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Tutorial 5

PPIMP Jan 10 PK5


- Izyan Diyana bt Neemat
- Noor Syuhaidah binti Ramli
- Normahara binti Norlias
- Nur Ilham binti Ibrahim
- Wan Rosnani binti Wan Ahmad
Biophysical
The biophysical theory of the etiology of learning and behavior problems of
children places emphasis on organic origins of human behavior.
The proponents of this conceptual model postulate a relationship between
physical defects, malfunctions, and illnesses and the individuals behavior.
Schroeder and Schroeder (1982) discussed the two primary subgroups of
biophysical theories: deficit and developmental.
The deficit subgroup includes theories related to genetics, temperament,
neuropsychopharmacology, nutrition and neurologic dysfunction.
Developmental theories include neurological organization, perceptual motor
learning, physiological readiness, sensory integration, and development.
The practitioner who is influenced by the biophysical model is concerned
primarily with changing or compensating for the individuals malfunctioning
organic mechanism or processes that are causing the inappropriate behavior.
Organic defect maybe a consequence of either heredity or environmental
(trauma).
Environmental effects may occur before, during, or after birth.
Biophysical disabilities can be classified into four groups (National Foundation-
March of Dimes, 1975):
Structural defect one or more part of the body are defective in size or shape.
Functional defects one or more part of body are malfunctioning.
Inborn errors of metabolism the body is unable to convert certain chemicals to
other chemicals needed for normal body functioning.
Blood diseases the blood is unable to conduct its normal functions.
In the educational setting, the teacher who is influenced by the biophysical model
will emphasize order and routine in the classroom and daily schedule, frequent
repetition of learning tasks, the sequential presentation and learning of tasks, and
a reduction of extraneous environmental stimuli.




Model Biofizikal
Penjelasan biofizikal menyarankan bahawa tingkah laku merupakan hasil
daripada proses genetik atau biokimia dalam tubuh.
Intervensi perubatan sering terlibat dengan tingkah laku yang dinyatakan
dengan cara ini.
Pendidik perlu menyedari penjelasan biofizikal kerana mereka akan melihat
sejumlah anak-anak yang tingkah lakunya berkaitan dengan keadaan genetik
atau kimia.
Sebagai contoh, skizofrenia, selektif, depresi, dan hiperaktif semua boleh
berkaitan dengan biologi individu.
Beberapa bentuk masalah tingkah laku memberi tindak balas yang baik untuk
rawatan perubatan daripada lain-lain bentuk intervensi (Brigham & Cole,
1998; Forness & Kavale, 2001).
Namun demikian, pendidik tidak dilatih dalam diagnosis perubatan dan
prosedur pengurusan, sehingga, mereka ragu-ragu sebelum menyarankan
penjelasan biofizikal untuk tingkah laku yang diberi kepada salah satu pelajar
mereka.
Selain itu, keadaan perubatan, di beberapa bahagian, sering dikenalpasti
oleh bukan tindak balas itu sendiri kepada bentuk rawatan lain (contohnya,
pengurusan tingkah laku atau sokongan ecobehavioral).
Daripada berfokus pada biologi, penjelasan guru harus dipastikan bahawa
aspek tingkah laku dan ekologi kelas tersebut, seboleh-bolehnya adalah
sebagai penyokong kepada pelajar.
Dengan mendokumentasikan tingkah laku dan ekologi yang berkesan,
sokongan guru dapat:
(a) membantu dalam mengenal pasti latar belakang masalah tingkah laku
dengan membantu untuk menyingkirkan penyebab persekitaran.
(b) membina persekitaran pembelajaran yang berkesan bagi pelajar
mereka yang mendapat manfaat dari rawatan perubatan tingkah laku.
Para pendidik memainkan peranan penting untuk menyokong personel
perubatan dalam penerapan intervensi biofisikal. Howell, Evans, dan Gardiner
(1997) menyarankan beberapa panduan bagi para guru. Panduan ini untuk
mendapatkan manfaat yang optimum daripada rawatan. Ianya adalah seperti
berikut:
1. memastikan bahawa keputusan untuk menggunakan ubat
dibuat dengan tepat.
2. membina komunikasi langsung antara semua pihak yang
terlibat
3. Merencana penerimaan rawatan dan bagaimana ubat tersebut
akan diberikan.
4. Memberitahu tanggung jawab pelajar untuk tindakan peribadi.
5. Potensi untuk berubah sebagai akibat perubatan

Model Persekitaran (environment)
The impact of the environment on human behavior is a dominant theme in
contemporary society. Many decisions made by governments, corporate groups
and individuals are made with a conscious awareness of the relationship
between people and environment.
In an educational setting, sociology focuses on the formal and informal
composition of and interactions among groups. It is concerned with groups that
affect an organization both within and outside the organization.
In summary, the environmental framework is based on several assumptions
about behavior, the environment, and the interactions between an individual and
environment. (Swap, Priento, & Harth, 1982). These assumptions are as follows :
The child is not disturbed. Disturbance is a consequence of either the
environments effect on the child or the interactions between the child and the
environment.
Each interaction between child and setting is unique. This assumption
recognizes the uniqueness of each child, the environment in which he/she is
functioning, and the reciprocal relationship between child and environment.
Environmental interventions, to be effective, must in some manner alter the
ecological system in which the child functions. The implementation of
environmental interventions is based on an assessment of the child, the specific
environment in which the child is functioning, and the interactions between these
two elements. Although the interventions may focus on one or more of these
factors, it impacts all of them.

Rujukan
http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-
bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=behavior&section=ub/main
Behavior management: a practical approach for educator (8
th
edition)