Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

Rajagopalan M

SAP Account Posting


Inventory Accounting Entries:
During Goods Receipt
Stock Account - Dr
G/R I/R Account - Cr
Freight Clearing account - Cr
Other expenses payale - Cr
During Invoice Verification
G/R I/R Account - Dr
!en"or - Cr
When the Goods are issued to the Production Order the following transactions takes
place: Consu#ption o$ Ra% Materials - Dr
Stock A/c - Cr
When the Goods are received fro the Production Order the following transactions
takes place: In&entory A/c - Dr
Cost o$ Goo"s 'ro"uce" - Cr
'rice "i$$erence - Dr/Cr
("epen"ing on the "i$$erence et%een stan"ar" cost an" actual cost)
When the Goods are dispatched to custoer through deliver! the following
transactions takes place: Cost o$ Goo"s Sol" - Dr
In&entory A/c - Cr
When the Goods are issued to a "ost "enter or charged off against
e#penses the following transactions takes place:
Repairs an" Maintenance - Dr
In&entory A/c - Cr
When the Goods are stock transferred fro one plant to another$ the following
transactions takes place:
Stock A/c - Dr (Recei&ing location)
Stock A/c - Cr (Sen"ing location)
'rice "i$$erence - Dr/Cr
("ue to any "i$$erence et%een the stan"ar" costs et%een the t%o locations)
When the stocks are revalued$ the following transactions takes place:
Stock A/c - Dr/Cr
In&entory Re&aluation A/c - Cr / Dr
When the Work in Progress is calculated the following transaction takes place:
*ork in 'rogress A/c - Dr Change *I' A/c - Cr
'hysical &eri$ication /shortages an" excesses + Shortages/excesses on authori,ations
shall e a"juste" using the physical in&entory count transaction- .//Aug//001 . o$ ..
Rajagopalan M
Sales and Distribution Accounting Entries:
I%VOI"& G&%&RA'IO%:
In&oices %ill e generate" at the S#elters an" stock points- 2he accounting
entries $or the sale o$ goo"s "espatche" %ill $lo% $ro# the Sales in&oice generate" in SA' Sales an"
Distriution #o"ule- 2he $ollo%ing entries shall e passe"
Custo#er Account Dr
Re&enue Cr
3xcise Duty 'ayale Cr
Sales 2ax 'ayale (local or central) Cr
4ote+ As #entione" ao&e in the FI "ocu#ent5 %hich is create" in the ackgroun"5
the SD in&oice nu#er shall e capture"- 6o%e&er as per the current accounting proce"ure the
accounting entry passe" is as $ollo%s+-
Custo#er Account Dr
Re&enue Cr
3xcise Duty 7ille" Cr
Sales 2ax 'ayale (local or central) Cr
3xcise "uty pai" a/c Dr
3xcise "uty payale a/c Cr
&(POR' SA)&S:
2here ha&e een &ery $e% export transactions in the past- SA' syste# %ill e
"esigne" to han"le export usiness- 3xports are #ainly $ro# the #ines an" %ill e han"le" at the #ines5
ho%e&er the "ocu#entation part %ill e taken care at the 6ea" O$$ice- 2he accounting entry is+
Custo#er Account Dr
Re&enue (3xports) Cr
2he realisation o$ export sales %ill e "irectly cre"ite" to the ank- 2he accounting
entries %ill e as $ollo%+ 7ank Dr
Custo#er Cr
3xchange Fluctuation Dr/ Cr
2he accounting entries %ill e+
Reates/Discounts Dr
Custo#er Cr
D&*I' +&+OS:
Deit Me#os shall e issue" in case o$ price "i$$erence5 sale tax "i$$erence an" interest
on usance perio" an" o&er"ue pay#ents-
2he accounting entries $or t%o possile scenarios are as $ollo%s+
'rice 8n"ercharge"+
Custo#er Account Dr- Re&enue Cr- Sales tax payale Cr- Sales tax un"ercharge" Custo#er Account Dr- Sales tax a"just#ent Cr- .//Aug//001 / o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
Interest on "elaye" pay#ents/usance perio" an" other charges
Custo#er Account Dr-
Interest Others Cr-
In case o$ 69: a co#plete retire#ent or a partial retire#ent o$ asset is "one- 2he
syste# uses the asset retire#ent "ate to "eter#ine the a#ount to e charge" o$$ $or each "epreciation area-
2he existing accounting policy is to pro&i"e "epreciation $or the $ull ;uarter in %hich the asset is
sol"/"iscar"e"5 reco##en"e" that the "epreciation e pro&i"e" $ro# the "ate o$ ac;uisition on pro-rata asis-
Accounting entry $or sale o$ Asset to custo#ers+
Custo#er Account Dr
Asset Sale Cr
Accu#ulate" Depreciation Dr
:oss on Sale (i$ applicale) Dr
Asset Sale account Dr
Asset account Cr
'ro$it on sale (i$ applicale) Cr
4ote+ In case o$ any Sales 2ax /3xcise "uty applicale $or this transaction5
SA' %ill calculate the Sales 2ax/3xcise Duty ase" on the 2ax Co"e selecte" the entry is poste" to the G: Account
(Sales 2ax 'ayale)
Accounting entry $or sale %ithout a custo#er+
Accu#ulate" Depreciation Dr
:oss on Sale (i$ applicale) Dr
Asset Sale account Dr
Asset account Cr
'ro$it on sale (i$ applicale) Cr
Accounting entry $or scrap
Accu#ulate" Depreciation Dr
:oss on Sale o$ Assets Dr
Asset account Cr
SA)& O, S"RAP:
2he sale o$ scrap (non-stock) shall e #appe" as a "irect #anual FI entry- 2he
custo#er %ill e create" as a FI custo#er- 4o :ogistics #o"ule %ill e in&ol&e" in the process-
A FI In&oice %ill e prepare" $or the sale o$ scrap %ith the $ollo%ing entries+
Custo#er Dr
Sale o$ Scrap Cr
3xcise Duty 'ayale Cr
ADVA%"&S ,RO+ "-S'O+&RS:
A"&ances are recei&e" $ro# the custo#ers against "eli&ery- 2hese a"&ances %ill
e recor"e" in a special general le"ger account- 2he accounting entry $or the sa#e %ill e+
7ank Account Dr A"&ance Custo#er 'ay#ents Cr
2hese a"&ances %ill e later on a"juste" against the in&oices raise" on the
custo#ers- A"&ances can e
a"juste" against #ore than one in&oice at the ti#e o$ clearing o$ the in&oices against
a"&ances- A"just#ent o$ A"&ances Custo#er Account Cr A"&ance Custo#er 'ay#ents Dr .//Aug//001 < o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
A $inancial "ocu#ent %oul" e create" $or each 7ank Guarantee recei&e" an" this
"ocu#ent nu#er %ill e re$erre" to in the Sales Or"er %hich %oul" then #onitor the &alue an"
the &ali"ity o$ the o$ the 7ank Guarantee instru#ent %ise %hile "oing the illing-2he letter o$ cre"it /7ank guarantee
gi&en %ill e recor"e" as a note" ite#-
Accounting 3ntry $or Goo"s receipt
Stock/In&entory account Dr
GR/IR account Cr
Freight clearing account Cr
Accounting 3ntry on in&oice &eri$ication o$ supplier
GR/IR Dr
!en"or account Cr
Accounting 3ntry on in&oice &eri$ication o$ $reight &en"or
Freight clearing account Dr
Freight !en"or account Cr
GOODS R&"&IP':
7ase" on the 'urchase or"er an" the =uantity actually recei&e" Goo"s Receipts (GR)
%ill e "one- 7ase" on the GR "one the $ollo%ing accounting entry %ill e passe" in the Financial Accounts
RM/'M Stock Account Dr
GR/IR Account Cr
Freight Clearing Account Cr
&("IS& I%VOI"& V&RI,I"A'IO%:
On receipt o$ the excise in&oice cu# gate pass the $ollo%ing entry %ill e passe"
RG /< A / RG /< C 'art / Account Dr
Cen&at Clearing Account Cr
.//Aug//001 > o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
Vendor Invoice
Verification Accounting Entries:
V&%DOR I%VOI"& V&RI,I"A'IO%
2he "etail process relate" to in&oice &eri$ication is "ocu#ente" in Materials
Manage#ent Docu#ent- On receipt o$ &en"or ill the $ollo%ing entry %ill e passe"+
GR/IR Account DR
Freight Clearing Account DR
Cen&at Clearing Account DR
!en"or Account CR
Invoice Verification for ,oreign Vendor
On receipt o$ &en"or ill the $ollo%ing entry %ill e passe"+
GR/IR Account DR
!en"or Account CR
Invoice Verification for "usto vendor
On receipt o$ !en"or ill the $ollo %ing entry %ill e passe"+
.) RG /<A/RG /<C 'art / A/c (C!D) A/c DR
Cen&at Clearing A/c CR
/) G/R I/R A/c DR
Cen&at Clearing A/c DR
!en"or A/c CR
<) Cost o$ Material A/c DR
!en"or A/c (Custo#s) CR
Invoice Verification for ,reight . "learing Agent
Cost o$ Material A/c DR
!en"or A/c (Clearing Agent) CR
Invoice Verification for Octroi &#penses
Cost o$ Material DR
!en"or A/c (Octroi) CR
2DS (*ork Contract 2ax) $or Ser&ice Or"ers shall e calculate" an" "e"ucte"
accor"ingly- 2he $ollo%ing entry %ill e passe" on /ill passing +
3xpenses Account DR
!en"or Account CR
2DS Account CR
2he #aterial shall e returne" to the &en"or using the
Return to &en"or #o&e#ent type in SA' Creating a Return 'O 2hese transactions %ill e processe" in the MM #o"ule- 2he accounting entries %ill e + Returns after GR% GR/IR A/c Dr Stock A/c Cr .//Aug//001 ? o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
2he accounting in respect o$ "eit / cre"it #e#os $or FI &en"ors5 the process %ill e
si#ilar to that o$ in&oice processing- 2he accounting entries %ill e+
On issue o$ "eit note
!en"or Account DR
3xpenses Account CR
In respect o$ i#port &en"or - capital goo"s exchange "i$$erences are to e
accounte" #anually through a @ournal !oucher $or capitali,ation-
3xchange rate "i$$erences %ill e accounte" at 6O- An exa#ple o$ the accounting
entry in this case shall e+ In&oice entry A >0 I4R+ . 8SD
Asset / 3xpense A/c DR .00
!en"or A/c CR .00
'ay#ent 3ntry A >. I4R+ . 8SD
!en"or A/c DR .00
7ank A/c CR ..0
3xchange rate loss Capital A/c DR .0
Asset A/c DR .0
3xchange rate loss Capital A/c CR .0
A ne% G/: account shall e create" $or the special G/: transactions-
2he accounting entry $or #aking the "o%n pay#ent shall e+
A"&ance to supplier account Deit
7ank A/c Cre"it
*hen the in&oice is ooke" the $ollo%ing entry is passe"
GR/IR account Deit
!en"or account Cre"it
Clearing o$ In&oice against Do%n 'ay#ent
!en"or A/c Deit
!en"or "o%n pay#ent account Cre"it
*here&er5 2DS is applicale5 the 2DS %ill e "e"ucte" at the ti#e o$ "o%n-pay#ent
to the &en"or- Do%n 'ay#ent $or Capital (tangile) Assets
Do%n pay#ent to &en"ors $or capital ac;uisitions is to e reporte" separately in the
7alance Sheet un"er the hea" Capital *ork in 'rogress- 6ence "o%n pay#ent $or capital goo"s %oul" e
tracke" through a separate special general le"ger in"icator-
2he proce"ure to e $ollo%e" is+
De$inition o$ alternati&e reconciliation accounts $or Accounts 'ayale $or posting
"o%n pay#ents #a"e $or Capital assets
Clearing the "o%n pay#ent in Accounts 'ayale %ith the closing in&oice-
A ne% G/: account shall e create" $or the special G/: transactions-
2he accounting entry $or #aking the "o%n pay#ent shall e+
!en"or A"&ance $or Capital Goo"s Account Deit 7ank A/c Cre"it When the invoice is /ooked the following entr! is passed Asset A/c / Asset *I' Deit !en"or A/c Cre"it .//Aug//001 B o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
"learing of Invoice against Down Pa!ent
!en"or A/c Deit
!en"or A"&ance $or Capital Goo"s Account Cre"it
2he Follo%ing are the 2DS Rates (to e con$ir#e" %ith the recent changes)
'articulars 2ax Rate Surcharge Rate 2otal
Contractors C .D> C /E ?E /-.0E
A"&ertising C .D> C .E ?E .-0?E
'ro$- Fees C .D> @ ?E ?E ?-/?E
Rent C Others C .D> I .?E ?E .?-F?E
Rent C Co#pany C .D> I /0E ?E /.E
Co##ission C .D>6 ?E ?E ?-/?E
Interest - Others C .D> A .0E ?E .0-?0E
Interest C Co#pany C .D> A /0E ?E /.E
Special Concessional 2ax
*orks Contract 2ax
S3C8RI2G D3'OSI2S /3AR43S2 MO43G D3'OSI2 R3C3I!3D FROM
!34DORS 7ank A/c DR
Security Deposit !en"or CR
3MD to gi&e the age so as to enale the sa#e to e trans$erre" to unclai#e" 3MD
account- 'AGM342 OF 2O8R AD!A4C3 DOM3S2IC 2O8RS
3#ployee A"&ances %ill e pai" y the Accounts Depart#ent unit %ise
ase" on the re;uisition or reco##en"ation o$ the respecti&e "epart#ental hea"-
3#ployee 2ra&el A"&ance A/c DR
Cash / 7ank Account CR
.//Aug//001 F o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
Reversal Entry In Accounting:
At ti#es so#e incorrect "ocu#ents #ight ha&e een entere" in the syste#s-
I$ you ha&e entere" an incorrect "ocu#ent5 you can re&erse it- 4ote that R/< can
re&erse a "ocu#ent only i$ the $ollo%ing con"itions are #et+
- Contains no cleare" ite#s
- Contains only &en"or5 custo#er5 or G/: line ite#s
- *as poste" %ithin the FI syste#
- Contains only &ali" &alues5 such as usiness areas5 cost centers5 an" tax co"es
Or"inarily5 you post a re&ersing "ocu#ent in the sa#e perio" you poste" the original
"ocu#ent- 2he perio" o$ the original "ocu#ent #ust e open to post a re&ersing "ocu#ent- I$ the
perio" is not open5 you can o&er%rite the posting "ate $iel" %ith a "ate in an open perio"5 such as the current
perio"-
Re&ersal can e "one in"i&i"ually - F701 or Mass F-10-
I$ the "ocu#ent to e re&erese" contain cleare" ite#s5 then cleare" ite# #ust e reset
e$ore the re&ersal o$ "ocu#ent-
.//Aug//001 1 o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
Banking Transaction Financial Accounting Entries:
Settleent Of 'our Advances Doestic.,oreign
.) Settle#ent o$ a"&ance %ill e "one y the Accounts Depart#ent ase" on the 2ra&el
3xpense State#ent su#itte" y the e#ployee5 %hich is appro&e" y the Concerne" Depart#ent 6ea"-
/) 3xpenses Account DR
Cash/7ank Account DR (i$5 re$un")
3#ployee A"&ance Account CR
Cash/7ank Su le"ger Account CR (i$5 payale)
<) 7anking Operations - Maintenance O$ 7ank Master
>) A 6ouse 7ank is a co#ination o$ a 7ank an" a 7ranch- Account i" is the account
nu#er- A house ank can ha&e #ultiple account IDs-- 2here coul" e a #ain account as also
payale account5 %hich %ill e "e$ine" as separate account i"s- General :e"ger accounts ha&e to e create" $or
each co#ination o$ a house ank an" account ID- 2he ank #aster "etails are to e pro&i"e" y 69:-
?) General :e"ger accounts ha&e to e create" $or each account ID in the house ank-
7ank Account Master "ata %ill e #aintaine" y the Finance Depart#ent centrally-
B) 3ach house ank an" account ID co#ination shall ha&e one #ain general
le"ger account an" se&eral su accounts #ainly ase" on roa" transaction types- 2hese su accounts
are necessary to $acilitate auto#atic ank reconciliation process in R/< syste#-
*ank Accounting
F) 2he accounting entries %ill e generate" auto#atically accor"ing to the
posting rules attache" to the 2ransaction type- 2he $ollo%ing accounting entry is passe" y the syste# in
respect o$ che;ue "eposit on account o$ collection $ro# "o#estic custo#ers-
7ank che;ue "eposit account Deit
Custo#er account Cre"it
1) In this case5 a ank su account is selecte" ase" on the transaction co"e
entere" y the user- 2he custo#er account is cleare" i-e- in&oice is cleare" against the receipt- In respect o$
any other "eposits5 the rele&ant accounts to e cre"ite" %ill "epen" on the nature o$ transaction-
D) 'ay#ent against ills $or collection- 7ase" on the ank a"&ices $alling "ue
on a particular "ay one pay#ent a"&ice is #a"e "eiting the &en"ors an" cre"iting ank-
"he0ue Deposit 1 "ustoer Receipts
.0) All che;ues recei&e" $ro# custo#ers shall e accounte" at the point o$ receipt-
2he entry poste" shall e
7ank Su account Dr Custo#er Account Cr "he0ue Deposit 1 Other 'han "ustoer Receipts
..) All other receipts %ill e accounte" through the Inco#ing 'ay#ent
2ransaction o$ the Accounts Recei&ales #o"ule- .//Aug//001 D o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
"he0ue *ouncing 2 Other 'han "ustoer Receipts
./) 7ase" on the in$or#ation o$ che;ue ounce" $ro# the 7ank5 the
accounts Depart#ent %ill pass accounting entries $or the che;ue that ha&e een ounce"- 2he proce"ure to han"le
ouncing o$ a che;ue has een "iscusse" un"er the $ollo%ing
.<) Reset the clearing "ocu#ent C I$ the "ocu#ent has een cleare" i-e- an
open outstan"ing ite# has een cleare" against an inco#ing receipt5 then the clearing "ocu#ent has to e reset to
its original status o$ open ite#- 2his process is kno%n as reset o$ cleare" "ocu#ent-
.>) Re&erse the entry passe" $or che;ue "eposite" earlier C Once the "ocu#ent has
een reset it %ill e re&erse"- 2he $ollo%ing accounting entry %ill e passe"-
FI Custo#er DR
7ank che;ue "eposit account CR
.?) In case o$ che;ues eing "a#age" %hile printing5 the concerne" che;ues no- has
to e &oi"e" an" the pay#ent %ill e rerun-
*ank Reconciliation
.B) 2he 7ank reconciliation process is ase" on the entries passe" through the 7ank
su account an" #ain account- 2he process is "epen"ent on the 7ank State#ent recei&e" $ro# the 7ank
that %ill e entere" into SA'- Accounting rules are to e "e$ine" $or each transaction type an" posting rule
$or posting accounting entries as per ank state#ent- 7ank state#ents to e uploa"e" into SA'-
.F) 7ank Main account alance is the actual alance as per the ank
state#ent %hereas the 7ank su accounts "enote the reconciliation ite#s- 2hese su accounts sho% those entries5 %hich
%ill $lo% $ro# the su account %hich are not cleare" in the ank state#ent-
.1) A""ing or sutracting the 7ank su accounts %ill help in preparing the 7ank
reconciliation state#ent-
.D) 2he $ollo%ing scenarios %oul" explain the reconciliation process+
- Che;ue recei&e" $ro# custo#er
- Che;ue issue" to &en"ors
- Che;ue recei&e" $ro# Other than Custo#ers
- Direct Deits in 7ank State#ent
- Direct Cre"its in 7ank State#ent
- Fun" 2rans$er et%een 7ank Accounts
"he0ue Received ,ro "ustoer
/0) Accounting entry at the ti#e o$ che;ue "eposit entry
7ank Che;ue "eposit account Deit
Custo#er Cre"it
/.) Accounting entry a$ter che;ue has een cleare" in the 7ank state#ent Main 7ank
account Deit 7ank
Che;ue "eposit account Cre"it
//) 2he clearing criteria $or up"ating the ank #ain account an" ank su
account %ill e a#ount an"
"ocu#ent nu#er %hich %ill e capture" in the allocation $iel" o$ the ank su
account- 2he ite#s5 %hich
ha&e not een cleare" in the ank state#ent5 %ill re#ain open in the ank su account
an" %ill $or# part o$ the ank reconciliation state#ent- Che;ue Issue" 2o !en"ors /<) Accounting entry at the ti#e o$ che;ue issue !en"or account Deit .//Aug//001 .0 o$ ..

Rajagopalan M
7ank che;ue pay#ent account Cre"it
/>) Accounting entry a$ter che;ue has een presente" in the 7ank
7ank che;ue pay#ent account Deit
Main 7ank account Cre"it
/?) 2he clearing criteria use" $or up"ating &en"or account an" 7ank che;ue pay#ent
account %ill e a#ount an" che;ue nu#er- 2he che;ues presente" to the ank an" are cleare" are
trans$erre" to the ank #ain account- 2he re#aining che;ue issue" %ill $or# part o$ the ank reconciliation
state#ent-
Direct Deit In 7ank
/B) Direct "eit instructions %ill e gi&en to the ank $or exa#ple5 :C pay#ents or
certain ank charges are "irectly "eite" in the 7ank State#ent- In this case accounting entry is passe" only
a$ter the entry is passe" in the ank state#ent-
!en"or / 3xpense Account Deit
7ank clearing account Cre"it
Direct Cre"it In 7ank
/F) Custo#er receipts are so#eti#es "irectly cre"ite" in 7ank- 3-g- export
receipts- In this scenario accounting entry is passe" only at the ti#e o$ ank state#ent entry- 2he $ollo%ing
accounting entry is passe" 7ank clearing account Deit
Custo#er account Cre"it
Main 7ank A/c Deit
7ank Clearing A/c Cre"it
7ank Fixe" Deposits
/1) 69: has a practice o$ con&erting any a#ount ao&e Rs- . crore in its Main
ank account5 to a $ixe" "eposit suject to a #ini#u# o$ Rs- .-0. crores- 2he FDR nu#er can e $ille" in
one o$ the $iel"s a&ailale in the accounting "ocu#ent-
Che;ue Manage#ent / Che;ue 'rinting Cu# A"&ice
/D) 2he $unction o$ che;ue #anage#ent %ill enale printing o$ che;ue through
SA'- Che;ue series %ill e "e$ine" $or a co#ination o$ a Co#pany co"e an" 7ank Account- Che;ue nu#ering
%ill e se;uential or"er-
<0) Che;ue series $or auto#atic pay#ent has to e in se;uential or"er-
Che;ue printing $acility %ill e a&ailale $or the ank account-
Cash Manage#ent / :i;ui"ity Analysis
<.) 2he "ay-to-"ay treasury process in a co#pany inclu"es a nu#er o$
transactions- 2his inclu"es "eter#ining the current li;ui"ity using ank account alances (cash position)5
"eter#ining open recei&ales an" liailities (li;ui"ity $orecast)5 #anually entering planne" cash $lo%s
(pay#ent a"&ice notes)5 through to clearing ank accounts5 that is5 collecting #ultiple ank account alances on one target
account-
</) 2he #ain ojecti&e is to ensure li;ui"ity $or all "ue pay#ent oligations- It is also
i#portant to control an" #onitor e$$ecti&ely the inco#ing an" outgoing cash $lo%s-
<<) 2his section sho%s you the o&erall li;ui"ity status o$ your co#pany y
"isplaying together the cash
position an" the li;ui"ity $orecast- 2he cash position is use" in Cash Manage#ent
to sho% the &alue-"ate-
"epen"ent ank accounts an" ank clearing accounts5 as %ell as the planne" cash
$lo%s (pay#ent a"&ice
notes)- 2he li;ui"ity $orecast co#prises the inco#ing an" outgoing cash $lo%s5 as
%ell as the planne" ite#s on the su-le"ger accounts- .//Aug//001 .. o$ ..