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Clula Fotovoltaica

(Introduo)
Eng. Prof. Dr. Jos Bione de Melo Filho
Histrico
Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (24 March 1820 11
May 1891), better known as Edmond Becquerel,
was a French physicist who studied the solar
spectrum, magnetism, eletricity and optics. He is
credited with the discovery of the photovoltaic
effect, the operating principle of the solar cell, in
1839.
In 1839, at age 19, experimenting in his father's laboratory, Becquerel
created the world's first photovoltaic cell. In this experiment, silver
chloride was placed in an acidic solution and illuminated while
connected to platinum electrodes, generating voltage and current.
Because of this work, the photovoltaic effect has also been known as
the "Becquerel effect".
He is also known for his work in luminescente and phosphorescence.
He was the son of Antoine Csar Becquerel and the father of Henri
Becquerel.
Histrico
A solar cell (also called a photovoltaic cell) is an electrical device
that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the
photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell (in that its
electrical characteristicse.g. current, voltage, or resistance
vary when light is incident upon it) which, when exposed to light,
can generate and support an electric current without being
attached to any external voltage source, but do require an
external load for power consumption.

The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek (phs)
meaning "light", and from "volt", the unit of electro-motive
force, the volt, which in turn comes from the last name of the
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta, inventor of the battery. The
term "photo-voltaic" has been in use in English since 1849.
[

Histrico
Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the
practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity
from light, though it is often used specifically to refer to the
generation of electricity from sunlight. Cells can be described as
photovoltaic even when the light source is not necessarily sunlight
(lamplight, artificial light, etc.). In such cases the cell is sometimes
used as a photodetector (for example infrared detectors), detecting
light or other electromagnetic near the visible range, or measuring
light intensity.

The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires 3 basic attributes:

The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or
excitons.
The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.
Histrico
The photovoltaic effect was first experimentally demonstrated by French
physicist Edmond Becquerel. In 1839, at age 19, experimenting in his
father's laboratory, he built the world's first photovoltaic cell. Willoughby
Smith first described the "Effect of Light on Selenium during the passage of
an Electric Current" in an article that was published in 20 February 1873
issue of Nature. However, it was not until 1883 that the first solid state
photovoltaic cell was built, by Charles Fritts, who coated the semicondutor
selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions. The
device was only around 1% efficient. In 1888 Russian physicist Alesander
Stoletov (1) built the first cell based on the outer photoelectric effect
discovered by Heinch Hertz (2) earlier in 1887.
(1)
(2)
Histrico
Albert Einstein explained the underlying mechanism of light
instigated carrier excitationthe photoelectric effect in 1905, for
which he received the Nobel prize in Physics in 1921.
[3]
Russell Ohl
patented the modern junction semiconductor solar cell in 1946,
which was discovered while working on the series of advances that
would lead to the transistor.
Albert Einstein proposed that a beam of light
is not a wave propagating through space, but
rather a collection of discrete wave packets
(photons), each with energy hf.
Planck relation:


frequency , wavelength , and speed of light c are related by = c
Planck's law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal
equilibrium at a definite temperature. The law is named after Max Planck, who originally
proposed it in 1900. It is a pioneer result of modern physics and quantum theory.
For frequency , or for
wavelength , Planckian
radiation can be described
thus:
B denotes its spectral radiance, T its absolute temperature, k
B
the Boltzmann constant, h
the Planck constant, and c the speed of light in the medium, whether material or vacuum
Sunlight takes about 8 minutes 17 seconds to travel the average distance from the surface
of the Sun to the Earth.
c = 299.792.458 m/s

c = 300.000 km/s
Histrico
The first practical photovoltaic cell was developed in 1954 at Bell
Laboratories by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Souther Fuller and Gerald
Pearson. They used a diffused silicon pn junction that reached 6%
efficiency, compared to the selenium cells that found it difficult to
reach 0.5%. Les Hoffman CEO of Hoffman Electronics Corporation
had his Semiconductor Division pioneer the fabrication and mass
production of solar cells. From 1954 to 1960 Hoffman improved the
efficiency of Solar Cells from 2% to 14%. At first, cells were developed
for toys and other minor uses, as the cost of the electricity they
produced was very high; in relative terms, a cell that produced 1 watt
of electrical power in bright sunlight cost about $250, comparing to
$2 to $3 per watt for a coal plant.
Histrico
Solar cells were brought from obscurity by the suggestion to add
them, probably due to the successes made by Hoffman Electronics,
to the Vanguard I satellite, launched in 1958. In the original plans,
the satellite would be powered only by battery, and last a short time
while this ran down. By adding cells to the outside of the body, the
mission time could be extended with no major changes to the
spacecraft or its power systems. In 1959 the United States launched
Explorer 6. It featured large solar arrays resembling wings, which
became a common feature in future satellites. These arrays
consisted of 9600 Hoffman solar cells. There was some skepticism at
first, but in practice the cells proved to be a huge success, and solar
cells were quickly designed into many new satellites, notably Bell's
own Telstar.
Histrico
Improvements were slow over the next two decades, and the only
widespread use was in space applications where their power-to-
weight ratio was higher than any competing technology. However,
this success was also the reason for slow progress; space users were
willing to pay anything for the best possible cells, there was no
reason to invest in lower-cost solutions if this would reduce
efficiency. Instead, the price of cells was determined largely by the
semiconductor industry; their move to integrated circuits in the
1960s led to the availability of larger boules at lower relative prices.
As their price fell, the price of the resulting cells did as well.
However these effects were limited, and by 1971 cell costs were
estimated to be $100 per watt.
Evoluo das Clulas Fotovoltaicas
Evoluo dos Preos
Preos de Mdulos Fotovoltaicos de Silcio Cristalino
1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000
0,1
1
10
100
40,00
Volume dobra preo reduz em 22 %


P
r
e

o

M

d
i
o

(
2
0
1
0

U
S
D
/
W
P
)
Volume de produo acumulado (MW)
1979
1992
1998
2002
2004
2011
2014
2006 escassez de Si
0,94
Clulas solares de multijunes
Eficincia terica mxima

1 juno = 31% (Shockley-Queisser)
4 junes = 52,5%
Infinitas = 68%
Regio do espectro solar onde cada
clula atua.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multijunction_photovoltaic_cell
Diagrama esquemtico de uma
clula solar de 3 junes
1
a
, 2
a
e 3
a
Gerao de clulas solares
Fonte: M. Green
1
st:
Silcio Cristalino
2
a:
Materiais Amorfos
3
a: Conceitos de alta eficincia

Estruturas com
Nanomateriais

Vrias Universidades

Orgnicos
Corantes
Quadro mostrando a relao de eficincia e custo das trs geraes de clulas solares.

Grfico mostrando o potencial de oportunidade para investimento e uso da energia
fotovoltaica para vrios pases do mundo.
Produo Industrial - Tecnologias
5,6
4,6 4,4
3,3 2,9 2,6 2,3
1,5 1,4 1,2 0,6 0
0,2
0,2 0,6
0,4
0,2 0,2 0,5
1 1,7 1,6 2,4 3,5
8,9
6,4
4,5
4,4
4,7 4,7 5,2
5,1
6,1
5
3,4
5,3
0,5
0,7
1,1
1,1 1,6 2,7
4,7
6,4
9
5,3
5,5
3,9
50,2
51,6
57,2
54,7
52,3
46,5
45,2
47,7
46,9
52,9
57
57
34,6
36,4
32,2
36,2
38,3
43,4
42,2
38,3
34,1
33,2
30,9 30,3
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Si-Fitas
CIS/CIGS
a-Si
CdTe
Si-Multi
Si-Mono
Silcio
87,3 %
Ano
Photon International, 03/2012
EPIA, Global Market Outlook for Photovoltaics 2013-2017
Tau-Cear

Primeira central solar
1MW, 4.680 solar pannels
Energy for 15.000 people


https://www.ambienteenergia.com.br/index.php/2012/12/nova-
usina-solar-em-operacao/21416
http://jorrubiosaopaulo.blogspot.com.br/2013/07/usina-solar-
tanquinho-cpfl-energia.html#!/2013/07/usina-solar-tanquinho-
cpfl-energia.html
http://sites.cpfl.com.br/portal-inovacao/temas-e-projetos/geracao-
renovavel/SitePages/P%C3%A1gina%20Inicial.aspx
Usina Solar Tanquinho Campinas/CPFL
O estado da arte para clulas solares aponta para um campo de
pesquisa de ponta que cresce a um ritmo tremendo . As clulas
solares mais promissores devero apresentar vrios parmetros : uma
boa eficincia em geral, um custo de produo razovel e a
possibilidade de ser produzido em escala industrial. Entre as
tecnologias que atendem a esses requisitos, clulas solares de silcio e
clulas de polmeros so as principais tecnologias que so usadas
atualmente. Tambm importante ter em mente que o nano-
materiais e clulas solares flexvel orgnica apresentam uma
excelente margem do progresso devido s possibilidades ilimitadas ao
investigar a estrutura qumica das molculas as quais esto sendo
usadas.
Concluso