

Digital Visual Interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface

Male DVI connector pins (view of plug)

Male DVI connector pins (view of plug)

Color coded female DVI connector with pin descriptions

Color coded female DVI connector with pin descriptions

See also Mini-DVI and Micro-DVI

The DVI connector usually contains pins to pass the DVI-native digital video signals. In the case of dual-link systems, additional pins are provided for the second set of data signals.

As well as digital signals, the DVI connector includes pins providing the same analog signals found on a VGA connector, allowing a VGA monitor to be connected with a simple plug adapter. This feature was included in order to make DVI universal, as it allows either type of monitor (analog or digital) to be operated from the same connector.

The DVI connector on a device is therefore given one of three names, depending on which signals it implements:

DVI-D (digital only) (digital only)

DVI-A (analog only) (analog only)

DVI-I (integrated, digital & analog) (integrated, digital & analog)

The connector also includes provision for a second data link for high resolution displays, though many devices do not implement this. In those that do, the

connector is sometimes referred to as DVI-DL (dual link).

The long flat pin on a DVI-I connector is wider than the same pin on a DVI-D connector, so it is not possible to connect a male DVI-I to a female DVI-D by removing the 4 analog pins. It is possible, however, to connect a male DVI-D cable to a female DVI-I connector. Many flat panel LCD monitors have only the DVI-D connection so that a DVI-D male to DVI-D male cable will suffice when connecting the monitor to a computer's DVI-I female connector.

DVI is the only widespread video standard that includes analog and digital transmission options in the same

connector. [1] Competing standards are exclusively digital: these include a system using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), known by its proprietary names FPD (for Flat-Panel Display) Link and FLATLINK; and its successors, the LVDS Display Interface (LDI) and OpenLDI.

Some new DVD players, TV sets (including HDTV sets) and video projectors have DVI/HDCP connectors; these are physically the same as DVI connectors but transmit an encrypted signal using the HDCP protocol for copy protection. Computers with DVI video connectors can use many DVI-equipped HDTV sets as a display; however, due to Digital Rights Management, it is not clear whether such systems will eventually be able to play protected content, as the link is not encrypted.

USB signals are not incorporated into the connector, but were earlier incorporated into the VESA Plug and

Display connector used by InFocus on their projector systems, and in the Apple Display Connector, which was

used by Apple Computer until 2005.

The DMS-59 connector is a way to combine two analog and two digital signals in one plug. It is commonly used when a single graphics card has two outputs.

M1-DA connectors are sometimes labeled as DVI-M1; they are used for the VESA Enhanced Video Connector and VESA Plug and Display schemes.

Digital Visual Interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Specifications

Digital

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface

Minimum clock frequency: 25.175 MHzhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface Maximum clock frequency in single link mode: Capped at 165

Maximum clock frequency in single link mode: Capped at 165 MHz (up to 3.96 Gbit/s)Minimum clock frequency: 25.175 MHz Maximum clock frequency in dual link mode: Limited only by

Maximum clock frequency in dual link mode: Limited only by cable quality (up to 7.92 Gbit/s)in single link mode: Capped at 165 MHz (up to 3.96 Gbit/s) Pixels per clock cycle:

Pixels per clock cycle: 1 (single link ) or 2 ( dual link) single link) or 2 (dual link)

Bits per pixel: 24 (single and dual link) or 48 ( dual link only) single and dual link) or 48 (dual link only)

Example display modes (single link ): single link):

HDTV (1920 × 1080) @ 60 Hz with CVT-RB blanking (139 MHz)48 ( dual link only) Example display modes ( single link ): UXGA (1600 × 1200)

UXGA (1600 × 1200) @ 60 Hz with GTF blanking (161 MHz)HDTV (1920 × 1080) @ 60 Hz with CVT-RB blanking (139 MHz) WUXGA (1920 × 1200)

WUXGA (1920 × 1200) @ 60 Hz with CVT-RB blanking (154 MHz)MHz) UXGA (1600 × 1200) @ 60 Hz with GTF blanking (161 MHz) SXGA (1280 ×

SXGA (1280 × 1024) @ 85 Hz with GTF blanking (159 MHz)WUXGA (1920 × 1200) @ 60 Hz with CVT-RB blanking (154 MHz) WXGA+ (1440 x 900)

WXGA+ (1440 x 900) @ 60 Hz (107 MHz)MHz) SXGA (1280 × 1024) @ 85 Hz with GTF blanking (159 MHz) WQUXGA (3840 ×

WQUXGA (3840 × 2400) @ 17 Hz (164 MHz)GTF blanking (159 MHz) WXGA+ (1440 x 900) @ 60 Hz (107 MHz) Example display modes

Example display modes (dual link ): dual link):

QXGA (2048 × 1536) @ 75 Hz with GTF blanking (2×170 MHz)2400) @ 17 Hz (164 MHz) Example display modes ( dual link ): HDTV (1920 ×

HDTV (1920 × 1080) @ 85 Hz with GTF blanking (2×126 MHz)QXGA (2048 × 1536) @ 75 Hz with GTF blanking (2×170 MHz) WQXGA (2560 × 1600)

WQXGA (2560 × 1600) @ 60 Hz with GTF blanking (2x174 MHz) (30" Apple, Dell, Gateway, HP, NEC, Quinux, and Samsung LCDs)HDTV (1920 × 1080) @ 85 Hz with GTF blanking (2×126 MHz) WQXGA (2560 × 1600)

WQXGA (2560 × 1600) @ 60 Hz with CVT-RB blanking (2x135 MHz) (30" Apple, Dell, Gateway, HP, NEC, Quinux, and Samsung LCDs)Apple, Dell, Gateway, HP, NEC, Quinux, and Samsung LCDs) WQUXGA (3840 × 2400) @ 33 Hz

WQUXGA (3840 × 2400) @ 33 Hz with GTF blanking (2x159 MHz)Apple, Dell, Gateway, HP, NEC, Quinux, and Samsung LCDs) GTF (Generalized Timing Formula) is a VESA

GTF (Generalized Timing Formula) is a VESA standard which can easily be calculated with the Linux gtf utility.

CVT-RB (Coordinated Video Timing-Reduced Blanking) is a VESA standard which offers reduced horizontal and vertical blanking for non-CRT based displays. [2]

Clock Timing Pecularities

DVI uses an unusual relationship between data and clock. As indicated in version 1.0 of the spec, the clock rate

is the same as the pixel rate, while there are 24 bits per pixel. For example, a 640x480x60Hz display has a pixel

rate of 18.4MHz (plus blanking overhead) so this is the minimum needed clock. But the data is actually

640x480x60Hzx24bpp which is 442Mbps, or 147mbps per channel. Include 8B10B overhead and you need 184Mbps. In other words, there are 10 data cells on the wire for each clock cycle. That is why you need transceivers and cables rated at 500MHz to support the 133MHz clock in the 2560x1600 display.

Analog

RGB bandwidth: 400 MHz at -3 dBrated at 500MHz to support the 133MHz clock in the 2560x1600 display. Analog Proposed successors 5

Proposed successors

Digital Visual Interface - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface

IEEE 1394 is proposed by High Definition Audio-Video Network Alliance (HANA Alliance (http://hanaalliance.org/hana_solutions/use_cases) ) for all cabling needs, including video, over CoAx and/or 1394 cable as a combined data stream.

High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI), a forward-compatible standard, that also includes digital audio transmission.

Unified Display Interface (UDI) was proposed by Intel to replace both DVI and HDMI, but was deprecated in favor of DisplayPort.

DisplayPort is a license-free standard proposed by VESA to succeed DVI, which also has DRM capabilities.

References

to succeed DVI, which also has DRM capabilities. References DDWG promoters (1999-04-02). " Digital Visual Interface

DDWG promoters (1999-04-02). "Digital Visual Interface (http://www.ddwg.org/lib/dvi_10.pdf) " (pdf). Revision 1.0: Initial Specification Release. Digital Display Working Group.

1. Kruegle, Herman [2006]. "8", CCTV Surveillance: Analog and Digital Video Practices And Technology. Butterworth-Heinemann, 268. ISBN 0750677686.

^

2. "Advanced Timing and CEA/EIA-861B Timings (http://www.nvidia.com/object/advanced_timings.html) ", NVIDIA.

^

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