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ROLL NO. - A11
REGN. NO. - 11105775



Acknowledgement ----------------------------------- 1
Contents------------------------------------------------ 2
Introduction-------------------------------------------- 3
How the Greenhouse Effect Works-----------------4
Greenhouse Gases-------------------------------------5
Impacts of Greenhouse Effect-----------------------6
Control Measures of Greenhouse Effect---------7-8
References--------------------------------------------- 9


The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal
radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by
atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all
directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the
surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of
the average surface temperature above what it would be in the
absence of the gases.
Solar radiation at the frequencies of visible light largely
passes through the atmosphere to warm the planetary surface,
which then emits this energy at the lower frequencies
of infrared thermal radiation. Infrared radiation is absorbed by
greenhouse gases, which in turn re-radiate much of the energy
to the surface and lower atmosphere. The mechanism is
named after the effect of solar radiation passing through glass
and warming a greenhouse, but the way it retains heat is
fundamentally different as a greenhouse works by reducing
airflow, isolating the warm air inside the structure so that heat
is not lost by convection.


The Earth receives energy from the Sun in the
form UV, visible, and near IR radiation, most of which passes
through the atmosphere without being absorbed. Of the total
amount of energy available at the top of the atmosphere
(TOA), about 50% is absorbed at the Earth's surface. Because
it is warm, the surface radiates far IR thermal radiation that
consists of wavelengths that are predominantly much longer
than the wavelengths that were absorbed (the overlap between
the incident solar spectrum and the terrestrial thermal
spectrum is small enough to be neglected for most purposes).
Most of this thermal radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere
and re-radiated both upwards and downwards; that radiated
downwards is absorbed by the Earth's surface. This trapping
of long-wavelength thermal radiation leads to a higher
equilibrium temperature than if the atmosphere were absent.


A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in
an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within
the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental
cause of the greenhouse effect.
The primary greenhouse
gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapour, carbon
dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Greenhouse gases
greatly affect the temperature of the Earth; without them,
Earth's surface would average about 33 C colder, which is
about 59 F below the present average of 14 C (57 F).
By their percentage contribution to the greenhouse effect on
Earth the four major gases are:



Contribution (%)
Water vapour and clouds H2O 36 72%
Carbon dioxide CO
9 26%
Methane CH4 49%
Ozone O3 37%

Continued warming from the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs)
into the atmosphere is expected to have substantial impacts on the
environment, human health and the economy. Some of them are:
1. Environmental impacts
Overall average annual temperatures are expected to increase.
Global warming will decrease snow, sea ice and glacier
coverage, resulting in rising sea levels and increased coastal
flooding. Storms and heat waves are likely to increase in
frequency and severity.
Many wild species will have difficulty adapting to a warmer
2. Human health impacts
People living in Canadas northern communities, and
vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly, are
expected to be the most affected by the changes.
Increased temperatures and more frequent and severe extreme
weather events could lead to increased risks of death from
dehydration and heat stroke, and injuries from intense local
weather changes.
There may be an increased risk of respiratory and
cardiovascular problems and certain types of cancers, as
temperatures rise and exacerbate air pollution.
The risk of water-, food-, vector- and rodent-borne diseases
may increase.
3. Economic impacts
Agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation could be affected
by changing weather patterns.
Human health impacts are expected to place additional
economic stress on health and social support systems.
Damage to infrastructure (e.g., roads and bridges) from
extreme weather events is expected to increase.

Some of the measures to control Greenhouse effect are:
Boosting energy efficiency: The energy used to power, heat,
and cool our homes, businesses, and industries is the single
largest contributor to global warming. Energy efficiency
technologies allow us to use less energy to get the sameor
higherlevel of production, service, and comfort.
Greening transportation: The transportation sector's emissions
have increased at a faster rate than any other energy-using sector
over the past decade. A variety of solutions are at hand,
including improving efficiency (miles per gallon) in all modes
of transport, switching to low-carbon fuels.
Revving up renewable: Renewable energy sources such as
solar, wind, geothermal and bio energy are available around the
world. Multiple studies have shown that renewable energy has
the technical potential to meet the vast majority of our energy
needs. Renewable technologies can be deployed quickly, are
increasingly cost-effective, and create jobs while reducing
Phasing out fossil fuel electricity: Dramatically reducing our
use of fossil fuelsespecially carbon-intensive coalis
essential to tackle climate change. There are many ways to
begin this process. Key action steps include: not building any
new coal-burning power plants, initiating a phased shutdown of
coal plants starting with the oldest and dirtiest, and capturing
and storing carbon emissions from power plants.
Managing forests and agriculture: Taken together, tropical
deforestation and emissions from agriculture represent nearly 30
percent of the world's heat-trapping emissions. We can fight
global warming by reducing emissions from deforestation and
forest degradation and by making our food production practices
more sustainable.

Developing and deploying new low-carbon and zero-carbon
technologies: Research into and development of the next
generation of low-carbon technologies will be critical to deep
mid-century reductions in global emissions. Current research on
battery technology, new materials for solar cells, harnessing
energy from novel sources like bacteria and algae, and other
innovative areas could provide important breakthroughs.
Ensuring sustainable development: The countries of the
worldfrom the most to the least developedvary dramatically
in their contributions to the problem of climate change and in
their responsibilities and capacities to confront it. A successful
global compact on climate change must include financial
assistance from richer countries to poorer countries to help make
the transition to low-carbon development pathways and to help
adapt to the impacts of climate change.


1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas
3. http://www.columbia.edu/~vjd1/greenhouse.htm
4. http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators
5. http://www.climatehotmap.org/
6. Textbook of Environmental Studies 2e by Cengage