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8 th SEMESTER INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT (January 2010 to June 2010)

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT (January 2010 to June 2010) Gas Hydro Alstom Projects India Ltd. Piping Engineering

Gas

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT (January 2010 to June 2010) Gas Hydro Alstom Projects India Ltd. Piping Engineering

Hydro

TRAINING REPORT (January 2010 to June 2010) Gas Hydro Alstom Projects India Ltd. Piping Engineering Department

Alstom Projects India Ltd. Piping Engineering Department (Mechanical) Plot No. 06, Sector – 127, Noida – 201301 (India)

Plot No. 06, Sector – 127, Noida – 201301 (India) Coal Oil Nuclear (Conv. Island) Ashwani
Plot No. 06, Sector – 127, Noida – 201301 (India) Coal Oil Nuclear (Conv. Island) Ashwani

Coal

Plot No. 06, Sector – 127, Noida – 201301 (India) Coal Oil Nuclear (Conv. Island) Ashwani

Oil

No. 06, Sector – 127, Noida – 201301 (India) Coal Oil Nuclear (Conv. Island) Ashwani Kumar

Nuclear (Conv. Island)

Ashwani Kumar

B. Tech.

4 th year

(Mechanical Engg.)

Wind

D.A.V. Institute of Engg. & Technology

University. Roll No.

7026111252

Class Roll. No. 564/06

Ashwani872@yahoo.com

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I wish to extend my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Balmiki Mishra (Sr, Manager Human Resources), Ms. Anshu Sharma (Sr. Officer Human Resources), Ms.Preethi Balan (Assistant Manager Human Resources), Mr. Naveen Sharma (Former H.O.D Plant Arrangement & Piping) and Mr. Ahobala Rao (H.O.D Plant Arrangement & Piping)

for giving me an opportunity to undergo training at Alstom Power, Noida.

I thank my advisor Mr. Naveen Sharma for his continuous in my six months training. He

was always there, to listen and to give advice. He taught me how to ask questions and

express my ideas. He showed me different ways to approach a problem and the need to

be persistent to accomplish any goal. He taught me when I doubted myself, and brought

out the good ideas in me. One thing more, he gives me a golden opportunity to attend

all workshop trainings, which is organized by Alstom.

I would also like to thanks Mr. Ajay Bansal (Sr. Executive at Siemens Power) for guiding me and boosting me morale at all time. He is man who providing me an opportunity to build my career in power sector. Thank you Sir.

I am also grateful to my Project Guides Mr. Debashis Biswas (Manager Arrangement &

Piping), and Mr. Tribesh Choudhuri (Manager Arrangement & Piping), Ms. Srujana Saduvala (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping), Mr. Avuluri Nagaraju (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping) for giving me the opportunity to work under their able supervision.

A special thanks goes to my Project Guide Mr. Debashis Biswas With his

encouragement and constant guidance, I am able to complete my training successfully.

He was always there, to meet and talk about my ideas and my problems.

Once again I thanks to Mr. Avuluri Nagaraju providing me there own Computer system to learn P.D.M.S software.

I would also like to thank Mr. Pavan K Devaki (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping), Mr. Tarun Kumar Srivastava (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping), Mr. Vankayala Jaya Krishna (Engineer), for their required inputs for my projects.

I also extend my sincere thanks to (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping) Mr. Nadeem Ahmed (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping), Mr. Awani Srivastava (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping), Mr. Anupam Sengupta (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping), Mr. C Chandraiah (lead Engineer Arrangement & Piping), Ashish Dhawan (Engineer Arrangement & Piping) and (Engineers) Mr. Santosh Das, Mr. Vishwanath Sharma and Mr.Nipun Goyal, for providing me valuable information for my project.

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I am also grateful to each and every member of the staff of the Piping Engineering Department in Alstom Power, who have helped me in every way possible during my training here. Their motivation & help was the key to success of my project.

I sincerely thanks to all my Alstom friends who made my training at Alstom a wonderful and memorable. I shell always remember these wonderful and memorable time and my Alstom friends.

Date: 1 July 2010

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Ashwani Kumar

S. No.

Contents Of Table

Page No.

1.

Introduction about ALSTOM

6

2.

ALSTOM In India

8

3.

Power Plant Cycles

11

4.

Brayton cycle

11

5.

Rankine cycle

13

6.

Combined Cycle Power Plant

16

 

System Configuration of a Combined Cycle Power

 

7.

Plant

18

8.

Layout of Combined Cycle Power Plant

18

9.

Introduction to Tallawarra Combined-cycle power plant

19

10.

Tallawarra Single Shaft CCPP-KA26 Power Plant

21

11.

Components used in Combined Cycle Power Plant

22

12.

Heat Balance Diagram

33

13.

Systems

34

14.

Abbreviations and Acronyms

35

15.

KKS: Kraftwerks Kennzeichnungs System

36

16.

KKS Function Key

38

17.

How to read KKS No.

41

18.

Main Steam System

42

19.

Main Condensate System

49

20.

Air Removal System

58

21.

HP Turbine Bypass System

65

22.

IP Turbine Bypass System

70

4

S. No.

Contents Of Table

Page No.

23.

LP Turbine Bypass System

75

24.

Feed Water Storage and Deaeration System

79

25.

Feed Water Preheater System

85

26.

HP Feed Water Pump System

90

27.

Fuel Gas Pre Heating System

96

28.

GT Air Cooling System

100

29.

Close Cooling Water System

107

30.

Fuel Gas System

117

31.

Clean Drain System

127

32.

Carbon Dioxide Supply System

133

33.

Hydrogen Supply System

135

34.

Water Supply System

137

35.

Demineralised water Supply system

141

36.

Phosphate Dosing System

145

37.

Ammonia Oxygen Scanveger Dosing

149

38.

Hotwell Sampling Monitoring System

153

39.

Main & Secondary Cooling Water System

157

40.

Water-Steam Cycle Sampling Monitoring System

165

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Introduction about ALSTOM

ALSTOM, the global leader in power and rail transport, is in the business of designing, building and servicing technologically advanced products and systems for the world's energy and transport infrastructure. It builds Power Plants and has supplied around 20% of the world’s total installed capacity in power generation.

ALSTOM builds trains, which run on every continent. It has engineered and built the TGV, the world’s fastest train, Singapore’s automatic metro and almost the entire fleet of metros for the city of Paris.

ALSTOM builds highly complex ships, which includes the recently completed Queen Mary 2, the largest cruise ship in the world.

ALSTOM's annual sales are around €17 billion. It employs 76,000 people in over 70 countries worldwide. The company serves the energy market through its activities in the fields of power generation, power transmission and distribution, power conversion and electrical contracting and the transport market through its activities in rail and marine.

ALSTOM offers its customers a complete range of innovative components, systems and services covering design and manufacture as well as commissioning and long-term maintenance and has unique expertise in systems integration, management of projects and application of advanced technologies.

The ability to offer the broadest scope of power generation systems and equipment in the industry allows ALSTOM Power to deliver global solutions, from boilers, turbines and generators to the control systems, pollution control equipment, transformers and all the other systems needed to make a Power Plant run reliably, efficiently and with low emissions. In addition to state-of-the-art equipment and systems, ALSTOM Power provides extended core competencies in services and solutions.

The control system technology is a corner stone of an efficient service support all along the plant life. ALSTOM offers a comprehensive capability, possessing the broadest scope of power generation systems, equipment and services in the industry. ALSTOM’s customers enjoy the maximum of options plus the most economical, environmentally friendly and advanced technologies.

ALSTOM provides a wide range of new energy technologies. E.g. CFB boiler technology, low emissions firing systems, selective catalytic reduction, and flue gas desulphurisation and supercritical cycles. Environmentally friendly solutions are also available for noise control and effluents, which meet the most stringent worldwide regulations.

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Delivering the products and services, whether a utility, an independent power producer, or you are in industry, ALSTOM can deliver the products and services.

1. Turnkey Plants

Gas/steam/hydro

2. Turbines

Gas/steam/hydro

3. Generators

Gas/steam/hydro

4. Boilers

For power generation and industry

5. Air Preheater and Heat Exchangers

6. Air Pollution Control Systems

7. Power Plant Control

8. Customer Services

Complete portfolio of service products

Modernization of Power Plant

Long-term operation and maintenance

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ALSTOM In India

ALSTOM is the majority shareholder in ALSTOM Projects India Ltd. In India, ALSTOM is active in two major areas of businesses i.e. Power and Transport.

Commencing its operations in Calcutta in the 1910s and later in Chennai in the 1950s, ALSTOM in India traces its lineage to English Electric, CEGELEC, AEI, GEC ALSTHOM, ASEA, HBB, FLAKT and ABB, drawing its strengths from technologies developed over the years by these companies.

ALSTOM has been a long-term player in India in the energy and transport infrastructure business, supplying critical electrical and industrial equipment including boilers and turbines and pollution control equipment for Power Plants, and transmission & distribution equipment. With its significant presence in the transport sector in India, ALSTOM provides railway equipment and technology solutions. The Industrial equipment division with annual sales of 15 Million Euros manufactures rotating machinery, motors, industrial and domestic fans.

ALSTOM in India helps generate nearly 40% of the total power produced in the country. In India, ALSTOM companies have together a turnover of about 280 Million Euros with about 6,500 employees.

In India, ALSTOM is active in two major areas of businesses:

Power:

In Karnataka the Power Sector forms a major part of ALSTOM's business operations in India, accounting for 59 per cent of its total revenue through its activities as an Equipment Supplier, Engineering Procurement and Construction Contractor and Products/Services supplier for central and state public sector utilities or Independent Power Producers.

ALSTOM's power sector in India specializes in designing & supplying integrated and cost efficient Steam, Combined Cycle and Hydro Power Plants.

This includes their engineering, procurement & construction; development and supply of air pollution control systems and equipment. In addition, it also offers a full range of services in spare parts, repairs & maintenance to improve the reliability and availability of the plants.

ALSTOM’s power sector also offers a complete range of utility & industrial boilers in India. It has manufacturing locations at Durgapur in West Bengal and Shahabad

With manufacturing location at Kolkata for environment control systems, Alstom's power sector in India employs more than 1800 people, with annual sales in excess of 125 million euro.

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A joint venture between Alstom and NTPC has a mandate for the total renovation and modernization (R&M) business in India and the SAARC countries for thermal Power Plants and thermal based utilities.

Transport:

ALSTOM's Transport sector is among the leaders in rail transport in the world. Its TGV needs no introduction.

ALSTOM's transport sector in India is equipped with RDSO approved 'state-of-the-art' factory at Coimbatore equipped for manufacture, supply, assembly and testing of Power Electronics & Traction Equipment, Signaling products such as Point Machines, Audio Frequency Track Circuits etc. The company manufactures world-class traction drives, auxiliary converters, control electronics, electro-mechanical products and safety systems.

The factory is ISO 9001- 2000 and ISO - 14001 certified and is located in the industrial belt with access to component suppliers. The company also has a world-class software centre at Bangalore handling design of Train Control System and Application Software. Being members of the ALSTOM Transport Group, there is access to global technologies. ALSTOM's global transport product range includes TGVs and High Speed Tilting Train for industry operations, tramways and metros for urban transit and locomotives, and freight wagons. It also provides train control systems, train life management services, the railroad maintenance and turnkey or full concession transportation system solutions.

Research & Innovation:

ALSTOM regards competitive technology as a key element of its business strategy, both to meet the quality and efficiency expectations of its customers and to achieve its own financial targets. Research and Development efforts are driven essentially by current and future market needs in our product areas. This is why our R&D resources are managed by our businesses, with programs and priorities being defined and refined by them.

We are continuously improving the performance, functionality and cost-effectiveness of our products, both through developing new technical solutions or innovative application of existing elements. Current examples include:

Information and communication technologies are enabling major advances in the large systems we design, including new means of train signaling, novel designs of electrical substation monitoring and control, and new services such as remote maintenance or trading in de-regulated electricity markets.

Power electronic systems are already well known, but development of new circuit concepts continues to expand their application and penetration, while new materials

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such as silicon carbide and diamond promise further step changes in the future. We can now see the real possibility that a majority of the world's electricity will be actively managed by power electronics in the future.

New materials continue to emerge. Gaining understanding on their behavior remains a key technological activity, and their application to our product is a critical factor in improving performance and cost-effectiveness.

Advanced engineering simulation systems, which are key to rapid design and development timescales. Developments made here are enabling us to improve the lifetime of mechanical components in steam turbines, and the power outputs of electrical machines, all of which translate into lower costs for our clients. We continue to reduce the environmental impact of our products. Specific examples include:

1. Reducing atmospheric emissions through improved power generation efficiencies, novel combustion systems which inhibit NOx formation in gas turbines, new boiler schemes for clean coal combustion, and even genuinely zero-emission systems which capture all the CO2 from fuel,

2. Finding ways to minimise the noise generated by the operation of plant and trains, by understanding how it is generated so it can be efficiently inhibited,

Protecting the marine environment through initiatives such as the 'clean' passenger ship which avoids the dumping of waste, or the Oil Sea Harvester which can efficiently collect spilt oil,

3. Making more efficient, more accessible, more reliable public transport systems which can provide an attractive travel option to other means,

Embedding environmental impact analysis into the design process, so that products can be designed for minimal whole life environmental cost

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Brayton cycle:

Power Plant Cycles

The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the workings of the gas turbine engine, basis of the jet engine and others.

Brayton cycle has more recently been given to the gas turbine engine. This also has three components:

A gas compressor

A burner (or combustion chamber)

An expansion turbine

A burner (or combustion chamber) • An expansion turbine Ideal Brayton cycle: • Isentropic process -

Ideal Brayton cycle:

Isentropic process - Ambient air is drawn into the compressor, where it is pressurized.

Isobaric process - The compressed air then runs through a combustion chamber, where fuel is burned, heating that air—a constant-pressure process, since the chamber is open to flow in and out.

Isentropic process - The heated, pressurized air then gives up its energy, expanding through a turbine (or series of turbines). Some of the work extracted by the turbine is used to drive the compressor.

Isobaric process - Heat rejection (in the atmosphere).

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Actual Brayton cycle:

Adiabatic process - Compression.

Isobaric process - Heat addition.

Adiabatic process - Expansion.

Isobaric process - Heat rejection.

Methods to increase power:

Reheat, wherein the working fluid—in most cases air—expands through a series of turbines, then is passed through a second combustion chamber before expanding to ambient pressure through a final set of turbines. This has the advantage of increasing the power output possible for a given compression ratio without exceeding any metallurgical constraints (typically about 1000 °C). The use of an afterburner for jet aircraft engines can also be referred to as reheat; it is a different process in that the reheated air is expanded through a thrust nozzle rather than a turbine. The metallurgical constraints are somewhat alleviated enabling much higher reheat temperatures (about 2000 °C). Reheat is most often used to improve the specific power (per throughput of air) and is usually associated with a reduction in efficiency; this is most pronounced with the use of afterburners due to the extreme amounts of extra fuel used.

Methods to improve efficiency:

Intercooling, wherein the working fluid passes through a first stage of compressors, then a cooler, then a second stage of compressors before entering the combustion chamber. While this requires an increase in the fuel consumption of the combustion chamber, this allows for a reduction in the specific volume of the fluid entering the second stage of compressors, with an attendant decrease in the amount of work needed for the compression stage overall. There is also an increase in the maximum feasible pressure ratio due to reduced compressor discharge temperature for a given amount of compression, improving overall efficiency.

Regeneration, wherein the still-warm post-turbine fluid is passed through a heat exchanger to pre-heat the fluid just entering the combustion chamber. This directly offsets fuel consumption for the same operating conditions improving efficiency; it also results in less power lost as waste heat. However, at higher pressure ratios, the compressor discharge temperature can exceed the exhaust temperature. Under these conditions, regeneration would be counterproductive. Therefore, regeneration is only an option when the pressure ratio is sufficiently low that the exhaust temperature is higher than the compressor discharge temperature.

A Brayton engine also forms half of the combined cycle system, which combines with a Rankine engine to further increase overall efficiency.

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Cogeneration systems make use of the waste heat from Brayton engines, typically for hot water production or space heating

Rankine cycle:

Common heat sources for power plants using the Rankine cycle are the combustion of coal, natural gas and oil, and nuclear fission.

of coal, natural gas and oil, and nuclear fission. The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to

The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle as, when an efficient turbine is used, the TS diagram begins to resemble the Carnot cycle. The main difference is that heat addition and rejection are isobaric in the Rankine cycle and isothermal in the theoretical Carnot cycle. A pump is used to pressurize liquid instead of gas. This requires a very small fraction of the energy compared to compressing a gas in a compressor (as in the Carnot cycle).

The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. Without the pressure reaching super critical levels for the working fluid, the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small: turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of about 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. This low turbine entry temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle in combined cycle gas turbine power stations.

The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is re-used constantly. The water vapor with entrained droplets often seen billowing from power stations is generated by the cooling systems (not from the closed loop Rankine power cycle) and represents the waste heat that could not be converted to useful work. Note that cooling towers operate using the latent heat of vaporization of the cooling fluid. The white

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billowing clouds that form in cooling tower operation are the result of water droplets which are entrained in the cooling tower airflow; they are not, as commonly thought, steam. While many substances could be used in the Rankine cycle, water is usually the fluid of choice due to its favorable properties, such as nontoxic and unreactive chemistry, abundance, and low cost, as well as its thermodynamic properties.

One of the principal advantages the Rankine cycle holds over others is that during the compression stage relatively little work is required to drive the pump, the working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point. By condensing the fluid to liquid, the work required by the pump consumes only 1% to 3% of the turbine power and contributes to a much higher efficiency for a real cycle. The benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition temperature. Gas turbines, for instance, have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500°C. Nonetheless, the efficiencies of actual large steam cycles and large modern gas turbines are fairly well matched.

Processes of the Rankine cycle:

are fairly well matched. Processes of the Rankine cycle: There are four processes in the Rankine

There are four processes in the Rankine cycle, these states are identified by number in the diagram to the right.

Process 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure, as the fluid is a liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy.

Process 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapor.

Process 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine, generating power. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor, and some condensation may occur.

Process 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure to become a saturated liquid.

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In an ideal Rankine cycle the pump and turbine would be isentropic, i.e., the pump and turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximize the net work output. Processes 1-2 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the T-S diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. The Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine,[1] which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.

Rankine cycle with reheat:

energy removed by the condensers. Rankine cycle with reheat: In this variation, two turbines work in

In this variation, two turbines work in series. The first accepts vapor from the boiler at high pressure. After the vapor has passed through the first turbine, it re-enters the boiler and is reheated before passing through a second, lower pressure turbine. Among other advantages, this prevents the vapor from condensing during its expansion which can seriously damage the turbine blades, and improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature.

Regenerative Rankine cycle:

The regenerative Rankine cycle is so named because after emerging from the condenser (possibly as a subcooled liquid) the working fluid is heated by steam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. On the diagram shown, the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 (both at the same pressure) to end up with the saturated liquid at 7. This is called "direct contact heating". The Regenerative Rankine cycle (with minor variants) is commonly used in real power stations.

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Another variation is where 'bleed steam' from between turbine stages is sent to feedwater heaters to preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler.

the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. These heaters do not mix

These heaters do not mix the input steam and condensate, function as an ordinary tubular heat exchanger, and are named "closed feedwater heaters".

The regenerative features here effectively raise the nominal cycle heat input temperature, by reducing the addition of heat from the boiler/fuel source at the relatively low feedwater temperatures that would exist without regenerative feedwater heating. This improves the efficiency of the cycle, as more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature.

Combined Cycle Power Plant:

When two thermal cycles are combined in a single power plant, the efficiency that can be achieved is higher than that of one cycle alone.

Normally, when two cycles are combined, the cycle operating at higher temperature level is called the ‘topping cycle’. The waste heat it produces is then used in a second process that operates at a lower temperature level and is therefore called the ‘bottoming cycle’.

The flue gas leaving the gas turbine after expansion in an open process still contains a lot of thermal energy, which should be used efficiently. This can be done by installing a water/steam circuit with a steam turbine downstream of the gas turbine process.

The Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) utilizing the Brayton Cycle gas turbine and the Rankine Cycle steam system with air and water as working fluids achieves efficient,

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reliable, and economic power generation. The combination of the gas turbine Brayton Cycle and the steam power system Rankine Cycle complement each other to form

power system Rankine Cycle complement each other to form efficient combined-cycles. The Brayton Cycle has high

efficient combined-cycles. The Brayton Cycle has high source temperature and rejects heat at a temperature that is conveniently used as the energy source for the Rankine Cycle. Other working fluids (organic fluids, potassium vapor, mercury vapor, and others) have been applied on a limited scale.

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System Configuration of a Combined Cycle Power Plant

System Configuration of a Combined Cycle Power Plant Layout of Combined Cycle Power Plant 18

Layout of Combined Cycle Power Plant

System Configuration of a Combined Cycle Power Plant Layout of Combined Cycle Power Plant 18

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Introduction to Tallawarra Combined-cycle power plant

Introduction to Tallawarra Combined-cycle power plant TRU energy’s Tallawarra combined-cycle plant The Tallawarra

TRU energy’s Tallawarra combined-cycle plant

The Tallawarra project was commissioned shortly after Kwinana, achieving handover to the owner TRUenergy in January of this year. Headquartered in Melbourne, TRUenergy has more than 1.2 million electricity and gas customers. In addition to Tallawarra, it owns the Yallourn power plant and the Hallett power station.

The plant is the first baseload plant to be built in New South Wales (NSW) in 25 years, and built on a 600 ha site where a coal-fired plant was decommissioned in the 1990s. The new plant, however, has a much smaller footprint and blends in with the beautiful landscape around Lake Tallawarra.

The project was given the Notice To Proceed in June 2006. On site, there was a high level of involvement from local construction companies. During construction, one challenge was to ensure that a ‘green layer’, which covered rubble potentially containing asbestos from the old power station was not penetrated. Construction works had to closely follow a careful design of underground services, deep foundations and pump pits.

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The plant is built on part of the original site and uses the existing cooling water structures of the old power station. This created further challenges in meeting, for example, the requirements of the Building Code of Australia in terms of safety distances and access. Nevertheless, high standards for health and safety were demonstrated during plant construction. Environmental performance is a top priority for TRUenergy, which is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 60 per cent by 2050. The company therefore wanted the most efficient combined-cycle gas fired power plant possible.

Tallawarra uses the latest GT26 turbine rating. This unit has an improved compressor for increased mass flow and better seals for reduced leakage of air to deliver an additional 7 MW compared to the previous machine.

The GT26 is connected to a hydrogen-cooled generator and a steam turbine on a single shaft. The plant is connected to the local distribution 132 kV grid, which is interconnected to the NSW 330 kV grid via substations.

The gas turbine has a rated output of 288 MW. Exhaust gas leaving the gas turbine is fed into a triple pressure reheat HRSG, which generates the steam that is fed to a triple casing steam turbine to generate an additional 160 MW. The steam turbine is a three- casing design with HP, IP and LP sections that are connected to the generator via a self-synchronizing clutch.

The steam turbine has a direct seawater cooled condenser, which uses water from Lake Tallawarra – the lake is a coastal lagoon.

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Tallawarra Single Shaft CCPP-KA26 Power Plant

Tallawarra Single Shaft CCPP-KA26 Power Plant 21

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Components used in Combined Cycle Power Plant

1. Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG):

A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat exchanger that

recovers heat from a hot gas stream. It produces steam that can be used in a process

or used to drive a steam turbine.

HRSGs consist of three major components. They are the Evaporater, superheater and Economizer. The different components are put together to meet the operating requirements of the unit. See Modular HRSG.

the operating requirements of the unit. See Modular HRSG. HRSG A common application for an HRSG

HRSG

A common application for an HRSG is in a combined-cycle power station, where hot

exhaust from a gas turbine is fed to an HRSG to generate steam, which in turn drives a steam turbine.

This combination produces electricity more efficiently than either the gas turbine or steam turbine alone.

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2. Turbine:

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. The basic parts of a turbine are the rotor, which has blades projecting radially from its periphery; and nozzles, through which

radially from its periphery; and nozzles, through which Turbine the gas is expanded and directed. The

Turbine

the gas is expanded and directed. The conversion of kinetic energy to mechanical energy occurs on the blades.

3. Main Condenser component:

The major parts of the main condenser are the condenser neck, Hotwell and the condenser shell with the condenser tubes arranged in tube bundles and the water boxes. The condenser is designed with divided water boxes. This allows one half of the condenser to be taken out of operation for inspection or cleaning, while the other half of the condenser is in operation. Sacrificial anodes are installed in the water boxes for corrosion protection. The condenser tubes are cleaned with sponge balls on the waterside by an automatic condenser tube cleaning system. The condensate is collected in the hotwell, which is large enough to ensure trouble-free operation of the condensate pumps at any ST load.

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4. Condenser:

In thermal power plants, the primary purpose of a surface condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water.

in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water. Condenser The main heat transfer mechanisms

Condenser

The main heat transfer mechanisms in a surface condenser are the condensing of saturated steam on the outside of the tubes and the heating of the circulating water inside the tubes.

Thus for a given circulating water flow rate, the water inlet temperature to the condenser determines the operating pressure of the condenser. As this temperature is decreased, the condenser pressure will also decrease. As described above, this decrease in the pressure will increase the plant output and efficiency.

Due to the fact that a surface condenser operates under vacuum, non-condensable gases will migrate towards the condenser. The non-condensable gases consist of mostly air that has leaked into the cycle from components that are operating below atmospheric pressure (like the condenser). These gases can also form by the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen by thermal or chemical reactions. In vacuum condition or at low pressure the boiling temperature of water is decrease.

These gases must be vented from the condenser for the following reasons:

1. The gases will increase the operating pressure of the condenser. Since the total pressure of the condenser will be the sum of partial pressures of the steam and the gases, as more gas is leaked into the system, the condenser pressure will rise. This rise in pressure will decrease the turbine output and efficiency.

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2. The gases will blanket the outer surface of the tubes. This will severely decrease the heat transfer of the steam to the circulating water. Again, the pressure in the condenser will increase.

3. The corrosiveness of the condensate in the condenser increases as the oxygen content increases. Oxygen causes corrosion, mostly in the steam generator. Thus, these gases must be removed in order to extend the life of cycle components.

5. Vacuum system:

For water-cooled surface condensers, the shell's internal vacuum is most commonly supplied by and maintained by an external steam jet ejector system. Such an ejector system uses steam as the motive fluid to remove any non-condensable gases that may be present in the surface condenser. The

gases that may be present in the surface condenser. The Venturi effect, which is a particular

Venturi effect, which is a particular case of Bernoulli's principle, applies to the operation of steam jet ejectors. Motor driven mechanical vacuum pumps, such as the liquid ring type, are also popular for this service.

6. Start-up Ejector:

The start-up ejector is a quick start-up single stage steam jet air ejector with a silencer. It is able to reduce the pressure in the vacuum system within short time, to allow a quick start-up of the steam turbine bypass.

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7.

Service Ejector:

The service ejector is a two stage steam jet air ejector with inter and after condenser. It is able to continuously improve and maintain the vacuum after the start-up ejector achieved the suitable operating vacuum. The condensed motive steam and adhered steam of the suction flow is recovered in the inter and after condenser. The condensate of the second stage is returned through a steam trap back to the first stage condenser and the condensate of the first stage is returned via a siphon to the flash box.

8. Shutoff valves:

returned via a siphon to the flash box. 8. Shutoff valves: Safety shutoff valves are safety

Safety shutoff valves are safety valves used to close a line and stop the flow of material. Some types are manually closed; others are automated to act when a preset condition (such as a failure in the system) occurs.

9. Condensate extraction pump:

Condensate extraction pumps to extraction the condensate from the

condenser hot well and feed it into the feed water tank.

10. Flash box:

High-energy water and steam flows from drains are expanded and separated into steam and condensate in the separate flash box. The flash box is connected to the steam and condensate side of the condenser.

26

11.

Control valves:

11. Control valves: Through a single seat, two-port globe valve Control valves are valves used to

Through a single seat, two-port globe valve

Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature, and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compare a "set point" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions.

The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems. Positioners are used to control the opening or closing of the actuator based on Electric, or Pneumatic Signals.

12. Feed water Tank and Deaerator:

The feedwater tank and the deaerator are a combined unit. The deaerator dome is arranged on top of the cylindrical, horizontally mounted feedwater tank. The feedwater tank serves as the storage tank for the water steam cycle. The elevation of the feedwater tank ensures the net positive suction head (NPSH) of pump required by the feedwater and feedwater preheating pumps. With the direct contact deaerator in the deaerator dome, condensate is heated up and deaerated with steam (evaporated feedwater when entering the feedwater tank) from the feedwater preheating system and with pegging steam.

27

Feedwater Tank and Deaerator 28
Feedwater Tank and Deaerator 28
Feedwater Tank and Deaerator 28

Feedwater Tank and Deaerator

28

13.

Feedwater Temperature:

The feedwater needs to be preheated for two reasons.

1 st :

The temperature in the feedwater tank has to be higher than the condensate temperature in order to enable the deaeration of the condensate sprayed into the feedwater tank.

2 nd :

The cooling down of the GT exhaust gas at the HRSG economizer below the sulfuric acid dew point has to be avoided because of corrosion issues. The feedwater temperature setpoint is automatically adjusted accordingly. In normal operation, the deaerated condensate is preheated in the HRSG economizer and circulated by means of the feedwater preheating pumps. If required during special operation modes of the power plant (i.e. start-up) and for redundancy purposes to the feedwater preheating system, steam will be taken from the cold reheat line and used as pegging steam.

14. Feedwater Preheater Pump:

The feedwater preheater pump is a horizontal, single stage centrifugal pump. It is connected by a coupling to the electric motor. The electric motor is a three-phase induction type and is powered by the plant low voltage board. Motor cooling is ensured by the motor internal ventilation device. The feedwater flow through the feedwater pump also contributes to cooling of the pump. For sufficient cooling, the required minimum feedwater flow through the pump is ensured by the automatic recirculation check valve.

15. Priming of centrifugal pump:

All centrifugal pumps must be primed by filling them with water before they can operate. The objective of priming is to remove a sufficient amount of air from the pump and suction line to permit atmospheric pressure and submergence pressure to cause water to flow into the pump when pressure at the eye of the impeller is reduced below atmospheric as the impeller rotates. If you don't prime the pump and start the pump, then you will not get the flow, pump will run dry and ultimately damage the mechanical seal or gland packing.

29

16.

Fuel Gas Heaters:

Fuel Gas Heaters can be used to preheat natural gas to keep gas above the dew point before combustion.

Preheating of the fuel gas in order to achieve a higher thermal efficiency of the gas turbine.

17. Once Through Cooler:

The OTC is a surface heat exchanger. The hot air entering the vessel is cooled down. The cooling water entering the vessel is heated up, evaporated, and superheated. The OTC is designed with helically winded tubes. The air flows on the outside of the tubes and transfers the heat to the water and steam inside the tubes.

18. Fuel Gas Main Inlet Valve (EKA):

The purpose of valve EKA01 is to isolate the plant system from the pipeline system. For emergency cases, this spring-loaded quick shut-off valve can be closed directly from the main control room emergency board.

For opening it is necessary to open first the bypass valve in order to equalize the pressure of the pipeline system and the plant fuel gas system.

To prevent damages to the system, the valve can only be opened locally. The “RELEASE TO OPEN” signal must be sent from the DCS first. The valve closes automatically at a fuel gas pressure of approximate 7 bars due to low pipeline pressure. A high-pressure alarm is indicated in the control room at 180 bar a, low pressure at 36 bar a.

19. Fuel Gas Liquid Dust Separators (Gas Scrubber) (EKB):

The fuel gas liquid dust separators (EKB) are equipped with a condensate-collecting tank (EKR).

The redundant liquid dust separators with vane pack and a cartridge filter stage (EKB10/20) used for liquid and dust separation (efficiency: liquids and dust 99.5% 5 µm).

Any liquid separated in the babble plate or in the coalescer filter stage is automatically discharged via a condensate trap to the condensate-collecting tank.

30

20. Fuel Gas Dew Point Heater Station (EKC10/20)

The redundant fuel gas dew point heaters are installed upstream the gas pressure- reducing station. The gas is heated up to fulfill dew point design criteria of the system and to meet the gas turbine requirements regarding the fuel gas temperature.

gas turbine requirements regarding the fuel gas temperature. The dew point heating system mainly consists of:

The dew point heating system mainly consists of:

1. Water-bath

2. Gas burners

3. Burner gas reducing system

4. Gas temperature control valve

5. Local control system

To heat up the fuel gas, hot water generated by the gas burner is kept on a constant temperature of 90°C.

The heaters (one in operation and one standby) are driven by natural gas from the gas pipeline that is reduced to the required level.

Each gas/water heat exchanger is equipped with vent and drain possibilities, gas-in- water detection device (level indication), local gas pressure indication, local gas temperature indication, thermal relief valve.

31

21.

Fuel Gas Pressure Reducing Station (EKD)

The redundant fuel gas pressure reducing station mainly consists of two pressure control valves and a overpressure slam-shut valve each run.

In case of high supply pressure, the pressure control valves regulate the downstream pressure to gas turbine requirements.

22. Fuel Gas Dust Filter (MBP)

The fuel gas dust filters are designed as 2×100% cartridge type filter and act as a final barrier for the gas turbine. All parts downstream the filter elements are made from stainless steel.

23. Fuel Gas Efficiency Pre-Heater (EKC10)

The fuel gas efficiency pre-heater is designed as tube/shell water/gas heat exchanger. It is used to heat-up the fuel gas to about 150°C for efficiency increase. Hot water from the water/steam cycle is used as heating medium. The heat-input is controlled by the DCS. To prevent fuel gas entering the water/steam cycle in case of a tube break a gas separator is installed in the hot water return line. Separator and heat exchanger are equipped with gas detection devices used to give alarm in case of a tube break.

24. Protection System:

The fuel gas system is protected against overpressure by mechanical devices (slam- shut valve and monitor pressure control valve fail safe close)

25. Over pressure Protection:

The maximum gas pressure at the plant boundary is defined at 166 bar a. Therefore, the system is designed for 180 bar a from the plant boundary up to the skid outlet valve of the pressure-reducing skid. Downstream the pressure-reducing skid, the system is designed for 61 bar a.

The following protection measures are installed:

1. All components are equipped with safety valves for thermal expansion.

2. Upstream each pressure-reducing valve (EKD) slam-shut valves are installed.

3. Over-temperature Protection at the dew point heater

32

Heat Balance Diagram

Heat Balance Diagram 33

33

S. No.

Systems

1.

Main Steam System

2.

Main Condensate System

3.

Air Removal System

4.

HP Turbine Bypass System

5.

IP Turbine Bypass System

6.

LP Turbine Bypass System

7.

Feed Water Storage and Deaeration System

8.

Feed Water Preheater System

9.

HP Feed Water System

10.

Fuel Gas Pre Heating System

11.

GT Air Cooling System

12.

Close Cooling Water System

13.

Fuel Gas System

14.

Clean Drain System

15.

Carbon Dioxide Supply System

16.

Hydrogen Supply System

17.

Water Supply System

18.

Dematerialized water Supply system

19.

Phosphate Dosing System

20.

Ammonia Oxygen Scanveger Dosing

21.

Howell Sampling Monitoring System

22.

Main & Secondary Cooling Water System

23.

Water-Steam Cycle Sampling Monitoring System

34

Abbreviations and Acronyms

1 FWT

Feedwater Tank

2 GT

Gas Turbine

3 HP

High Pressure

4 HRSG

Heat Recovery Steam Generator

5 IP

Intermediate Pressure

6 LP

Low Pressure

7 MCW

Main Cooling Water

8 PFUP

Process Function Plans

9 ST

Steam Turbine

10 WSC

Water Steam Cycle

11 CCW

Closed Cooling Water

12 LCP

Local Control Panel

13 PLC

Programmable Logic Control

14 OTC

Once Through Cooler

15 PLS

Protective Load Shedding

16 PFUP

Process Function Plans

17 PHR

Preheater

18 FG

Function Group

19 SCWS

Secondary Cooling Water System

20 CCWS

Closed Cooling Water System

21 H2

Hydrogen Gas cooled GT/St Generator

22 Air

Air cooled (GT/ST) Generator

23 MCR

Main Control Room

24 P&ID

Process and Instrumentation Diagram

25 PLST

Protective Load Shedding Trip

26 KKS

Kraftwerks Kennzeichnungs System

27 WTP

Water Treatment Plant

28 RWTP

Raw Water Treatment Plant

29 DMWTP

Decimalized Water Treatment Plant

30 WWTP

Waste Water Treatment Plant

31 DCS

Distributed Control System

35

KKS: Kraftwerks Kennzeichnungs System

KKS relevant symbols in P&ID's and principle sketches:

In P&I diagrams the following symbols to indicate KKS code and limit functions and piping sections are recommended.

S.No

Symbols

Description

1

1 The symbol "pin with empty head" is used to identify the limits of functions and

The symbol "pin with empty head" is used to identify the limits of functions and sub-functions

2

2 The symbol "pin with full head" is used to identify the limits of piping sections

The symbol "pin with full head" is used to identify the limits of piping sections

3

3 Reducers are assigned to the piping with the larger diameter.They need not be shown on

Reducers are assigned to the piping with the larger diameter.They need not be shown on P&ID`s.

 
  The symbol "flag" is used for the identification of pipings,

The symbol "flag" is used for the identification of pipings,

4

The direction of the flag shows the directionof the medium flow.

5

5 The extended "flag" symbol is used for the identification of a pipe where medium flow

The extended "flag" symbol is used for the identification of a pipe where medium flow direction alters according to the operating conditions

6

6 The symbol pointer between connected systems represented on different P&ID’s Breakdown level Function of the

The symbol pointer between connected systems represented on different P&ID’s Breakdown level Function of the connected system as minimum information.

36

7

7 The symbol "I & C - circuits" (DIN 19227, sheet 1) Is used to represent

The symbol "I & C - circuits" (DIN 19227, sheet 1) Is used to represent measuring circuits. KKS-code for measuring circuits

KKS-Introduction (Identification System for Power Stations)

1 Purpose and Area of application:

The power plant identification system is applied to clearly identify plants, systems, parts and components to their purpose, type and location. The contents are in accordance with "KKS identification systems for Power Stations" issued by VGB Kraftwerkstechnik GmbH Essen.

2. Requirements:

In order to perform the set tasks the identification system must be capable of satisfying the following requirements:

1. Uniform identification for all types of power stations and any connected processes

2. Sufficient capacity and detail for identification of all systems, components and

structures

3. Sufficient capacity for extension to accommodate new technologies

- Consistent identification for planning, licensing, construction, operation, maintenance and waste management

4. Interdisciplinary applicability to mechanical engineering, civil engineering, electrical

and instrument & control engineering combined with ability to identify according to process functions, points of installation and locations

5.

Consideration of national and international standards,

6.

Non-language-based coding to ensure international usability,

7.

Application in computer data processing

3.

Structure and application:

The KKS consists of three types of identification:

1. The process-related code identifies installations and equipment according to their

assigned task in the power plant process,

2. The point of installation code identifies the points of installation within an installation

unit (e.g. cubicles, consoles, panels),

3. The location code identifies the rooms and floors, or other installation sites, for

installations and equipment in building structures.

37

A uniform identification structure, with a maximum of four breakdown levels, was created for all three types; the units referred to becoming smaller from left to right.

KKS Function Key

S.No.

Key

Description

1.

G

Water supply and disposal

2.

GA

Raw water supply

3.

GAC

Piping and channel system.

4.

GAD

Storage system

5.

GCK

Piping system, temporary storage system, pump system for main fluid

6.

GHC

Distribution systems after treatment (demineralization)

7.

GKB

Storage, forwarding, distribution system

8.

L

Steam water cycle

9.

LAA

Storage, deaeration (incl. feedwater tank)

 

LAB

Feedwater piping system (excl. feedwater pump and feedwater

10.

heating system)

11.

LAC

Feedwater pump system

12.

LAF

IP desuperheating spray system

13.

LAE

HP desuperheating spray system

14.

LBA

Main steam piping system

15.

LBB

Hot reheat piping system

16.

LBC

Cold reheat piping system

17.

LBD

Extraction piping system

38

 

LBF

Overpressure limitation and safety equipment incl. water injection and

18.

pressure measuring device

19.

LBH

Start-up steam system, shutdown steam system

20.

LBS

Extraction steam piping system for main condensate heating

21.

LBG

Auxiliary steam piping system

 

LCA

Main condensate piping system (excl. main condensate pump

22.

system, LP feedwater heating system, condensate polishing plant)

23.

LCB

Main condensate pump system

24.

LCC

Main condensate heating system

25.

LCH

HP heater drains system.

26.

LCJ

LP heater drains system.

27.

LCE

Condensate desuperheating spray system

28.

LCQ

Steam generator blow down system

29.

LCM

Clean drains system (collecting and return system)

 

LFN

Proportioning system for feedwater, condensate system, incl.

30.

proportioning in boiler and turbine area

31.

M

Main Machine sets

32.

MAG

Condensing system

33.

MAJ

Air removal system

34.

MAN

Turbine bypass station, incl. desuperheating spray system

35.

MAL

Drain and vent systems

36.

MBH

Cooling and sealing gas system

37.

MBN

Fuel supply system (liquid)

38.

MBP

Fuel supply system (gaseous)

39

39. E

 

Conventional fuel supply and residual disposal

 

40. EKT

Heating medium system

 

41. EKR

Residues removal system

42. P

 

Cooling water system

 

43. PAB

Circulating (main cooling) water piping and culvert system

 

44. PAH

Condenser tubes cleaning system, incl. all appurtenances

 

45. PCB

Piping and culvert system

 

46. PGA

Closed cooling water piping system (forward)

 

47. PGB

Closed cooling water piping system (return)

 

48. PGC

Closed cooling water pump system.

 

49. PGF

Pressure system

 

50. PGL

Closed cooling water system for main groups *G*, *L* and *P*

 

51. PGM

Closed cooling water system for main groups *B*, *M*, and *X*

 

52. PGQ

Closed cooling water system for main groups "Q" and "S"

 

53. PUN

Proportioning equipment

 

54. PUG

Debris filter equipment

 

55. QJK

Gas supply and distribution system CO2 (carbon dioxide)

 

56. QJF

Chilled water systems for conventional area

 

57. QLC

Condensate system

 

58. QLA

Feedwater system

 

59. QCC

Hydrazine supply and distribution

 

60. QCE

Ammonia supply and distribution

 

61. QCD

Phosphate supply and distribution

40

How To Read KKS No.

How To Read KKS No.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41

41

1. Main Steam System

1. Main Steam System 42

42

43
44

44

45

45

Purpose:

1. Main Steam System

The system fulfils the following tasks:

1. Transferring of the HP steam from the HRSG to the steam turbine

2. Transferring of the IP steam from the HRSG to the steam turbine

3. Transferring of the LP steam from the HRSG to the steam turbine

4. Transferring of the cold reheat steam from the HP steam turbine outlet HP bypass discharge line to the HRSG reheat section

5. Providing the ejector system with motive steam

6. Providing the gland steam system of the steam turbine with steam

7. Providing the deaerator with pegging steam

Description of Main Steam System:

and the

The HP steam taken from the HRSG HP superheater is fed through the HP steam line to the HP Steam turbine.

This HP steam expands in the HP steam turbine and leaves the turbine as cold reheat steam.

While the steam turbine is not able to take over the whole steam. The HP steam is fed to the HP steam bypass station. In the HP bypass station the HP steam is conditioned down to the cold reheat steam pressure and temperature level. The steam is also fed into the cold reheat steam line.

The cold reheat steam is fed back to the HRSG where it is mixed to the IP steam and reheated in the IP superheater.

The hot reheat steam (IP steam level) taken from the HRSG IP superheater is fed through the IP steam line to the IP section of the steam turbine where it expands and leaves to the LP section of the turbine.

While the steam turbine is not able to take over the whole steam (for example during start-up) the IP steam is fed to the IP steam bypass station and dumped into the condenser.

The LP steam taken from the HRSG LP superheater is fed through the LP steam line to the LP section of the steam turbine where it expands and leaves to the condenser.

While the steam turbine is not able to take over the whole steam (for example during start-up) the LP steam is fed to the LP steam bypass station and dumped into the condenser.

46

         

Design

Oper.

Design

Temp

 

Sr.

KKS

Name

Fluid

Dia.

Pr.(bar)

Pr.

Temp.

Oper.

Material

No.

mm

(bar)

(°°°°C)

(°°°°C)

   

High

           

9Cr-

Pressure

1Mo-V

1.

18LBA50BR001

Steam

Steam

300

153

138.4

572

566

Alloy

Line

Steel

                 

2

¼

2.

18LBC10BR001

Cold

Reheat

Steam

Line

Steam

500

39

31

460

351

Cr Mo

Alloy

Steel

                 

1

¼

3.

18LBC10BR004

Cold

Reheat

Steam

Line

Steam

500

39

31

420

351

Cr Mo

Alloy

Steal

   

Intermedi

             

4.

18LBA41BR001

ate Pr.

Steam

Line

(HRS)

Steam

450

34

28

572

566

9Cr-

1Mo-V

Alloy

Steel

   

Intermedi

             

5.

18LBA41BR001

ate Pr.

Steam

Line

(HRS)

Steam

450

34

28

572

566

9Cr-

1Mo-V

Alloy

Steel

   

Low

             

Pressure

Carbon

6.

18LBA10BR001

Steam

Steam

350

7.50

4.97

305

289

Steel

Line

Table: 1

47

Interface to other Systems:

1. HP steam coming from the HRSG at the HP superheater steam outlet.

2. HP steam exits to the HP steam turbine.

3. HP steam exits to the HP bypass station (LBF).

4. IP steam coming from the HRSG at the IP superheater steam outlet.

5. IP steam exits to the IP steam turbine.

6. IP steam exits to the IP bypass station (MAN40).

7. Cold reheat steam coming from the HP steam turbine outlet.

8. Cold reheat steam coming from the HP bypass station (LBF).

9. Cold reheat steam exits to gland steam system of the steam turbine (System MAW).

10. LP steam coming from the HRSG at the LP superheater steam outlet.

11. LP steam exits to the LP steam turbine.

12. LP steam exits to the LP bypass station (MAN10).

Main steam lines:

The system consists of the following main steam lines:

1 HP steam lines.

18LBA50BR001

18LBA50BR002

2 IP steam lines (HRH).

18LBA40BR001

18LBA40BR002

18LBA41BR001

18LBA41BR002

18LBA42BR001

18LBA42BR002

3 Cold reheat steam lines.

18LBC10BR001

18LBC10BR002

18LBC10BR003

18LBC10BR004

18LBC10BR005

4 LP steam lines.

18LBA10BR001

18LBA10BR002

18LBA10BR003

48

2. Main Condensate System

2. Main Condensate System 49

49

50

50

51

51

52

52

53

53

2. Main Condensate System

Purpose:

The system fulfils the following tasks:

1. Condensing the steam from the steam turbine exhaust and bypass stations

2. Delivering the main condensate from the hot well to the deaerator / feedwater tank

3. Delivering condensate to the bypass stations for injection

4. Delivering condensate to the flash box and the steam turbine exhaust hood spray system for injection

5. Collecting non-condensable gases for the extraction to atmosphere

6. Collecting condensate from the steam turbine drains, the ejector system and the gland steam system

7. Compensating water losses with demineralized water (“make-up water”)

8. Controlling the water level in the hot well

9. Ensuring the required minimum flow rate through the condensate pumps

10. Ensuring the required minimum flow rate through the service ejector steam condenser.

Description of Main Condensate System:

The steam produced in the HRSG enters mainly trough the ST or the bypass stations into the condenser neck and is guided to the condenser tubes. The cooling water is forced by the pumps of the main cooling water system through the condenser tubes.

The steam condenses on the outside of the condenser tubes and transfers its heat to the cooling water. The condensate is collected in the hot well.

Condensed water from the steam turbine drains, the gland steam system and the service ejectors is collected in the flash box and is guided also into the hot well. The condensate is delivered from the hotwell to the deaerator / feed water tank by 2 x 100% condensate pumps. The part of the condensate extracted as injection water for the steam conditioning in the bypass stations, the flash box and the ST returns back to the hotwell.

The main amount of the condensate is fed through the two stage condensers of the service ejector in operation (2 x 100% service ejectors) in order to remove the condensation heat of the motive steam for the service ejectors. Downstream the service ejector the condensate is fed through the condenser of the gland steam system.

Downstream the gland steam condenser the condensate flow is split into the discharge flow transferred to the deaerator / feed water tank and the recirculation flow returned to the hotwell via the flash box.

54

The discharge flow is controlled by condensate discharge control valve depending on the water level in the hotwell.

The recirculation flow is adjusted by the condensate recirculation control valve depending on the position of the discharge control valve, ensuring the required minimum flow through the condensate pump and the service ejector and gland steam condenser.

Finally the condensate is fed into the deaerator / feed water tank, from there it is delivered again to the HRSG for steam production.

The system consists of the following main components:

1 Main condenser (18MAG01AC001)

2 Hot well (18MAG03BB001)

3 Condensate pumps

18LCB10AP001

18LCB20AP001

4 Flash box 18MAG04AC001

5 Pump vent lines

18LCB10BR201

18LCB20BR201

18LCB40BR201

6 Pump discharge line shut-off valves

18LCA11AA002

18LCA12AA002

7 Condensate discharge control valve (18LCA30AA002)

8 Condensate recirculation control valve (18LCA31AA002)

9 Service make-up water shut-off valve (18LCP30AA001)

55

Sr.

       

Design

Oper.

Design

Temp

 

No.

KKS

Name

Fluid

Dia.

Pr.(bar)

Pr.

Temp.

Oper.

Material

mm

(bar)

(°°°°C)

(°°°°C)

   

Low

             

Pressure

Carbon

1.

18LBA10BR001

Steam

Steam

350

7.50

4.97

305

289

Steel

Line

   

Inlet to

             

2.

18LCA01BR001

Condensat

e

pump

Steam/

400

1.50

0.04

95

28.3

Carbon

Water

Steel

   

Inlet to

             

3.

18LCA01BR002

Condensat

e

pump

Steam/

300

1.50

0.04

95

28.3

Carbon

Water

Steel

   

Outlet of

             

Condensat

Steam/

Carbon

4.

18LCA11BR001

e

pump

Water

200

16

15

95

28.4

Steel

   

Inlet to

             

5.

18LCA20BR001

service

Steam/

250

16

15

95

28.4

Carbon

Ejector

Water

Steel

   

Inlet to

             

6.

18LCA20BR002

service

Steam/

Carbon

Ejector

Water

200

16

15

95

28.4

Steel

   

Outlet of

             

7.

18LCA20BR022

service

Steam/

200

16

15

95

28.4

Carbon

Ejector

Water

Steel

   

Outlet of

             

18LCA30BR002

Gland

Steam/

Carbon

8.

steam

Water

200

16

15

95

28.4

Steel

 

condenser

   

Inlet to

Steam/

         

Carbon

9.

18LCA30BR003

feed water

Water

200

16

15

95

28.4

Steel

tank

 

56

     

Steam/

         

Carbon

10.

18MAJ20BR01

1

Inlet to

flash tank

Water

50

0.40

0.50

110

60

Steel

   

Condensat

             

e

Steam/

Water

Stainles

11.

18LCE11BR001

desuperhe

ating spray

25

16

95

s Steel

316L

line

 

12.

18LCB40BR201

Inlet to

Steam/

25

1.50

10

110

28.4

Carbon

flash tank

Water

Steel

13.

18LCB10BR201

Inlet to

Steam/

25

1.50

10

110

28.4

Carbon

Steel

flash tank

Water

Table: 2

Interfaces to other Systems:

1. LP steam enters into the condenser neck from the steam turbine exhaust.

2. Expanded and desuperheated IP/LP steam enters into the condenser neck from the IP Bypass station and the LP Bypass Station.

3. Non-condensable gases exit through the condenser evacuation line to the start-up ejector and service ejectors.

4. Cooling water is fed from and returned to the Main Cooling Water System (PAB) through the condenser tubes.

5. Steam and water enters from the steam turbine internal drains into the flash box.

6. Demineralized water enters into the condenser from the Demineralized Water System (GHC) through the service make-up water line and into the flash box through the emergency make-up water line.

7. The condensate flows through the inter/after condensers of the service ejectors (MAJ) and through the condenser of the gland steam system (MAW30) and exits to the deaerator / feedwater tank (LAA). The excess condensate exits to the waste water system (GMA).

57

3. Air Removal System

3. Air Removal System 58

58

59

59

60

60

Purpose:

3. Air Removal System

The system fulfils the following tasks:

1. Evacuating of the steam turbine, condenser neck, condenser, flash box, deaerator and feedwater tank during start-up of the plant

2. Venting of non-condensable gases from the deaerator and the condenser during normal operation

Description of Air Removal System:

The air removal system (ejector system) sucks the non-condensable gases out of the condenser and vents them to atmosphere. The single stage start-up ejector is used for start-up evacuation. It serves for the fast removal of higher amounts of non-condensable gases and the pressure reduction in the condenser from atmospheric pressure down to the operation range of the service ejector. The service evacuation is carried out by one of the 2 x 100% two stage service ejector, with inter and after condenser. The service ejector serves to vent the non-condensable gases entering the water steam cycle during normal operation. Start-up and service ejector require motive steam with a certain pressure for their operation. This motive steam is taken from the cold reheat steam line and throttled down to the required pressure by the related steam control valves upstream the ejectors. The motive steam of the start-up ejector is vented together with the non- condensable gases to atmosphere. The motive steam of the service ejector condenses in the two-stage condenser. The condensed steam is returned to the process via the flash box and the condenser hotwell.

Interfaces to other Systems:

1. Motive steam coming from the cold reheat steam line of the main steam system (LBA).

2. Non-condensable gases enter from the condenser (LC).

3. Steam/non-condensable gases mixture exits through the start-up ejector silencer to atmosphere.

4. Drain condensate form the start-up ejector silencer exits to the waste water system (GMA).

5. Non-condensable gases exit through the exhaust pipe with flap at the service ejector to atmosphere.

6. Condensed motive steam and adhered steam of the suction flow exit form the service ejector to the flash box of the main condensate system (LC).

7. Main Condensate enters from and exits to the main condensate system (LC).

61

Sr.

       

Desig

Oper.

Design

Temp

 

No.

KKS

Name

Fluid

Dia.

n

Pr.

Temp.

Oper.

Material

mm

Pr.(ba

(bar)

(°°°°C)

(°°°°C)

r)

   

Coming

             

Cr

1.

18MAJ50BR001

from

CRH

line

Steam

150

39

32

420

351

Mo Alloy

Steel

   

Going

             

Cr

2.

18MAJ50BR002

to Start

up

ejector

Steam

150

39

8

420

171

Mo Alloy

Steel

   

Going

             

Cr

3.

18MAJ09BR001

to

Service

Ejector

Steam

25

39

11.60

420

351

Mo Alloy

Steel

   

Air

             

Remov

Steam/

60

Carbon

4.

18MAJ15BR001

al

Water

250

0.40

1

110

Steel

Line

 
   

Coming

             

From

Steam/

60

Cabon

5.

18MAJ10BR001

Conden

Water

300

0.40

1

110

Steel

ser

 
   

Coming

             

From

Steam/

60

Carbon

6.

18MAJ01BR001

Conden

Water

200

0.40

1

110

Steel

ser

 
   

Coming

             

From

Steam/

60

Carbon

7.

18MAJ02BR001

Conden

Water

200

0.40

1

110

Steel

ser

 
   

Air

             

Remov

al

Line

Steam/

Water

Carbon

8.

18MAJ11BR001

Going

to

300

0.40

1

110

60

Steel

Service

 

Ejector

 

62

   

Conden

             

sate

desupe

Stainless

11.

18LCE11BR001

rheatin

Steam/

Water

25

16

95

Steel

g

316L

spray

 

line

12.

18LCB40BR201

Inlet to

flash

Steam/

Water

25

1.50

10

110

28.4

Carbon

tank

Steel

   

Inlet to

           

Carbon

13.

18LCB10BR201

flash

tank

Steam/

Water

25

1.50

10

110

28.4

Steel

Table-3

63

Main Components:

The system consists of the following main components:

1. 1 x 100 % Start-up ejector (18MAJ50BN001)

2. Start-up ejector silencer (18MAJ50BS001)

3. Start-up ejector steam shut-off valve (18MAJ50AA001)

4. Start-up ejector steam control valve (18MAJ50AA002)

5. Start-up ejector air shut-off valve (18MAJ15AA010)

6. 2 x 100% Service ejectors

18MAJ20BN001

18MAJ30BN001

7. Service ejector steam shut-off valve (18MAJ09AA001)

8. Service ejector steam control valve (18MAJ09AA002)

9. Service ejector air shut-off valve for both ejectors (18MAJ11AA001)

10. Service ejector air shut-off valve for ejector 1 (18MAJ12AA001)

11. Service ejector air shut-off valve for ejector 2 (18MAJ13AA001)

64

4. HP Turbine By Pass System

4. HP Turbine By Pass System 65

65

66

66

67

67

4. HP Turbine By Pass System

Purpose:

1. Take over of the produced HP steam of the heat recovery steam generator during start-up and shutdown while the steam turbine is not in operation.

2. Take over of the produced HP steam of the heat recovery steam generator in case of a steam turbine trip or load rejection.

3. Keeping the HP steam pressure and pressure gradient within defined limits.

Description of HP Turbine By Pass System:

The HP bypass system guides the HP live steam, bypassing the HP steam turbine, into the cold reheat line. The live steam is conditioned by expanding and desuperheating with HP feedwater injection in the bypass control valve.

The HP bypass control valve is continuously kept warm by a small steam flow through the warm-up line. This reduces the thermal stress at a fast take-over of the hot HP steam in case of a steam turbine trip.

The HP bypass system comes into operation after the steam pressure in the HP steam line has reached a minimum value. During normal operation, the HP bypass system remains in stand-by mode, meaning it is ready to take over the HP steam of the HRSG in case of a steam turbine limitation or trip.

Interfaces to Other Systems:

1. HP steam enters from the HP steam line of the Main Steam System (LBA).

2. HP feedwater enters for injection from the common HP feedwater line of the HP Feedwater Pump System (LAC50).

3. Desuperheated steam leaves to the cold reheat steam line of the Main Steam System (LBA).

68

Sr.

     

Dia.

Design

Oper.

Design

Temp

 

No.

KKS

Name

Fluid

mm

Pr.(bar)

Pr.

Temp.

Oper.

Material

(bar)

(°°°°C)

(°°°°C)

   

H.P

           

9Cr-

1.

18LBA55BR001

Main

1Mo-V

Steam

Steam

250

153

138

572

566

Alloy

pipe line

Steel

   

Warm-

           

9Cr-

2.

18LBF10BR601

up line

1Mo-V

Steam

50

153

138.4

572

566

Alloy

Steel

   

Cold

           

9Cr-

3.

18LBC15BR001

Reheat

1Mo-V

Pipe line

Steam

400

39

33.50

560

350

Alloy

System

Steel

   

Cold

           

2 ¼

4.

18LBC15BR002

Reheat

Cr Mo

Pipe line

Steam

400

39

33.50

420

350

Alloy

System

Steel

   

De-

             

5.

18LBF11BR002

Supper

Carbon

heating

Water

80

230

175

127

62

Steel

line

Main Components:

Table: 4

1. HP bypass control valve (18LBF10AA001)

2. HP bypass steam lines (18LBA55BR001), (18LBC15BR001), and

(18LBC15BR002)

3. HP bypass water injection shut-off valve (18LBF11AA001)

4. HP bypass water injection control valve (18LBF11AA002)

5. Injection water lines (18LBF11BR001), (18LBF11BR002)

6. HP bypass warm-up line (18LBF10BR601)

7. Injection water line drain (18LBF11BR201)

69

5. IP Turbine By Pass System

5. IP Turbine By Pass System 70

70

71

71

72

72

5. IP Turbine By Pass System

Purpose:

The system fulfils the following tasks:

1 Taking over of the produced IP steam of the HRSG during start-up and shut- down while the ST is not in operation

2 Taking over of the produced IP steam of the HRSG in case of a ST trip or load rejection.

3 Keeping the HP steam pressure and pressure gradient within defined limits.

Description of IP Turbine By Pass System:

The IP bypass guides the IP steam, bypassing the IP/LP steam turbine, into the condenser.

The IP steam is conditioned by expanding and de-superheating with condensate injection in the bypass control valve.

The IP bypass control valve is continuously kept warm with a small steam flow through the warm-up line. This serves to reduce the thermal stress at a fast take-over of the hot IP steam in case of a steam turbine trip.

The bypass shut-off valve, the bypass control valve and the bypass water injection control valve have pneumatic actuators.

The IP turbine control valves open according the run-up and load control of the steam turbine, also keeping the fixed pressure and the allowed pressure gradients. The bypass control valve closes accordingly.

The IP bypass remains in stand-by, ready to take over the IP steam in case of a steam turbine limitation or trip.

Interfaces to other Systems:

1 IP steam enters from the IP steam line of the main steam system (LBA).

2 Injection water enters from the main condensate system (LC).

3 De-superheated steam exits through the perforated plate to the main condenser (MAG).

73

Sr.

     

Dia.

Design

Oper.

Design

Temp

 

No.

KKS

Name

Fluid

mm

Pr.

Pr.

Temp.

Oper.

Material

(bar)

(bar)

(°°°°C)