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Security of public transportation systems

Public train transportation systems have been targeted since 1990s:

Tokyo subways suffered a poison-gas attack in 1995 when a group of terrorists put containers of highly toxic Sarin nerve gas in three subway
trains at rush hours. Although Tokyo Emergency Control Centre staff received alarms within fifteen minutes, Sarin gas spread quickly at
fifteen subway stations (carried there by the trains). Twelve people died, and over 5,000 became ill. Several people have permanent brain
damage [3].
In 1997, Islamic extremists intended to bomb New York's subways. Fortunately, this attack was stopped by people and police vigilance.
On March 11, 2004 four commuter trains were bombed by ten explosions that occurred in Madrid. The attack was the worst terrorist public
assault in modern Spanish history [4].

The scene of one of the Madrid bombings
Source: Wikepedia
Since subway stations and airports have buildings with entrances, a practical protective approach is to control entrances and monitor buil dings inside and
outside. Here are some strategies [5]:
More visible patrolling security staff, sniffing dogs, and random checks of facilities.
Detection and diagnosis via security cameras, closed-circuit television coverage, and sensors located at entrances, which can detect chemical,
biological, and radiological materials.
Emergency phones and fire detectors as well as rapid-response networks to minimize casualties and damage.
Rescue vehicles and special exits to assist evacuation from dangerous scenes.
More innovative ideas have been turned into practical efforts. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has evaluated the feasibility and effect of
the Train and Rail Inspection Pilot (TRIP)a $1 million piece of screening equipmentby using it to screen Amtrak and MARC passengers and baggage at
the New Carrollton, Md. train station [6].
According to DHS officials, the US-VISIT international border security program has been launched in December 2004. This program affects international
bridges, airports, and other borders. It will use fingerprinting, photographing, and background checks in databases to identi fy foreign visitors across
borders except visitors from 27 countries - mostly European countries whose citizens can come to the U.S. for up to 90 days without visas.
Between September 2003 and May 2004, TSA had records of 4.9 million banned items from passengers at airports, including more than 1.4 million knives
and 400 guns. Undercover federal investigators told Congress that airport screeners of aviation security were performing poorly, though most of these
banned items were caught by screeners. A college student reportedly passed the checkpoints with banned items including box cutters, and carried them
on six commercial airplanes during seven months of 2003. As a response to the criticism, by the end of 2004, TSA installed Threat Image Protection (TIP)
software on all scanners and began to evaluate their performance. Also, recently TSA has added lighters to the Prohibited Items List, which means
lighters will not be allowed to pass the security checkpoints at U.S. airports.
Bomb threat its detection & preventionPresentation Transcript
1. Bomb threat- Its Detection & Prevention Presented By: K. M. Sunjib Anwar; MBA, SCSS Consultant GSV / C-TPAT & Security1 +8801726176704;
Bomb and explosives are no more restricted to military use only. It has been extensively used by the civilians and especially by the terrorists groups
for their own advantage. The targets and victims are innocent public including women and children. The scenario of global terrorism has dramatically
changed after the devastation of nine eleven at Twin Tower. In recent days bombing at Spain, Turkey, Bali and Jakarta has shocked the international
community and compelled them to think detection and prevention measures against bomb attacks. Bangladesh is also facing similar bomb threat and
sustains serious damage and heavy casualties due to bomb attack. Bomb threat is a new security problem and every body is seriously concerned
about it.2 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.com2. Introduction
We being the employees of a reputed organization can not rule out the likely bomb threats in our offices or our surroundings. Thus to remain free of
danger from bomb and explosives we should be aware of bomb threat and take detection and prevention measures so that we can effectively handle
bomb threat and can minimize damage and loss to our life and property.3 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.com3.
To develop awareness about bomb threat to our colleagues and suggest detection and prevention measures.4 +8801726176704;
sunjib@email.com4. Aim
Forobvious reasons, we shall avoid technical aspects and shall discuss about non-technical aspects which is considered relevant to public information
only.5 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.com5. Scope
Theseare devices either factory made or home made. These devices contain incendiary or explosive substances. These are used to create fire, shock,
heat and gas to cause extensive damage to the target.6 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.com6. What is bomb?
IED stands for improvised explosive device. These could be either factory made or home made. The shape of IED is not fixed. It can take any form
starting from pen, letter, flower bouquet and almost each and every items.7 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.com7. What is IED?
The only limitation placed on IED construction, initiation, concealment or placement is the extent of bombers imagination.8 +8801726176704;
sunjib@email.com8. Why IED is extensively used ? The advantage for the maker of being psychologically and geographically distance from the
crime makes the use of bomb preferable for the terrorists. An IED only has to work once. An IED can produce multiple deaths in spite of its
comparatively small size. IEDS are easy to place and conceal.
cIED publications are available providing instructions for IED fabrications. +8801726176704; sunjib@email.comoLow explosives such as black or
smokeless powder can be legally purchased; military and commercial explosives may be stolen or provided by sympathizers. 9dhHouse hold
products and chemicals can be found to form explosive filler Many IED components are available commercially (pipes, electronic
components, flash bulbs and black power are available at little cost or risk to the purchaser.)r eIED is simple and inexpensive to construct. Extensive
knowledge on electronics or explosive is not required.ei The damage incurred may take time to repair and provides a daily remainder of the crime.i t
The acts ensure extensive and prolonged media coverage of the terrorist organization, its goal and the crime committed.m9. Detonations caused by
bomb/ IED are dramatic because D
10. Why Bomb/ IED extensively used? Target is resistant to fire. Immediate and complete destruction desired. Speed of destruction desired.
Possible disguise explosion with accident. Instill fear among public or employees.10 +8801726176704;
11. What are the likely targets? Passengers on public transport, ship, train or aeroplane. Audience of meeting, cultural, social or religious gathering.
Employees of big offices. Public at shopping centre, Mall and hotel. Public at the confined areas like under pass, tube railway etc. Women and
children at schools and other populated areas.11 +8801726176704;
12. Public Awareness about Bomb Threat12 +8801726176704;
Receptionist/ operator should not create panic among the employees.13 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.comShare the information with other
telephone operators of PABX or Front desk operator so that next call is taped or maximum information can be gathered. opInform security and
personnel department as soon as possible. I nTry to trace back the caller if number is detected or traced from telephone or exchange. t eIf possible
try to record the conversation. If not possible to record, then remember exact words used by the caller or try to determine the age and sex of the caller.
t hoKeep the caller in conversation and if possible try to know the location of the bomb and planned time of explosion. bo13. Role of receptionist/
Front desk staff who receives telephone call indicating a bomb threat.
Luggage, brief case or packaSecurity personnel and all employees shall look for the items which are out of the ordinary. 14. Recognition of an IED
and appropriate response: pCarry out intelligence: o Smell and assess terrorist threat in your area. O Know local terrorist groups and be familiar with
their method of operation.14 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.comuAppropriate response can save life. Suspicious conduct in side or near office/
residence. uUnexplained and unexpected deliveries.UnSurveillance of the premises. Check out unusual behavior of individuals.C Suspicious
packages inside of underneath or attached to vehicles. New items of unexplained origin. Loose and clean wires on vehicles. Items which do not
conform to their surroundings. ges which are left unattended.
Security personnel and employees shall notify proper authority (P15. Recognize and Run rule & If a detonation occurred, move away and stay away.
15 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.comSome terrorist groups initiate secondary explosives near original explosion site causing casualties among
responding authorities and curiosity seekers.cuIf you can see it, it can see you; so take cover.I f Keep a minimum safe distance of 100 yeards (300
feet).KeA or Security department). They in turn notify police or other low enforcing agencies.a
cSearch team must be instructed as follows: o Their mission is to search and detect suspicious abject. o Under no circumstances should any one
move, touch or jerk a suspicious object or any thing attached to it. o Removal or unarming a bomb/ IED is not their job. They are to detect and inform to
authority only.16 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.com16. Action on detection of suspicious object-
eUse R and R rule (recognize and run) when dealing with an IED or suspicious devices.17 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.comEDRecognize its
potential danger and clear the area in an expeditious manner. anoSecurity guard and employees shall never touch an IED. 17. Never Touch- When
suspicious object is seen/ detected following procedure to be followed:
18. Bomb Threat Counter Measures?18 +8801726176704;
Illumination- By proper illumination system a user may detect dropped bomb which would other wise be difficult to detect during darkness. 19
+8801726176704; sunjib@email.comdIntruder Alarm- Mere surveillance through CCTv camera is not enough because a user may need to respond
to undetected movement of suspects or would like to apprehend him, in such cases they may install intruder alarm system at the perimeter or
vulnerable areas where suspects are likely to drop bombs/ explosives.wher et CCTv Camera- Sensitive areas like the main entrance, perimeter,
reception room, mail room, and other areas which need surveillance/ coverage may have CCTv camera both exposed/ unexposed depending upon the
need and situation.depe19. Detection Measures Detection measure against bomb threat could as under:
l Awareness- Awareness among employees can also help detect bomb/ explosives by suspected personnel, luggage and vehicle. 20
+8801726176704; sunjib@email.coml Inspection Mirror- Vehicle search and use of long handled mirror used underneath of vehicle can help detect
bomb/ explosives if fixed in a vehicle.exl Scanner and detector- X-ray machine and metal detectors installed at the main gate help detect bomb/
explosives.ex Search/ check Physical search and check of personnel bag, brief case and luggage can help detect bomb/
explosives.ex08Patrolling- Patrolling along the perimeter and around solitary areas may help detect bomb. 20.
Window boxes and planters are perfect receptacles of bomb so it is better to be removed unless essential. If not removed, security guards should
check it during patrol.21 +8801726176704; Keeping perimeter clear of shrubs and vines so that bomb can not be kept concealed.
Installing surveillance and detection devices and CCTV camera at all entrances and likely places where bomb may be placed. Inspection of all
packages can reduce bomb threat. Putting the Bag/ Briefcase into the reception and inside visitors lockers at a safe distance from main building of
office/ residences. Making fencing, lighting and controlling access and searching bag, brief case etc, through metal detector and X-Ray detector.
Denying parking of vehicle of visitors/ strangers beside the perimeter by making barriers. Making the offices/residences at a safe distance, 300 feet
from perimeter. 21. General Prevention Measures- General Prevention Measure Against-Bomb Threat are as under:
Display of notice for inspection of package, bag, brief case and search of visitors +8801726176704; may reduce risk of bomb
attack.Meeting visitors at the reception can substantially reduce the risk of bomb attack. 22Me Combustible materials should properly be disposed
off or preserved if further use is Good house keeping can reduce bomb threat. Trash and dumpster areas should remain free of debris.
A bomb can easily be concealed in side the trash. Vulnerable areas such as generator, power room, boiler house, mail rooms, telephone exchange,
computer areas, switch board rooms and lift control rooms should be kept under lock and key where not manned. Surveillance should be carried out
to the potential hiding places (like stair walls, rest rooms and vacant spaces) to find out unwanted individuals. Heavy wire mesh and steel shutter on
window can be very effective against lobbying bomb/ Explosives. Intruder/ Burglar alarm can be effective if any one approaches undetected to keep
bomb inside an office/ residence. 22.
Use of X-Ray Machine- Use of X-Ray machine and itemizer can prevent threat from bomb/ IED and explosives. 23 +8801726176704;
sunjib@email.comDetector- Use of hand held and arch way metal detector at the gate can effectively prevent bomb threat. l Perimeter- Properly
made perimeter with CCTv camera, Intruder alarm, power fence, walk ways, clear zone, watch tower and illumination can effectively prevent bomb/
explosives threats in an establishment.exr Barrier- To avoid parking of car bomb or to avoid rushing of vehicle loaded with explosives into an
establishment, the approach to main gate and perimeter to have physical barriers to deny parking/ rushing of vehicle loaded with explosives. The
barriers could be constructed with Cement, Brick or Drums fills with sand etc. User may plant flowering trees on it to cover the barriers. 23. If following
Prevention measure is under taken, bomb threat can be effectively prevented.
Separating Mail Centre- By making mail centre separate and away from the main building, bomb threat can be prevented. 24 +8801726176704;
sunjib@email.comFixing wire mesh at the widow- Closing unnecessary window, ventilator and opening and fixing wire mesh at the window, ventilator
and other openings at the ground floor may prevent bomb threat. Meeting visitor at reception If visitor are met at the reception instead of taking them
to the employees desks; bomb threat can be prevented.t aLuggage Locker- Use of luggage locker for visitors at the reception can prevent bomb
threat. This can be done by searching luggage while issuing key and token to the visitor.an4Search- Search of personnel and the luggage at the gate
help prevent bomb threat.Se24.
oRescue operation: o Panic Control- Panic must be controlled once news of bomb blast is received or bomb is detected. Panic will be the serious
problem and will make everything mess. Systematic evacuation and search will be difficult unless people are previously briefed and assured during
crisis that situation is under control. Concerned person may speak over PA equipment or convey message to department heads, to control panic within
respective employees.25 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.comcSecond bomb Blast: Normally a bomb blast or a number of bomb blast is followed by
second bomb blasts to injure the rescuers or curiosity seekers. So, after a bomb blast every body should remain alert about second blast. 25. Action
on Bomb Blast-
Use common sense to meet unforeseen developments 26 +8801726176704; Entry and exit route (Traffic circuit) for vehicle and
personnel must be made and manned by security personnel and ensure proper traffic control. around the bomb site. Guard should be deployed
around the danger area. However, to save man power, items like portable barrier, ropes, signposts, to be assembled earlier for emergency use.
Rush anarchy and disorder will block ways and prevent escape to safety. Orderly evacuation will allow every body to go to safe zone without
blocking exit/ gates. Calm assurance to be given that nothing to be panicked, situation is under control. Factual statement as to what happened to
be shared. Emphasis must be given to prevent panic because panic is the worst enemy to successful evacuation. It should be handled as under: *
Evacuation order should be prepared in advance and disseminated over public address system. Normally all person should be evacuated to a
distance of 400 feet. But if the device contains explosive more than 2.5 pounds. Their distance should be tripled.co26. o Evacuation of Employees-
Evacuation plan should include the following:
27. o Cordon- A bomb blast site to be cordoned by security personnel or by other employees to guard against theft, plundering or stealing of valuable
material or destroying evidences. OSalvage property- After a bomb blast, efforts should be made to salvage intact and damaged property to a safe
place. oCounting of employees- After evacuation on bomb threat or after blast, all employees assembled at assembly area to be counted to ascertain
death/ injury of employees. oRecord of statement of witness- Immediately after the blast, victim if survived or eye witnesses should be interviewed.
Preferably their inter view should be recorded through video camera/ audio device for future investigation.27 +8801726176704;
Informing Fire Fighting Agencies: In case of bomb blast needing assistance from civil defense and fire fighting agencies, they may be informed.28
+8801726176704; Informing Law enforcing Agencies: Immediately after bomb blast local police should be informed of the
incidence. If situation demands other law enforcing agencies as deemed necessary may be informed in consultation with local police. 28.
Handling Press/Media People: It is very important to handle the news media. They should be handled by a pre-selected spokes person or responsible
personnel authorized by the management. Every body should not try to talk to them indiscriminately. This is risky as careless and tact less comment
may lead to trouble for the organization. Again denying to talk or avoiding media people may antagonize them. So they should be encountered politely,
tact fully and given due attention and try to give factual information without any irresponsible comment or un-confirmed message. If confronted with
media people direct them to spokes person. If compelled to talk, give exact and accurate message to them without any comment. No information
should be disclosed which may compromise the investigation of the incidence. The preparation of press release should be coordinated with top
management and the police. Initial release may contain factual statement of incident but no details. General wording of such release may be written
earlier.29 +8801726176704; sunjib@email.com29.
Assessment of Loss/Damage: Same investigation committee may assess the damage or loss. But a separate committee may also be formed
depending on the situation and desire of the management.30 +8801726176704; Investigation: Every case of bomb blast must be
investigated. The investigation committee should be formed without wasting time so that evidence and witness are not allowed to destroy and
disappear. The investigation committee should comprise of technical personnel to under stand the technical aspects of the investigation. 30.
31. Conclusion Bomb threat has increased alarmingly in the country recently. We have experienced the devastation and damage caused in the recent
past in Dhaka, Sylhet, Mymensingh and Jessore of Bangladesh. This has become a cause of concern for every body. Even woman, children and
elderly people are also not spared. No body is now free of danger from bomb threat. We being the working people are likely to be the victim of bomb
blast any time any where. It is thus important for us to know bomb threat its detection and preventive measures. If we are aware and can take
appropriate detection and prevention measures against bomb threat, we can save our life and reduce damage to our property.31 +8801726176704;