You are on page 1of 146

thematic recommendations

19962008
1996 1998 1999 2003 2006 2008
HCNM
K AZAKHSTAN 2 0 1 0

1 9 9 6 2 0 0 8
K A Z A K H S T A N 2 0 1 0
H
C
N
M

t
h
e
m
a
t
i
c

r
e
c
o
m
m
e
n
d
a
t
i
o
n
s

1
9
9
6

2
0
0
8
B
K
H
M


1
9
9
6

2
0
0
8
1 9 9 6 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 9 2 0 0 3 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 8
B K H M
43407_Omslag Dual Language.indd 1 25-10-2010 09:43:20
HONM
themat|c recommendat|ons
1996 - 2008








K AZAKHSTAN 2 0 1 0
A|| r|ghts reserved. Oontents of th|s pub||cat|on may be free|y used and cop|ed for
educat|ona| and other non-commerc|a| purposes prov|ded that any such pub||cat|on
|s accompan|ed by an acknow|edgement of the OSOE/HONM as the source.


Pub||shed by the OSOE H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
Pr|nsessegracht 22
2514AP The Hague
The Nether|ands
www.osce-hcnm.org


lSBN 978-90-75989-13-7

OSOE/HONM 2010

Pr|nted |n the Nether|ands














The OSOE/HONM wou|d ||ke to thank the Government of Kazakhstan for prov|d|ng support for
the pub||cat|on of th|s book.
Tab|e of contents


Foreword
by Kanat Saudabayev - OSOE Oha|rperson-|n-Off|ce, Secretary of State
and M|n|ster for Fore|gn Affa|rs of the Repub||c of Kazakhstan


i
Foreword
by Knut vo||ebaek - OSOE H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es



The Hague Recommendations Regarding the Education Rights
of National Minorities & Explanatory Note - -- - 1996

1

The Oslo Recommendations Regarding the Linguistic Rights
of National Minorities & Explanatory Note - -- - 1998

13

The Lund Recommendations on the Effective Participation
of National Minorities in Public Life & Explanatory Note - 1999

35

Guidelines on the use of Minority Languages
in the Broadcast Media & Explanatory Note - 2003

57

Recommendations on Policing in Multi-Ethnic Societies
& Explanatory Note - -- - 2006


77

The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations on National Minorities
in lnter-State Relations & Explanatory Note - 2008

113





i
Foreword
Chairperson-in-Office of the OSCE

The post of H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (HONM} was estab||shed |n
1992 w|th the a|m of strengthen|ng stab|||ty and secur|ty |n the OSOE part|c|pat|ng
States through the |dent|f|cat|on and prevent|on of |nter-ethn|c conf||cts at the
ear||est stage. By p|ay|ng an act|ve part |n the reso|ut|on of conf||cts at the end of the
twent|eth and start of the twenty-f|rst century and by study|ng the |nternat|ona|
expert|se accumu|ated over t|me, the HONM has |dent|f|ed a number of pr|or|ty
areas of part|cu|ar |mportance |n ma|nta|n|ng ba|anced re|at|ons between the
major|ty and m|nor|ty groups |n mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es.

ln th|s context, the recommendat|ons drafted by the HONM for the OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States on the r|ghts of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n such spheres as educat|on,
the med|a, |anguage, po||c|ng, effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n pub||c and po||t|ca| ||fe as we||
as the |nvo|vement of representat|ves of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n |nter-State re|at|ons
const|tute the qu|ntessent|a| pract|ca| and theoret|ca| work of the HONM.

The Hague Recommendat|ons (1996}, The Os|o Recommendat|ons (1998}, The
|und Recommendat|ons (1999}, Gu|de||nes on the use of M|nor|ty |anguages |n the
Broadcast Med|a (2003}, Recommendat|ons on Po||c|ng |n Mu|t|-Ethn|c Soc|et|es
(2006} and The Bo|zano/Bozen Recommendat|ons (2008} have embod|ed a gu|d|ng
framework and standards |n var|ous spheres concern|ng the |nterests of States and
the nat|ona| m|nor|t|es ||v|ng |n them. These recommendat|ons a|m to prov|de
pract|ca| ass|stance to the members of our Organ|zat|on and take account of the
needs and |nterests of the popu|at|on as a who|e and the nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

The Kazakh Oha|rmansh|p |s p|eased to present th|s compend|um of the
aforement|oned recommendat|ons as a jo|nt project by the Oha|rmansh|p and the
HONM w|th the a|m of strengthen|ng |nter-ethn|c harmony |n the OSOE area.


||
lt |s my hope that the d|ssem|nat|on of these documents |n the form of a s|ng|e
compend|um among government bod|es, non-governmenta| organ|zat|ons and
other |nterested part|es w||| he|p to promote |nterethn|c peace and harmony
throughout our Organ|zat|on's area of respons|b|||ty.




|s|s| 5s0dsos,e.
C|s||oe|so|-||-O//|ce o/ ||e O5CE
5ec|e|s|, o/ 5|s|e s|d
/|||s|e| /o| Fo|e|| ///s||s o/ ||e
|eo0o||c o/ |szs||s|s|





















|||
Foreword
OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities

|et me take th|s opportun|ty to thank the Kazakh Oha|rpersonsh|p of the OSOE for
the |n|t|at|ve to pub||sh a|| themat|c recommendat|ons e|aborated by the off|ce of the
H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (HONM} s|nce |ts estab||shment |n 1992.
These recommendat|ons have come to form an |ntegra| part of the OSOE
comm|tments and have served as the bas|s of the HONM`s conf||ct prevent|on work.
The fundamenta| quest|on addressed through these recommendat|ons |s how
var|ous commun|t|es w|th d|fferent cu|tures, needs and asp|rat|ons can ||ve together
|n peace and d|gn|ty, ensur|ng the susta|nab|||ty of mu|t|-ethn|c States. Th|s was the
pr|mary cha||enge |n the ear|y 1990s when the |nst|tut|on of the HONM was set up
and |t rema|ns so today as g|oba||zat|on br|ngs ever-grow|ng d|vers|ty to our nat|ona|
commun|t|es.

The mandate of the HONM |s that of conf||ct prevent|on at the ear||est poss|b|e
stage. lts purpose |s to dea| w|th tens|ons |nvo|v|ng major|ty and m|nor|ty
commun|t|es that have the potent|a| to underm|ne reg|ona| and |nternat|ona| secur|ty.
From the very outset, |t was c|ear to me and my predecessors that the road to
susta|nab|e secur|ty and v|ab|||ty of mu|t|-ethn|c States ||es, among other th|ngs, |n
the protect|on and promot|on of human r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng those of persons be|ong|ng
to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. The need to understand that respect for human r|ghts and the
ma|ntenance of peace and secur|ty are c|ose|y |nterconnected a|so underp|ns the
OSOE`s approach to comprehens|ve secur|ty. lt |s for th|s reason that a|| success|ve
H|gh Oomm|ss|oners have recogn|zed the necess|ty to promote respect and
guarantee m|nor|ty cu|tures and |dent|t|es and have assumed the task of
contr|but|ng to the e|aborat|on and enhancement of m|nor|ty r|ghts standards. The
themat|c recommendat|ons co||ected |n th|s b|||ngua| vo|ume represent the
framework that together w|th other |nternat|ona| standard-sett|ng documents steers
the HONM`s approach to conf||ct prevent|on.

The recommendat|ons have been born out of the HONM`s pract|ca| exper|ence,
cover|ng those recurr|ng themes and |ssues wh|ch have become the subject of the
HONM`s attent|on |n d|fferent cases over the years. Often, the most v|o|ent of
contemporary conf||cts have been tr|ggered by the den|a| of the most bas|c r|ghts
such as the r|ght to use one`s mother tongue, pract|ce one`s re||g|on and part|c|pate

|v
|n pub||c ||fe |n a c||mate of respect and equa||ty. The f|rst three sets of
recommendat|ons, therefore, cover |ssues of m|nor|ty educat|on, use of m|nor|ty
|anguages and effect|ve part|c|pat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the governance of
States. These are the |mportant aspects of state-m|nor|ty re|at|ons addressed |n The
Hague (1996}, Os|o (1998} and |und (1999} Recommendat|ons respect|ve|y.

The subsequent Gu|de||nes on the use of M|nor|ty |anguages |n the Broadcast
Med|a (2003} and Recommendat|ons on Po||c|ng |n Mu|t|-Ethn|c Soc|et|es (2006}
dea| w|th two other spec|f|c |ssues |mpact|ng on the da||y ||ves of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.
The Med|a Gu|de||nes were |ssued |n response to a part|cu|ar concern that the use
of m|nor|ty |anguages |n the broadcast med|a was be|ng ||m|ted by some States.
They prov|de pract|ca| gu|dance to ass|st po||cymakers to deve|op med|a po||c|es
and |eg|s|at|on that respect |nternat|ona| standards and str|ke the r|ght ba|ance
between the needs of major|ty and m|nor|ty commun|t|es. The Po||c|ng
Recommendat|ons focus on how to ach|eve |mpart|a| po||c|ng and respect for the
ru|e of |aw |n mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es. The |ssues covered |nc|ude recru|tment of
personne| from nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |nto the po||ce serv|ce, tra|n|ng of po||ce off|cers,
engagement w|th m|nor|ty commun|t|es, operat|ona| pract|ces and the prevent|on
and, |f necessary, management of conf||ct.

These recommendat|ons a|| dea| w|th the areas of domest|c respons|b|||ty of
|nd|v|dua| States and are meant to be reference documents for pract|t|oners who are
often confronted w|th hav|ng to f|nd answers to comp|ex quest|ons that |nvo|ve
m|nor|ty matters. The m|nor|ty quest|on, however, often engages the |nterest of
more than one State and const|tutes a potent|a| source of |nter-State tens|on, |f not
conf||ct. Oonverse|y, so|ut|ons to m|nor|ty quest|ons are often not on|y found ,
but a|so States. Th|s |s the subject of the most recent set of HONM
recommendat|ons The Bo|zano/Bozen Recommendat|ons on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n
lnter-State Re|at|ons (2008}, wh|ch express|y address the |nternat|ona| d|mens|on of
the m|nor|ty quest|on. They prov|de gu|dance on how, under wh|ch cond|t|ons and
w|th|n wh|ch ||m|tat|ons States may support m|nor|t|es abroad w|thout stra|n|ng
|nterethn|c or jeopard|z|ng fr|end|y |nter-State re|at|ons.

A|| HONM recommendat|ons have been e|aborated w|th e|ther the d|rect
|nvo|vement or support of em|nent |nternat|ona| experts. They represent a w|de
range of cu|tura| and academ|c backgrounds, enr|ch|ng every document w|th the|r
broad know|edge and exper|ence. The recommendat|ons a|m to prov|de both

v
normat|ve and pract|ca| gu|dance to States based on |nternat|ona| norms and
standards. Each set of recommendat|ons |s exp|a|ned |n greater deta|| and w|th
reference to re|evant |nternat|ona| standards |n the Exp|anatory Notes that form an
|ntegra| part of each document. The standards have been |nterpreted spec|f|ca||y to
ensure the coherence of the|r app||cat|on |n open and democrat|c States. lt |s my
hope that by encourag|ng good and democrat|c governance and respect for human
r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng those of m|nor|t|es, the u|t|mate conf||ct prevent|on goa| of my
mandate w||| be fu|f|||ed.



||0| vo||eose|
|| Comm|ss|o|e| o| ^s||o|s| /||o||||es












The Hague Recommendations



1
The Hague Recommendat|ons
Regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts
of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es &
Exp|anatory Note - 1996

Introduct|on

ln |ts He|s|nk| Dec|s|ons of Ju|y 1992, the Organ|zat|on for Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on |n
Europe (OSOE} estab||shed the pos|t|on of H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es to
be "an |nstrument of conf||ct prevent|on at the ear||est poss|b|e stage". Th|s mandate
was created |arge|y |n react|on to the s|tuat|on |n the former Yugos|av|a wh|ch some
feared wou|d be repeated e|sewhere |n Europe, espec|a||y among the countr|es |n
trans|t|on to democracy, and cou|d underm|ne the prom|se of peace and prosper|ty as
env|saged |n the Oharter of Par|s for a New Europe adopted by the Heads of State and
Government |n November 1990.

On 1 January 1993, Mr. Max van der Stoe| took up h|s dut|es as the f|rst OSOE H|gh
Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (HONM}. Draw|ng on h|s cons|derab|e persona|
exper|ence as a former Member of Par||ament, Fore|gn M|n|ster of The Nether|ands,
Permanent Representat|ve to the n|ted Nat|ons, and |ong-t|me human r|ghts
advocate, Mr. van der Stoe| turned h|s attent|on to the many d|sputes between
m|nor|t|es and centra| author|t|es |n Europe wh|ch had the potent|a|, |n h|s v|ew, to
esca|ate. Act|ng qu|et|y through d|p|omat|c means, the HONM has become |nvo|ved
|n over a dozen States, |nc|ud|ng A|ban|a, Oroat|a, Eston|a, Hungary, Kazakstan,
Kyrgyzstan, |atv|a, the Former Yugos|av Repub||c of Macedon|a, Roman|a, S|ovak|a
and kra|ne. H|s |nvo|vement has focused pr|mar||y on those s|tuat|ons |nvo|v|ng
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|/ethn|c groups who const|tute the numer|ca| major|ty
|n one State but the numer|ca| m|nor|ty |n another State, thus engag|ng the |nterest
of governmenta| author|t|es |n each State and const|tut|ng a potent|a| source of
|nter-State tens|on |f not conf||ct. lndeed, such tens|ons have def|ned much of
European h|story.

ln address|ng the substance of tens|ons |nvo|v|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, the HONM
approaches the |ssues as an |ndependent, |mpart|a| and cooperat|ve actor. Wh||e the
HONM |s not a superv|sory mechan|sm, he emp|oys the |nternat|ona| standards to
wh|ch each State has agreed as h|s pr|nc|pa| framework of ana|ys|s and the foundat|on
of h|s spec|f|c recommendat|ons. ln th|s re|at|on, |t |s |mportant to reca|| the
comm|tments undertaken by a|| OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, |n part|cu|ar those of the
1990 Oopenhagen Document of the Oonference on the Human D|mens|on wh|ch, |n
Part lv, art|cu|ates deta||ed ob||gat|ons re|at|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. lt |s a|so |mportant
to note that a|| OSOE States are bound by n|ted Nat|ons ob||gat|ons re|at|ng to human
r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, and that the great major|ty of OSOE States are a|so
bound by the standards of the Oounc|| of Europe.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


2
After a|most four years of |ntense act|v|ty, the HONM has been ab|e to |dent|fy certa|n
recurrent |ssues and themes wh|ch have become the subject of h|s attent|on |n a
number of States |n wh|ch he |s |nvo|ved. M|nor|ty educat|on, |n part|cu|ar m|nor|ty
|anguage educat|on, |s a h|gh pr|or|ty among these s|nce, as the HONM has recent|y
stated, "lt |s c|ear that educat|on |s an extreme|y |mportant e|ement for the preservat|on
and the deepen|ng of the |dent|ty of persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty." W|th th|s
|n m|nd, the HONM requested, |n the autumn of 1995, the Foundat|on on lnter-Ethn|c
Re|at|ons to consu|t a sma|| group of |nternat|ona||y recogn|zed experts w|th a v|ew to
rece|v|ng the|r recommendat|ons on an appropr|ate and coherent app||cat|on of m|nor|ty
educat|on r|ghts |n the OSOE reg|on.

The Foundat|on on lnter-Ethn|c Re|at|ons - a non-governmenta| organ|zat|on
estab||shed |n 1993 to carry out spec|a||zed act|v|t|es |n support of the HONM -
fac|||tated a ser|es of consu|tat|ons of experts from var|ous pert|nent d|sc|p||nes,
|nc|ud|ng two meet|ngs |n The Hague. Among the experts consu|ted were, on the
one hand, jur|sts spec|a||z|ng on |nternat|ona| |aw and, on the other hand, ||ngu|sts
and educat|ona||sts spec|a||z|ng on the s|tuat|ons and needs of m|nor|t|es.
Spec|f|ca||y the experts were:

A.G. Boyd Robertson, Sen|or |ecturer |n Gae||c, n|vers|ty of Strathc|yde
(n|ted K|ngdom}; Dr. P|eter van D|jk, Member of the State Oounc|| (the
Nether|ands}; Dr. Asbjorn E|de, D|rector of the Norweg|an lnst|tute of Human
R|ghts (Norway}; Professor Re|n M||erson, Oha|r of lnternat|ona| |aw, K|ng's
Oo||ege (n|ted K|ngdom}; Professor A||an Rosas, Abo Akadem| n|vers|ty
(F|n|and}; Dr. Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Assoc|ate Professor, Department of
|anguages and Ou|ture, Rosk||de n|vers|ty (Denmark}; Professor Gyorgy
Szepe, Department of |anguage Sc|ences, n|vers|ty Janus Pannon|us
(Hungary}; Professor Patr|ck Thornberry, Department of |aw, Kee|e
n|vers|ty (n|ted K|ngdom}; Mr. Jenne van der ve|de, Sen|or Ourr|cu|um
Adv|ser, Nat|ona| lnst|tute for Ourr|cu|um Deve|opment (the Nether|ands}.

ln so far as ex|st|ng standards of m|nor|ty r|ghts are part of human r|ghts, the start|ng
po|nt of the consu|tat|ons was to presume comp||ance by States w|th a|| other human
r|ghts ob||gat|ons |nc|ud|ng, |n part|cu|ar, freedom from d|scr|m|nat|on. lt was a|so
presumed that the u|t|mate object of a|| human r|ghts |s the fu|| and free deve|opment of
the |nd|v|dua| human persona||ty |n cond|t|ons of equa||ty. Oonsequent|y, |t was
presumed that c|v|| soc|ety shou|d be open and f|u|d and, therefore, |ntegrate a||
persons, |nc|ud|ng those be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

The resu|tant Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
attempt to c|ar|fy |n re|at|ve|y stra|ght-forward |anguage the content of m|nor|ty
educat|on r|ghts genera||y app||cab|e |n the s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch the HONM |s |nvo|ved. ln
add|t|on, the standards have been |nterpreted |n such a way as to ensure the|r
coherence |n app||cat|on. The Recommendat|ons are d|v|ded |nto e|ght sub-head|ngs
wh|ch respond to the educat|ona| |ssues wh|ch ar|se |n pract|ce. A more deta||ed
exp|anat|on of the Recommendat|ons |s prov|ded |n an accompany|ng Exp|anatory
Note where|n express reference to the re|evant |nternat|ona| standards |s to be found.

The Hague Recommendations



3
Recommendat|ons

The sp|r|t of |nternat|ona| |nstruments

1} The r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to ma|nta|n the|r |dent|ty
can on|y be fu||y rea||sed |f they acqu|re a proper know|edge of the|r mother
tongue dur|ng the educat|ona| process. At the same t|me, persons be|ong|ng
to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es have a respons|b|||ty to |ntegrate |nto the w|der nat|ona|
soc|ety through the acqu|s|t|on of a proper know|edge of the State |anguage.

2} ln app|y|ng |nternat|ona| |nstruments wh|ch may benef|t persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, States shou|d cons|stent|y adhere to the fundamenta|
pr|nc|p|es of equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on.

3} lt shou|d be borne |n m|nd that the re|evant |nternat|ona| ob||gat|ons and
comm|tments const|tute |nternat|ona| m|n|mum standards. lt wou|d be
contrary to the|r sp|r|t and |ntent to |nterpret these ob||gat|ons and
comm|tments |n a restr|ct|ve manner.


Measures and resources

4} States shou|d approach m|nor|ty educat|on r|ghts |n a proact|ve manner.
Where requ|red, spec|a| measures shou|d be adopted by States to act|ve|y
|mp|ement m|nor|ty |anguage educat|on r|ghts to the max|mum of the|r
ava||ab|e resources, |nd|v|dua||y and through |nternat|ona| ass|stance and
cooperat|on, espec|a||y econom|c and techn|ca|.


Decentra||zat|on and part|c|pat|on

5j States shou|d create cond|t|ons enab||ng |nst|tut|ons wh|ch are representat|ve
of members of the nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n quest|on to part|c|pate, |n a
mean|ngfu| way, |n the deve|opment and |mp|ementat|on of po||c|es and
programmes re|ated to m|nor|ty educat|on.

6} States shou|d endow reg|ona| and |oca| author|t|es w|th appropr|ate
competences concern|ng m|nor|ty educat|on thereby a|so fac|||tat|ng the
part|c|pat|on of m|nor|t|es |n the process of po||cy formu|at|on at a reg|ona|
and/or |oca| |eve|.

7} States shou|d adopt measures to encourage parenta| |nvo|vement and cho|ce |n
the educat|ona| system at a |oca| |eve|, |nc|ud|ng |n the f|e|d of m|nor|ty |anguage
educat|on.


HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


4
Pub||c and pr|vate |nst|tut|ons

8j ln accordance w|th |nternat|ona| |aw, persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es,
||ke others, have the r|ght to estab||sh and manage the|r own pr|vate educat|ona|
|nst|tut|ons |n conform|ty w|th domest|c |aw. These |nst|tut|ons may |nc|ude
schoo|s teach|ng |n the m|nor|ty |anguage.

9} G|ven the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to estab||sh and
manage the|r own educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons, States may not h|nder the enjoyment
of th|s r|ght by |mpos|ng undu|y burdensome |ega| and adm|n|strat|ve
requ|rements regu|at|ng the estab||shment and management of these
|nst|tut|ons.

10} Pr|vate m|nor|ty |anguage educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons are ent|t|ed to seek the|r own
sources of fund|ng w|thout any h|ndrance or d|scr|m|nat|on from the State
budget, |nternat|ona| sources and the pr|vate sector.


M|nor|ty educat|on at pr|mary and secondary |eve|s

11j The f|rst years of educat|on are of p|vota| |mportance |n a ch||d's deve|opment.
Educat|ona| research suggests that the med|um of teach|ng at pre-schoo| and
k|ndergarten |eve|s shou|d |dea||y be the ch||d's |anguage. Wherever poss|b|e,
States shou|d create cond|t|ons enab||ng parents to ava|| themse|ves of th|s
opt|on.

12} Research a|so |nd|cates that |n pr|mary schoo|, the curr|cu|um shou|d |dea||y be
taught |n the m|nor|ty |anguage. The m|nor|ty |anguage shou|d be taught as a
subject on a regu|ar bas|s. The off|c|a| State |anguage shou|d a|so be taught as
a subject on a regu|ar bas|s preferab|y by b|||ngua| teachers who have a good
understand|ng of the ch||dren's cu|tura| and ||ngu|st|c background. Towards the
end of th|s per|od, a few pract|ca| or non-theoret|ca| subjects shou|d be taught
through the med|um of the State |anguage. Wherever poss|b|e, States shou|d
create cond|t|ons enab||ng parents to ava|| themse|ves of th|s opt|on.

13j ln secondary schoo|, a substant|a| part of the curr|cu|um shou|d be taught
through the med|um of the m|nor|ty |anguage. The m|nor|ty |anguage shou|d be
taught as a subject on a regu|ar bas|s. The State |anguage shou|d a|so be
taught as a subject on a regu|ar bas|s, preferab|y by b|||ngua| teachers who have
a good understand|ng of the ch||dren's cu|tura| and ||ngu|st|c background.
Throughout th|s per|od, the number of subjects taught |n the State |anguage,
shou|d gradua||y be |ncreased. Research f|nd|ngs suggest that the more gradua|
the |ncrease, the better for the ch||d.

14} The ma|ntenance of the pr|mary and secondary |eve|s of m|nor|ty |anguage
educat|on depends a great dea| on the ava||ab|||ty of teachers tra|ned |n a||
d|sc|p||nes |n the mother tongue. Therefore, ensu|ng from the|r ob||gat|on to
prov|de adequate opportun|t|es for m|nor|ty |anguage educat|on, States
The Hague Recommendations



5
shou|d prov|de adequate fac|||t|es for the appropr|ate tra|n|ng of teachers and
shou|d fac|||tate access to such tra|n|ng.


M|nor|ty educat|on |n vocat|ona| schoo|s

15j vocat|ona| tra|n|ng |n the m|nor|ty |anguage shou|d be made access|b|e |n
spec|f|c subjects when persons be|ong|ng to the nat|ona| m|nor|ty |n quest|on
have expressed a des|re for |t, when they have demonstrated the need for |t and
when the|r numer|ca| strength just|f|es |t.

16} The curr|cu|um of vocat|ona| schoo|s prov|d|ng tra|n|ng |n the mother tongue
shou|d be dev|sed |n a way wh|ch ensures that, upon comp|et|on of these
programmes, students are ab|e to pract|ce the|r occupat|on both |n the m|nor|ty
and the State |anguage.


M|nor|ty educat|on at tert|ary |eve|

17j Persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es shou|d have access to tert|ary
educat|on |n the|r own |anguage when they have demonstrated the need for |t
and when the|r numer|ca| strength just|f|es |t. M|nor|ty |anguage tert|ary
educat|on can |eg|t|mate|y be made ava||ab|e to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es by
estab||sh|ng the requ|red fac|||t|es w|th|n ex|st|ng educat|ona| structures prov|ded
these can adequate|y serve the needs of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty |n quest|on.
Persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es may a|so seek ways and means to
estab||sh the|r own educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons at the tert|ary |eve|.

18} ln s|tuat|ons where a nat|ona| m|nor|ty has, |n recent h|story, ma|nta|ned and
contro||ed |ts own |nst|tut|ons of h|gher |earn|ng, th|s fact shou|d be recogn|sed
|n determ|n|ng future patterns of prov|s|on.


Curr|cu|um deve|opment

19j ln v|ew of the |mportance and va|ue that |nternat|ona| |nstruments attach to
|ntercu|tura| educat|on and the h|gh||ght|ng of m|nor|ty h|stor|es, cu|tures and
trad|t|ons, State educat|ona| author|t|es shou|d ensure that the genera|
compu|sory curr|cu|um |nc|udes the teach|ng of the h|stor|es, cu|tures and
trad|t|ons of the|r respect|ve nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Encourag|ng members of the
major|ty to |earn the |anguages of the nat|ona| m|nor|t|es ||v|ng w|th|n the State
wou|d contr|bute to the strengthen|ng of to|erance and mu|t|cu|tura||sm w|th|n
the State.

20} The curr|cu|um content re|ated to m|nor|t|es shou|d be deve|oped w|th the act|ve
part|c|pat|on of bod|es representat|ve of the m|nor|t|es |n quest|on.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


6
21} States shou|d fac|||tate the estab||shment of centres for m|nor|ty |anguage
educat|on curr|cu|um deve|opment and assessment. These centres cou|d be
||nked to ex|st|ng |nst|tut|ons prov|d|ng these can adequate|y fac|||tate the
ach|evement of the curr|cu|um re|ated object|ves.


Exp|anatory Note

Genera| |ntroduct|on

The n|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts of 1948 broke new ground |n that |t was the
f|rst |nternat|ona| |nstrument to dec|are educat|on to be a human r|ght.

Art|c|e 26 of the Dec|arat|on refers to e|ementary educat|on as compu|sory. lt engages
States to make techn|ca| and profess|ona| educat|on genera||y ava||ab|e and h|gher
educat|on access|b|e on the bas|s of mer|t. lt a|so makes c|ear that the object|ve of
educat|on shou|d be the fu|| deve|opment of the human persona||ty and the
strengthen|ng of respect for human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms. Art|c|e 26 goes
on to say that educat|on sha|| promote understand|ng, to|erance and fr|endsh|p among
nat|ons, rac|a| or re||g|ous groups and contr|bute to the ma|ntenance of peace. lt a|so
makes c|ear that parents have a pr|or r|ght to choose the k|nd of educat|on that sha|| be
g|ven to the|r ch||dren. The prov|s|ons of art|c|e 26 are re|terated w|th greater strength |n
the context of treaty |aw and |n greater deta|| |n art|c|e 13 of the Internat|ona|
Covenant on Econom|c, Soc|a| and Cu|tura| R|ghts.

Art|c|e 26 sets the tone of openness and |nc|us|veness for the subsequent |nternat|ona|
|nstruments wh|ch have emerged over t|me and have conf|rmed and further e|aborated
the r|ght to educat|on both genera||y and w|th reference to m|nor|t|es spec|f|ca||y.

Art|c|e 27 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts.
Art|c|e 30 of the Convent|on on the R|ghts of the Ch||d.

The above ment|oned art|c|es guarantee the r|ght of m|nor|t|es to use the|r |anguage |n
commun|ty w|th other members of the|r group. The art|c|es be|ow, for the|r part, prov|de
guarantees re|at|ng to the poss|b|||ty for nat|ona| m|nor|t|es of |earn|ng the|r mother
tongue or |earn|ng |n the|r mother tongue.

Art|c|e 5 of the UNESCO Convent|on Aga|nst D|scr|m|nat|on |n Educat|on.
Paragraph 34 of the Document of the Copenhagen Meet|ng of the
Conference on the Human D|mens|on of the CSCE.
Art|c|e 4 of the UN Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to
Nat|ona| or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous and L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es.
Art|c|e 14 of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es.

The Hague Recommendations



7
To vary|ng degrees, a|| of these |nstruments dec|are the r|ght of m|nor|t|es to ma|nta|n
the|r co||ect|ve |dent|ty through the med|um of the|r mother tongue. Th|s r|ght |s
exerc|sed, above a||, through educat|on. These same |nstruments, however, under||ne
that the r|ght to ma|nta|n the co||ect|ve |dent|ty through the m|nor|ty |anguage must be
ba|anced by the respons|b|||ty to |ntegrate and part|c|pate |n the w|der nat|ona| soc|ety.
Such |ntegrat|on requ|res the acqu|s|t|on of a sound know|edge of both that soc|ety and
the State |anguage(s}. The promot|on of to|erance and p|ura||sm |s a|so an |mportant
component of th|s dynam|c.

The |nternat|ona| human r|ghts |nstruments that make reference to m|nor|ty |anguage
educat|on rema|n somewhat vague and genera|. They make no spec|f|c reference to
degrees of access nor do they st|pu|ate wh|ch |eve|s of mother tongue educat|on
shou|d be made ava||ab|e to m|nor|t|es and by what means. Such concepts as
"adequate opportun|t|es" to be taught the m|nor|ty |anguage or to rece|ve |nstruct|on |n
th|s |anguage, as out||ned |n art|c|e 14 of the Oounc|| of Europe's Framework
Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es, shou|d be cons|dered |n the
||ght of other e|ements. These |nc|ude the necess|ty of benef|c|a| cond|t|ons fac|||tat|ng
the preservat|on, ma|ntenance and deve|opment of |anguage and cu|ture as out||ned |n
art|c|e 5 of the same Oonvent|on or the requ|rement to take the necessary measures to
protect the ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c and re||g|ous |dent|ty of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es as
st|pu|ated |n paragraph 33 of the Document of the Copenhagen Meet|ng of the
Conference on the Human D|mens|on of the CSCE.

lrrespect|ve of the |eve| of access wh|ch may be afforded by States, |t shou|d not be
estab||shed |n an arb|trary fash|on. States are requ|red to g|ve due cons|derat|on to the
needs of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es as these are cons|stent|y expressed and demonstrated by
the commun|t|es |n quest|on.

For the|r part, nat|ona| m|nor|t|es shou|d ensure that the|r demands are reasonab|e.
They shou|d g|ve due cons|derat|on to such |eg|t|mate factors as the|r own numer|ca|
strength, the|r demograph|c dens|ty |n any g|ven reg|on (or reg|ons}, as we|| as the|r
capac|ty to contr|bute to the durab|||ty of these serv|ces and fac|||t|es over t|me.


The sp|r|t of |nternat|ona| |nstruments

Over the years there has been an evo|ut|on |n the manner |n wh|ch the r|ghts of
m|nor|t|es have been formu|ated |n |nternat|ona| standards. Such pass|ve formu|ae as
"...persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es sha|| not be den|ed the r|ght..." as expressed |n the
Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts (1966} have g|ven way to a
more pos|t|ve, proact|ve approach such as "...States w||| protect the ethn|c, cu|tura|,
||ngu|st|c and re||g|ous |dent|ty of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es..." as conta|ned |n the Document
of the Copenhagen Meet|ng of the Conference on the Human D|mens|on of
the CSCE (1990}. Th|s progress|ve change of approach wou|d |nd|cate that a
restr|ct|ve or m|n|ma||st|c |nterpretat|on of the |nstruments |s not |n ||ne w|th the sp|r|t |n
wh|ch they have been formu|ated.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


8
ln add|t|on, the |eve| of access must be estab||shed |n conform|ty w|th the under|y|ng
pr|nc|p|es of equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on as these are formu|ated |n art|c|e 1 of The
Charter of the Un|ted Nat|ons and |n art|c|e 2 of The Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of
Human R|ghts and as re|terated |n most |nternat|ona| |nstruments. Oons|derat|on must
a|so be g|ven to the cond|t|ons spec|f|c to each State.


Measures and resources

OSOE States are encouraged to approach the |ssue of m|nor|ty r|ghts |n a proact|ve
manner, |.e. |n the sp|r|t of paragraph 31 of the Copenhagen Document wh|ch
encourages them to adopt spec|a| measures to ensure fu|| equa||ty for members of
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. ln th|s same sense, paragraph 33 of the Copenhagen Document
requ|res States to protect the ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c and re||g|ous |dent|ty of nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es ||v|ng |n the|r terr|tory and to create cond|t|ons for the promot|on of that
|dent|ty.

ln some cases OSOE States are faced w|th ser|ous f|sca| ||m|tat|ons wh|ch cou|d
|eg|t|mate|y hamper the|r capac|ty to |mp|ement educat|on po||c|es and programmes for
the benef|t of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. A|though some r|ghts must be |mp|emented
|mmed|ate|y States shou|d str|ve to ach|eve, progress|ve|y, the fu|| rea||zat|on of m|nor|ty
|anguage educat|on r|ghts to the max|mum of the|r ava||ab|e resources, |nc|ud|ng
through |nternat|ona| ass|stance and cooperat|on |n the sp|r|t of art|c|e 2 of the
Internat|ona| Covenant on Econom|c, Soc|a| and Cu|tura| R|ghts. . . .


Decentra||zat|on and part|c|pat|on

Art|c|e 15 of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es, paragraph 30 of the Document of the Copenhagen Meet|ng of the
Conference on the Human D|mens|on of the CSCE and art|c|e 3 of the UN
Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to Nat|ona| or Ethn|c,
Re||g|ous and L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es a|| under||ne the necess|ty for nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
to part|c|pate |n the dec|s|on-mak|ng process, espec|a||y |n cases when the |ssues
be|ng cons|dered affect them d|rect|y.

Effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n the dec|s|on-mak|ng process, espec|a||y as |t affects m|nor|t|es,
|s an essent|a| component of the democrat|c process.

The act|ve |nvo|vement of parents at |oca| and reg|ona| |eve|s, as we|| as the effect|ve
part|c|pat|on of |nst|tut|ons represent|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the educat|ona| process
(|nc|ud|ng the process of curr|cu|um deve|opment as |t re|ates to m|nor|t|es}, shou|d be
fac|||tated by States |n the sp|r|t of paragraph 35 of the Copenhagen Document
wh|ch stresses the |mportance of effect|ve part|c|pat|on of members of nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es |n pub||c affa|rs |nc|ud|ng |n the affa|rs re|at|ng to the protect|on and promot|on
of the|r own |dent|ty.
The Hague Recommendations



9
Pub||c and pr|vate |nst|tut|ons

Art|c|e 27 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts refers to the
r|ght of m|nor|t|es to use the|r |anguage |n commun|ty w|th other members of the|r
group. Art|c|e 13 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on Econom|c, Soc|a| and Cu|tura|
R|ghts guarantees the r|ght of parents to choose for the|r ch||dren schoo|s other than
those estab||shed by pub||c author|t|es. lt a|so guarantees the r|ght of |nd|v|dua|s and
bod|es to estab||sh and manage a|ternat|ve educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons as |ong as these
conform to m|n|mum educat|ona| standards as |a|d down by the State. Art|c|e 13 of the
Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es refers to the
r|ght of m|nor|t|es to estab||sh and manage the|r own educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons, a|though
the State has no ob||gat|on to fund these |nst|tut|ons. Paragraph 32 of the
Copenhagen Document |mposes no ob||gat|on on the State to fund these
|nst|tut|ons, but |t does st|pu|ate that these |nst|tut|ons may "seek pub||c ass|stance from
the State |n conform|ty w|th nat|ona| |eg|s|at|on".

The r|ght of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to estab||sh and manage the|r own |nst|tut|ons, |nc|ud|ng
educat|ona| ones, |s we|| grounded |n |nternat|ona| |aw and must be recogn|zed as
such. A|though the State has the r|ght to oversee th|s process from an adm|n|strat|ve
perspect|ve and |n conform|ty w|th |ts own |eg|s|at|on, |t must not prevent the enjoyment
of th|s r|ght by |mpos|ng unreasonab|e adm|n|strat|ve requ|rements wh|ch m|ght render
|t pract|ca||y |mposs|b|e for nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to estab||sh the|r own educat|ona|
|nst|tut|ons.

A|though there |s no forma| ob||gat|on for States to fund these pr|vate estab||shments,
these |nst|tut|ons shou|d not be prevented from seek|ng resources from a|| domest|c
and |nternat|ona| sources.


M|nor|ty educat|on at pr|mary and secondary |eve|s

lnternat|ona| |nstruments re|at|ng to m|nor|ty |anguage educat|on dec|are that m|nor|t|es
not on|y have the r|ght to ma|nta|n the|r |dent|ty through the med|um of the|r mother
tongue but that they a|so have the r|ght to |ntegrate |nto and part|c|pate |n the w|der
nat|ona| soc|ety by |earn|ng the State |anguage.

ln v|ew of the above, the atta|nment of mu|t|||ngua||sm by the nat|ona| m|nor|t|es of
OSOE States can be seen as a most effect|ve way of meet|ng the object|ves of the
|nternat|ona| |nstruments re|at|ng to the protect|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es as we|| as to
the|r |ntegrat|on. The recommendat|ons re|at|ng to pr|mary and secondary schoo||ng are
meant to serve as a gu|de |n the deve|opment of m|nor|ty |anguage educat|on po||cy
and |n the prov|s|on of re|ated programmes.

The approach proposed |s suggested by educat|ona| research and const|tutes a
rea||st|c |nterpretat|on of re|evant |nternat|ona| norms.

The effect|veness of th|s approach depends on a number of factors. F|rst there |s the
extent to wh|ch th|s approach strengthens the weaker m|nor|ty mother tongue by us|ng
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


10
|t as the med|um for teach|ng. Another factor |s the extent to wh|ch b|||ngua| teachers
are |nvo|ved |n the ent|re process.

Yet another factor to be cons|dered |s the extent to wh|ch both the m|nor|ty and the
State |anguage are taught as subjects throughout the 12 years of schoo||ng and f|na||y
the extent to wh|ch both |anguages are used as a med|um of educat|on |n an opt|ma|
way |n d|fferent phases of the ch||d's educat|on.

Th|s approach str|ves to create the space that |s requ|red for the weaker m|nor|ty
|anguage to thr|ve. lt |s |n marked contrast w|th other approaches whose object|ve |s to
teach the m|nor|ty |anguage or even to carry out m|n|mum |nstruct|on |n the m|nor|ty
|anguage on|y w|th a v|ew to fac|||tat|ng an ear|y trans|t|on to teach|ng exc|us|ve|y |n the
State |anguage.

Submers|on-type approaches whereby the curr|cu|um |s taught exc|us|ve|y through the
med|um of the State |anguage and m|nor|ty ch||dren are ent|re|y |ntegrated |nto c|asses
w|th ch||dren of the major|ty are not |n ||ne w|th |nternat|ona| standards. ||kew|se, th|s
app||es to segregated schoo|s |n wh|ch the ent|re curr|cu|um |s taught exc|us|ve|y
through the med|um of the m|nor|ty mother tongue, throughout the ent|re educat|ona|
process and where the major|ty |anguage |s not taught at a|| or on|y to a m|n|ma| extent.


M|nor|ty educat|on |n vocat|ona| schoo|s

The r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to |earn the|r mother tongue or to
rece|ve |nstruct|on |n the|r mother tongue as formu|ated |n paragraph 34 of the
Copenhagen Document shou|d |mp|y the r|ght to vocat|ona| tra|n|ng |n the mother
tongue |n spec|f|c subjects. ln the sp|r|t of equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on, OSOE States
shou|d ensure access to such tra|n|ng where the des|re for |t |s made ev|dent and the
numbers just|fy |t.

On the other hand, the capac|ty of the State to p|an and contro| |ts econom|c and
educat|ona| po||c|es shou|d not be d|m|n|shed. The ab|||ty of graduates of m|nor|ty
|anguage vocat|ona| tra|n|ng schoo|s a|so to funct|on profess|ona||y |n the State
|anguage, wou|d be an advantage. lt wou|d enab|e them to work both |n the reg|on |n
wh|ch the m|nor|ty |n quest|on |s concentrated as we|| as anywhere e|se |n the State. At
a t|me of trans|t|on to the market economy wh|ch presupposes the unfettered
movement of goods, serv|ces and |abour, such a ||m|tat|on can make |t d|ff|cu|t for the
State to fac|||tate opportun|t|es for emp|oyment and overa|| econom|c deve|opment.
Therefore, vocat|ona| tra|n|ng |n the mother tongue of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es shou|d ensure
that the students concerned a|so acqu|re appropr|ate tra|n|ng |n the State |anguage(s}.


M|nor|ty educat|on at tert|ary |eve|

As |n the prev|ous case, the r|ght to |earn the|r mother tongue or to rece|ve |nstruct|on |n
the mother tongue as formu|ated |n paragraph 34 of the Copenhagen Document
cou|d |nfer the r|ght of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to tert|ary educat|on |n the|r mother tongue. ln
The Hague Recommendations



11
th|s case aga|n the pr|nc|p|es of equa| access and non-d|scr|m|nat|on must be taken
|nto cons|derat|on, as we|| as the needs of the commun|ty and the usua| numer|ca|
just|f|cat|on. ln the absence of government fund|ng, the freedom of m|nor|t|es to
estab||sh the|r own |nst|tut|ons of h|gher |earn|ng shou|d not be restr|cted.

Paragraph 33 of the Copenhagen Document stresses the |mportance of the State
not on|y protect|ng the |dent|ty of m|nor|t|es but promot|ng |t as we||. ln v|ew of the
above, States shou|d cons|der the poss|b|||ty of mak|ng tert|ary educat|on |n the m|nor|ty
|anguage ava||ab|e where the need has been demonstrated and the numer|ca| strength
of the m|nor|ty just|f|es |t. ln th|s context tert|ary educat|on |n the mother tongue shou|d
not be restr|cted to teacher tra|n|ng.

Th|s hav|ng been estab||shed, the f|sca| ||m|tat|ons faced part|cu|ar|y by States |n
trans|t|on to market econom|es must be taken |nto cons|derat|on. The prov|s|on of
tert|ary educat|on |n the m|nor|ty |anguage |s not synonymous w|th the estab||shment of
para||e| |nfrastructures. Moreover the entrenchment of para||e| educat|ona| |nst|tut|ons at
un|vers|ty |eve| cou|d contr|bute to the |so|at|on of the m|nor|ty from the major|ty. Art|c|e
26 of the Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts stresses that the object|ve of
educat|on |s the promot|on of understand|ng, to|erance and fr|endsh|p among nat|ons,
rac|a| and re||g|ous groups. ln th|s sp|r|t, and w|th |ntegrat|on |n m|nd, the |nte||ectua| and
cu|tura| deve|opment of major|t|es and m|nor|t|es shou|d not take p|ace |n |so|at|on.


Curr|cu|um deve|opment

S|nce the end of the Second Wor|d War an ever-grow|ng number of |nternat|ona|
|nstruments have p|aced |ncreas|ng emphas|s on the object|ves of educat|on.
Accord|ng to these |nstruments educat|on |s requ|red not on|y to prov|de str|ct|y
academ|c or techn|ca| tra|n|ng but |t |s a|so requ|red to |ncu|cate such va|ues as
to|erance, p|ura||sm, ant|-rac|sm and |nternat|ona| and |nter-communa| harmony. Such
requ|rements ev|dent|y put a spec|a| onus on States that have nat|ona| m|nor|t|es w|th|n
the|r borders. ln these States, the |ssue of |nter-group\|nter-ethn|c cohab|tat|on and
harmony |s a|so of v|ta| |mportance to the|r |nterna| stab|||ty. Such cohab|tat|on and
harmony |s a|so an |mportant factor |n the preservat|on of reg|ona| peace and secur|ty.

Art|c|e 4 of the UN Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to Nat|ona|
or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous and L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es requ|res States to "encourage
know|edge of the h|story, trad|t|ons, |anguage and cu|ture of the m|nor|t|es ex|st|ng
w|th|n the|r terr|tory". Art|c|e 12 of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of
Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es requ|res States to "foster know|edge of the cu|ture, h|story,
|anguage and re||g|on of the|r nat|ona| m|nor|t|es".

Paragraph 34 of the Document of the Copenhagen Meet|ng of the Conference
on the Human D|mens|on of the CSCE refers to the requ|rement that, |n the schoo|
curr|cu|um, States "w||| a|so take account of the h|story and cu|ture of nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es".

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


12
These requ|rements make |t |ncumbent upon States to make room |n the schoo|
curr|cu|um for the teach|ng of the h|story and trad|t|ons of the var|ous nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
||v|ng w|th|n the|r borders. Th|s can be ach|eved |n a un||atera| manner by the State
author|t|es w|thout due regard to the part|c|pat|on of the m|nor|t|es |n quest|on. Such an
approach, however, |s not adv|sab|e and cou|d be detr|menta|.

Art|c|e 15 of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es, paragraph 30 of the Document of the Copenhagen Meet|ng of the
Conference on the Human D|mens|on of the CSCE and art|c|e 3 of the UN
Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to Nat|ona| or Ethn|c,
Re||g|ous and L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es a|| under||ne the necess|ty for nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
to part|c|pate |n the dec|s|on-mak|ng process espec|a||y |n cases when the |ssues be|ng
cons|dered affect them d|rect|y.

The emergence of centres for m|nor|ty |anguage educat|ona| curr|cu|um deve|opment
wou|d therefore fac|||tate th|s dua| process and ensure |ts qua||ty and profess|ona||sm.


F|na| remarks

The subject of m|nor|ty educat|on r|ghts |s a sens|t|ve |ssue |n a number of part|c|pat|ng
States of the OSOE. At the same t|me the educat|ona| process has the potent|a| to
effect|ve|y fac|||tate and strengthen mutua| respect and understand|ng between the
var|ous commun|t|es w|th|n part|c|pat|ng States.

ln v|ew of the de||cate nature of th|s |ssue at the present t|me, and |n v|ew of the
somewhat vague and genera| nature of the standards conta|ned |n the var|ous
|nternat|ona| human r|ghts |nstruments, the e|aborat|on of a ser|es of recommendat|ons
may contr|bute to creat|ng a better understand|ng of, and approach to |ssues of
m|nor|ty educat|on r|ghts. The Hague Recommendat|ons are not |ntended to be
comprehens|ve. They are meant to serve as a genera| framework wh|ch can ass|st
States |n the process of m|nor|ty educat|on po||cy deve|opment.

The Oslo Recommendations



13
The Os|o Recommendat|ons
Regard|ng the ||ngu|st|c R|ghts
of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
& Exp|anatory Note - 1998

Introduct|on

ln |ts He|s|nk| Dec|s|ons of Ju|y 1992, the Organ|zat|on for Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on |n
Europe (OSOE} estab||shed the pos|t|on of H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es to
be "an |nstrument of conf||ct prevent|on at the ear||est poss|b|e stage". Th|s mandate
was created |arge|y |n react|on to the s|tuat|on |n the former Yugos|av|a wh|ch some
feared wou|d be repeated e|sewhere |n Europe, espec|a||y among the countr|es |n
trans|t|on to democracy, and cou|d underm|ne the prom|se of peace and prosper|ty as
env|saged |n the Oharter of Par|s for a New Europe adopted by the Heads of State and
Government |n November 1990.

On 1 January 1993, Mr. Max van der Stoe| took up h|s dut|es as the f|rst OSOE H|gh
Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (HONM}. Draw|ng on h|s cons|derab|e persona|
exper|ence as a former Member of Par||ament and Fore|gn M|n|ster of The Nether|ands,
Permanent Representat|ve to the n|ted Nat|ons, and |ong-t|me human r|ghts
advocate, Mr. van der Stoe| turned h|s attent|on to the many d|sputes between
m|nor|t|es and centra| author|t|es |n Europe wh|ch had the potent|a|, |n h|s v|ew, to
esca|ate. Act|ng qu|et|y through d|p|omat|c means, the HONM has become |nvo|ved |n
the fo||ow|ng States: A|ban|a, Oroat|a, Eston|a, Hungary, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, |atv|a,
the Former Yugos|av Repub||c of Macedon|a, Roman|a, S|ovak|a and kra|ne. H|s
|nvo|vement has focused pr|mar||y on those s|tuat|ons |nvo|v|ng persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona|/ethn|c groups who const|tute the numer|ca| major|ty |n one State but the
numer|ca| m|nor|ty |n another (usua||y ne|ghbour|ng} State, thus engag|ng the |nterest of
governmenta| author|t|es |n each State and const|tut|ng a potent|a| source of |nter-State
tens|on |f not conf||ct. lndeed, such tens|ons have def|ned much of European h|story.

ln address|ng the substance of tens|ons |nvo|v|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, the HONM
approaches the |ssues as an |ndependent, |mpart|a| and cooperat|ve actor. Wh||e the
HONM |s not a superv|sory mechan|sm, he emp|oys the |nternat|ona| standards to
wh|ch each State has agreed as h|s pr|nc|pa| framework of ana|ys|s and the foundat|on
of h|s spec|f|c recommendat|ons. ln th|s re|at|on, |t |s |mportant to reca|| the
comm|tments undertaken by a|| OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, |n part|cu|ar those of the
1990 Oopenhagen Document of the Oonference on the Human D|mens|on wh|ch, |n
Part lv, art|cu|ates deta||ed ob||gat|ons re|at|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. lt |s a|so |mportant
to note that a|| OSOE States are bound by n|ted Nat|ons ob||gat|ons re|at|ng to human
r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, and that the great major|ty of OSOE States are a|so
bound by the standards of the Oounc|| of Europe.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


14
After f|ve years of |ntense act|v|ty, the HONM has been ab|e to |dent|fy certa|n recurrent
|ssues and themes wh|ch have become the subject of h|s attent|on |n a number of
States |n wh|ch he |s |nvo|ved. The ||ngu|st|c r|ghts of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |.e. the r|ght of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to use the|r |anguage |n the pr|vate and pub||c
spheres, |s such an |ssue. lnternat|ona| human r|ghts |nstruments refer to th|s r|ght |n a
number of d|fferent contexts. On the one hand, |anguage |s a persona| matter c|ose|y
connected w|th |dent|ty. On the other hand, |anguage |s an essent|a| too| of soc|a|
organ|sat|on wh|ch |n many s|tuat|ons becomes a matter of pub||c |nterest. Oerta|n|y,
the use of |anguage bears on numerous aspects of a State's funct|on|ng. ln a
democrat|c State comm|tted to human r|ghts, the accommodat|on of ex|st|ng d|vers|ty
thus becomes an |mportant matter of po||cy and |aw. Fa||ure to ach|eve the appropr|ate
ba|ance may be the source of |nter-ethn|c tens|ons.

lt |s w|th th|s |n m|nd that, |n the summer of 1996, the HONM requested the Foundat|on
on lnter-Ethn|c Re|at|ons to consu|t a sma|| group of |nternat|ona||y recogn|sed experts
w|th a v|ew to rece|v|ng the|r recommendat|ons on an appropr|ate and coherent
app||cat|on of the ||ngu|st|c r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the
OSOE reg|on. A s|m||ar request from the HONM had prev|ous|y resu|ted |n the
e|aborat|on of The Hague Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of
Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es and Exp|anatory Report.
1
lnsofar as The Hague
Recommendat|ons address comprehens|ve|y the use of the |anguage or |anguages of
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the f|e|d of educat|on, |t was dec|ded to exc|ude th|s |ssue from
cons|derat|on of the experts.

The Foundat|on on lnter-Ethn|c Re|at|ons - a non-governmenta| organ|sat|on
estab||shed |n 1993 to carry out spec|a||sed act|v|t|es |n support of the HONM -
fac|||tated a ser|es of consu|tat|ons of experts from var|ous pert|nent d|sc|p||nes,
|nc|ud|ng two meet|ngs |n Os|o and one |n The Hague. Among the experts consu|ted
were jur|sts spec|a||s|ng |n |nternat|ona| |aw, as we|| as ||ngu|sts, advocates and po||cy
ana|ysts spec|a||s|ng |n the s|tuat|ons and needs of m|nor|t|es. Spec|f|ca||y, the experts
were:

Professor Gudmundur A|fredsson, Oo-D|rector, Raou| Wa||enberg lnst|tute
(Sweden}; Professor Asbjorn E|de, Sen|or Fe||ow, Norweg|an lnst|tute of Human
R|ghts (Norway}; Ms. Ange||ta Kamenska, Sen|or Researcher, |atv|an Oentre for
Human R|ghts and Ethn|c Stud|es (|atv|a}; Mr. Dona|| O R|ag|n, Secretary
Genera|, European Bureau of |esser sed |anguages (lre|and}; Ms. Beate
S|yda|, Adv|sor, Norweg|an Forum for the Freedom of Express|on (Norway}; Dr.
M|que| Strube||, D|rector, lnst|tute of Oata|an Soc|o||ngu|st|cs, Government of
Oata|on|a (Spa|n}; Professor Gyorgy Szepe, Department of |anguage Sc|ences
at Janus Panon|us n|vers|ty (Hungary}; Professor Patr|ck Thornberry,
Department of |aw, Kee|e n|vers|ty (n|ted K|ngdom}; Dr. Fernand de
varennes, D|rector of the As|a-Pac|f|c Oentre for Human R|ghts and the
Prevent|on of Ethn|c Oonf||ct (Austra||a}; Professor Bruno de W|tte, Facu|ty of

1
Oop|es of The Hague Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es and Exp|anatory Report (October 1996} are ava||ab|e |n severa| |anguages from the
OSOE Off|ce of the H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es.
The Oslo Recommendations



15
|aw, n|vers|ty of Maastr|cht (the Nether|ands}; Mr. Jean-Mar|e Woehr||ng,
lnst|tut de dro|t |oca| a|sac|en-mose||an (France}.

lnsofar as ex|st|ng standards of m|nor|ty r|ghts are part of human r|ghts, the start|ng
po|nt for the consu|tat|ons was to presume comp||ance by States w|th a|| other human
r|ghts ob||gat|ons |nc|ud|ng, |n part|cu|ar, equa||ty and freedom from d|scr|m|nat|on,
freedom of express|on, freedom of assemb|y and of assoc|at|on, as we|| as a|| the r|ghts
and freedoms of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

lt was a|so presumed that the u|t|mate object of a|| human r|ghts |s the fu|| and free
deve|opment of the |nd|v|dua| human persona||ty |n cond|t|ons of equa||ty.
Oonsequent|y, |t was presumed that c|v|| soc|ety shou|d be open and f|u|d and,
therefore, |ntegrate a|| persons, |nc|ud|ng those be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. lnsofar
as the use of |anguage |s a|so a fundamenta||y commun|cat|ve matter, the essent|a|
soc|a| d|mens|on of the human exper|ence was a|so fu||y presumed.

The resu|tant Os|o Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the ||ngu|st|c R|ghts of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es attempt to c|ar|fy, |n re|at|ve|y stra|ght-forward |anguage, the content of
m|nor|ty |anguage r|ghts genera||y app||cab|e |n the s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch the HONM |s
|nvo|ved. ln add|t|on, the standards have been |nterpreted |n such a way as to ensure
the|r coherence |n app||cat|on. The Recommendat|ons are d|v|ded |nto sub-head|ngs
wh|ch respond to the |anguage re|ated |ssues wh|ch ar|se |n pract|ce. A more deta||ed
exp|anat|on of the Recommendat|ons |s prov|ded |n an accompany|ng Exp|anatory
Note where|n express reference to the re|evant |nternat|ona| standards |s to be found. lt
|s |ntended that each Recommendat|on |s read |n conjunct|on w|th the spec|f|ca||y
re|evant paragraphs of the Exp|anatory Note.

lt |s hoped that these Recommendat|ons w||| prov|de a usefu| reference for the
deve|opment of State po||c|es and |aws wh|ch w||| contr|bute to an effect|ve
|mp|ementat|on of the |anguage r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es,
espec|a||y |n the pub||c sphere.

A|though these Recommendat|ons refer to the use of |anguage by persons be|ong|ng
to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |t |s to be noted that the thrust of these Recommendat|ons and
the |nternat|ona| |nstruments from wh|ch they der|ve cou|d potent|a||y app|y to other
types of m|nor|t|es. The Recommendat|ons wh|ch fo||ow be|ow are meant to c|ar|fy the
ex|st|ng body of r|ghts. They are not meant to restr|ct the human r|ghts of any person or
groups of persons.


HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


16
Recommendat|ons

Names

1} Persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es have the r|ght to use the|r persona|
names |n the|r own |anguage accord|ng to the|r own trad|t|ons and ||ngu|st|c
systems. These sha|| be g|ven off|c|a| recogn|t|on and be used by the pub||c
author|t|es.

2} S|m||ar|y, pr|vate ent|t|es such as cu|tura| assoc|at|ons and bus|ness enterpr|ses
estab||shed by persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es sha|| enjoy the same
r|ght w|th regard to the|r names.

3} ln areas |nhab|ted by s|gn|f|cant numbers of persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona|
m|nor|ty and when there |s suff|c|ent demand, pub||c author|t|es sha|| make
prov|s|on for the d|sp|ay, a|so |n the m|nor|ty |anguage, of |oca| names, street
names and other topograph|ca| |nd|cat|ons |ntended for the pub||c.


Re||g|on

4} ln profess|ng and pract|c|ng h|s or her own re||g|on |nd|v|dua||y or |n commun|ty
w|th others, every person sha|| be ent|t|ed to use the |anguage(s} of h|s or her
cho|ce.

5} For those re||g|ous ceremon|es or acts perta|n|ng a|so to c|v|| status and wh|ch
have |ega| effect w|th|n the State concerned, the State may requ|re that
cert|f|cates and documents perta|n|ng to such status be produced a|so |n the
off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the State. The State may requ|re that reg|sters
perta|n|ng to c|v|| status be kept by the re||g|ous author|t|es a|so |n the off|c|a|
|anguage or |anguages of the State.


Commun|ty ||fe and NGOs

6} A|| persons, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, have the r|ght to
estab||sh and manage the|r own non-governmenta| organ|sat|ons, assoc|at|ons
and |nst|tut|ons. These ent|t|es may use the |anguage(s} of the|r choos|ng. The
State may not d|scr|m|nate aga|nst these ent|t|es on the bas|s of |anguage nor
sha|| |t undu|y restr|ct the r|ght of these ent|t|es to seek sources of fund|ng from
the State budget, |nternat|ona| sources or the pr|vate sector.

7} lf the State act|ve|y supports act|v|t|es |n, among others, the soc|a|, cu|tura| and
sports spheres, an equ|tab|e share of the tota| resources made ava||ab|e by the
State sha|| go to support those s|m||ar act|v|t|es undertaken by persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. State f|nanc|a| support for act|v|t|es wh|ch take
The Oslo Recommendations



17
p|ace |n the |anguage(s} of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n such
spheres sha|| be granted on a non-d|scr|m|natory bas|s.


The med|a

8} Persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es have the r|ght to estab||sh and ma|nta|n
the|r own m|nor|ty |anguage med|a. State regu|at|on of the broadcast med|a sha||
be based on object|ve and non-d|scr|m|natory cr|ter|a and sha|| not be used to
restr|ct enjoyment of m|nor|ty r|ghts.

9} Persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es shou|d have access to broadcast t|me
|n the|r own |anguage on pub||c|y funded med|a. At nat|ona|, reg|ona| and |oca|
|eve|s the amount and qua||ty of t|me a||ocated to broadcast|ng |n the |anguage
of a g|ven m|nor|ty shou|d be commensurate w|th the numer|ca| s|ze and
concentrat|on of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty and appropr|ate to |ts s|tuat|on and needs.

10} The |ndependent nature of the programm|ng of pub||c and pr|vate med|a |n the
|anguage(s} of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es sha|| be safeguarded. Pub||c med|a ed|tor|a|
boards oversee|ng the content and or|entat|on of programm|ng shou|d be
|ndependent and shou|d |nc|ude persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es serv|ng
|n the|r |ndependent capac|ty.

11} Access to med|a or|g|nat|ng from abroad sha|| not be undu|y restr|cted. Such
access shou|d not just|fy a d|m|nut|on of broadcast t|me a||ocated to the m|nor|ty
|n the pub||c|y funded med|a of the State of res|dence of the m|nor|t|es
concerned.


Econom|c ||fe

12} A|| persons, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, have the r|ght to
operate pr|vate enterpr|ses |n the |anguage or |anguages of the|r cho|ce. The
State may requ|re the add|t|ona| use of the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the
State on|y where a |eg|t|mate pub||c |nterest can be demonstrated, such as
|nterests re|at|ng to the protect|on of workers or consumers, or |n dea||ngs
between the enterpr|se and governmenta| author|t|es.


Adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es and pub||c serv|ces

13} ln reg|ons and |oca||t|es where persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty are
present |n s|gn|f|cant numbers and where the des|re for |t has been expressed,
persons be|ong|ng to th|s nat|ona| m|nor|ty sha|| have the r|ght to acqu|re c|v||
documents and cert|f|cates both |n the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the
State and |n the |anguage of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty |n quest|on from reg|ona|
and/or |oca| pub||c |nst|tut|ons. S|m||ar|y reg|ona| and/or |oca| pub||c |nst|tut|ons
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


18
sha|| keep the appropr|ate c|v|| reg|sters a|so |n the |anguage of the nat|ona|
m|nor|ty.

14} Persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es sha|| have adequate poss|b|||t|es to use
the|r |anguage |n commun|cat|ons w|th adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es espec|a||y |n
reg|ons and |oca||t|es where they have expressed a des|re for |t and where they
are present |n s|gn|f|cant numbers. S|m||ar|y, adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es sha||,
wherever poss|b|e, ensure that pub||c serv|ces are prov|ded a|so |n the |anguage
of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty. To th|s end, they sha|| adopt appropr|ate recru|tment
and/or tra|n|ng po||c|es and programmes.

15} ln reg|ons and |oca||t|es where persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty are
present |n s|gn|f|cant numbers, the State sha|| take measures to ensure that
e|ected members of reg|ona| and |oca| governmenta| bod|es can use a|so the
|anguage of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty dur|ng act|v|t|es re|at|ng to these bod|es.


Independent nat|ona| |nst|tut|ons

16} States |n wh|ch persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es ||ve shou|d ensure that
these persons have, |n add|t|on to appropr|ate jud|c|a| recourses, access to
|ndependent nat|ona| |nst|tut|ons, such as ombudspersons or human r|ghts
comm|ss|ons, |n cases where they fee| that the|r ||ngu|st|c r|ghts have been
v|o|ated.


The jud|c|a| author|t|es

17} A|| persons, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty, have the r|ght to
be |nformed prompt|y, |n a |anguage they understand, of the reasons for the|r
arrest and/or detent|on and of the nature and cause of any accusat|on aga|nst
them, and to defend themse|ves |n th|s |anguage, |f necessary w|th the free
ass|stance of an |nterpreter, before tr|a|, dur|ng tr|a| and on appea|.

18} ln reg|ons and |oca||t|es where persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty are
present |n s|gn|f|cant numbers and where the des|re for |t has been expressed,
persons be|ong|ng to th|s m|nor|ty shou|d have the r|ght to express themse|ves
|n the|r own |anguage |n jud|c|a| proceed|ngs, |f necessary w|th the free
ass|stance of an |nterpreter and/or trans|ator.

19} ln those reg|ons and |oca||t|es |n wh|ch persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty
||ve |n s|gn|f|cant numbers and where the des|re for |t has been expressed,
States shou|d g|ve due cons|derat|on to the feas|b|||ty of conduct|ng a|| jud|c|a|
proceed|ngs affect|ng such persons |n the |anguage of the m|nor|ty.


The Oslo Recommendations



19
Depr|vat|on of ||berty

20} The d|rector of a pena| |nst|tut|on and other personne| of the |nst|tut|on sha|| be
ab|e to speak the |anguage or |anguages of the greatest number of pr|soners, or
a |anguage understood by the greatest number of them. Recru|tment and/or
tra|n|ng programmes shou|d be d|rected towards th|s end. Whenever necessary,
the serv|ces of an |nterpreter sha|| be used.

21} Deta|ned persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es sha|| have the r|ght to use the
|anguage of the|r cho|ce |n commun|cat|ons w|th |nmates as we|| as w|th others.
Author|t|es sha||, wherever poss|b|e, adopt measures to enab|e pr|soners to
commun|cate |n the|r own |anguage both ora||y and |n persona|
correspondence, w|th|n the ||m|tat|ons prescr|bed by |aw. ln th|s re|at|on, a
deta|ned or |mpr|soned person shou|d, |n genera|, be kept |n a p|ace of
detent|on or |mpr|sonment near h|s or her usua| p|ace of res|dence.


Exp|anatory Note

Genera| |ntroduct|on

Art|c|e | of the Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts refers to the |nnate d|gn|ty of
a|| human be|ngs as the fundamenta| concept under|y|ng a|| human r|ghts standards.
Art|c|e 1 of the Dec|arat|on states "A|| human be|ngs are born free and equa| |n d|gn|ty
and r|ghts [...|." The |mportance of th|s art|c|e cannot be overest|mated. Not on|y does |t
re|ate to human r|ghts genera||y, |t a|so prov|des one of the foundat|ons for the ||ngu|st|c
r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Equa||ty |n d|gn|ty and r|ghts
presupposes respect for the |nd|v|dua|'s |dent|ty as a human be|ng. |anguage |s one of
the most fundamenta| components of human |dent|ty. Hence, respect for a person's
d|gn|ty |s |nt|mate|y connected w|th respect for the person's |dent|ty and consequent|y
for the person's |anguage.

ln th|s context, the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts |s of
cons|derab|e |mportance. Art|c|e 2 of the Covenant requ|res States to ensure that the
human r|ghts of a|| |nd|v|dua|s w|th|n the|r terr|tory and subject to the|r jur|sd|ct|on w||| be
ensured and respected "w|thout d|st|nct|on of any k|nd such as [...| |anguage [...|."
Art|c|e 19 of the Covenant guarantees freedom of express|on wh|ch, as |t |s formu|ated
|n the Covenant, not on|y guarantees the r|ght to |mpart or rece|ve |nformat|on and
|deas of a|| sorts, regard|ess of front|ers, but a|so guarantees the r|ght to do so |n the
med|um or |anguage of one's cho|ce. The |mpart|ng and rece|v|ng of |nformat|on a|so
suggests peop|e act|ng |n commun|ty. ln th|s context, Art|c|es 21 and 22 of the
Covenant guarantee|ng the freedoms of peacefu| assemb|y and assoc|at|on may be
espec|a||y re|evant.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


20
S|m||ar|y, |n Europe the freedom of express|on st|pu|ated |n Art|c|e 10 of the European
Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms
sha|| be, accord|ng to Art|c|e 14 of the same convent|on, "secured w|thout
d|scr|m|nat|on on any ground such as [...| |anguage [...|." W|th expressed reference to
both the Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts and the European Convent|on
for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms, the Oounc|| of
Europe`s Dec|arat|on on Freedom of Express|on and Informat|on aff|rms "that the
freedom of express|on and |nformat|on |s necessary for the soc|a|, econom|c, cu|tura|
and po||t|ca| deve|opment of every human be|ng, and const|tutes a cond|t|on for the
harmon|ous progress of soc|a| and cu|tura| groups, nat|ons and the |nternat|ona|
commun|ty". ln th|s connect|on, the freedoms of peacefu| assemb|y and assoc|at|on as
guaranteed by Art|c|e 11 of the European Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human
R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms are |mportant.

W|th|n the context of the Organ|zat|on for Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on |n Europe (OSOE},
the same fundamenta| |deas of freedom of express|on, assemb|y and assoc|at|on are
enumerated |n paragraphs 9.1-9.3 of the Document of the Copenhagen Meet|ng
of the Conference on the Human D|mens|on.

ln the Charter of Par|s for a New Europe, the Heads of State and Government of
the OSOE part|c|pat|ng States "aff|rm that, w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on, every |nd|v|dua| has
the r|ght to: [...| freedom of express|on, freedom of assoc|at|on and peacefu| assemb|y,
[...|."

Art|c|e 27 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts |s another key
prov|s|on wh|ch has d|rect bear|ng on the ||ngu|st|c r|ghts of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. lt aff|rms
that "persons be|ong|ng to [...| m|nor|t|es sha|| not be den|ed the r|ght, |n commun|ty
w|th the other members of the|r group, to [...| use the|r own |anguage".

S|m||ar|y, Art|c|e 2(1} of the UN Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to
Nat|ona| or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous and L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es proc|a|ms the r|ght of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to "use the|r own |anguage, |n pr|vate and |n
pub||c, free|y and w|thout |nterference or any form of d|scr|m|nat|on". Art|c|e 10(1} of the
Oounc|| of Europe's Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es st|pu|ates that States w||| recogn|se the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es "to use free|y and w|thout |nterference h|s or her m|nor|ty |anguage, |n
pr|vate and |n pub||c, ora||y and |n wr|t|ng."

A|though the |nstruments refer to the use of m|nor|ty |anguages |n pub||c and |n pr|vate,
these same |nstruments do not prec|se|y de||m|t the "pub||c" as opposed to the
"pr|vate" spheres. lndeed the spheres may over|ap. Th|s may we|| be the case, for
examp|e, when |nd|v|dua|s act|ng a|one or |n commun|ty w|th others seek to estab||sh
the|r own pr|vate med|a or schoo|s. What m|ght beg|n as a pr|vate |n|t|at|ve may
become the subject of |eg|t|mate pub||c |nterest. Such an |nterest may g|ve r|se to some
pub||c regu|at|on.

The use of m|nor|ty |anguages "|n pub||c and |n pr|vate" by persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es cannot be cons|dered w|thout mak|ng reference to educat|on.
The Oslo Recommendations



21
Educat|on |ssues as they re|ate to the |anguages of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are treated |n
deta|| |n The Hague Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es wh|ch were deve|oped for the benef|t of the OSOE H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on
Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es by The Foundat|on on lnter-Ethn|c Re|at|ons |n co||aborat|on w|th
experts of |nternat|ona| repute |n the f|e|ds of both |nternat|ona| human r|ghts and
educat|on. The Hague Recommendat|ons were deve|oped w|th a v|ew to fac|||tat|ng a
c|earer understand|ng of the |nternat|ona| |nstruments perta|n|ng to the r|ghts of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n th|s area wh|ch |s of such v|ta| |mportance to the
ma|ntenance and deve|opment of the |dent|ty of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es.

lnternat|ona| human r|ghts |nstruments st|pu|ate that human r|ghts are un|versa| and that
they must be enjoyed equa||y and w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on. Most human r|ghts, however,
are not abso|ute. The |nstruments do foresee a ||m|ted number of s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch
States wou|d be just|f|ed |n restr|ct|ng the app||cat|on of certa|n r|ghts. The restr|ct|ons
perm|tted by |nternat|ona| human r|ghts |aw can be |nvoked |n ||fe-threaten|ng
emergenc|es and |n s|tuat|ons wh|ch pose a threat to the r|ghts and freedoms of others,
or |n s|tuat|ons wh|ch threaten pub||c mora|s, pub||c hea|th, nat|ona| secur|ty and the
genera| we|fare |n a democrat|c soc|ety
2
. ln human r|ghts |aw, restr|ct|ons on freedoms
are to be |nterpreted restr|ct|ve|y.

The r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to use the|r |anguage(s} |n pub||c
and |n pr|vate as set forth and e|aborated |n The Os|o Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the
||ngu|st|c R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es must be seen |n a ba|anced context of fu||
part|c|pat|on |n the w|der soc|ety. The Recommendat|ons do not propose an |so|at|on|st
approach, but rather one wh|ch encourages a ba|ance between the r|ght of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to ma|nta|n and deve|op the|r own |dent|ty, cu|ture and
|anguage and the necess|ty of ensur|ng that they are ab|e to |ntegrate |nto the w|der
soc|ety as fu|| and equa| members. From th|s perspect|ve, such |ntegrat|on |s un||ke|y to
take p|ace w|thout a sound know|edge of the off|c|a| |anguage(s} of the State. The
prescr|pt|on for such educat|on |s |mp||ed |n Art|c|es 13 and 14 of the Internat|ona|
Covenant on Econom|c, Soc|a| and Cu|tura| R|ghts and Art|c|es 28 and 29 of the
Convent|on on the R|ghts of the Ch||d wh|ch confer a r|ght to educat|on and ob||ge
the State to make educat|on compu|sory. At the same t|me, Art|c|e 14(3} of the
Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es prov|des that
the teach|ng of a m|nor|ty |anguage "sha|| be |mp|emented w|thout prejud|ce to the
|earn|ng of the off|c|a| |anguage or the teach|ng |n th|s |anguage."



2
The above ment|oned ||m|tat|ons are |nc|uded, e.g., |n the fo||ow|ng prov|s|ons:
Art. 30 n|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts
Art. 19(3} lnternat|ona| Oovenant on O|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts
Art. 10(2} European Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta|
Freedoms

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


22
Names

1} Art|c|e 11(1} of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es st|pu|ates that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es have the r|ght
to use the|r f|rst name, the|r patronym and the|r surname |n the|r own |anguage.
Th|s r|ght, the enjoyment of wh|ch |s fundamenta| to one's persona| |dent|ty,
shou|d be app||ed |n ||ght of the c|rcumstances part|cu|ar to each State. For
examp|e, pub||c author|t|es wou|d be just|f|ed |n us|ng the scr|pt of the off|c|a|
|anguage or |anguages of the State to record the names of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the|r phonet|c form. However th|s must be done |n
accordance w|th the |anguage system and trad|t|on of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty |n
quest|on. ln v|ew of th|s very bas|c r|ght re|at|ng c|ose|y to both the |anguage and
the |dent|ty of |nd|v|dua|s, persons who have been forced by pub||c author|t|es to
g|ve up the|r or|g|na| or ancestra| name(s} or whose name(s} have been changed
aga|nst the|r w||| shou|d be ent|t|ed to revert to them w|thout hav|ng to |ncur any
expenses.

2} Names are an |mportant e|ement of corporate |dent|ty as we||, espec|a||y |n the
context of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es act|ng "|n commun|ty". Art|c|e
2(1} of the UN Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to
Nat|ona| or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous and L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es proc|a|ms the r|ght
of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to "use the|r own |anguage, |n pr|vate
and |n pub||c, free|y and w|thout |nterference or any form of d|scr|m|nat|on".
Art|c|e 10(1} of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es st|pu|ates that States w||| recogn|se the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to "use free|y and w|thout |nterference h|s or her m|nor|ty
|anguage, |n pr|vate and |n pub||c, ora||y and |n wr|t|ng." Art|c|e 27 of the
Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts dec|ares that "persons
be|ong|ng to [...| m|nor|t|es sha|| not be den|ed the r|ght, |n commun|ty w|th other
members of the|r group [...| to use the|r own |anguage". A person's r|ght to use
h|s or her |anguage |n pub||c, |n commun|ty w|th others and w|thout any
|nterference or any form of d|scr|m|nat|on |s a strong |nd|cat|on that |ega| ent|t|es
such as |nst|tut|ons, assoc|at|ons, organ|sat|ons or bus|ness enterpr|ses
estab||shed and run by persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es enjoy the r|ght to
adopt the name of the|r cho|ce |n the|r m|nor|ty |anguage. Such a corporate
name shou|d be recogn|sed by the pub||c author|t|es and used |n accordance
w|th the g|ven commun|ty's |anguage system and trad|t|ons.

3} Art|c|e 11(3} of the Framework Convent|on states that "|n areas trad|t|ona||y
|nhab|ted by substant|a| numbers of persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty,
the Part|es sha|| endeavour [...| to d|sp|ay trad|t|ona| |oca| names, street names
and other topograph|ca| |nd|cat|ons |ntended for the pub||c a|so |n the m|nor|ty
|anguage when there |s suff|c|ent demand for such |nd|cat|ons". Refusa| to
recogn|se the va||d|ty of h|stor|c denom|nat|ons of the k|nd descr|bed can
const|tute an attempt to rev|se h|story and to ass|m||ate m|nor|t|es, thus
const|tut|ng a ser|ous threat to the |dent|ty of persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es.


The Oslo Recommendations



23
Re||g|on

Art|c|e 27 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts aff|rms
that "ln those States |n wh|ch ethn|c, re||g|ous or ||ngu|st|c m|nor|t|es ex|st,
persons be|ong|ng to such m|nor|t|es sha|| not be den|ed the r|ght, |n commun|ty
w|th the other members of the|r group [...| to profess and pract|ce the|r own
re||g|on, or to use the|r own |anguage." Art|c|e 3(1} of the UN Dec|arat|on on
the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to Nat|ona| or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous and
L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es st|pu|ates that "Persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es may
exerc|se the|r r|ghts [...| |nd|v|dua||y as we|| as |n commun|ty w|th other members
of the|r group, w|thout any d|scr|m|nat|on."

Re||g|ous be||ef and |ts pract|ce "|n commun|ty" |s an area of great |mportance to
many persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. ln th|s context |t |s worth not|ng
that the r|ght to one's own re||g|on |s un||m|ted and guaranteed by Art|c|e 18(1} of
the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts and Art|c|e 9(1} of
the European Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and
Fundamenta| Freedoms However, the freedom to man|fest one's re||g|on and
be||efs, |nc|ud|ng pub||c worsh|p, |s subject to a number of ||m|tat|ons ||sted |n
subs|d|ary paragraphs of the same art|c|es. These ||m|tat|ons must be prescr|bed
by |aw and re|ate to the protect|on of pub||c safety, order, hea|th, mora|s and the
protect|on of the fundamenta| r|ghts and freedoms of others. They must be
reasonab|e and proport|ona| to the end sought, and States may not |nvoke them
w|th a v|ew to st|f||ng the |eg|t|mate sp|r|tua|, ||ngu|st|c or cu|tura| asp|rat|ons of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

ln m|nor|ty contexts, the pract|ce of re||g|on |s often espec|a||y c|ose|y re|ated to
the preservat|on of cu|tura| and ||ngu|st|c |dent|ty. The r|ght to use a m|nor|ty
|anguage |n pub||c worsh|p |s as |nherent as the r|ght to estab||sh re||g|ous
|nst|tut|ons and the r|ght to pub||c worsh|p |tse|f. Hence, pub||c author|t|es may
not |mpose any undue restr|ct|ons on pub||c worsh|p nor on the use of any
|anguage |n pub||c worsh|p, be |t the mother tongue of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty |n
quest|on or the ||turg|ca| |anguage used by that commun|ty.

5} Re||g|ous acts such as wedd|ng ceremon|es or funera|s may a|so const|tute |ega|
c|v|| acts determ|n|ng c|v|| status |n certa|n countr|es. ln such cases, pub||c
|nterest must be taken |nto cons|derat|on. Keep|ng |n m|nd the pr|nc|p|e that
adm|n|strat|ve cons|derat|ons shou|d not prevent the enjoyment of human r|ghts,
pub||c author|t|es shou|d not |mpose any ||ngu|st|c restr|ct|ons on re||g|ous
commun|t|es. Th|s shou|d app|y equa||y to any adm|n|strat|ve funct|ons wh|ch
re||g|ous commun|t|es assume and wh|ch may over|ap w|th c|v|| jur|sd|ct|on. The
State may, however, requ|re the re||g|ous commun|ty to record |ega| c|v|| acts for
wh|ch |t has author|ty a|so |n the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the State so
that the State may perform |ts |eg|t|mate regu|atory and adm|n|strat|ve tasks.


HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


24
Commun|ty ||fe and NGOs

6} The co||ect|ve ||fe of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, the|r act|ng "|n
commun|ty" as stated by the |nternat|ona| |nstruments, f|nds |ts express|on |n
numerous act|v|t|es and areas of endeavour. Not |east of these |s the ||fe of the|r
non- governmenta| organ|sat|ons, assoc|at|ons and |nst|tut|ons whose ex|stence
|s usua||y v|ta| for the ma|ntenance and deve|opment of the|r |dent|ty and |s
genera||y seen as benef|c|a| and conduc|ve to the deve|opment of c|v|| soc|ety
and democrat|c va|ues w|th|n States.

Art|c|es 21 and 22 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca|
R|ghts and Art|c|e 11 of the European Convent|on for the Protect|on of
Human R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms guarantee the r|ght of persons
to peacefu| assemb|y and the freedom of assoc|at|on. The r|ght of persons to
act "|n commun|ty" w|th other members of the|r group - the|r r|ght to estab||sh
and manage the|r own non-governmenta| organ|sat|ons, assoc|at|ons and
|nst|tut|ons - |s one of the ha||marks of an open and democrat|c soc|ety. Art|c|e
27 of that same Covenant aff|rms that "Persons be|ong|ng to [...| m|nor|t|es
sha|| not be den|ed the r|ght, |n commun|ty w|th the other members of the|r
group, to [...| use the|r own |anguage". As a ru|e, therefore, pub||c author|t|es
shou|d not be |nvo|ved |n the |nterna| affa|rs of such ent|t|es "act|ng |n
commun|ty", nor may they |mpose any ||m|ts on them, other than those
perm|tted under |nternat|ona| |aw. Art|c|e 17(2} of the Framework Convent|on
for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es s|m||ar|y engages States "not to
|nterfere w|th the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to part|c|pate
|n the act|v|t|es of non-governmenta| organ|sat|ons, both at the nat|ona| and
|nternat|ona| |eve|s".

Art|c|e 2(1} of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts
st|pu|ates that each State undertakes "to ensure to a|| |nd|v|dua|s w|th|n |ts
terr|tory and subject to |ts jur|sd|ct|on the r|ghts recogn|sed |n the present
Covenant, w|thout d|st|nct|on of any k|nd such as [...| |anguage". ln ||ne w|th th|s
standard, States may not d|scr|m|nate aga|nst NGOs on the bas|s of |anguage
nor |mpose any undue |anguage requ|rements on them. Th|s hav|ng been sa|d,
pub||c author|t|es may requ|re that such organ|sat|ons, assoc|at|ons and
|nst|tut|ons conform to the requ|rements of domest|c |aw on the bas|s of a
|eg|t|mate pub||c |nterest, |nc|ud|ng the use of the off|c|a| |anguage(s} of the State
|n s|tuat|ons requ|r|ng |nterface w|th pub||c bod|es.

W|th regard to resources, paragraph 32.2 of the Copenhagen Document
states that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es have the r|ght "to estab||sh
and ma|nta|n the|r own educat|ona|, cu|tura| and re||g|ous |nst|tut|ons,
organ|sat|ons or assoc|at|ons, wh|ch can seek vo|untary f|nanc|a| and other
contr|but|ons as we|| as pub||c ass|stance, |n conform|ty w|th nat|ona| |eg|s|at|on."
Accord|ng|y, States shou|d not prevent these ent|t|es from seek|ng f|nanc|a|
resources from the State budget and from pub||c |nternat|ona| sources as we||
as from the pr|vate sector.

The Oslo Recommendations



25
7} W|th regard to State f|nanc|ng of non-governmenta| act|v|t|es |n, among others,
the soc|a|, cu|tura| or sports f|e|ds, app||cat|on of the pr|nc|p|es of equa||ty and
non-d|scr|m|nat|on requ|res that the pub||c author|t|es prov|de an appropr|ate
share of fund|ng to s|m||ar act|v|t|es tak|ng p|ace |n the |anguage of the nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es ||v|ng w|th|n the|r borders. ln th|s context, Art|c|e 2(1} of the
Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts stresses not on|y that
there w||| be no d|st|nct|on based on |anguage |n the treatment of |nd|v|dua|s, but
st|pu|ates |n Art|c|e 2(2} that States are requ|red to "take the necessary steps [...|
to adopt such |eg|s|at|ve or other measures as may be necessary to g|ve effect
to the r|ghts recogn|sed |n the [...| Oovenant". Furthermore, Art|c|e 2(2} of the
Internat|ona| Covenant on the E||m|nat|on of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on,
(wh|ch seeks to e||m|nate any d|st|nct|on, exc|us|on, restr|ct|on, or preference
based on race, co|our, descent, or nat|ona| or ethn|c or|g|n} st|pu|ates that
"States Part|es sha||, when the c|rcumstances so warrant, take, |n the soc|a|,
econom|c, cu|tura| and other f|e|ds, spec|a| and concrete measures to ensure
the adequate deve|opment and protect|on of certa|n rac|a| groups or |nd|v|dua|s
be|ong|ng to them, for the purpose of guarantee|ng them the fu|| and equa|
enjoyment of human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms [...|." lnsofar as |anguage
|s often a def|n|ng cr|ter|on of ethn|c|ty as protected by the aforement|oned
convent|on, m|nor|ty |anguage commun|t|es may a|so be ent|t|ed to the benef|ts
of such "spec|a| and concrete measures".

At the European |eve|, paragraph 31 of the Copenhagen Document st|pu|ates
that "States w||| adopt, where necessary, spec|a| measures for the purpose of
ensur|ng to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es fu|| equa||ty w|th the other
c|t|zens |n the exerc|se and enjoyment of human r|ghts and fundamenta|
freedoms". Paragraph 2 of Art|c|e 4 of the Framework Convent|on for the
Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es ob||gates the States Part|es "to adopt,
where necessary, adequate measures |n order to promote, |n a|| areas of
econom|c, soc|a|, po||t|ca| and cu|tura| ||fe, fu|| and effect|ve equa||ty between
persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty and those be|ong|ng to the major|ty";
paragraph 3 of the same Art|c|e further spec|f|es that such "measures adopted
|n accordance w|th paragraph 2 sha|| not be cons|dered to be an act of
d|scr|m|nat|on." Moreover, Art|c|e 7(2} of the European Charter for Reg|ona|
or M|nor|ty Languages st|pu|ates that "the adopt|on of spec|a| measures |n
favour of reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguages a|med at promot|ng equa||ty between
the users of the |anguages and the rest of the popu|at|on or wh|ch take account
of the|r spec|f|c cond|t|ons |s not cons|dered to be an act of d|scr|m|nat|on
aga|nst the users of more w|de|y used |anguages." ln th|s context, therefore,
pub||c author|t|es shou|d prov|de an equ|tab|e share of resources from the State
budget to the act|v|t|es of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n, among
others, the soc|a|, cu|tura| and sports re|ated f|e|ds. Such support can be made
ava||ab|e through subs|d|es, pub||c benef|ts and tax exempt|ons.


HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


26
The med|a

8} Art|c|e 19 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts, wh|ch
guarantees the r|ght to ho|d op|n|ons as we|| as the r|ght to express them, |s a
fundamenta| po|nt of reference regard|ng the ro|e and p|ace of med|a |n
democrat|c soc|et|es. Wh||e Art|c|e 19(1} prov|des that "everyone sha|| have the
r|ght to ho|d op|n|ons w|thout |nterference", Art|c|e 19(2} proceeds to guarantee
to everyone the freedom "to seek, rece|ve and |mpart |nformat|on and |deas of
a|| k|nds, regard|ess of front|ers, e|ther ora||y, |n wr|t|ng or |n pr|nt, |n the form of
art, or through the med|a of h|s cho|ce." Art|c|e 10 of the European
Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta|
Freedoms guarantees the r|ght to freedom of express|on |n a s|m||ar way. The
member States of the Oounc|| of Europe re|terated |n Art|c|e l of the
Dec|arat|on on the Freedom of Express|on and Informat|on "the|r f|rm
attachment to the pr|nc|p|es of freedom of express|on and |nformat|on as a
bas|c e|ement of democrat|c and p|ura||st soc|ety". On th|s bas|s, States
dec|ared |n the same |nstrument that "|n the f|e|d of |nformat|on and mass med|a
they seek to ach|eve [...| d} The ex|stence of a w|de var|ety of |ndependent and
autonomous med|a, perm|tt|ng the ref|ect|on of d|vers|ty of |deas and op|n|ons".

Art|c|e 9(1} of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es states c|ear|y that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are free
"to ho|d op|n|ons and to rece|ve and |mpart |nformat|on and |deas |n the m|nor|ty
|anguage, w|thout |nterference by pub||c author|t|es and regard|ess of front|ers
[...|." Further on, the same prov|s|on engages States to "ensure, w|th|n the
framework of the|r |ega| systems, that persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty
are not d|scr|m|nated aga|nst |n the|r access to the med|a." Art|c|e 9(3} of the
Framework Convent|on st|pu|ates that States "sha|| not h|nder the creat|on
and the use of pr|nted med|a by persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es." The
same prov|s|on requ|res that "|n the |ega| framework of sound rad|o and
te|ev|s|on broadcast|ng, [States| sha|| ensure, as far as poss|b|e [...| that persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are granted the poss|b|||ty of creat|ng and us|ng
the|r own med|a." lt |s a|so to be noted that med|a may const|tute ent|t|es of the
k|nd foreseen |n , paragraph 32.2 of the Copenhagen Document
wh|ch prov|des for the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to
"estab||sh and ma|nta|n the|r own educat|ona|, cu|tura| and re||g|ous |nst|tut|ons,
organ|sat|ons or assoc|at|ons [...|" Even though the med|a are not c|ted
express|y |n th|s standard, the med|a often p|ays a fundamenta| ro|e |n the
promot|on and preservat|on of |anguage, cu|ture and |dent|ty.

A|though there can be no doubt that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
have the r|ght to estab||sh and ma|nta|n pr|vate med|a, |t |s a|so true that th|s
r|ght |s subject to the ||m|tat|ons prov|ded by |nternat|ona| |aw as we|| as such
|eg|t|mate requ|rements of the State regard|ng the regu|at|on of the med|a. Art|c|e
9(2} of the Framework Convent|on makes th|s very c|ear by under||n|ng that
the freedom of express|on referred to |n art|c|e 9(1} of the Convent|on "sha|| not
prevent Part|es from requ|r|ng the ||cens|ng, w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on and based on
object|ve cr|ter|a, of sound rad|o and te|ev|s|on broadcast|ng, or c|nema
The Oslo Recommendations



27
enterpr|ses." Regu|atory requ|rements, where just|f|ed and necessary, may not
be used to underm|ne the enjoyment of the r|ght.

9} The |ssue of access to pub||c|y funded med|a |s c|ose|y ||nked w|th the concept
of freedom of express|on. Art|c|e 9(1} of the Framework Convent|on st|pu|ates
that the freedom of express|on of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
|nc|udes the freedom to |mpart |nformat|on and |deas |n the m|nor|ty |anguage,
w|thout |nterference by pub||c author|t|es, and goes on to say that "members of
m|nor|t|es sha|| not be d|scr|m|nated aga|nst |n the|r access to the med|a." Art|c|e
9(4} of the Framework Convent|on st|pu|ates that "Part|es sha|| adopt
adequate measures |n order to fac|||tate access to the med|a for persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es." Th|s |mp||es that a nat|ona| m|nor|ty cons|st|ng
of a substant|a| number of members shou|d be g|ven access to |ts fa|r share of
broadcast t|me, on pub||c rad|o and/or te|ev|s|on, w|th the numer|ca| s|ze of the
m|nor|ty |n quest|on hav|ng a bear|ng on |ts share of broadcast t|me.

Numer|ca| strength and concentrat|on, however, cannot be seen as the on|y
cr|ter|a when judg|ng the amount of broadcast t|me to be a||ocated to any g|ven
nat|ona| m|nor|ty. ln the case of sma||er commun|t|es, cons|derat|on must be
g|ven to the v|ab|e m|n|mum of t|me and resources w|thout wh|ch a sma||er
m|nor|ty wou|d not mean|ngfu||y be ab|e to ava|| |tse|f of the med|a.

Moreover, the qua||ty of the t|me a||otted to m|nor|ty programm|ng |s an |ssue
that needs to be approached |n a reasonab|e, non-d|scr|m|natory manner. The
t|me-s|ots a||otted to m|nor|ty |anguage programm|ng shou|d be such as to
ensure that persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty can enjoy programm|ng |n
the|r |anguage |n a mean|ngfu| way. Hence, pub||c author|t|es shou|d ensure that
th|s programm|ng |s transm|tted at reasonab|e t|mes of the day.

10} ln an open and democrat|c soc|ety the content of med|a programm|ng shou|d
not be undu|y censored by the pub||c author|t|es. The freedom of express|on as
guaranteed by Art|c|e 19(1} of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and
Po||t|ca| R|ghts and Art|c|e 10(1} of the European Convent|on for the
Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms |s |mportant |n
th|s regard. Any restr|ct|ons wh|ch m|ght be |mposed by the pub||c author|t|es
must be |n ||ne w|th Art|c|e 19(3} of the Covenant wh|ch st|pu|ates that these
restr|ct|ons "sha|| on|y be such as are prov|ded by |aw and are necessary a} For
the respect of the r|ghts and reputat|ons of others, b} For the protect|on of
nat|ona| secur|ty or of pub||c order (ordre pub||c}, or of pub||c hea|th and mora|s."
Art|c|e 10(2} of the European Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human
R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms st|pu|ates a|most |dent|ca| restr|ct|ons on
any |nterference by pub||c author|t|es w|th the enjoyment of freedom of
express|on.

Mechan|sms shou|d be put |n p|ace to ensure that the pub||c med|a
programm|ng deve|oped by or on beha|f of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es ref|ects the
|nterests and des|res of the commun|ty's members and |s seen by them as
|ndependent. ln th|s context, the part|c|pat|on of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


28
m|nor|t|es (act|ng |n the|r pr|vate capac|ty} |n the ed|tor|a| process wou|d go a
|ong way |n ensur|ng that the |ndependent nature of the med|a wou|d be
preserved and that |t wou|d be respons|ve to the needs of the commun|t|es to
be served.

ln ||ne w|th the pr|nc|p|e of equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on, the compos|t|on of
pub||c |nst|tut|ons shou|d be ref|ect|ve of the popu|at|ons they are des|gned to
serve. Th|s a|so app||es to pub||c med|a. Art|c|e 15 of the Framework
Convent|on engages States to "create the cond|t|ons necessary for the
effect|ve part|c|pat|on of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n cu|tura|,
soc|a| and econom|c ||fe and |n pub||c affa|rs, |n part|cu|ar those affect|ng them."
Art|c|e 2 of Internat|ona| Labour Organ|sat|on Convent|on No. 111
Concern|ng D|scr|m|nat|on |n Respect of Emp|oyment and Occupat|on
|s more exp||c|t |n comm|tt|ng States to "pursue a nat|ona| po||cy des|gned to
promote [...| equa||ty of opportun|ty and treatment |n respect of emp|oyment and
occupat|on, w|th a v|ew to e||m|nat|ng any d|scr|m|nat|on |n respect thereof." The
non-d|scr|m|natory h|r|ng of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to work |n
the med|a w||| contr|bute to the representat|v|ty and object|v|ty of the med|a.

11} ln keep|ng w|th the sp|r|t of Art|c|es 19(2} of the Internat|ona| Covenant on
C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts and Art|c|e 9(1} of the Framework Convent|on for
the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es and of the pr|nc|p|e of non-
d|scr|m|nat|on, access to programm|ng |n the |anguage of persons be|ong|ng to
a nat|ona| m|nor|ty, transm|tted from another State or from the "k|n-State",
shou|d not just|fy a d|m|nut|on of programme t|me a||otted to the m|nor|ty on the
pub||c med|a of the State |n wh|ch |ts members ||ve.

Transfront|er access to |nformat|on and med|a networks |s a fundamenta|
e|ement of the r|ght to |nformat|on wh|ch, |n the context of acce|erated
techno|og|ca| progress, |s of grow|ng |mportance. Oonsequent|y, when cab|e
||cens|ng |s |nvo|ved, for examp|e, |t |s not |eg|t|mate for a State to refuse to
||cense te|ev|s|on or rad|o stat|ons based |n a k|n-State when the des|re for
access to these stat|ons has been c|ear|y expressed by the nat|ona| m|nor|ty
concerned. Th|s r|ght app||es not on|y to cab|e med|a but a|so to e|ectron|c
|nformat|on networks |n the |anguage of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty.

As a genera| matter, the member States of the Oounc|| of Europe reso|ved |n
Art|c|e lll(c} of the Dec|arat|on on the Freedom of Express|on and
Informat|on "to promote the free f|ow of |nformat|on, thus contr|but|ng to
|nternat|ona| understand|ng, a better know|edge of conv|ct|ons and trad|t|ons,
respect for the d|vers|ty of op|n|ons and the mutua| enr|chment of cu|tures". ln
re|at|on to med|a contacts across front|ers, States shou|d conform the|r po||c|es
to the sp|r|t of th|s prov|s|on.


The Oslo Recommendations



29
Econom|c ||fe

12} lnternat|ona| |nstruments make ||tt|e reference to the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng
to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the f|e|d of econom|c act|v|ty. lnternat|ona| |nstruments
do, however, refer to the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to use
the|r |anguage |n pub||c and |n pr|vate, free|y and w|thout any form of
d|scr|m|nat|on, ora||y and |n wr|t|ng, |nd|v|dua||y and w|th others. Art|c|e 19(2} of
the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts and Art|c|e 10(1} of
the European Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and
Fundamenta| Freedoms guarantee freedom of express|on w|th respect not
on|y to |deas and op|n|ons wh|ch may be transm|tted to others (|.e. the content
of commun|cat|ons}, but a|so to |anguage as a med|um of commun|cat|on.
These r|ghts, coup|ed w|th the r|ght to equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on, |mp|y the
r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to run the|r bus|nesses |n the
|anguage of the|r cho|ce. ln v|ew of the |mportance to pr|vate entrepreneurs to
be ab|e to commun|cate effect|ve|y w|th the|r c||ente|e and to pursue the|r
|n|t|at|ves |n fa|r cond|t|ons, there shou|d be no undue restr|ct|ons on the|r free
cho|ce of |anguage.

Art|c|e 11(2} of the Framework Convent|on st|pu|ates that "every person
be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty has the r|ght to d|sp|ay |n h|s or her m|nor|ty
|anguage, s|gns, |nscr|pt|ons and other |nformat|on of a pr|vate nature v|s|b|e to
the pub||c." ln the Framework Convent|on the express|on "of a pr|vate nature"
refers to a|| that |s not off|c|a|. Hence, the State may not |mpose any restr|ct|ons
on the cho|ce of |anguage |n the adm|n|strat|on of pr|vate bus|ness enterpr|ses.

Notw|thstand|ng the above, the State may requ|re that the off|c|a| |anguage or
|anguages of the State be accommodated |n those sectors of econom|c act|v|ty
wh|ch affect the enjoyment of the r|ghts of others or requ|re exchange and
commun|cat|on w|th pub||c bod|es. Th|s fo||ows from the perm|ss|b|e restr|ct|ons
on freedom of express|on as st|pu|ated |n Art|c|e 19(3} of the Internat|ona|
Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts and Art|c|e 10(2} of the European
Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta|
Freedoms Wh||e the ||m|ted perm|ss|b|e restr|ct|ons expressed |n the
aforement|oned art|c|es cou|d just|fy restr|ct|ons on the content of
commun|cat|ons, they wou|d never just|fy restr|ct|ons on the use of a |anguage
as a med|um of commun|cat|on. However, protect|on of the r|ghts and freedoms
of others and the ||m|ted requ|rements of pub||c adm|n|strat|on may we|| just|fy
spec|f|c prescr|pt|ons for the add|t|ona| use of the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages
of the State. Th|s wou|d app|y to sectors of act|v|ty such as workp|ace hea|th
and safety, consumer protect|on, |abour re|at|ons, taxat|on, f|nanc|a| report|ng,
State hea|th and unemp|oyment |nsurance and transportat|on, depend|ng on the
c|rcumstances. On the bas|s of a |eg|t|mate pub||c |nterest, the State cou|d, |n
add|t|on to the use of any other |anguage, a|so requ|re that the off|c|a| |anguage
or |anguages of the State be accommodated |n such bus|ness act|v|t|es as
pub||c s|gnage and |abe|||ng - as express|y stated |n paragraph 60 of the
Exp|anatory Report to the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of
Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es ln sum, the State cou|d never proh|b|t the use of a
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


30
|anguage, but |t cou|d, on the bas|s of a |eg|t|mate pub||c |nterest, prescr|be the
add|t|ona| use of the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the State.

ln keep|ng w|th the |og|c of |eg|t|mate pub||c |nterest, any requ|rement(s} for the
use of |anguage wh|ch may be prescr|bed by the State must be proport|ona| to
the pub||c |nterest to be served. The proport|ona||ty of any requ|rement |s to be
determ|ned by the extent to wh|ch |t |s necessary. Accord|ng|y, for examp|e, |n
the pub||c |nterest of workp|ace hea|th and safety, the State cou|d requ|re pr|vate
factor|es to post safety not|ces |n the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the State
|n add|t|on to the chosen |anguage(s} of the enterpr|se. S|m||ar|y, |n the |nterest of
accurate pub||c adm|n|strat|on |n re|at|on to taxat|on, the State cou|d requ|re that
adm|n|strat|ve forms be subm|tted |n the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the
State and that, |n the case of an aud|t by the pub||c author|t|es, re|evant records
be made ava||ab|e a|so |n the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the State; the
|atter eventua||ty wou|d not requ|re that pr|vate enterpr|se ma|nta|n a|| records |n
the off|c|a| |anguage or |anguages of the State, but on|y that the burden of
poss|b|e trans|at|on rests w|th the pr|vate enterpr|se. Th|s |s w|thout prejud|ce to
the poss|b|e ent|t|ement of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to use the|r
|anguage(s} |n commun|cat|ons w|th adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es as foreseen |n
Art|c|e 10(2} of the Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es.


Adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es and pub||c serv|ces

13/14/15}
OSOE Part|c|pat|ng States are comm|tted to tak|ng measures wh|ch w|||
contr|bute to creat|ng a dynam|c env|ronment, conduc|ve not on|y to the
ma|ntenance of the |dent|ty of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es (|nc|ud|ng
the|r |anguage} but a|so to the|r deve|opment and promot|on. As a
consequence, these States have undertaken to respect "the r|ght of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n pub||c affa|rs" as
out||ned |n paragraph 35 of the Copenhagen Document. Art|c|e 10(2} of the
Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
express|y requ|res States to "make poss|b|e the use of m|nor|ty |anguages |n
commun|cat|ons w|th adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es." Paragraph 35 of the
Copenhagen Document a|so makes reference to the poss|b|||ty of creat|ng an
env|ronment that wou|d be conduc|ve to the part|c|pat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n
pub||c affa|rs, |n the|r own |anguage, by estab||sh|ng "appropr|ate |oca| or
autonomous adm|n|strat|ons correspond|ng to the spec|f|c h|stor|ca| and
terr|tor|a| c|rcumstances of m|nor|t|es |n accordance w|th the po||c|es of the State
concerned". Art|c|e 15 of the Framework Convent|on engages States to
"create the cond|t|ons necessary for the effect|ve part|c|pat|on of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n cu|tura|, soc|a| and econom|c ||fe and |n pub||c
affa|rs, |n part|cu|ar those affect|ng them." These prov|s|ons engage pub||c
author|t|es to enab|e persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to dea| w|th |oca|
author|t|es |n the|r |anguage or to rece|ve c|v|| cert|f|cates and attestat|ons |n the|r
own |anguage. ln ||ne w|th the pr|nc|p|es of equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on,
The Oslo Recommendations



31
these prov|s|ons a|so |mp|y a dynam|c part|c|patory re|at|onsh|p where|n the
|anguage of the m|nor|ty may be a fu||-f|edged veh|c|e of commun|cat|on |n |oca|
po||t|ca| ||fe and |n the |nterface between c|t|zens and pub||c author|t|es |nc|ud|ng
|n the prov|s|on of pub||c serv|ces.

The ethn|c representat|v|ty of adm|n|strat|ve |nst|tut|ons and agenc|es des|gned
to serve the popu|at|on |s usua||y ref|ect|ve of a p|ura||st|c, open and non-
d|scr|m|natory soc|ety. ln order to counter the effects of past or ex|st|ng
d|scr|m|nat|on w|th|n the system, Art|c|e 2 of Internat|ona| Labour
Organ|sat|on Convent|on No. 111 Concern|ng D|scr|m|nat|on |n Respect
of Emp|oyment and Occupat|on requ|res States to "pursue a nat|ona| po||cy
des|gned to promote [...| equa||ty of opportun|ty and treatment |n respect of
emp|oyment and occupat|on, w|th a v|ew to e||m|nat|ng any d|scr|m|nat|on |n
respect thereof."

When des|gn|ng and |mp|ement|ng programmes and serv|ces |ntended to serve
the pub||c, |t |s reasonab|e to expect that governments comm|tted to the
pr|nc|p|es out||ned above shou|d take |nto cons|derat|on the expressed des|res
of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es as we|| as the pr|nc|p|e of numer|ca|
just|f|cat|on. Where the need |s expressed and the numbers are s|gn|f|cant,
equ|ty requ|res that taxpayers be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es have access to
serv|ces a|so |n the|r own |anguage. Th|s |s part|cu|ar|y so |n the case of hea|th
and soc|a| serv|ces wh|ch affect the qua||ty of peop|es' ||ves |n an |mmed|ate and
fundamenta| manner.

ln ||ne w|th the pr|nc|p|es of equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on, adm|n|strat|ve
author|t|es are expected to dea| w|th persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n
an |nc|us|ve and equ|tab|e manner. States must recogn|se the demograph|c
rea||t|es of the reg|ons under the|r jur|sd|ct|on. Above a||, States shou|d not seek
to avo|d the|r ob||gat|ons by chang|ng the demograph|c rea||ty of a reg|on.
Spec|f|ca||y Art|c|e 16 of the Framework Convent|on engages States to refra|n
from measures wh|ch m|ght arb|trar||y a|ter the proport|on of the popu|at|on |n
areas |nhab|ted by persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es w|th the object|ve of
restr|ct|ng the r|ghts of these m|nor|t|es. Such measures cou|d cons|st of
arb|trary expropr|at|ons, ev|ct|ons, expu|s|ons as we|| as the arb|trary redraw|ng
of adm|n|strat|ve borders and census man|pu|at|on.


Independent nat|ona| |nst|tut|ons

16} Human r|ghts acqu|re rea| mean|ng for the|r |ntended benef|c|ar|es when the
pub||c author|t|es of the State estab||sh mechan|sms to ensure that the r|ghts
guaranteed |n |nternat|ona| convent|ons and dec|arat|ons, or |n domest|c
|eg|s|at|on, are effect|ve|y |mp|emented and protected. As a comp|ement to
jud|c|a| procedures, |ndependent nat|ona| |nst|tut|ons usua||y prov|de qu|cker and
|ess expens|ve recourses and are as such more access|b|e.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


32
D|scr|m|nat|on as referred to |n the Convent|on on the E||m|nat|on of Rac|a|
D|scr|m|nat|on |s not def|ned accord|ng to cr|ter|a re|at|ng str|ct|y to race.
Art|c|e 1(1} of the Convent|on st|pu|ates that the concept of rac|a| d|scr|m|nat|on
sha|| mean "any d|st|nct|on, exc|us|on, restr|ct|on or preference based on race,
co|our, descent or nat|ona| or ethn|c or|g|n wh|ch has the purpose or effect of
nu|||fy|ng or |mpa|r|ng the recogn|t|on, enjoyment or exerc|se, on an equa|
foot|ng, of human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms |n the po||t|ca|, econom|c,
soc|a|, cu|tura| or any other f|e|d of pub||c ||fe." Art|c|e 6 of the Convent|on
dec|ares that "State Part|es sha|| assure to everyone w|th|n the|r jur|sd|ct|on
effect|ve protect|on and remed|es, through the competent nat|ona| tr|buna|s and
other State |nst|tut|ons aga|nst any acts of rac|a| d|scr|m|nat|on wh|ch v|o|ate h|s
human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms contrary to th|s Oonvent|on [...|" ln th|s
context, the estab||shment by States of |ndependent nat|ona| |nst|tut|ons that
can act as mechan|sms of redress and compensat|on, such as the |nst|tut|on of
ombudsperson or a human r|ghts comm|ss|on |s a measure of a g|ven State's
democrat|c and p|ura||st|c nature. Accord|ng|y, and w|th reference to Un|ted
Nat|ons reso|ut|on 48/134 of 20 December 1993, the Oounc|| of Europe has
encouraged, |n Comm|ttee of M|n|sters Recommendat|on No. R(97|14 of
30 September 1997, the estab||shment of "nat|ona| human r|ghts |nst|tut|ons, |n
part|cu|ar human r|ghts comm|ss|ons wh|ch are p|ura||st |n the|r membersh|p,
ombudsmen or comparab|e |nst|tut|ons." Such mechan|sms of redress shou|d
be made ava||ab|e a|so to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es who cons|der
that the|r ||ngu|st|c and other r|ghts have been v|o|ated.


Jud|c|a| author|t|es

17/18}
lnternat|ona| |aw requ|res pub||c author|t|es to ensure that a|| persons who are
arrested, accused and tr|ed be |nformed of the charges aga|nst them and of a||
other proceed|ngs |n a |anguage they understand. lf need be, an |nterpreter
must be made ava||ab|e to them free of charge. Th|s standard of due process of
|aw |s un|versa| |n |ts app||cat|on and does not re|ate to the ||ngu|st|c r|ghts of
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es as such. Rather, the under|y|ng pr|nc|p|es are those of
equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on before the |aw. Respect for these pr|nc|p|es |s
part|cu|ar|y v|ta| |n re|at|on to cr|m|na| charges and proceed|ngs. As a
consequence, Art|c|e 14(3}(a} of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and
Po||t|ca| R|ghts requ|res that everyone charged w|th a cr|m|na| offense sha|| "be
|nformed prompt|y and |n deta|| |n a |anguage wh|ch he understands of the
nature and cause of the charge aga|nst h|m". Art|c|e 6(3}(a} of the European
Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta|
Freedoms st|pu|ates the same requ|rement |n a|most |dent|ca| |anguage. ln
add|t|on, Art|c|e 5(2} of the aforement|oned convent|on st|pu|ates the same
requ|rement |n re|at|on to arrest. Furthermore, Art|c|e 14(3} of the Internat|ona|
Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts st|pu|ates the ent|t|ement of everyone
"|n fu|| equa||ty" [...| "(e} to exam|ne, or have exam|ned, the w|tnesses aga|nst h|m
and to obta|n the attendance and exam|nat|on of w|tnesses on h|s beha|f under
the same cond|t|ons as w|tnesses aga|nst h|m". ln th|s connect|on, Art|c|e 14(3}(f}
The Oslo Recommendations



33
of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts and Art|c|e
6(3}(e} of the European Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts
and Fundamenta| Freedoms guarantee the r|ght of everyone "to have the free
ass|stance of an |nterpreter |f he cannot understand or speak the |anguage used
|n court." Wh||e these guarantees concern|ng express|y the use of |anguage are
prescr|bed spec|f|ca||y |n re|at|on to cr|m|na| procedures, |t fo||ows from the
fundamenta| guarantee of equa||ty before courts and tr|buna|s, as st|pu|ated |n
the f|rst sentence of Art|c|e 14(1} of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and
Po||t|ca| R|ghts, that |ega| proceed|ngs of a|| k|nds are to be cons|dered more
perfect|y fa|r to the extent that the cond|t|ons are more str|ct|y equa|. Th|s
determ|nat|on, wh|ch app||es equa||y w|th respect to the cho|ce of |anguage for
proceed|ngs as a who|e, shou|d gu|de States |n the deve|opment of the|r po||c|es
concern|ng the equa| and effect|ve adm|n|strat|on of just|ce.

More genera||y, Art|c|e 7(1} of the European Charter for Reg|ona| or M|nor|ty
Languages dec|ares that States sha|| base the|r po||c|es, |eg|s|at|on and
pract|ce on such object|ves and pr|nc|p|es as "the recogn|t|on of the reg|ona| or
m|nor|ty |anguages as an express|on of cu|tura| wea|th [...|" and "the need for
reso|ute act|on to promote reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguages |n order to safeguard
them". Art|c|e 7(4} of the European Charter st|pu|ates that "|n determ|n|ng the|r
po||cy w|th regard to reg|ona| and m|nor|ty |anguages, [...| Part|es sha|| take |nto
cons|derat|on the needs and w|shes expressed by the groups wh|ch use such
|anguages." Moreover, Art|c|e 15 of the Framework Convent|on engages
States to "create the cond|t|ons necessary for the effect|ve part|c|pat|on of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n cu|tura|, soc|a| and econom|c ||fe and
|n pub||c affa|rs, |n part|cu|ar those affect|ng them." lf one cons|ders the above-
ment|oned standards wh||e tak|ng |nto cons|derat|on the |mportance, |n
democrat|c soc|et|es, of effect|ve access to just|ce, |t |s reasonab|e to expect
that States shou|d, so far as poss|b|e, ensure the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to express themse|ves |n the|r |anguage |n a|| stages of jud|c|a|
proceed|ngs (whether cr|m|na|, c|v|| or adm|n|strat|ve} wh||e respect|ng the r|ghts
of others and ma|nta|n|ng the |ntegr|ty of the processes, |nc|ud|ng through
|nstances of appea|.

19} lnsofar as access to just|ce |s v|ta| to the enjoyment of human r|ghts, the degree
to wh|ch one may part|c|pate d|rect|y and eas||y |n ava||ab|e procedures |s an
|mportant measure of such access. The ava||ab|||ty of jud|c|a| procedures
funct|on|ng |n the |anguage(s} of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es,
therefore, renders access to just|ce more d|rect and easy for such persons.

On th|s bas|s, Art|c|e 9 of the European Charter for Reg|ona| or M|nor|ty
Languages prov|des that, to the extent feas|b|e and pursuant to the request of
one of the affected part|es, a|| jud|c|a| proceed|ngs shou|d be conducted |n the
reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguage. The Par||amentary Assemb|y of the Oounc|| of
Europe, has come to the same conc|us|on |n Art|c|e 7(3} of |ts
Recommendat|on 1201 wh|ch prov|des that "ln reg|ons |n wh|ch substant|a|
numbers of a nat|ona| m|nor|ty are sett|ed, the persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona|
m|nor|ty sha|| have the r|ght to use the|r mother tongue |n the|r contacts w|th the
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


34
adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es and |n proceed|ngs before the courts and |ega|
author|t|es." Accord|ng|y, States shou|d adopt appropr|ate recru|tment and
tra|n|ng po||c|es for the jud|c|ary.


Depr|vat|on of ||berty

20} Ru|e 51, paragraphs 1 and 2, of the Un|ted Nat|ons Standard M|n|mum
Ru|es for the Treatment of Pr|soners as we|| as Ru|e 60, paragraphs 1 and 2
of the European Pr|son Ru|es of the Counc|| of Europe stress the
|mportance of the r|ght of the |ncarcerated to be understood by the pr|son
adm|n|strat|on as we|| as the |mportance for the pr|son adm|n|strat|on to be
understood by the |nmate popu|at|on. These prov|s|ons do not re|ate to m|nor|ty
r|ghts as such. However, taken |nto cons|derat|on a|ong w|th the expressed
des|re of affected popu|at|ons, the|r numer|ca| strength and the pr|nc|p|e of
equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on, the aforement|oned prov|s|ons are even more
compe|||ng |n reg|ons or |oca||t|es where persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
are present |n s|gn|f|cant numbers.

21} Ru|e 37 of the n|ted Nat|ons Standard M|n|mum Ru|es for the Treatment
of Pr|soners as we|| as Art|c|e 43(1} of the European Pr|son Ru|es of the
Counc|| of Europe upho|d the r|ght of pr|soners to commun|cate w|th the|r
fam|||es, reputab|e fr|ends and persons or representat|ves of outs|de
organ|sat|ons. ln v|ew of the |mportance of such human r|ghts as freedom of
express|on and the r|ght to use one's |anguage |n pub||c and |n pr|vate, |t |s
|ncumbent upon author|t|es to respect these r|ghts w|th|n the ||m|tat|ons
prescr|bed by |aw even |n pen|tent|ary |nst|tut|ons. As a ru|e, pr|soners shou|d be
ab|e to commun|cate |n the|r own |anguage both ora||y w|th other |nmates and
w|th v|s|tors and a|so |n persona| correspondence. Neverthe|ess, certa|n human
r|ghts and freedoms of persons deta|ned for cr|m|na| acts may |eg|t|mate|y be
restr|cted or suspended for reasons of pub||c secur|ty |n conform|ty w|th the
||m|tat|ons prescr|bed by the |nternat|ona| |nstruments. As a pract|ca| matter,
enjoyment of the ||ngu|st|c r|ghts of deta|ned persons may be best fac|||tated by
the|r detent|on |n a p|ace where the|r |anguage |s usua||y spoken.
The Lund Recommendations



35
The |und Recommendat|ons
on the Effect|ve Part|c|pat|on
of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n
Pub||c ||fe & Exp|anatory Note
- 1999

Introduct|on

ln |ts He|s|nk| Dec|s|ons of Ju|y 1992, the Organ|zat|on for Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on
|n Europe (OSOE} estab||shed the pos|t|on of H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es to be 'an |nstrument of conf||ct prevent|on at the ear||est poss|b|e stage".
Th|s mandate was created |arge|y |n react|on to the s|tuat|on |n the former
Yugos|av|a wh|ch some feared wou|d be repeated e|sewhere |n Europe, espec|a||y
among the countr|es |n trans|t|on to democracy, and cou|d underm|ne the prom|se
of peace and prosper|ty as env|saged |n the Oharter of Par|s for a New Europe
adopted by the Heads of State and Government |n November 1990.

On 1 January 1993, Mr. Max van der Stoe| took up h|s dut|es as the f|rst OSOE H|gh
Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (HONM}. Draw|ng on h|s cons|derab|e persona|
exper|ence as a former Member of Par||ament, Fore|gn M|n|ster of The Nether|ands,
Permanent Representat|ve to the n|ted Nat|ons, and |ong-t|me human r|ghts
advocate, Mr. van der Stoe| turned h|s attent|on to the many d|sputes between
m|nor|t|es and centra| author|t|es |n Europe wh|ch had the potent|a|, |n h|s v|ew, to
esca|ate. Act|ng qu|et|y through d|p|omat|c means, the HONM has become |nvo|ved
|n over a dozen States, |nc|ud|ng A|ban|a, Oroat|a, Eston|a, Hungary, Kazakstan,
Kyrgyzstan, |atv|a, the Former Yugos|av Repub||c of Macedon|a, Roman|a, S|ovak|a
and kra|ne. H|s |nvo|vement has focused pr|mar||y on those s|tuat|ons |nvo|v|ng
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|/ethn|c groups who const|tute the numer|ca| major|ty
|n one State but the numer|ca| m|nor|ty |n another State, thus engag|ng the |nterest
of governmenta| author|t|es |n each State and const|tut|ng a potent|a| source of
|nter-State tens|on |f not conf||ct. lndeed, such tens|ons have def|ned much of
European h|story.

ln address|ng the substance of tens|ons |nvo|v|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, the HONM
approaches the |ssues as an |ndependent, |mpart|a| and cooperat|ve actor. Wh||e
the HONM |s not a superv|sory mechan|sm, he emp|oys the |nternat|ona| standards
to wh|ch each State has agreed as h|s pr|nc|pa| framework of ana|ys|s and the
foundat|on of h|s spec|f|c recommendat|ons. ln th|s re|at|on, |t |s |mportant to reca||
the comm|tments undertaken by a|| OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, |n part|cu|ar those of
the 1990 Oopenhagen Document of the Oonference on the Human D|mens|on
wh|ch, |n Part lv, art|cu|ates deta||ed standards re|at|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. A||
OSOE States are a|so bound by n|ted Nat|ons ob||gat|ons re|at|ng to human r|ghts,
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


36
|nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, and the great major|ty of OSOE States are further bound by
the standards of the Oounc|| of Europe.

Through the course of more than s|x years of |ntense act|v|ty, the HONM has
|dent|f|ed certa|n recurrent |ssues and themes wh|ch have become the subject of h|s
attent|on |n a number of States |n wh|ch he |s |nvo|ved. Among these are |ssues of
m|nor|ty educat|on and use of m|nor|ty |anguages, |n part|cu|ar as matters of great
|mportance for the ma|ntenance and deve|opment of the |dent|ty of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. W|th a v|ew to ach|ev|ng an appropr|ate and
coherent app||cat|on of re|evant m|nor|ty r|ghts |n the OSOE area, the HONM
requested the Foundat|on on lnter-Ethn|c Re|at|ons - a non-governmenta|
organ|zat|on estab||shed |n 1993 to carry out spec|a||zed act|v|t|es |n support of the
HONM - to br|ng together two groups of |nternat|ona||y recogn|zed |ndependent
experts to e|aborate two sets of recommendat|ons: The Hague
Recommendat|ons regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
(1996} and The Os|o Recommendat|ons regard|ng the L|ngu|st|c R|ghts of
Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (1998}. Both sets of recommendat|ons have subsequent|y
served as references for po||cy- and |aw-makers |n a number of States. The
recommendat|ons are ava||ab|e (|n severa| |anguages} from the Foundat|on on lnter-
Ethn|c Re|at|ons free of charge.

A th|rd recurrent theme wh|ch has ar|sen |n a number of s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch the
HONM has been |nvo|ved |s that of forms of effect|ve part|c|pat|on of nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es |n the governance of States. ln order to ga|n a sense of the v|ews and
exper|ences of OSOE part|c|pat|ng States on th|s |ssue and to a||ow States to share
the|r exper|ences w|th each other, the HONM and the OSOE`s Off|ce for Democrat|c
lnst|tut|ons and Human R|ghts convened a conference of a|| OSOE States and
re|evant |nternat|ona| organ|sat|ons ent|t|ed 'Governance and Part|c|pat|on:
lntegrat|ng D|vers|ty", wh|ch was hosted by the Sw|ss Oonfederat|on |n |ocarno
from 18 to 20 October 1998. The Oha|rman`s Statement |ssued at the end of the
conference summar|zed the themes of the meet|ng and noted the des|rab|||ty of
'concrete fo||ow-up act|v|t|es, |nc|ud|ng the further e|aborat|on of the var|ous
concepts and mechan|sms of good governance w|th the effect|ve part|c|pat|on of
m|nor|t|es, |ead|ng to |ntegrat|on of d|vers|ty w|th|n the State." To th|s end, the
HONM ca||ed upon the Foundat|on on lnter-Ethn|c Re|at|ons, |n co-operat|on w|th
the Raou| Wa||enberg lnst|tute of Human R|ghts and Human|tar|an |aw, to br|ng
together a group of |nternat|ona||y recogn|zed |ndependent experts to e|aborate
recommendat|ons and out||ne a|ternat|ves, |n ||ne w|th the re|evant |nternat|ona|
standards.

The resu|t of the above |n|t|at|ve |s The Lund Recommendat|ons on the Effect|ve
Part|c|pat|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n Pub||c L|fe - named after the Swed|sh
c|ty |n wh|ch the experts |ast met and comp|eted the recommendat|ons. Among the
experts were jur|sts spec|a||z|ng |n re|evant |nternat|ona| |aw, po||t|ca| sc|ent|sts
spec|a||z|ng |n const|tut|ona| orders and e|ect|on systems, and soc|o|og|sts
spec|a||z|ng |n m|nor|ty |ssues. Spec|f|ca||y, under the Oha|rmansh|p of the D|rector
of the Raou| Wa||enberg lnst|tute, Professor Gudmundur A|fredsson, the experts
were:
The Lund Recommendations



37
Professor Gudmundur A|fredsson (lce|and|c}, D|rector of the Raou|
Wa||enberg lnst|tute of Human R|ghts and Human|tar|an |aw, |und
n|vers|ty; Professor vernon Bogdanor (Br|t|sh}, Professor of Government,
Oxford n|vers|ty; Professor voj|n D|m|tr|jev| (Yugos|av|an}, D|rector of the
Be|grade Oentre for Human R|ghts; Dr. Asbjorn E|de (Norweg|an}, Sen|or
Fe||ow at the Norweg|an lnst|tute of Human R|ghts; Professor Yash Gha|
(Kenyan}, S|r YK Pao Professor of Pub||c |aw, n|vers|ty of Hong Kong;
Professor Hurst Hannum (Amer|can}, Professor of lnternat|ona| |aw, F|etcher
Schoo| of |aw and D|p|omacy, Tufts n|vers|ty; Mr. Peter Harr|s (South
Afr|can}, Sen|or Execut|ve to the lnternat|ona| lnst|tute for Democracy and
E|ectora| Ass|stance; Dr. Hans-Joach|m He|ntze (German}, D|rector of the
lnst|tut fr Fr|edenss|cherungsrecht und Human|tres vo|kerrecht, Ruhr-
n|vers|tt Bochum; Professor Ruth |ap|doth (lsrae||}, Professor of
lnternat|ona| |aw and Oha|rman of the Academ|c Oomm|ttee of the lnst|tute
for European Stud|es, The Hebrew n|vers|ty of Jerusa|em; Professor Re|n
M||erson (Eston|an}, Oha|r of lnternat|ona| |aw, K|ng`s Oo||ege, n|vers|ty of
|ondon; Dr. Sar|otta Puff|erova (S|ovak}, D|rector, Foundat|on O|t|zen and
M|nor|ty/M|nor|ty R|ghts Group; Professor Steven Ratner (Amer|can},
Professor of lnternat|ona| |aw, n|vers|ty of Texas; Dr. Andrew Reyno|ds
(Br|t|sh}, Ass|stant Professor of Government, n|vers|ty of Notre Dame; Mr.
M|que| Strube|| (Span|sh and Br|t|sh}, D|rector of the lnst|tute of Oata|an
Soc|o-||ngu|st|cs, Genera||tat de Oata|unya; Professor Markku Suks|
(F|nn|sh}, Professor of Pub||c |aw, Abo Akadem| n|vers|ty; Professor Dan||o
Trk (S|ovene}, Professor of lnternat|ona| |aw, |jub|jana n|vers|ty; Dr.
Fernand de varennes (Oanad|an}, Sen|or |ecturer |n |aw and D|rector of the
As|a-Pac|f|c Oentre for Human R|ghts and the Prevent|on of Ethn|c Oonf||ct,
Murdoch n|vers|ty; Professor Roman W|eruszewsk| (Po||sh}, D|rector of the
Poznan Human R|ghts Oentre, Po||sh Academy of Sc|ences.

lnsofar as ex|st|ng standards of m|nor|ty r|ghts are part of human r|ghts, the start|ng
po|nt of the consu|tat|ons among the experts was to presume comp||ance by States
w|th a|| other human r|ghts ob||gat|ons |nc|ud|ng, |n part|cu|ar, freedom from
d|scr|m|nat|on. lt was a|so presumed that the u|t|mate object of a|| human r|ghts |s
the fu|| and free deve|opment of the |nd|v|dua| human persona||ty |n cond|t|ons of
equa||ty. Oonsequent|y, |t was presumed that c|v|| soc|ety shou|d be open and f|u|d
and, therefore, |ntegrate a|| persons, |nc|ud|ng those be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.
Moreover, |nsofar as the object|ve of good and democrat|c governance |s to serve
the needs and |nterests of the who|e popu|at|on, |t was presumed that a||
governments seek to ensure the max|mum opportun|t|es for contr|but|ons from
those affected by pub||c dec|s|on-mak|ng.

The purpose of the |und Recommendat|ons, ||ke The Hague and Os|o
Recommendat|ons before them, |s to encourage and fac|||tate the adopt|on by
States of spec|f|c measures to a||ev|ate tens|ons re|ated to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and
thus to serve the u|t|mate conf||ct prevent|on goa| of the HONM. The |und
Recommendat|ons on the Effect|ve Part|c|pat|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n Pub||c ||fe
attempt to c|ar|fy |n re|at|ve|y stra|ght-forward |anguage and bu||d upon the content
of m|nor|ty r|ghts and other standards genera||y app||cab|e |n the s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


38
the HONM |s |nvo|ved. The standards have been |nterpreted spec|f|ca||y to ensure
the coherence of the|r app||cat|on |n open and democrat|c States. The
Recommendat|ons are d|v|ded |nto four sub-head|ngs wh|ch group the twenty-four
recommendat|ons |nto genera| pr|nc|p|es, part|c|pat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng, se|f-
governance, and ways of guarantee|ng such effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n pub||c ||fe. The
bas|c conceptua| d|v|s|on w|th|n the |und Recommendat|ons fo||ows two prongs:
part|c|pat|on |n governance of the State as a who|e, and se|f-governance over
certa|n |oca| or |nterna| affa|rs. A w|de var|ety of arrangements are poss|b|e and
known. ln severa| recommendat|ons, a|ternat|ves are suggested. A||
recommendat|ons are to be |nterpreted |n accordance w|th the Genera| Pr|nc|p|es |n
Part l. A more deta||ed exp|anat|on of each recommendat|on |s prov|ded |n an
accompany|ng Exp|anatory Note where|n express reference to the re|evant
|nternat|ona| standards |s found.


Recommendat|ons

I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es

1} Effect|ve part|c|pat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n pub||c ||fe |s an essent|a|
component of a peacefu| and democrat|c soc|ety. Exper|ence |n Europe and
e|sewhere has shown that, |n order to promote such part|c|pat|on,
governments often need to estab||sh spec|f|c arrangements for nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es.These Recommendat|ons a|m to fac|||tate the |nc|us|on of m|nor|t|es
w|th|n the State and enab|e m|nor|t|es to ma|nta|n the|r own |dent|ty and
character|st|cs, thereby promot|ng the good governance and |ntegr|ty of the
State.

2} These Recommendat|ons bu||d upon fundamenta| pr|nc|p|es and ru|es of
|nternat|ona| |aw, such as respect for human d|gn|ty, equa| r|ghts, and
nond|scr|m|nat|on, as they affect the r|ghts of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to part|c|pate
|n pub||c ||fe and to enjoy other po||t|ca| r|ghts. States have a duty to respect
|nternat|ona||y recogn|zed human r|ghts and the ru|e of |aw, wh|ch a||ow for
the fu|| deve|opment of c|v|| soc|ety |n cond|t|ons of to|erance, peace, and
prosper|ty.

3} When spec|f|c |nst|tut|ons are estab||shed to ensure the effect|ve part|c|pat|on
of m|nor|t|es |n pub||c ||fe, wh|ch can |nc|ude the exerc|se of author|ty or
respons|b|||ty by such |nst|tut|ons, they must respect the human r|ghts of a||
those affected.

4} lnd|v|dua|s |dent|fy themse|ves |n numerous ways |n add|t|on to the|r |dent|ty
as members of a nat|ona| m|nor|ty. The dec|s|on as to whether an |nd|v|dua|
|s a member of a m|nor|ty, the major|ty, or ne|ther rests w|th that |nd|v|dua|
The Lund Recommendations



39
and sha|| not be |mposed upon her or h|m. Moreover, no person sha|| suffer
any d|sadvantage as a resu|t of such a cho|ce or refusa| to choose.

5} When creat|ng |nst|tut|ons and procedures |n accordance w|th these
Recommendat|ons, both substance and process are |mportant.
Governmenta| author|t|es and m|nor|t|es shou|d pursue an |nc|us|ve,
transparent, and accountab|e process of consu|tat|on |n order to ma|nta|n a
c||mate of conf|dence. The State shou|d encourage the pub||c med|a to foster
|ntercu|tura| understand|ng and address the concerns of m|nor|t|es.


II. Part|c|pat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng

/. /||s|eme||s s| ||e |e.e| o/ ||e ce|||s| o.e||me||

6} States shou|d ensure that opportun|t|es ex|st for m|nor|t|es to have an
effect|ve vo|ce at the |eve| of the centra| government, |nc|ud|ng through
spec|a| arrangements as necessary. These may |nc|ude, depend|ng upon
the c|rcumstances:

spec|a| representat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, for examp|e, through a
reserved number of seats |n one or both chambers of par||ament or |n
par||amentary comm|ttees; and other forms of guaranteed part|c|pat|on |n
the |eg|s|at|ve process;

forma| or |nforma| understand|ngs for a||ocat|ng to members of nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es cab|net pos|t|ons, seats on the supreme or const|tut|ona| court
or |ower courts, and pos|t|ons on nom|nated adv|sory bod|es or other
h|gh-|eve| organs;

mechan|sms to ensure that m|nor|ty |nterests are cons|dered w|th|n
re|evant m|n|str|es, through, e.g., personne| address|ng m|nor|ty concerns
or |ssuance of stand|ng d|rect|ves; and

spec|a| measures for m|nor|ty part|c|pat|on |n the c|v|| serv|ce as we|| as
the prov|s|on of pub||c serv|ces |n the |anguage of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty.

S. E|ec||o|s

7} Exper|ence |n Europe and e|sewhere demonstrates the |mportance of the
e|ectora| process for fac|||tat|ng the part|c|pat|on of m|nor|t|es |n the po||t|ca|
sphere. States sha|| guarantee the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es to take part |n the conduct of pub||c affa|rs, |nc|ud|ng through the
r|ghts to vote and stand for off|ce w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on.

8} The regu|at|on of the format|on and act|v|ty of po||t|ca| part|es sha|| comp|y
w|th the |nternat|ona| |aw pr|nc|p|e of freedom of assoc|at|on. Th|s pr|nc|p|e
|nc|udes the freedom to estab||sh po||t|ca| part|es based on communa|
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


40
|dent|t|es as we|| as those not |dent|f|ed exc|us|ve|y w|th the |nterests of a
spec|f|c commun|ty.

9} The e|ectora| system shou|d fac|||tate m|nor|ty representat|on and |nf|uence.

Where m|nor|t|es are concentrated terr|tor|a||y, s|ng|e-member d|str|cts
may prov|de suff|c|ent m|nor|ty representat|on.

Proport|ona| representat|on systems, where a po||t|ca| party's share |n
the nat|ona| vote |s ref|ected |n |ts share of the |eg|s|at|ve seats, may
ass|st |n the representat|on of m|nor|t|es.

Some forms of preference vot|ng, where voters rank cand|dates |n order
of cho|ce, may fac|||tate m|nor|ty representat|on and promote |nter-
communa| cooperat|on.

|ower numer|ca| thresho|ds for representat|on |n the |eg|s|ature may
enhance the |nc|us|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n governance.

10} The geograph|c boundar|es of e|ectora| d|str|cts shou|d fac|||tate the equ|tab|e
representat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

C. /||s|eme||s s| ||e |e|o|s| s|d |ocs| |e.e|s

11} States shou|d adopt measures to promote part|c|pat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
at the reg|ona| and |oca| |eve|s such as those ment|oned above regard|ng the
|eve| of the centra| government (paragraphs 6-10}. The structures and
dec|s|on-mak|ng processes of reg|ona| and |oca| author|t|es shou|d be made
transparent and access|b|e |n order to encourage the part|c|pat|on of
m|nor|t|es.

D. /d.|so|, s|d co|s0||s||.e ood|es

12} States shou|d estab||sh adv|sory or consu|tat|ve bod|es w|th|n appropr|ate
|nst|tut|ona| frameworks to serve as channe|s for d|a|ogue between
governmenta| author|t|es and nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Such bod|es m|ght a|so
|nc|ude spec|a| purpose comm|ttees for address|ng such |ssues as hous|ng,
|and, educat|on, |anguage, and cu|ture. The compos|t|on of such bod|es
shou|d ref|ect the|r purpose and contr|bute to more effect|ve commun|cat|on
and advancement of m|nor|ty |nterests.

13} These bod|es shou|d be ab|e to ra|se |ssues w|th dec|s|on makers, prepare
recommendat|ons, formu|ate |eg|s|at|ve and other proposa|s, mon|tor
deve|opments and prov|de v|ews on proposed governmenta| dec|s|ons that
may d|rect|y or |nd|rect|y affect m|nor|t|es. Governmenta| author|t|es shou|d
consu|t these bod|es regu|ar|y regard|ng m|nor|ty-re|ated |eg|s|at|on and
adm|n|strat|ve measures |n order to contr|bute to the sat|sfact|on of m|nor|ty
The Lund Recommendations



41
concerns and to the bu||d|ng of conf|dence. The effect|ve funct|on|ng of
these bod|es w||| requ|re that they have adequate resources.


III. Se|f-governance

14} Effect|ve part|c|pat|on of m|nor|t|es |n pub||c ||fe may ca|| for non-terr|tor|a| or
terr|tor|a| arrangements of se|f-governance or a comb|nat|on thereof. States
shou|d devote adequate resources to such arrangements.

15} lt |s essent|a| to the success of such arrangements that governmenta|
author|t|es and m|nor|t|es recogn|ze the need for centra| and un|form
dec|s|ons |n some areas of governance together w|th the advantages of
d|vers|ty |n others.

Funct|ons that are genera||y exerc|sed by the centra| author|t|es |nc|ude
defence, fore|gn affa|rs, |mm|grat|on and customs, macroeconom|c
po||cy, and monetary affa|rs.

Other funct|ons, such as those |dent|f|ed be|ow, may be managed by
m|nor|t|es or terr|tor|a| adm|n|strat|ons or shared w|th the centra|
author|t|es.

Funct|ons may be a||ocated asymmetr|ca||y to respond to d|fferent
m|nor|ty s|tuat|ons w|th|n the same State.

16} lnst|tut|ons of se|f-governance, whether non-terr|tor|a| or terr|tor|a|, must be
based on democrat|c pr|nc|p|es to ensure that they genu|ne|y ref|ect the
v|ews of the affected popu|at|on.

/. ^o|-|e||||o||s| s||s|eme||s

17} Non-terr|tor|a| forms of governance are usefu| for the ma|ntenance and
deve|opment of the |dent|ty and cu|ture of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

18} The |ssues most suscept|b|e to regu|at|on by these arrangements |nc|ude
educat|on, cu|ture, use of m|nor|ty |anguage, re||g|on, and other matters
cruc|a| to the |dent|ty and way of ||fe of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

lnd|v|dua|s and groups have the r|ght to choose to use the|r names |n the
m|nor|ty |anguage and obta|n off|c|a| recogn|t|on of the|r names.

Tak|ng |nto account the respons|b|||ty of the governmenta| author|t|es to
set educat|ona| standards, m|nor|ty |nst|tut|ons can determ|ne curr|cu|a
for teach|ng of the|r m|nor|ty |anguages, cu|tures, or both.

M|nor|t|es can determ|ne and enjoy the|r own symbo|s and other forms of
cu|tura| express|on.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


42
S. 7e||||o||s| s||s|eme||s

19} A|| democrac|es have arrangements for governance at d|fferent terr|tor|a|
|eve|s. Exper|ence |n Europe and e|sewhere shows the va|ue of sh|ft|ng
certa|n |eg|s|at|ve and execut|ve funct|ons from the centra| to the reg|ona|
|eve|, beyond the mere decentra||zat|on of centra| government adm|n|strat|on
from the cap|ta| to reg|ona| or |oca| off|ces. Draw|ng on the pr|nc|p|e of
subs|d|ar|ty, States shou|d favourab|y cons|der such terr|tor|a| devo|ut|on of
powers, |nc|ud|ng spec|f|c funct|ons of se|f-government, part|cu|ar|y where |t
wou|d |mprove the opportun|t|es of m|nor|t|es to exerc|se author|ty over
matters affect|ng them.

20} Appropr|ate |oca|, reg|ona|, or autonomous adm|n|strat|ons that correspond
to the spec|f|c h|stor|ca| and terr|tor|a| c|rcumstances of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
may undertake a number of funct|ons |n order to respond more effect|ve|y to
the concerns of these m|nor|t|es.

Funct|ons over wh|ch such adm|n|strat|ons have successfu||y assumed
pr|mary or s|gn|f|cant author|ty |nc|ude educat|on, cu|ture, use of m|nor|ty
|anguage, env|ronment, |oca| p|ann|ng, natura| resources, econom|c
deve|opment, |oca| po||c|ng funct|ons, and hous|ng, hea|th, and other
soc|a| serv|ces.

Funct|ons shared by centra| and reg|ona| author|t|es |nc|ude taxat|on,
adm|n|strat|on of just|ce, tour|sm, and transport.

21} |oca|, reg|ona|, and autonomous author|t|es must respect and ensure the
human r|ghts of a|| persons, |nc|ud|ng the r|ghts of any m|nor|t|es w|th|n the|r
jur|sd|ct|on.


IV. Guarantees

/. Co|s|||0||o|s| s|d |es| ss/e0s|ds

22} Se|f-governance arrangements shou|d be estab||shed by |aw and genera||y
not be subject to change |n the same manner as ord|nary |eg|s|at|on.
Arrangements for promot|ng part|c|pat|on of m|nor|t|es |n dec|s|on-mak|ng
may be determ|ned by |aw or other appropr|ate means.

Arrangements adopted as const|tut|ona| prov|s|ons are norma||y subject
to a h|gher thresho|d of |eg|s|at|ve or popu|ar consent for the|r adopt|on
and amendment.

Ohanges to se|f-governance arrangements estab||shed by |eg|s|at|on
often requ|re approva| by a qua||f|ed major|ty of the |eg|s|ature,
autonomous bod|es or bod|es represent|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, or both.

The Lund Recommendations



43
Per|od|c rev|ew of arrangements for se|f-governance and m|nor|ty
part|c|pat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng can prov|de usefu| opportun|t|es to
determ|ne whether such arrangements shou|d be amended |n the ||ght of
exper|ence and changed c|rcumstances.

23} The poss|b|||ty of prov|s|ona| or step-by-step arrangements that a||ow for the
test|ng and deve|opment of new forms of part|c|pat|on may be cons|dered.
These arrangements can be estab||shed through |eg|s|at|on or |nforma|
means w|th a def|ned t|me per|od, subject to extens|on, a|terat|on, or
term|nat|on depend|ng upon the success ach|eved.

S. |emed|es

24} Effect|ve part|c|pat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n pub||c ||fe requ|res estab||shed
channe|s of consu|tat|on for the prevent|on of conf||cts and d|spute
reso|ut|on, as we|| as the poss|b|||ty of ad hoc or a|ternat|ve mechan|sms
when necessary. Such methods |nc|ude:

jud|c|a| reso|ut|on of conf||cts, such as jud|c|a| rev|ew of |eg|s|at|on or
adm|n|strat|ve act|ons, wh|ch requ|res that the State possess an
|ndependent, access|b|e, and |mpart|a| jud|c|ary whose dec|s|ons are
respected; and

add|t|ona| d|spute reso|ut|on mechan|sms, such as negot|at|on, fact
f|nd|ng, med|at|on, arb|trat|on, an ombudsman for nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, and
spec|a| comm|ss|ons, wh|ch can serve as foca| po|nts and mechan|sms
for the reso|ut|on of gr|evances about governance |ssues.


Exp|anatory Note

I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es

1} Both the Charter of the Un|ted Nat|ons (hereafter the 'N Oharter"} and
the foundat|ona| documents of the OSOE/OSOE seek to ma|nta|n and
strengthen |nternat|ona| peace and secur|ty through the deve|opment of
fr|end|y and co-operat|ve re|at|ons between equa||y sovere|gn States
respect|ng human r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to
m|nor|t|es. lndeed, h|story shows that fa||ure to respect human r|ghts,
|nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, can underm|ne stab|||ty w|th|n the State and
negat|ve|y affect re|at|ons between States, thus endanger|ng |nternat|ona|
peace and secur|ty.

Beg|nn|ng w|th Pr|nc|p|e vll of the deca|ogue of the 1975 He|s|nk| F|na|
Act, the OSOE part|c|pat|ng States have emphas|sed the fundamenta| ||nk
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


44
between respect|ng the |eg|t|mate |nterests of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es and the ma|ntenance of peace and stab|||ty. Th|s ||nk has been
re|terated |n subsequent bas|c documents such as the 1983 Conc|ud|ng
Document of Madr|d (Pr|nc|p|e 15}, the 1989 Conc|ud|ng Document of
V|enna (Pr|nc|p|es 18 and 19}, and the 1990 Charter of Par|s for a New
Europe, |n add|t|on to subsequent Summ|t Documents, e.g. the 1992
He|s|nk| Document (Part lv, paragraph 24} and the 1996 L|sbon
Document (Part l, L|sbon Dec|arat|on on a Common and
Comprehens|ve Secur|ty Mode| for Europe for the Twenty-F|rst
Century, paragraph 2}. At the |eve| of the n|ted Nat|ons, the ||nk between
protect|on and promot|on of m|nor|ty r|ghts and ma|ntenance of peace and
stab|||ty |s expressed, , |n the preamb|e to the 1992 UN Dec|arat|on
on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to Nat|ona| or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous
and L|ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es (hereafter the 'N Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es"}.
Moreover, fo||ow|ng adopt|on of the Charter of Par|s for a New Europe, a||
OSOE part|c|pat|ng States are comm|tted to democrat|c governance.

Fu|| opportun|t|es for the equa| enjoyment of the human r|ghts of persons
be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es enta||s the|r effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng
processes, espec|a||y w|th regard to those dec|s|ons spec|a||y affect|ng them.
Wh||e s|tuat|ons vary great|y and ord|nary democrat|c processes may be
adequate to respond to the needs and asp|rat|ons of m|nor|t|es, exper|ence
a|so shows that spec|a| measures are often requ|red to fac|||tate the effect|ve
part|c|pat|on of m|nor|t|es |n dec|s|on-mak|ng. The fo||ow|ng |nternat|ona|
standards comm|t States to take such act|on |n such s|tuat|ons: accord|ng to
paragraph 35 of the 1990 Document of the Copenhagen Meet|ng on the
Human D|mens|on (hereafter the 'Oopenhagen Document"}, OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States 'w||| respect the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es to effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n pub||c affa|rs, |nc|ud|ng part|c|pat|on |n
the affa|rs re|at|ng to the protect|on and promot|on of the |dent|ty of such
m|nor|t|es"; accord|ng to Art|c|e 2, paragraphs 2 and 3, of the 1992 UN
Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es, '[p|ersons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es have the r|ght
to part|c|pate effect|ve|y |n [| pub||c ||fe" and 'the r|ght to part|c|pate
effect|ve|y |n dec|s|ons on the nat|ona| and, where appropr|ate, reg|ona| |eve|
concern|ng the m|nor|ty to wh|ch they be|ong or the reg|ons |n wh|ch they
||ve"; and, accord|ng to Art|c|e 15 of the Oounc|| of Europe`s 1994
Framework Convent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
(hereafter the 'Framework Oonvent|on"}, States Part|es 'sha|| create the
cond|t|ons necessary for the effect|ve part|c|pat|on of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n cu|tura|, soc|a| and econom|c ||fe and |n pub||c affa|rs, |n
part|cu|ar those affect|ng them."

The creat|on of opportun|t|es for effect|ve part|c|pat|on takes for granted that
such part|c|pat|on w||| be vo|untary. lndeed, the under|y|ng not|on of soc|a|
and po||t|ca| |ntegrat|on |s d|st|ngu|shed from processes and outcomes wh|ch
const|tute coerced ass|m||at|on, as caut|oned |n Art|c|e 5 of the Framework
Convent|on. On|y through vo|untary processes may the pursu|t of the
|eg|t|mate |nterests of persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es be a peacefu| process
The Lund Recommendations



45
wh|ch offers the prospect of opt|ma| outcomes |n pub||c po||cy- and |aw-
mak|ng. Such |nc|us|ve, part|c|patory processes thus serve the object|ve of
good governance by respond|ng to the |nterests of the who|e popu|at|on -
weav|ng a|| |nterests |nto the fabr|c of pub||c ||fe and u|t|mate|y strengthen|ng
the |ntegr|ty of the State. The |nternat|ona| standards referr|ng to effect|ve
part|c|pat|on of m|nor|t|es |n pub||c ||fe underscore the fact that they do not
|mp|y any r|ght to engage |n act|v|t|es contrary to the purposes and pr|nc|p|es
of the n|ted Nat|ons, OSOE or Oounc|| of Europe, |nc|ud|ng sovere|gn
equa||ty, terr|tor|a| |ntegr|ty and po||t|ca| |ndependence of States (see
paragraph 37 of the Copenhagen Document, Art|c|e 8(4} of the UN
Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es, and the preamb|e of the Framework
Convent|on}.

2} ln the sp|r|t of paragraph 25 of Part vl of the 1992 He|s|nk| Document,
these recommendat|ons bu||d upon the re|evant comm|tments |nsofar as they
offer OSOE part|c|pat|ng States 'further avenues for more effect|ve
|mp|ementat|on of the|r OSOE comm|tments, |nc|ud|ng those re|ated to the
protect|on and the creat|on of cond|t|ons for the promot|on of the ethn|c,
cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c and re||g|ous |dent|ty of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es".

Art|c|e 1(3} of the UN Charter spec|f|es that one of the purposes of the
organ|sat|on |s 'To ach|eve |nternat|ona| co-operat|on |n so|v|ng |nternat|ona|
prob|ems of an econom|c, soc|a|, cu|tura|, or human|tar|an character, and |n
promot|ng and encourag|ng respect for human r|ghts and for fundamenta|
freedoms for a|| w|thout d|st|nct|on as to race, sex, |anguage, or re||g|on" -
wh|ch |s further spec|f|ed |n Art|c|e 55(c} as |nc|ud|ng 'un|versa| respect for,
and observance of, human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms for a|| w|thout
d|st|nct|on as to race, sex, |anguage, or re||g|on." The Charter |s based upon
the |nt|mate re|at|onsh|p between respect for human r|ghts and |nternat|ona|
peace and secur|ty, and the fundamenta| va|ue of human d|gn|ty |s further
expressed |n Art|c|e 1 of the 1948 Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human
R|ghts and the preamb|es of the 1966 Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v||
and Po||t|ca| R|ghts, the 1966 Internat|ona| Covenant on Econom|c,
Soc|a| and Cu|tura| R|ghts, and the 1965 Internat|ona| Convent|on on
the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on. Such d|gn|ty |s
equa||y |nherent |n a|| human be|ngs and accompan|ed by equa| and
|na||enab|e r|ghts.

Fo||ow|ng from the prem|se of equa| d|gn|ty and |na||enab|e r|ghts |s the
pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on as expressed |n v|rtua||y a|| |nternat|ona| human
r|ghts |nstruments, |nc|ud|ng notab|y Art|c|e 2 of the Un|versa| Dec|arat|on
of Human R|ghts, Art|c|es 2 and 26 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on
C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts, and Art|c|e 2 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on
Econom|c, Soc|a| and Cu|tura| R|ghts. Art|c|e 1 of the Internat|ona|
Convent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on
makes c|ear that th|s |nstrument proh|b|ts d|scr|m|nat|on a|so on the bas|s of
'descent, or nat|ona| or ethn|c or|g|n". Art|c|e 14 of the 1950 European
Convent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta|
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


46
Freedoms (hereafter the 'European Oonvent|on on Human R|ghts"} a|so
express|y extends the pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on to cover grounds of
'nat|ona| or soc|a| or|g|n, [or| assoc|at|on w|th a nat|ona| m|nor|ty", whenever
the r|ghts and freedoms guaranteed by the convent|on are engaged. lndeed,
the const|tut|ons of most OSOE part|c|pat|ng States |ncorporate these
aff|rmat|ons and pr|nc|p|es.

lnsofar as persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are ent|t|ed to the r|ght to
effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n pub||c ||fe, they are to enjoy th|s r|ght w|thout
d|scr|m|nat|on, as expressed |n paragraph 31 of the Copenhagen
Document, Art|c|e 4 of the Framework Convent|on, and Art|c|e 4(1} of the
UN Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es. However, accord|ng to Art|c|e 4(2} of the
Framework Convent|on, concern for equa| d|gn|ty extends beyond the
pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on towards 'fu|| and effect|ve equa||ty between
persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty and those be|ong|ng to the major|ty"
for wh|ch States shou|d 'adopt, where necessary, adequate measures [...| |n
a|| areas of [...| po||t|ca| [...| ||fe" |n respect of wh|ch 'they sha|| take due
account of the spec|f|c cond|t|ons of the persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es."

The connect|on made |n the recommendat|on between respect for human
r|ghts and the deve|opment of c|v|| soc|ety ref|ects the ca|| for an 'effect|ve
po||t|ca| democracy" wh|ch, accord|ng to the Preamb|e of the European
Convent|on on Human R|ghts, |s |nt|mate|y re|ated to just|ce and peace |n
the wor|d. OSOE part|c|pat|ng States have further aff|rmed |n the Charter of
Par|s for a New Europe that democrat|c governance, |nc|ud|ng respect for
human r|ghts, |s the bas|s for prosper|ty.

3} When spec|f|c |nst|tut|ons are estab||shed to ensure the effect|ve part|c|pat|on
of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n pub||c ||fe, th|s must not be at the expense of others`
r|ghts. A|| human r|ghts must be respected at a|| t|mes, |nc|ud|ng by such
|nst|tut|ons wh|ch may be de|egated author|ty by the State. Accord|ng to
paragraph 33 of the Copenhagen Document, when part|c|pat|ng States
take measures necessary for the protect|on of the |dent|ty of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, 'Any such measures w||| be |n conform|ty
w|th the pr|nc|p|es of equa||ty and non-d|scr|m|nat|on w|th respect to the
other c|t|zens of the part|c|pat|ng State concerned." The Copenhagen
Document further st|pu|ates at paragraph 38 that OSOE 'part|c|pat|ng
States, |n the|r efforts to protect and promote the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng
to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, w||| fu||y respect the|r undertak|ngs under ex|st|ng
human r|ghts convent|ons and other re|evant |nternat|ona| |nstruments". The
Framework Convent|on has a s|m||ar st|pu|at|on |n Art|c|e 20: 'ln the
exerc|se of the r|ghts and freedoms f|ow|ng from the pr|nc|p|es enshr|ned |n
the present framework Oonvent|on, any person be|ong|ng to a nat|ona|
m|nor|ty sha|| respect the nat|ona| |eg|s|at|on and the r|ghts of others, |n
part|cu|ar those of persons be|ong|ng to the major|ty or to other nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es." Th|s addresses |n part|cu|ar the case of 'm|nor|t|es w|th|n
m|nor|t|es", espec|a||y |n the terr|tor|a| context (see recommendat|ons 16 and
The Lund Recommendations



47
21 be|ow}. Th|s wou|d a|so |nc|ude respect for the human r|ghts of women,
|nc|ud|ng freedom from d|scr|m|nat|on |n re|at|on to 'the po||t|ca| and pub||c
||fe of the country" as st|pu|ated at Art|c|e 7 of the 1979 Convent|on on the
E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of D|scr|m|nat|on aga|nst Women.

4} The pr|nc|p|e of se|f-|dent|f|cat|on of persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es |s based
on severa| fundamenta| comm|tments. Paragraph 32 of the Copenhagen
Document spec|f|es that 'To be|ong to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty |s a matter of a
person`s |nd|v|dua| cho|ce and no d|sadvantage may ar|se from the exerc|se
of such cho|ce". Art|c|e 3(1} of the Framework Convent|on prov|des
s|m||ar|y that 'Every person be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty sha|| have the
r|ght free|y to choose to be treated or not to be treated as such and no
d|sadvantage sha|| resu|t from th|s cho|ce or from the exerc|se of the r|ghts
wh|ch are connected to that cho|ce." Art|c|e 3(2} of the UN Dec|arat|on on
M|nor|t|es |nc|udes the same proh|b|t|on aga|nst any d|sadvantage resu|t|ng
'for any person be|ong|ng to a m|nor|ty as the consequence of the exerc|se
or non-exerc|se of the r|ghts set forth |n the present Dec|arat|on."

An |nd|v|dua|`s freedom to |dent|fy onese|f as one chooses |s necessary to
ensure respect for |nd|v|dua| autonomy and ||berty. An |nd|v|dua| may
possess severa| |dent|t|es that are re|evant not on|y for pr|vate ||fe, but a|so |n
the sphere of pub||c ||fe. lndeed, |n open soc|et|es w|th |ncreas|ng
movements of persons and |deas, many |nd|v|dua|s have mu|t|p|e |dent|t|es
wh|ch are co|nc|d|ng, coex|st|ng or |ayered (|n an h|erarch|ca| or non-
h|erarch|ca| fash|on}, ref|ect|ng the|r var|ous assoc|at|ons. Oerta|n|y, |dent|t|es
are not based so|e|y on ethn|c|ty, nor are they un|form w|th|n the same
commun|ty; they may be he|d by d|fferent members |n vary|ng shades and
degrees. Depend|ng upon the spec|f|c matters at |ssue, d|fferent |dent|t|es
may be more or |ess sa||ent. As a consequence, the same person m|ght
|dent|fy herse|f or h|mse|f |n d|fferent ways for d|fferent purposes, depend|ng
upon the sa||ence of the |dent|f|cat|on and arrangement for her or h|m. For
examp|e, |n some States a person may choose a certa|n |anguage for
subm|ss|on on tax forms, yet |dent|fy herse|f or h|mse|f d|fferent|y |n a |oca|
commun|ty for other purposes.

5} ln the framework of democracy, the process of dec|s|on-mak|ng |s as
|mportant as the substance of dec|s|ons made. S|nce good governance |s
not on|y of the peop|e but a|so for the peop|e, |ts processes shou|d a|ways
be |nc|us|ve of those concerned, transparent for a|| to see and judge, and
accountab|e to those affected. On|y such processes w||| |nsp|re and ma|nta|n
pub||c conf|dence. lnc|us|ve processes may compr|se consu|tat|on, po|||ng,
referenda, negot|at|on and even the spec|f|c consent of those d|rect|y
affected. Dec|s|ons resu|t|ng from such processes are ||ke|y to |nsp|re
vo|untary comp||ance. ln s|tuat|ons where the v|ews of the pub||c author|t|es
and the affected commun|ty may d|ffer substant|a||y, good governance may
suggest us|ng the serv|ces of a th|rd party to ass|st |n f|nd|ng the most
sat|sfactory arrangement.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


48
ln re|at|on spec|f|ca||y to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, paragraph 33 of the
Copenhagen Document comm|ts OSOE part|c|pat|ng States to take
measures to 'protect the ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c and re||g|ous |dent|ty of
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es on the|r terr|tory and create cond|t|ons for the promot|on of
that |dent|ty [...| after due consu|tat|ons, |nc|ud|ng contacts w|th organ|zat|ons
or assoc|at|ons of such m|nor|t|es". ln Part vl, paragraph 26, of the He|s|nk|
Document, OSOE part|c|pat|ng States further comm|tted themse|ves to
'address nat|ona| m|nor|ty |ssues |n a construct|ve manner, by peacefu|
means and through d|a|ogue among a|| part|es concerned on the bas|s of
OSOE pr|nc|p|es and comm|tments". ln connect|on w|th 'a|| part|es
concerned", paragraph 30 of the Copenhagen Document recogn|zes 'the
|mportant ro|e of non-governmenta| organ|zat|ons, |nc|ud|ng po||t|ca| part|es,
trade un|ons, human r|ghts organ|zat|ons and re||g|ous groups, |n the
promot|on of to|erance, cu|tura| d|vers|ty and the reso|ut|on of quest|ons
re|at|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es."

lnc|us|ve processes requ|re cond|t|ons of to|erance. A soc|a| and po||t|ca|
c||mate of mutua| respect and equa||ty needs to be assured by |aw and a|so
taught as a soc|a| eth|c shared by the who|e popu|at|on. The med|a have a
spec|a| ro|e |n th|s regard. Art|c|e 6(1} of the Framework Convent|on
prov|des that 'the Part|es sha|| encourage a sp|r|t of to|erance and
|ntercu|tura| d|a|ogue and take effect|ve measures to promote mutua| respect
and understand|ng and co-operat|on among a|| persons ||v|ng on the|r
terr|tory, |rrespect|ve of those persons` ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c or re||g|ous
|dent|ty, |n part|cu|ar |n the f|e|ds of educat|on, cu|ture and the med|a." ln
part|cu|ar, States shou|d act to stop the pub||c use of derogatory or
pejorat|ve names and terms and shou|d take steps to counteract negat|ve
stereotypes. ldea||y, the representat|ves of the affected commun|ty shou|d
part|c|pate |n the cho|ce and des|gn of any steps taken to overcome such
prob|ems.


II. Part|c|pat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng

/. /||s|eme||s s| ||e |e.e| o/ ||e ce|||s| o.e||me||

6} Bu||d|ng upon paragraph 35 of the Copenhagen Document, paragraph 1
of Part lll of the 1991 Report of the CSCE (Geneva| Meet|ng of Experts
on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es under||nes that 'when |ssues re|at|ng to the s|tuat|on
of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are d|scussed w|th|n the|r countr|es, they themse|ves
shou|d have the effect|ve opportun|ty to be |nvo|ved [...| [and| that [such|
democrat|c part|c|pat|on of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es or the|r
representat|ves |n dec|s|on-mak|ng or consu|tat|ve bod|es const|tutes an
|mportant e|ement of effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n pub||c affa|rs." Paragraph 24 of
Part vl of the He|s|nk| Document comm|tted OSOE part|c|pat|ng States to
'|ntens|fy |n th|s context the|r efforts to ensure the free exerc|se by persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |nd|v|dua||y or |n commun|ty w|th others, of
the|r human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms, |nc|ud|ng the r|ght to
The Lund Recommendations



49
part|c|pate fu||y, |n accordance w|th the democrat|c dec|s|on-mak|ng
procedures of each State, |n the po||t|ca|, econom|c, soc|a|, and cu|tura| ||fe of
the|r countr|es |nc|ud|ng through democrat|c part|c|pat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng
and consu|tat|ve bod|es at the nat|ona|, reg|ona|, and |oca| |eve|, |||e| s||s,
through po||t|ca| part|es and assoc|at|ons."

The essence of part|c|pat|on |s |nvo|vement, both |n terms of the opportun|ty
to make substant|ve contr|but|ons to dec|s|on-mak|ng processes and |n
terms of the effect of those contr|but|ons. The not|on of good governance
|nc|udes the prem|se that s|mp|e major|tar|an dec|s|on-mak|ng |s not a|ways
suff|c|ent. ln terms of the structure of the State, var|ous forms of
decentra||zat|on may be appropr|ate to assure the max|mum re|evance and
accountab|||ty of dec|s|on-mak|ng processes for those affected, both at the
|eve| of the State and at sub-State |eve|s. Th|s may be accomp||shed
through var|ous ways |n a un|tary State or |n federa| and confedera| systems.
M|nor|ty representat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng bod|es may be assured through
reserved seats (by way of quotas, promot|ons or other measures}, wh||e
other forms of part|c|pat|on |nc|ude assured membersh|p |n re|evant
comm|ttees, w|th or w|thout vot|ng r|ghts. Representat|on on execut|ve,
jud|c|a|, adm|n|strat|ve and other bod|es may be assured through s|m||ar
means, whether by forma| requ|rement or by customary pract|ce. Spec|a|
bod|es may a|so be estab||shed to accommodate m|nor|ty concerns.
Mean|ngfu| opportun|t|es to exerc|se a|| m|nor|ty r|ghts requ|re spec|f|c steps
to be taken |n the pub||c serv|ce, |nc|ud|ng ensur|ng 'equa| access to pub||c
serv|ce" as art|cu|ated |n Art|c|e 5(c} of the lnternat|ona| Convent|on on the
E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on.

S. E|ec||o|s

7} Representat|ve government through free, fa|r and per|od|c e|ect|ons |s the
ha||mark of contemporary democracy. The fundamenta| object|ve |s, |n the
words of Art|c|e 21(3} of the Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts, that
'The w||| of the peop|e sha|| be the bas|s of the author|ty of government". Th|s
bas|c standard |s art|cu|ated |n un|versa| and European treat|es, name|y
Art|c|e 25 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts and
Art|c|e 3 of Protoco| l add|t|ona| to the European Convent|on on Human
R|ghts. For OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, paragraphs 5 and 6 of the
Copenhagen Document spec|fy that, 'among those e|ements of just|ce
wh|ch are essent|a| to the fu|| express|on of the |nherent d|gn|ty and of the
equa| and |na||enab|e r|ghts of a|| human be|ngs", 'the w||| of the peop|e,
free|y and fa|r|y expressed through per|od|c and genu|ne e|ect|ons, |s the
bas|s of the author|ty and |eg|t|macy of a|| government".
Wh||e States have cons|derab|e |at|tude |n choos|ng the spec|f|c manner |n
wh|ch to comp|y w|th these ob||gat|ons, they must do so w|thout
d|scr|m|nat|on and shou|d a|m for as much representat|veness as poss|b|e.
lndeed, w|th|n the context of the n|ted Nat|ons, the Human R|ghts
Oomm|ttee has exp|a|ned |n paragraph 12 of |ts Genera| Comment 25 on
Art|c|e 25 (57th Sess|on 1996} that 'Freedom of express|on, assemb|y and
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


50
assoc|at|on are essent|a| cond|t|ons for the effect|ve exerc|se of the r|ght to
vote and must be fu||y protected. [...| lnformat|on and mater|a|s about vot|ng
shou|d be ava||ab|e |n m|nor|ty |anguages." Moreover, paragraph 5 of
Genera| Comment 25 c|ar|f|es that 'The conduct of pub||c affa|rs [...| |s a
broad concept wh|ch re|ates to the exerc|se of po||t|ca| power, |n part|cu|ar
the exerc|se of |eg|s|at|ve, execut|ve and adm|n|strat|ve powers. lt covers a||
aspects of pub||c adm|n|strat|on, and the formu|at|on and |mp|ementat|on of
po||cy at |nternat|ona|, nat|ona|, reg|ona| and |oca| |eve|s."

lnsofar as no e|ectora| system |s neutra| from the perspect|ve of vary|ng v|ews
and |nterests, States shou|d adopt the system wh|ch wou|d resu|t |n the most
representat|ve government |n the|r spec|f|c s|tuat|on. Th|s |s espec|a||y
|mportant for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es who m|ght otherw|se
not have adequate representat|on.

8} ln pr|nc|p|e, democrac|es shou|d not |nterfere w|th the way |n wh|ch peop|e
organ|ze themse|ves po||t|ca||y - as |ong as the|r means are peacefu| and
respectfu| of the r|ghts of others. Essent|a||y, th|s |s a matter of freedom of
assoc|at|on, as art|cu|ated |n a w|de var|ety of |nternat|ona| |nstruments
|nc|ud|ng: Art|c|e 20 of the Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts; Art|c|e
22 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts; Art|c|e 11
of the European Convent|on on Human R|ghts; and paragraph 6 of the
Copenhagen Document. Freedom of assoc|at|on has a|so been
guaranteed spec|f|ca||y for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es under
paragraph 32.6 of the Copenhagen Document and Art|c|e 7 of the
Framework Convent|on. More spec|f|ca||y, paragraph 24 of Part vl of the
He|s|nk| Document comm|ts OSOE part|c|pat|ng States 'to ensure the free
exerc|se by persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |nd|v|dua||y or |n
commun|ty w|th others, of the|r human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms,
|nc|ud|ng the r|ght to part|c|pate fu||y, [...| |n the po||t|ca| [...| ||fe of the|r
countr|es |nc|ud|ng [...| through po||t|ca| part|es and assoc|at|ons."

Wh||e fu|| respect for equa| r|ghts and non-d|scr|m|nat|on w||| reduce or
e||m|nate the demand and need for po||t|ca| part|es formed on the bas|s of
ethn|c t|es, |n some s|tuat|ons such communa| part|es may be the on|y hope
for effect|ve representat|on of spec|f|c |nterests and, thus, for effect|ve
part|c|pat|on. Of course, part|es may be formed on other bases, e.g. reg|ona|
|nterests. ldea||y, part|es shou|d be open and shou|d cut across narrow
ethn|c |ssues; thus, ma|nstream part|es shou|d seek to |nc|ude members of
m|nor|t|es to reduce the need or des|re for ethn|c part|es. The cho|ce of
e|ectora| system may be |mportant |n th|s regard. ln any event, no po||t|ca|
party or other assoc|at|on may |nc|te rac|a| hatred, wh|ch |s proh|b|ted by
Art|c|e 20 of the Internat|ona| Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts and
Art|c|e 4 of the Convent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of Rac|a|
D|scr|m|nat|on.

9} The e|ectora| system may prov|de for the se|ect|on of both the |eg|s|ature and
other bod|es and |nst|tut|ons, |nc|ud|ng |nd|v|dua| off|c|a|s. Wh||e s|ng|e
The Lund Recommendations



51
member const|tuenc|es may prov|de suff|c|ent representat|on for m|nor|t|es,
depend|ng upon how the const|tuenc|es are drawn and the concentrat|on of
m|nor|ty commun|t|es, proport|ona| representat|on m|ght he|p guarantee such
m|nor|ty representat|on. var|ous forms of proport|ona| representat|on are
pract|sed |n OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, |nc|ud|ng the fo||ow|ng: 'preference
vot|ng", whereby voters rank cand|dates |n order of cho|ce; 'open ||st
systems", whereby e|ectors can express a preference for a cand|date w|th|n
a party ||st, as we|| as vot|ng for the party; 'panachage", whereby e|ectors
can vote for more than one cand|date across d|fferent party ||nes; and
'cumu|at|on", whereby voters can cast more than one vote for a preferred
cand|date. Thresho|ds shou|d not be so h|gh as to hamper m|nor|ty
representat|on.

10} ln draw|ng the boundar|es of e|ectora| d|str|cts, the concerns and |nterests of
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es shou|d be taken |nto account w|th a v|ew to assur|ng the|r
representat|on |n dec|s|on-mak|ng bod|es. The not|on of 'equ|ty" means that
no one shou|d be prejud|ced by the chosen method and that a|| concerns
and |nterests shou|d be g|ven fa|r cons|derat|on. ldea||y, boundar|es shou|d
be determ|ned by an |ndependent and |mpart|a| body to ensure, among other
concerns, respect for m|nor|ty r|ghts. Th|s |s often accomp||shed |n OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States by means of stand|ng, profess|ona| e|ectora|
comm|ss|ons.

ln any event, States shou|d not a|ter e|ectora| boundar|es, or otherw|se a|ter
the proport|ons of the popu|at|on |n a d|str|ct, for the purpose of d||ut|ng or
exc|ud|ng m|nor|ty representat|on. Th|s |s express|y proh|b|ted by Art|c|e 16 of
the Framework Convent|on, wh||e Art|c|e 5 of the European Charter of
Loca| Se|f-Government st|pu|ates that 'Ohanges |n |oca| author|ty
boundar|es sha|| not be made w|thout pr|or consu|tat|on of the |oca|
commun|t|es concerned, poss|b|y by means of a referendum where th|s |s
perm|tted by statute" (see recommendat|on 19 regard|ng terr|tor|a|
arrangements}.

C. /||s|eme||s s| ||e |e|o|s| s|d |ocs| |e.e|s

11} Th|s Recommendat|on app||es to a|| |eve|s of government be|ow the centra|
author|t|es (e.g. prov|nces, departments, d|str|cts, prefectures, mun|c|pa||t|es,
c|t|es and towns, whether un|ts w|th|n a un|tary State or const|tuent un|ts of a
federa| State, |nc|ud|ng autonomous reg|ons and other author|t|es}. The
cons|stent enjoyment of a|| human r|ghts by everyone equa||y means that the
ent|t|ements enjoyed at the |eve| of the centra| government shou|d be enjoyed
throughout the structures be|ow. However, the cr|ter|a used to create
structures at the reg|ona| and |oca| |eve| may be d|fferent from those used at
the |eve| of the centra| government. Structures may a|so be estab||shed
asymmetr|ca||y, w|th var|at|on accord|ng to d|ffer|ng needs and expressed
des|res.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


52
D. /d.|so|, s|d co|s0||s||.e ood|es

12} Paragraph 24 of Part vl of the He|s|nk| Document comm|ts OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States 'to ensure the free exerc|se by persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |nd|v|dua||y or |n commun|ty w|th others, of the|r human
r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms, |nc|ud|ng the r|ght to part|c|pate fu||y [...| |n
the po||t|ca| [...| ||fe of the|r countr|es |nc|ud|ng through democrat|c
part|c|pat|on |n [...| consu|tat|ve bod|es at the nat|ona|, reg|ona|, and |oca|
|eve|". Such bod|es can be stand|ng or ad hoc, part of or attached to the
|eg|s|at|ve or execut|ve branch or |ndependent therefrom. Oomm|ttees
attached to par||amentary bod|es, such as m|nor|ty round tab|es, are known
|n severa| OSOE part|c|pat|ng States. They can and do funct|on at a|| |eve|s
of government, |nc|ud|ng se|f-government arrangements. ln order to be
effect|ve, these bod|es shou|d be composed of m|nor|ty representat|ves and
others who can offer spec|a| expert|se, prov|ded w|th adequate resources,
and g|ven ser|ous attent|on by dec|s|onmakers. As|de from adv|ce and
counse|, such bod|es can const|tute a usefu| |ntermed|ary |nst|tut|on between
dec|s|onmakers and m|nor|ty groups. They can a|so st|mu|ate act|on at the
|eve| of government and among m|nor|ty commun|t|es. Such bod|es may a|so
perform spec|f|c tasks re|ated to the |mp|ementat|on of programs, e.g. |n the
f|e|d of educat|on. ln add|t|on, spec|a| purpose comm|ttees may ho|d
part|cu|ar s|gn|f|cance for certa|n m|nor|t|es who shou|d be represented
there|n.

13} The poss|b|||t|es for construct|ve use of such bod|es vary w|th the s|tuat|ons.
However, |n a|| cases, good governance requ|res pos|t|ve steps on the part of
the author|t|es to engage estab||shed adv|sory and consu|tat|ve bod|es, to
refer to them as needs may ar|se and to |nv|te the|r |n-put. An open and
|nc|us|ve approach on the part of the author|t|es v|s--v|s these bod|es and
the|r members w||| contr|bute to better dec|s|ons and to greater conf|dence of
the w|der soc|ety.


III. Se|f-governance

14} The term 'se|f-governance" |mp||es a measure of contro| by a commun|ty
over matters affect|ng |t. The cho|ce of the term 'governance" does not
necessar||y |mp|y exc|us|ve jur|sd|ct|on. ln add|t|on, |t may subsume
adm|n|strat|ve author|ty, management, and spec|f|ed |eg|s|at|ve and jud|c|a|
jur|sd|ct|on. The State may ach|eve th|s through de|egat|on or devo|ut|on, or,
|n the case of a federat|on, an |n|t|a| d|v|s|on of const|tuent powers. Among
OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, 'se|f-governance" arrangements are var|ous|y
referred to as de|egat|ons of autonomy, se|f-government, and home ru|e. ln
no case |s th|s to |nc|ude any ethn|c cr|ter|on for terr|tor|a| arrangements.
ln paragraph 35 of the Copenhagen Document, OSOE part|c|pat|ng States
have noted 'the efforts undertaken to protect and create cond|t|ons for the
promot|on of the ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c and re||g|ous |dent|ty of certa|n
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es by estab||sh|ng, as one of the poss|b|e means to ach|eve
The Lund Recommendations



53
these a|ms, appropr|ate |oca| or autonomous adm|n|strat|ons correspond|ng
to the spec|f|c h|stor|ca| and terr|tor|a| c|rcumstances of such m|nor|t|es and |n
accordance w|th the po||c|es of the State concerned." Fo||ow|ng upon th|s,
the Report of the CSCE (Geneva| Meet|ng of Experts on Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es noted |n paragraph 7 of Part lv 'that pos|t|ve resu|ts have been
obta|ned by some [part|c|pat|ng States| |n an appropr|ate democrat|c manner
by, : [...| |oca| and autonomous adm|n|strat|on, as we|| as autonomy
on a terr|tor|a| bas|s, |nc|ud|ng the ex|stence of consu|tat|ve, |eg|s|at|ve and
execut|ve bod|es chosen through free and per|od|c e|ect|ons; se|f-
adm|n|strat|on by a nat|ona| m|nor|ty of aspects concern|ng |ts |dent|ty |n
s|tuat|ons where autonomy on a terr|tor|a| bas|s does not app|y; decentra||zed
or |oca| forms of government; [...| prov|s|on of f|nanc|a| and techn|ca|
ass|stance to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es who so w|sh to
exerc|se the|r r|ght to estab||sh and ma|nta|n the|r own educat|ona|, cu|tura|
and re||g|ous |nst|tut|ons, organ|zat|ons and assoc|at|ons [...|". Of a more
genera| nature, the Preamb|e to the European Charter of Loca| Se|f-
Government stresses 'the pr|nc|p|es of democracy and the decentra||sat|on
of power" as a contr|but|on to 'the safeguard|ng and re|nforcement of |oca|
se|f-government |n the d|fferent European countr|es". ln th|s |ast connect|on,
the European Charter of Loca| Se|f-Government prov|des |n Art|c|e 9 for
the ent|t|ement of adequate f|nanc|a| resources for the exerc|se of such
decentra||zed author|t|es.

15} lnsofar as the State ho|ds respons|b|||ty |n certa|n f|e|ds affect|ng the who|e
State, |t must assure the|r regu|at|on through the centra| author|t|es of the
State. These typ|ca||y |nc|ude: defence, wh|ch |s essent|a| to ma|nta|n the
terr|tor|a| |ntegr|ty of the State; macroeconom|c po||cy, wh|ch |s |mportant
|nsofar as the centra| government serves as a sort of equa||zer between
econom|ca||y d|sparate reg|ons; and the c|ass|ca| affa|rs of d|p|omacy.
lnsofar as other f|e|ds may have |mportant nat|ona| |mp||cat|ons, these too
must be regu|ated at |east to some degree by the centra| author|t|es.

Regu|at|on |n these f|e|ds may a|so be shared, |nc|ud|ng w|th spec|a||y
affected terr|tor|a| un|ts or m|nor|ty groups (see recommendat|ons 18 and 20}.
Such shar|ng of regu|atory author|ty must neverthe|ess be cons|stent w|th human
r|ghts standards and be managed |n a pract|ca| and coord|nated manner.

One f|e|d wh|ch |s we||-estab||shed as be|ng shared on e|ther a terr|tor|a| or a
non-terr|tor|a| bas|s, or both, and ho|ds spec|a| |mportance both for the State
as a who|e and a|so for m|nor|ty groups, |s educat|on. Art|c|e 5.1 of the
UNESCO Convent|on aga|nst D|scr|m|nat|on |n Educat|on spe||s out |n
some deta|| how such shar|ng |n th|s f|e|d shou|d be ach|eved: 'The States
Part|es to th|s Oonvent|on agree that: [...|

(b} lt |s essent|a| to respect the ||berty of parents and, where app||cab|e,
of |ega| guard|ans, f|rst|y to choose for the|r ch||dren |nst|tut|ons other
than those ma|nta|ned by the pub||c author|t|es but conform|ng to
such m|n|mum educat|ona| standards as may be |a|d down or
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


54
approved by the competent author|t|es and, second|y, to ensure |n a
manner cons|stent w|th the procedures fo||owed |n the State for the
app||cat|on of |ts |eg|s|at|on, the re||g|ous and mora| educat|on of the
ch||dren |n conform|ty w|th the|r own conv|ct|ons; and no person or
group of persons shou|d be compe||ed to rece|ve re||g|ous |nstruct|on
|ncons|stent w|th h|s or the|r conv|ct|on;

(c} lt |s essent|a| to recogn|ze the r|ght of members of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
to carry on the|r own educat|ona| act|v|t|es, |nc|ud|ng the ma|ntenance
of schoo|s and, depend|ng on the educat|ona| po||cy of each State,
the use or the teach|ng of the|r own |anguage, prov|ded however: (|}
That th|s r|ght |s not exerc|sed |n a manner wh|ch prevents the
members of these m|nor|t|es from understand|ng the cu|ture and
|anguage of the commun|ty as a who|e and from part|c|pat|ng |n |ts
act|v|t|es, or wh|ch prejud|ces nat|ona| sovere|gnty; (||} That the
standard of educat|on |s not |ower than the genera| standard |a|d
down or approved by the competent author|t|es; and (|||} That
attendance at such schoo|s |s opt|ona|."

16} The pr|nc|p|e of democrat|c governance, as art|cu|ated |n Art|c|e 21 of the
Un|versa| Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts, Art|c|e 25 of the Internat|ona|
Covenant on C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts, Art|c|e 3 of Protoco| l to the
European Convent|on on Human R|ghts and |n OSOE standards |s app||cab|e
at a|| |eve|s and for a|| e|ements of governance. When |nst|tut|ons of se|f-governance
are needed or des|rab|e, the equa| enjoyment by everyone of the|r r|ghts requ|res
app||cat|on of the pr|nc|p|e of democracy w|th|n these |nst|tut|ons.

/. ^o|-|e||||o||s| s||s|eme||s

17} Th|s sect|on addresses non-terr|tor|a| autonomy - often referred to as
'persona|" or 'cu|tura| autonomy" - wh|ch |s most ||ke|y to be usefu| when a
group |s geograph|ca||y d|spersed. Such d|v|s|ons of author|ty, |nc|ud|ng
contro| over spec|f|c subject-matter, may take p|ace at the |eve| of the State
or w|th|n terr|tor|a| arrangements. ln a|| cases, respect for the human r|ghts of
others must be assured. Moreover, such arrangements shou|d be assured
adequate f|nanc|a| resources to enab|e performance of the|r pub||c funct|ons
and shou|d resu|t from |nc|us|ve processes (see Recommendat|on 5}.

18} Th|s |s not an exhaust|ve ||st of poss|b|e funct|ons. Much w||| depend upon
the s|tuat|on, |nc|ud|ng espec|a||y the needs and expressed des|res of the
m|nor|ty. ln d|fferent s|tuat|ons, d|fferent subjects w||| be of greater or |esser
|nterest to m|nor|t|es, and dec|s|ons |n these f|e|ds w||| affect them to vary|ng
degrees. Some f|e|ds may be shared. One area of spec|a| concern for
m|nor|t|es |s contro| over the|r own names, both for representat|ve |nst|tut|ons
and |nd|v|dua| members, as prov|ded |n Art|c|e 11(1} of the Framework
Convent|on. W|th regard to re||g|on, the Recommendat|on does not
advocate governmenta| |nterference |n re||g|ous matters other than |n re|at|on
to those powers (e.g. concern|ng persona| c|v|| status} de|egated to re||g|ous
The Lund Recommendations



55
author|t|es. Th|s Recommendat|on a|so does not |ntend that m|nor|ty
|nst|tut|ons shou|d contro| the med|a - a|though persons be|ong|ng to
m|nor|t|es shou|d have the poss|b|||ty to create and use the|r own med|a, as
guaranteed by Art|c|e 9(3} of the Framework Convent|on. Of course,
cu|ture has many aspects extend|ng to f|e|ds such as we|fare, hous|ng and
ch||d care; the State shou|d take |nto account m|nor|ty |nterests |n
governance |n these f|e|ds.

S. 7e||||o||s| s||s|eme||s

19} There |s a genera| trend |n European States towards devo|ut|on of author|ty
and |mp|ementat|on of the pr|nc|p|e of subs|d|ar|ty, such that dec|s|ons are
taken as c|ose as poss|b|e to, and by, those most d|rect|y concerned and
affected. Art|c|e 4(3} of the European Charter of Loca| Se|f-Government
expresses th|s object|ve as fo||ows: 'Pub||c respons|b|||t|es sha|| genera||y be
exerc|sed, |n preference, by those author|t|es wh|ch are c|osest to the c|t|zen.
A||ocat|on of respons|b|||ty to another author|ty shou|d we|gh up the extent
and nature of the task and requ|rements of eff|c|ency and economy."
Terr|tor|a| se|f-government can he|p preserve the un|ty of States wh||e
|ncreas|ng the |eve| of part|c|pat|on and |nvo|vement of m|nor|t|es by g|v|ng
them a greater ro|e |n a |eve| of government that ref|ects the|r popu|at|on
concentrat|on. Federat|ons may a|so accomp||sh th|s object|ve, as may
part|cu|ar autonomy arrangements w|th|n un|tary States or federat|ons. lt |s
a|so poss|b|e to have m|xed adm|n|strat|ons. As noted |n recommendat|on
15, arrangements need not be un|form across the State, but may vary
accord|ng to needs and expressed des|res.

20} Autonomous author|t|es must possess rea| power to make dec|s|ons at the
|eg|s|at|ve, execut|ve or jud|c|a| |eve|s. Author|ty w|th|n the State may be
d|v|ded among centra|, reg|ona| and |oca| author|t|es and a|so among
funct|ons. Paragraph 35 of the Copenhagen Document notes the
a|ternat|ves of 'appropr|ate |oca| or autonomous adm|n|strat|ons
correspond|ng to the spec|f|c h|stor|ca| and terr|tor|a| c|rcumstances". Th|s
makes c|ear that there need not be un|form|ty w|th|n the State. Exper|ence
shows that powers can be d|v|ded even w|th respect to f|e|ds of pub||c
author|ty trad|t|ona||y exerc|sed by centra| government, |nc|ud|ng devo|ved
powers of just|ce (both substant|ve and procedura|} and powers over
trad|t|ona| econom|es. At a m|n|mum, affected popu|at|ons shou|d be
systemat|ca||y |nvo|ved |n the exerc|se of such author|ty. At the same t|me,
the centra| government must reta|n powers to ensure just|ce and equa||ty of
opportun|t|es across the State.

21} Where powers may be devo|ved on a terr|tor|a| bas|s to |mprove the effect|ve
part|c|pat|on of m|nor|t|es, these powers must be exerc|sed w|th due account
for the m|nor|t|es w|th|n these jur|sd|ct|ons. Adm|n|strat|ve and execut|ve
author|t|es must be accountab|e to the who|e popu|at|on of the terr|tory. Th|s
fo||ows from paragraph 5.2 of the Copenhagen Document wh|ch comm|ts
OSOE part|c|pat|ng States to assure at a|| |eve|s and for a|| persons 'a form of
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


56
government that |s representat|ve |n character, |n wh|ch the execut|ve |s
accountab|e to the e|ected |eg|s|ature or the e|ectorate".


IV. Guarantees

/. Co|s|||0||o|s| s|d |es| ss/e0s|ds

22} Th|s sect|on addresses the |ssue of 'entrenchment", that |s, so||d|fy|ng
arrangements |n |aw. very deta||ed |ega| arrangements may be usefu| |n
some cases, wh||e frameworks may be suff|c|ent |n other cases. ln a|| cases,
as noted |n recommendat|on 5, arrangements shou|d resu|t from open
processes. However, once conc|uded, stab|||ty |s requ|red |n order to assure
some secur|ty for those affected, espec|a||y persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es. Art|c|es 2 and 4 of the European Charter of Loca| Se|f-
Government express a preference for const|tut|ona| arrangements. To
ach|eve the des|red ba|ance between stab|||ty and f|ex|b|||ty, |t may be usefu|
to spec|fy some recons|derat|on at f|xed |nterva|s, thereby depo||t|c|z|ng the
process of change |n advance and mak|ng the rev|ew process |ess
adversar|a|.

23} Th|s Recommendat|on d|ffers from Recommendat|on 22 |nsofar as |t
encourages the test|ng of new and |nnovat|ve reg|mes, rather than spec|fy|ng
terms for a|terat|on of ex|st|ng arrangements. Respons|b|e author|t|es may
w|sh to fo||ow d|fferent approaches |n d|fferent s|tuat|ons among centra|
author|t|es and m|nor|ty representat|ves. W|thout comprom|s|ng f|na|
pos|t|ons, such an approach may y|e|d good exper|ences, not |east through
the processes of |nnovat|on and |mp|ementat|on.

S. |emed|es

24} ln paragraph 30 of the Copenhagen Document, OSOE part|c|pat|ng States
'recogn|ze that the quest|ons re|at|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es can on|y be
sat|sfactor||y reso|ved |n a democrat|c po||t|ca| framework based on the ru|e
of |aw, w|th a funct|on|ng |ndependent jud|c|ary." The |dea of effect|ve
remed|es |s a|so prov|ded |n Art|c|e 2(3} of the Internat|ona| Covenant on
C|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts, wh||e 'a jud|c|a| remedy" |s spec|f|ed |n Art|c|e 11
of the European Charter of Loca| Se|f-Government.

Jud|c|a| rev|ew can be performed by const|tut|ona| courts and, |n effect, by
re|evant |nternat|ona| human r|ghts bod|es. Non-jud|c|a| mechan|sms and
|nst|tut|ons, such as nat|ona| comm|ss|ons, ombudspersons, |nter-ethn|c or
'race" re|at|ons boards, etc., may a|so p|ay cr|t|ca| ro|es, as env|saged by
paragraph 27 of the Copenhagen Document, Art|c|e 14(2} of the
lnternat|ona| Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of Rac|a|
D|scr|m|nat|on, and paragraph 36 of the V|enna Dec|arat|on and
Programme of Act|on adopted by the Wor|d Oonference on Human R|ghts
|n 1993.
Media Guidelines


57
Gu|de||nes on the use of
M|nor|ty |anguages
|n the Broadcast Med|a
& Exp|anatory Note - 2003

Introduct|on

ln |ts He|s|nk| Dec|s|ons of Ju|y 1992, the Organ|zat|on for Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on
|n Europe (OSOE} estab||shed the pos|t|on of H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es (HONM} to be 'an |nstrument of conf||ct prevent|on at the ear||est poss|b|e
stage". Th|s mandate was created |arge|y |n react|on to the s|tuat|on |n the former
Yugos|av|a wh|ch some feared wou|d be repeated e|sewhere |n Europe, espec|a||y
among the countr|es |n trans|t|on to democracy, and cou|d underm|ne the prom|se
of peace and prosper|ty as env|saged |n the Oharter of Par|s for a New Europe
adopted by the Heads of State and Government |n November 1990.

The f|rst H|gh Oomm|ss|oner, Mr. Max van der Stoe|, took up h|s dut|es on 1
January 1993. Draw|ng on h|s cons|derab|e persona| exper|ence as a former
Member of Par||ament, Fore|gn M|n|ster of The Nether|ands, Permanent
Representat|ve to the n|ted Nat|ons, and |ong-t|me human r|ghts advocate, Mr.
van der Stoe| turned h|s attent|on to the many d|sputes between m|nor|t|es and
State author|t|es |n Europe wh|ch had the potent|a|, |n h|s v|ew, to esca|ate. He was
succeeded on 1 Ju|y 2001 by the Swed|sh d|p|omat Ambassador Ro|f Ekeus who
was act|ve |n the Oonference on Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on |n Europe (OSOE} dur|ng
the per|od of post-Oommun|st trans|t|on and |s we|| known for h|s work on arms
contro| and d|sarmament, most part|cu|ar|y as Execut|ve Oha|rman of the n|ted
Nat|ons Spec|a| Oomm|ss|on on lraq (NSOOM} where he |ed the weapons
|nspectors between 1991 and 1997. Act|ng qu|et|y through d|p|omat|c means, the
HONM has through the years been |nvo|ved |n over a dozen States, |nc|ud|ng
A|ban|a, Oroat|a, Eston|a, Greece, Hungary, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, |atv|a, the
former Yugos|av Repub||c of Macedon|a, Mo|dova, Roman|a, Serb|a and
Montenegro, S|ovak|a and kra|ne. lnvo|vement has focused pr|mar||y on s|tuat|ons
where persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|/ethn|c groups const|tute the numer|ca| major|ty
|n one State but the numer|ca| m|nor|ty |n another (often ne|ghbour|ng} State, thus
engag|ng the |nterest of governmenta| author|t|es |n each State and const|tut|ng a
potent|a| source of |nter-State tens|on |f not conf||ct. lndeed, such tens|ons have
def|ned much of European h|story.

ln address|ng the substance of tens|ons |nvo|v|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, the HONM
approaches the |ssues as an |ndependent, |mpart|a| and co-operat|ve actor. Wh||e
the HONM |s not a superv|sory mechan|sm, he emp|oys the |nternat|ona| standards
to wh|ch each State has agreed as h|s pr|nc|pa| framework of ana|ys|s and the
foundat|on of h|s spec|f|c recommendat|ons. ln th|s re|at|on, |t |s |mportant to reca||
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


58
the comm|tments undertaken by a|| OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, |n part|cu|ar those of
the 1990 Oopenhagen Document of the Oonference on the Human D|mens|on
wh|ch, |n Part lv, art|cu|ates deta||ed standards re|at|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. A||
OSOE States are a|so bound by n|ted Nat|ons ob||gat|ons re|at|ng to human r|ghts,
|nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, and the great major|ty of OSOE States are further bound by
the standards of the Oounc|| of Europe.

Through the course of more than ten years of |ntense act|v|ty, the HONM has
|dent|f|ed certa|n recurrent |ssues and themes wh|ch have become the subject of h|s
attent|on |n a number of States |n wh|ch he |s |nvo|ved. Among these are |ssues of
m|nor|ty educat|on and use of m|nor|ty |anguages, |n part|cu|ar as matters of great
|mportance for the ma|ntenance and deve|opment of the |dent|ty of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. A th|rd recurrent theme wh|ch has ar|sen |n a
number of s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch the HONM has been |nvo|ved |s that of forms of
effect|ve part|c|pat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the governance of States. W|th a v|ew
to ach|ev|ng an appropr|ate and coherent app||cat|on of re|evant m|nor|ty r|ghts |n
the OSOE area, the HONM requested the Foundat|on on lnter-Ethn|c Re|at|ons - a
non-governmenta| organ|zat|on (now defunct} estab||shed |n 1993 to carry out
spec|a||zed act|v|t|es |n support of the HONM - to br|ng together three groups of
|nternat|ona||y recogn|zed |ndependent experts to e|aborate three sets of
recommendat|ons: The Hague Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the Educat|on
R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (1996}; The Os|o Recommendat|ons regard|ng
the L|ngu|st|c R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (1998}; and The Lund
Recommendat|ons on the Effect|ve Part|c|pat|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n
Pub||c L|fe (1999}. These recommendat|ons have subsequent|y served as
references for po||cy- and |aw-makers |n a number of States. The recommendat|ons
are ava||ab|e (|n severa| |anguages} free of charge from the Off|ce of the HONM and
may be accessed e|ectron|ca||y at: <http://www.osce.org/hcnm/pub||cat|ons>.

One further |ssue wh|ch has engaged the |nterest of the HONM |s the use of m|nor|ty
|anguage(s} as a veh|c|e of commun|cat|on |n the broadcast med|a. A number of
States have taken steps to ||m|t th|s use, most common|y through the adopt|on of
|eg|s|at|on prescr|b|ng quotas for broadcast|ng t|me |n a certa|n |anguage (typ|ca||y
that of the major|ty, and usua||y des|gnated the 'off|c|a|" or 'State" |anguage} - a
pract|ce wh|ch has generated negat|ve react|ons among m|nor|t|es |n a number of
countr|es |nsofar as broadcast|ng poss|b|||t|es are |n effect restr|cted.

At the March 2001 OSOE Supp|ementary Human D|mens|on Meet|ng on Freedom
of Express|on a strong |nterest |n |ssues concern|ng med|a and m|nor|t|es was
expressed by a number of OSOE part|c|pat|ng States. |ater that month |n the
Permanent Oounc||, some de|egat|ons requested that the HONM and the OSOE
Representat|ve on Freedom of the Med|a address these |ssues |n co-operat|on w|th
one another.

ln seek|ng to respond to these concerns, the HONM dec|ded to undertake two
para||e| and comp|ementary processes focus|ng on the use of |anguage as a means
of commun|cat|on |n the broadcast med|a. The f|rst was a survey of State pract|ce
across the OSOE reg|on |n order to c|ar|fy the bas|c facts (essent|a||y |n terms of
Media Guidelines


59
|eg|s|at|on, pr|nc|pa| regu|at|ons and cr|t|ca| jur|sprudence} w|th regard to the
regu|at|on of m|nor|ty |anguages |n the broadcast med|a. The survey was carr|ed out
at the H|gh Oomm|ss|oner`s request by the Programme |n Oomparat|ve Med|a |aw
and Po||cy at the Oentre for Soc|o-|ega| Stud|es, Wo|fson Oo||ege, n|vers|ty of
Oxford, and the lnst|tute for lnformat|on |aw, n|vers|ty of Amsterdam. The resu|t|ng
study can be accessed e|ectron|ca||y at: <www.|v|r.n|/pub||cat|ons/ mcgonag|e/m|nor|ty-
|anguages.pdf>. ln a second, separate but c|ose|y re|ated process, the HONM (|n
c|ose co-operat|on w|th the Off|ce of the OSOE Representat|ve on Freedom of the
Med|a}, together w|th the d|rect|y respons|b|e |nternat|ona| organ|sat|ons, engaged |n
a process of ana|ys|s of the spec|f|c content of re|evant prov|s|ons of the app||cab|e
|nternat|ona| |nstruments (and re|evant case |aw}. An |n|t|a| meet|ng of experts
compr|s|ng representat|ves of re|evant |nternat|ona| organ|zat|ons, a|ong w|th
|ndependent persons and non-governmenta| actors w|th part|cu|ar expert|se |n th|s
f|e|d was convened by the HONM |n March 2002. A further expert meet|ng took
p|ace |n June 2003 to d|scuss a set of draft Gu|de||nes on the se of M|nor|ty
|anguage(s} |n the Broadcast Med|a based on a comm|ss|oned paper. On the bas|s
of th|s work, the |ndependent experts agreed |n the autumn of 2003 on the
accompany|ng Gu|de||nes.

The |ndependent experts were:

Ms. Ju||a Apost|e (Oanad|an}, |ega| Off|cer, Art|c|e 19, n|ted K|ngdom; Dr.
E|ena Ohernyavska (kra|n|an}, Head of OEE Projects, MADP, European
lnst|tute for the Med|a, Germany; Ms Mar|a Amor Mart|n Estebanez
(Span|sh}, Researcher and Oonsu|tant, Oentre for Soc|o-|ega| Stud|es
n|vers|ty of Oxford, n|ted K|ngdom; Professor Karo| Jakubow|cz (Po||sh},
Expert, Nat|ona| Broadcast|ng Oounc|| of Po|and; Mr. Mark |att|mer (Br|t|sh},
D|rector, M|nor|ty R|ghts Group lnternat|ona|, n|ted K|ngdom; Mr Tar|ach
McGonag|e (lr|sh}, Researcher/Ed|tor, the lnst|tute for lnformat|on |aw (lv|R},
n|vers|ty of Amsterdam, the Nether|ands; Professor Tom Mor|ng (F|nn|sh},
Swed|sh Schoo| of Soc|a| Sc|ence, n|vers|ty of He|s|nk|, F|n|and; Professor
Monroe Pr|ce (Amer|can}, Oardozo Schoo| of |aw, New York, and Oo-
D|rector, Programme |n Oomparat|ve Med|a |aw and Po||cy, Oentre for
Soc|o-|ega| Stud|es, n|vers|ty of Oxford, n|ted K|ngdom.

va|uab|e |nput was a|so rece|ved at both meet|ngs and |n subsequent
commun|cat|ons from: the Secretar|at of the Oounc|| of Europe; the |ega| Serv|ce of
the European Oomm|ss|on; the off|ce of the Oounc|| of the Ba|t|c Sea States
Oomm|ss|oner on Democrat|c Deve|opment; and the off|ce of the OSOE
Representat|ve on Freedom of the Med|a.

lnsofar as ex|st|ng standards of m|nor|ty r|ghts are part of human r|ghts, the start|ng
po|nt of the consu|tat|ons among the experts was to presume comp||ance by States
w|th a|| other human r|ghts ob||gat|ons |nc|ud|ng, |n part|cu|ar, freedom from
d|scr|m|nat|on. lt was a|so presumed that the u|t|mate object of a|| human r|ghts |s
the fu|| and free deve|opment of the |nd|v|dua| human persona||ty |n cond|t|ons of
equa||ty. Oonsequent|y, |t was presumed that c|v|| soc|ety shou|d be open and f|u|d
and, therefore, |ntegrate a|| persons, |nc|ud|ng those be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


60
Moreover, |nsofar as the object|ve of good and democrat|c governance |s to serve
the needs and |nterests of the who|e popu|at|on, |t was presumed that a||
governments seek to ensure the max|mum opportun|t|es for a|| those w|th|n the|r
jur|sd|ct|on, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, to access the med|a
and |mpart and rece|ve |nformat|on, |nc|ud|ng |n the|r own |anguage. Th|s fo||ows,
|nter a||a, from the pr|nc|p|es of p|ura||sm, to|erance and broadm|ndedness and from
the spec|a| ro|e of |ndependent and p|ura||st|c med|a wh|ch |s a bas|c cond|t|on for
free, open and democrat|c soc|et|es.
1


The purpose of the accompany|ng Gu|de||nes ||ke The Hague, Os|o, and |und
Recommendat|ons before them, |s to encourage and fac|||tate the adopt|on by
States of spec|f|c measures to a||ev|ate tens|ons re|at|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and
thus to serve the u|t|mate conf||ct prevent|on goa| of the HONM. lt |s the exper|ence
of the HONM and cons|stent w|th |nternat|ona| standards, that th|s be pursued |n an
open and |nc|us|ve manner wh|ch seeks to accommodate - and to |ntegrate |n the
broader soc|ety - the range of express demands and ex|st|ng d|vers|ty. Th|s
max|m|ses and contr|butes to soc|a| cohes|on.

ln seek|ng to c|ar|fy the content of ex|st|ng r|ghts, the Gu|de||nes a|m to prov|de
States w|th some pract|ca| gu|dance |n deve|op|ng po||c|es and |aw wh|ch fu||y
respect the |etter and sp|r|t of |nternat|ona||y agreed standards and wh|ch can
ba|ance and meet the needs and |nterests of a|| sectors of the popu|at|on, |nc|ud|ng
those of persons be|ong|ng to ||ngu|st|c m|nor|t|es. Wh||e cons|stent|y ref|ect|ng the
|nternat|ona| standards, the Gu|de||nes are sens|t|ve to rea| s|tuat|ons |n var|ous
States - |nc|ud|ng percept|ons regard|ng the vu|nerab|||ty of (and consequent des|re
to promote} certa|n |anguages. ln order to prov|de further gu|dance |n pract|ca|
s|tuat|ons and draw|ng on examp|es of good pract|ce |dent|f|ed |n the survey of
State pract|ce, suggest|ons are prov|ded for ways |n wh|ch States may meet the|r
ob||gat|ons w|th respect to ||ngu|st|c m|nor|t|es.

The Gu|de||nes are a|so |ntended to be read and |mp|emented |n the context of
techno|og|ca| deve|opments |n the modern broadcast med|a w|th the |ncreas|ng
poss|b|||t|es |n the f|e|d of commun|cat|on for the use of mu|t|p|e |anguages. The
|mportant ro|e of the free market |n ensur|ng a f|our|sh|ng d|verse and |ndependent
broadcast med|a are a|so ref|ected |n the Gu|de||nes, wh|ch prov|de opt|ons for the
rea||sat|on of ob||gat|ons re|at|ng to m|nor|ty |anguage use whether through pub||c or
pr|vate sector broadcast|ng.

The Gu|de||nes are d|v|ded |nto four sub-head|ngs wh|ch group the seventeen
|nd|v|dua| Gu|de||nes under genera| pr|nc|p|es, po||cy, regu|at|on, and the promot|on
of m|nor|ty |anguages. A|| gu|de||nes are to be |nterpreted |n accordance w|th the
Genera| Pr|nc|p|es |n Part l. ln Part ll, the need for States to deve|op po||cy and |aw
|n th|s area |s estab||shed and gu|dance |n th|s respect |s prov|ded. Some
parameters for the ||m|ts of perm|ss|b|e regu|at|on are then def|ned. ln the f|na|

1
See, e.g., Handys|de v. n|ted K|ngdom, Judgment of European Oourt of Human R|ghts of 7
December 1976, Ser|es A. No. 24, para. 49. See a|so the preamb|e to the 1990 Document of
the Oopenhagen Meet|ng of the Oonference on the Human D|mens|on |n wh|ch OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States expressed the|r comm|tment to the |dea|s of democracy and p|ura||sm.
Media Guidelines


61
sect|on, a number of a|ternat|ves are suggested for the promot|on of m|nor|ty
|anguages. A more deta||ed exp|anat|on of each recommendat|on or gu|de||ne |s
prov|ded |n an accompany|ng Exp|anatory Note where|n express reference to the
re|evant |nternat|ona| standards |s found.

lt |s hoped that the Gu|de||nes w||| be w|de|y used and broad|y d|str|buted.


Recommendat|ons

I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es

1} F|eedom o/ Exo|ess|o|

The freedom of express|on of every person, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |nc|udes the r|ght to rece|ve, seek and |mpart |nformat|on
and |deas |n a |anguage and med|a of the|r cho|ce w|thout |nterference and
regard|ess of front|ers.

The exerc|se of th|s freedom may be subject on|y to such ||m|tat|ons as are
compat|b|e w|th |nternat|ona| |aw.

2} C0||0|s| s|d |||0|s||c D|.e|s||,

States shou|d guarantee the freedom of cho|ce by creat|ng an env|ronment |n
wh|ch a var|ety of |deas and |nformat|on can f|our|sh as commun|cated |n
var|ous |anguages.

3} ||o|ec||o| o/ |de||||,

A|| persons, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, have the r|ght
to ma|nta|n and deve|op the|r |dent|ty, |nc|ud|ng through the use of the|r
|anguage(s}, |n and through the broadcast med|a.

4} Eq0s|||, s|d ^o|-D|sc||m||s||o|

A|| persons, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, have the r|ght
to enjoy the freedom of express|on and to ma|nta|n and deve|op the|r |dent|ty
|n and through the broadcast med|a |n cond|t|ons of equa||ty and w|thout
d|scr|m|nat|on. States shou|d take spec|a| and concrete measures, where
necessary, to ensure that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es enjoy
effect|ve equa||ty w|th regard to the use of the|r |anguage |n the broadcast
med|a.


HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


62
II. Po||cy

5} States shou|d deve|op po||cy to address the use of m|nor|ty |anguage(s} |n the
broadcast med|a. Po||cy shou|d be based on an ascerta|nment of the needs
of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to ma|nta|n and deve|op the|r
|dent|t|es.

ln the deve|opment and app||cat|on of such po||cy, persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es shou|d enjoy effect|ve part|c|pat|on, |nc|ud|ng |n
consu|tat|ve processes and representat|on |n re|evant |nst|tut|ons and bod|es.

6} lndependent regu|atory bod|es shou|d be respons|b|e for the |mp|ementat|on
and enforcement of State po||cy. Such bod|es shou|d be estab||shed and
shou|d funct|on |n a transparent manner.

7} State po||cy shou|d support pub||c serv|ce broadcast|ng wh|ch prov|des a
w|de and ba|anced range of |nformat|ona|, educat|ona|, cu|tura| and
enterta|nment programm|ng of h|gh qua||ty |n order, |||e| s||s, to meet the
needs of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. States shou|d ma|nta|n
and, where necessary, estab||sh the f|nanc|a|, techn|ca| and other cond|t|ons
for pub||c serv|ce broadcasters to fu|f||| the|r mandates |n th|s f|e|d.

8} State po||cy shou|d fac|||tate the estab||shment and ma|ntenance by persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es of broadcast med|a |n the|r own |anguage.


III. Regu|at|on

9} |e|m|ss|o||||, o/ |e0|s||o|

States may regu|ate the broadcast med|a for the protect|on and promot|on of
the freedom of express|on, cu|tura| and ||ngu|st|c d|vers|ty, the ma|ntenance
and deve|opment of cu|tura| |dent|ty, and for the respect of the r|ghts or
reputat|ons of others. Such regu|at|on, |nc|ud|ng ||cens|ng, must be
prescr|bed by |aw, based on object|ve and non-d|scr|m|natory cr|ter|a and
sha|| not a|m to restr|ct or have the effect of restr|ct|ng broadcast|ng |n
m|nor|ty |anguages.

10} ||omo||o| o/ |s|0ses

ln regu|at|ng the use of |anguage |n the broadcast med|a, States may
promote the use of se|ected |anguages. Measures to promote one or more
|anguage(s} shou|d not restr|ct the use of other |anguages. States may not
proh|b|t the use of any |anguage |n the broadcast med|a. Measures to
promote any |anguage |n broadcast med|a shou|d not |mpa|r the enjoyment
of the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

Media Guidelines


63
11} ||ooo|||o|s|||, o/ |e0|s||o|

Any regu|at|on, whether prescr|pt|ve or proscr|pt|ve, must pursue a |eg|t|mate
a|m and be proport|onate to that a|m. When assess|ng the proport|ona||ty of
any regu|at|on, spec|f|c factors concern|ng the nature of the med|a and w|der
soc|a| env|ronment shou|d be cons|dered. Such factors |nc|ude:

The nature and object|ves of the measure, |nc|ud|ng |ts potent|a| to
contr|bute to the qua||ty and ba|ance of programm|ng, |n pursu|t of the
protect|on and promot|on of freedom of express|on, cu|tura| and
||ngu|st|c d|vers|ty, and the ma|ntenance and deve|opment of cu|tura|
|dent|ty.

The ex|st|ng po||t|ca|, soc|a| and re||g|ous context, |nc|ud|ng cu|tura|
and ||ngu|st|c d|vers|ty, structures of governance, and reg|ona|
character|st|cs.

The number, var|ety, geograph|ca| reach, character, funct|on and
|anguages of ava||ab|e broadcast|ng serv|ces - whether pub||c,
pr|vate or fore|gn - at a|| |eve|s (nat|ona|, reg|ona| and |oca|}. The f|nanc|a|
costs to the aud|ence of the var|ous serv|ces, techn|ca| poss|b|||t|es for
recept|on and the quant|ty as we|| as the qua||ty of broadcast|ng, both |n
terms of the schedu||ng of s|ots and the type of programm|ng, are a||
re|evant cons|derat|ons.

The r|ghts, needs, expressed des|res and nature of the
aud|ence(s| affected, |nc|ud|ng the|r numer|ca| s|ze and geograph|ca|
concentrat|on, at each |eve| (nat|ona|, reg|ona| and |oca|}.

12} 7|s|s|s||o| |es|||c||o|s

M|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng shou|d not be subject to the |mpos|t|on of
undue or d|sproport|onate requ|rements for trans|at|on, dubb|ng, post-
synchron|sat|on or subt|t||ng.

13} 7|s|s/|o|||e| S|osdcss|||

The free recept|on of transfront|er broadcasts, whether d|rect or by means of
retransm|ss|on or rebroadcast|ng, sha|| not be proh|b|ted on the bas|s of
|anguage.

The ava||ab|||ty of fore|gn broadcast|ng |n a m|nor|ty |anguage does not
negate the State`s ob||gat|on to fac|||tate domest|ca||y produced broadcast|ng
|n that |anguage nor does |t just|fy a reduct|on of the broadcast t|me |n that
|anguage.


HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


64
IV. Promot|on of m|nor|ty |anguages

14} 5|s|e 50ooo||

The State shou|d support broadcast|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages. Th|s may be
ach|eved through, |||e| s||s, prov|s|on of access to broadcast|ng, subs|d|es
and capac|ty bu||d|ng for m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng.

15} /ccess |o S|osdcss|||

States shou|d prov|de mean|ngfu| access to m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng
through, |||e| s||s, the a||ocat|on of frequenc|es, estab||shment and support of
broadcasters, and program schedu||ng. ln th|s regard, account shou|d be
taken of the numer|ca| s|ze, geograph|ca| concentrat|on, and |ocat|on of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es together w|th the|r needs and
|nterests.

The ava||ab|||ty of m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng at reg|ona| or |oca| |eve|
does not just|fy the exc|us|on of m|nor|ty |anguage programm|ng |n nat|on-
w|de broadcast|ng, |nc|ud|ng for d|spersed m|nor|t|es.

A. FREOENOlES
When award|ng ||censes, States shou|d cons|der prov|d|ng frequenc|es
for m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng |n who|e or |n part.

States shou|d cons|der prov|d|ng 'open channe|s" - |.e. program
transm|ss|on fac|||t|es, wh|ch use the same frequency, shared by a
number of ||ngu|st|c groups w|th|n the serv|ce area - where there are
techn|ca| ||m|tat|ons on the number of frequenc|es ava||ab|e and/or
groups that do not have suff|c|ent resources to susta|n the|r own
serv|ces.

B. BROADOASTERS
States shou|d prescr|be appropr|ate requ|rements for State or pub||c
serv|ce broadcasters w|th regard to the prov|s|on of programm|ng |n
m|nor|ty |anguages.

States shou|d a|so cons|der creat|ng favourab|e cond|t|ons (f|nanc|a| or
otherw|se} to encourage pr|vate m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng. Th|s
may be ach|eved through the a||ocat|on of ||censes, |nc|ud|ng ca||s for
tender or |n response to a proposa| from an app||cant. States may a|so
choose to exempt m|nor|ty |anguage broadcasters from compet|t|on
|eg|s|at|on or create spec|a| reg|mes to re||eve them of certa|n
adm|n|strat|ve burdens.

Where there |s no pr|vate m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng, States shou|d
act|ve|y ass|st |ts estab||shment, as necessary.

Media Guidelines


65
O. PROGRAMMlNG
States shou|d ensure that the amount of t|me a||ocated and the schedu||ng of
m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng shou|d ref|ect the numer|ca| s|ze and
concentrat|on of the nat|ona| m|nor|ty and be appropr|ate to the|r needs and
|nterests. Oons|derat|on must a|so be g|ven to the m|n|mum amount of t|me
and appropr|ate schedu||ng needed for sma|| m|nor|t|es to have mean|ngfu|
access to broadcast med|a |n the|r |anguage. These a|ms may be ach|eved
through ||cens|ng, |nc|ud|ng through st|pu|at|on of |engths and per|ods of
m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng.

16} |0o||c F0|d||

States shou|d cons|der prov|d|ng f|nanc|a| support for m|nor|ty |anguage
broadcast|ng. Th|s can be ach|eved through d|rect grants, favourab|e
f|nanc|ng/tax reg|mes, and exempt|on from certa|n fees payab|e on award or
a|terat|on of a ||cense. To ensure effect|ve equa||ty, m|nor|ty |anguage
broadcasters |n numer|ca||y sma||er commun|t|es may requ|re funds or
fac|||t|es d|sproport|onate to the|r s|ze as a percentage of ava||ab|e resources.

States shou|d encourage and fac|||tate, |nc|ud|ng through the prov|s|on of
f|nanc|a| ass|stance, the product|on and d|str|but|on of aud|o and aud|ov|sua|
works |n m|nor|ty |anguages.

17} Csosc||, S0||d||

States shou|d contr|bute to the bu||d|ng of the capac|ty of m|nor|ty |anguage
broadcast|ng. Th|s may be done through techn|ca| support to d|str|bute
m|nor|ty |anguage product|ons both domest|ca||y and abroad and to fac|||tate
transfront|er broadcast|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages. ln add|t|on, States shou|d
cons|der support|ng the educat|on and tra|n|ng of personne| for m|nor|ty
|anguage broadcast|ng.


Exp|anatory Note

Th|s exp|anatory note prov|des a br|ef overv|ew of the pr|nc|pa| |nternat|ona|
standards upon wh|ch the Gu|de||nes are based.


I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es

1} The r|ght to freedom of express|on |s a cornerstone of |nternat|ona| human
r|ghts protect|on. lt compr|ses the r|ght to rece|ve and |mpart |nformat|on and
|deas by everyone w|thout |nterference from pub||c author|ty and regard|ess
of front|ers. lt |s enshr|ned |n Art|c|e 19 of the 1948 n|versa| Dec|arat|on of
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


66
Human R|ghts (DHR}, Art|c|e 19 of the 1966 lnternat|ona| Oovenant on O|v||
and Po||t|ca| R|ghts (lOOPR}, and Art|c|e 10 of the 1950 European Oonvent|on
for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta| Freedoms (EOHR}. For
examp|e, paragraphs 2 and 3 of Art|c|e 19 of the lOOPR state:

2. Everyone sha|| have the r|ght to freedom of express|on; th|s r|ght sha||
|nc|ude freedom to seek, rece|ve and |mpart |nformat|on and |deas of a||
k|nds, regard|ess of front|ers, e|ther ora||y, |n wr|t|ng or |n pr|nt, |n the
form of art, or through any other med|a of h|s cho|ce.

3. The exerc|se of the r|ghts prov|ded for |n paragraph 2 of th|s art|c|e
carr|es w|th |t spec|a| dut|es and respons|b|||t|es. lt may therefore be
subject to certa|n restr|ct|ons, but these sha|| on|y be such as are
prov|ded by |aw and are necessary:
(a} For respect of the r|ghts or reputat|ons of others;
(b} For the protect|on of nat|ona| secur|ty or of pub||c order (o|d|e
o0o||c}, or of pub||c hea|th or mora|s.

The .N. Human R|ghts Oomm|ttee, estab||shed to superv|se |mp|ementat|on
of the lOOPR, has c|ar|f|ed |n |ts Genera| Oomment 10 (1983} that the r|ght to
freedom of express|on enshr|ned |n Art|c|e 19 |nc|udes not on|y the freedom
to seek and rece|ve |nformat|on and |deas of a|| k|nds, but a|so |n whatever
med|um. W|th regard to the EOHR, the European Oourt of Human R|ghts |n
the cases of Ooe|sc|||c| .. /0s|||s (judgment of 22 May 1991, Ser|es A, No.
204, para. 57} and /0||o||c /G .. 5w||ze||s|d (judgment of 22 May 1990,
Ser|es A, No. 178, para. 47} has he|d that Art|c|e 10 protects not on|y the
substance of the |deas and |nformat|on expressed, but a|so the form |n wh|ch
they are conveyed. W|th|n the OSOE/OSOE, the 1990 Document of the
Oopenhagen Meet|ng of the Oonference on the Human D|mens|on
(Oopenhagen Document, para. 9.1} and the 1991 Document of the Oracow
Sympos|um on the Ou|tura| Her|tage of the OSOE part|c|pat|ng States
(Oracow Document, para. 6.1} re|terate the r|ght to freedom of express|on.
Accord|ng to the Oopenhagen Document, persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es have the r|ght to use the|r mother tongue |n pr|vate and |n pub||c
(para. 32.1} as we|| as the r|ght to d|ssem|nate, have access to, and
exchange |nformat|on |n the|r mother tongue (para. 32.5}.

ln s|d,s|de .. U|||ed |||dom (judgment of 7 December 1976, Ser|es A,
No. 24, para. 49}, the European Oourt of Human R|ghts has prov|ded the
fo||ow|ng further |nterpretat|on of Art|c|e 10 of the EOHR: 'Freedom of
express|on const|tutes one of the essent|a| foundat|ons of [a democrat|c|
soc|ety, one of the bas|c cond|t|ons for |ts progress and for the deve|opment
of every man. Subject to paragraph 2 of Art|c|e 10 (art. 10-2}, |t |s app||cab|e
not on|y to '|nformat|on` or '|deas` that are favourab|y rece|ved or regarded as
|noffens|ve or as a matter of |nd|fference, but a|so to those that offend, shock
or d|sturb the State or any sector of the popu|at|on. Such are the demands of
that p|ura||sm, to|erance and broadm|ndedness w|thout wh|ch there |s no
'democrat|c soc|ety`. Th|s means, amongst other th|ngs, that every
Media Guidelines


67
'forma||ty`, 'cond|t|on`, 'restr|ct|on` or 'pena|ty` |mposed |n th|s sphere must
be proport|onate to the |eg|t|mate a|m pursued".

2} nder Art|c|e 15(a} of the 1966 lnternat|ona| Oovenant on Econom|c, Soc|a|
and Ou|tura| R|ghts (lOESOR} States part|es recogn|ze the r|ght of everyone
to take part |n cu|tura| ||fe. Art|c|e 27 of the lOOPR protects the r|ght of
persons be|ong|ng to, |||e| s||s, ||ngu|st|c m|nor|t|es to enjoy the|r own cu|ture
or to use the|r own |anguage |n commun|ty w|th other members of the group.
The safeguard|ng and promot|on of p|ura||sm |n the broadcast med|a,
ref|ect|ng cu|tura| and ||ngu|st|c d|vers|ty, |s a necessary component of
the freedom of express|on. Accord|ng to Art|c|e 2 of the 2001 NESOO
n|versa| Dec|arat|on on Ou|tura| D|vers|ty, po||c|es ensur|ng cu|tura| p|ura||sm
g|ve express|on to the rea||ty of cu|tura| d|vers|ty. ln Art|c|e 6, the Dec|arat|on
notes that cu|tura| d|vers|ty |s guaranteed by, |||e| s||s, the freedom of
express|on, med|a p|ura||sm and mu|t|||ngua||sm. ln the Oase of
||/o|ms||o|s.e|e|| |e|||s s|d O||e|s .. /0s|||s (judgment of 24 November
1993, Ser|es A, No. 276}, the European Oourt of Human R|ghts has
emphas|sed the |mportance of p|ura||sm for freedom of express|on. ln that
case, the Oourt spec|f|ed (|n para. 38} that the pub||c`s ent|t|ement to rece|ve
|nformat|on and |deas of genera| |nterest 'cannot be successfu||y
accomp||shed un|ess |t |s grounded |n the pr|nc|p|e of p|ura||sm, of wh|ch the
State |s the u|t|mate guarantor. Th|s observat|on |s espec|a||y va||d |n re|at|on
to aud|o-v|sua| med|a, whose programmes are often broadcast very w|de|y."
ln the same ve|n, Art|c|e 9(4} of the Oounc|| of Europe`s 1994 Framework
Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (Framework Oonvent|on}
requ|res States Part|es to 'adopt adequate measures |n order to fac|||tate
access to the med|a for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and |n order
to promote to|erance and perm|t cu|tura| p|ura||sm".

Moreover, Art|c|e 10o|s of the 1989 (amended 2002} European Oonvent|on
on Transfront|er Te|ev|s|on (EOTT} requ|res States Part|es to endeavor to
avo|d endanger|ng med|a p|ura||sm. The Dec|arat|on on the Freedom of
Express|on and lnformat|on, adopted by the Oomm|ttee of M|n|sters of the
Oounc|| of Europe |n 1982, |n Art|c|e ll(d} st|pu|ates the object|ve to ach|eve
'the ex|stence of a w|de var|ety of |ndependent and autonomous med|a,
perm|tt|ng the ref|ect|on of d|vers|ty of |deas and op|n|ons". The OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States, |n paragraph 6.2 of the Oracow Document, have
expressed the|r conv|ct|on that a d|vers|ty of pr|vate-sector broadcasters
'he|ps to ensure p|ura||sm and the freedom of art|st|c and cu|tura|
express|on".

3} The duty of the State to protect the ||ngu|st|c (and other| |dent|ty of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |s entrenched |n a number of
|nternat|ona| |nstruments and |n the jur|sprudence of the European Oourt of
Human R|ghts. Art|c|e 1 of the 1992 n|ted Nat|ons Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts
of Persons Be|ong|ng to Nat|ona| or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous and ||ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es
(.N. Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es} |s part|cu|ar|y re|evant:

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


68
1. States sha|| protect the ex|stence and the nat|ona| or ethn|c, cu|tura|,
re||g|ous and ||ngu|st|c |dent|ty of m|nor|t|es w|th|n the|r respect|ve
terr|tor|es and sha|| encourage cond|t|ons for the promot|on of that
|dent|ty.

2. States sha|| adopt appropr|ate |eg|s|at|ve and other measures to
ach|eve those ends.

Art|c|e 4(2} further st|pu|ates that 'States sha|| take measures to create
favourab|e cond|t|ons to enab|e persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es to express
the|r character|st|cs and to deve|op the|r cu|ture, |anguage, re||g|on, trad|t|ons
and customs, except where spec|f|c pract|ces are |n v|o|at|on of nat|ona| |aw
and contrary to |nternat|ona| standards". Art|c|e 17(a} of the 1989 .N.
Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the Oh||d requ|res States Part|es to 'encourage
the mass med|a to d|ssem|nate |nformat|on and mater|a|" |n accordance w|th
the Oonvent|on`s educat|ona| goa|s, |nc|ud|ng the deve|opment of respect for
the ch||d`s own cu|tura| |dent|ty and |anguage as prescr|bed |n Art|c|e 29. The
Framework Oonvent|on echoes these prov|s|ons. ln |ts Preamb|e, the
Framework Oonvent|on states that a p|ura||st and genu|ne|y democrat|c
soc|ety shou|d not on|y respect the ||ngu|st|c |dent|ty of each person
be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty, but shou|d 'a|so create appropr|ate
cond|t|ons enab||ng them to express, preserve and deve|op th|s |dent|ty."
Art|c|e 5(1} of the same |nstrument exp||c|t|y p|aces an ob||gat|on on States
Part|es to promote the cond|t|ons necessary for persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es 'to preserve the essent|a| e|ements of the|r |dent|ty,"
|nc|ud|ng the|r |anguage. OSOE part|c|pat|ng States are comm|tted to
protect, , the ||ngu|st|c |dent|t|es of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es accord|ng to the 1989 Oonc|ud|ng Document of the v|enna Fo||ow-
up Meet|ng 1986-1989 of the Oonference on Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on |n
Europe (v|enna Document, Pr|nc|p|es, para. 19}, the Oopenhagen Document
(paras. 32 and 33}, and the 1991 Report of the OSOE Meet|ng of Experts on
Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n Geneva (Geneva Document, Ohapters l, lll, lv and vll}.

4} The proh|b|t|on of d|scr|m|nat|on on the bas|s of, , |anguage |s a
bedrock pr|nc|p|e of |nternat|ona| human r|ghts |aw. lnternat|ona| |nstruments
that proh|b|t d|scr|m|nat|on express|y on the bas|s of |anguage |nc|ude: the
DHR (Art|c|e 2}; the lOOPR (Art|c|es 2(1} and 26}; the lOESOR (Art|c|e 2(2}};
the .N. Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es (Art|c|e 2(1}}; the EOHR (Art|c|e 14 and
Art|c|e 1 of Protoco| 12}; and the 2000 Oharter of Fundamenta| R|ghts of the
European n|on (Art|c|e 21}. Among OSOE documents, ana|ogous
comm|tments appear |n the 1975 He|s|nk| F|na| Act (Pr|nc|p|e vll} and the
v|enna Document (Pr|nc|p|es, para. 13.7}, wh||e the Oopenhagen Document
proh|b|ts 'any d|scr|m|nat|on" (para. 5.9}.

The pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on |nc|udes a duty to treat d|fferent|y persons
whose s|tuat|ons are d|fferent, so that effect|ve equa||ty can be ach|eved.
Paragraph 19 (under Pr|nc|p|es} of the v|enna Document, for examp|e,
comm|ts OSOE part|c|pat|ng States to ensure the 'fu|| equa||ty" of persons
Media Guidelines


69
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. lf d|fference |n treatment |s to be non-
d|scr|m|natory, |t must be based on reasonab|e and object|ve cr|ter|a, have a
|eg|t|mate a|m, and must exh|b|t a reasonab|e re|at|onsh|p of proport|ona||ty
between the d|fferent|a| treatment and the a|m pursued. Th|s pr|nc|p|e |s
d|scussed by the .N. Human R|ghts Oomm|ttee |n |ts Genera| Oomment 18
on Non-D|scr|m|nat|on (1989} and by the European Oourt of Human R|ghts
spec|f|ca||y |n connect|on w|th ||ngu|st|c r|ghts |n |ts sem|na| dec|s|on |n the
Se||s| |||0|s||cs Csse (judgment of 23 Ju|y 1968, Ser|es A, No. 6}.

The pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on |nc|udes the poss|b|e use of spec|a| and
concrete measures wh|ch are a|med at acce|erat|ng and ach|ev|ng de /sc|o
equa||ty for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Th|s concept appears
exp||c|t|y |n Art|c|es 1(4} and 2(2} of the 1965 lnternat|ona| Oonvent|on on the
E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on and Art|c|es 3 and 4 of the
1979 Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of D|scr|m|nat|on Aga|nst
Women. ln paragraph 31 of the Oopenhagen Document, OSOE part|c|pat|ng
States have comm|tted to adopt, 'where necessary, spec|a| measures for the
purpose of ensur|ng to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es fu|| equa||ty
w|th the other c|t|zens |n the exerc|se and enjoyment of human r|ghts and
fundamenta| freedoms". Art|c|e 4(1} of the .N. Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es
s|m||ar|y st|pu|ates that States 'sha|| take measures where requ|red to ensure
that persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es may exerc|se fu||y and effect|ve|y a|| the|r
human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms w|thout any d|scr|m|nat|on and |n
fu|| equa||ty before the |aw". Art|c|e 4(2} of the Framework Oonvent|on a|so
requ|res States Part|es to adopt adequate measures |n order to promote fu||
and effect|ve equa||ty for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |n respect
of wh|ch due account sha|| be taken of the|r spec|f|c cond|t|ons. Art|c|e 7(2} of
the 1992 European Oharter for Reg|ona| or M|nor|ty |anguages (European
|anguage Oharter} exp||c|t|y states that measures a|med at promot|ng the
equa||ty of m|nor|ty |anguages shou|d not be cons|dered d|scr|m|natory.


II. Po||cy

5} OSOE part|c|pat|ng States have undertaken to protect and create
cond|t|ons for the promot|on of ||ngu|st|c and other aspects of the |dent|ty of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es on the|r terr|tory (Oopenhagen
Document, para. 33}. The Framework Oonvent|on prescr|bes essent|a||y the
same ob||gat|on |n Art|c|e 5(1}. Art|c|e 9(4} of the Framework Oonvent|on a|so
requ|res States Part|es to adopt 'adequate measures |n order to fac|||tate
access to the med|a for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and |n order
to promote to|erance and perm|t cu|tura| p|ura||sm". Art|c|e 7(1} of the
European |anguage Oharter requ|res that States Part|es 'base the|r po||c|es,
|eg|s|at|on and pract|ce" on, |||e| s||s, 'the need for reso|ute act|on to
promote reg|ona| and m|nor|ty |anguages |n order to safeguard them," and
'the fac|||tat|on and/or encouragement of the use of reg|ona| or m|nor|ty
|anguages, |n speech [.| |n pub||c and pr|vate ||fe". ln Art|c|e 7(3}, the Part|es
undertake to encourage the mass med|a to promote 'mutua| understand|ng
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


70
between a|| the ||ngu|st|c groups of the country". The Oonvent|on on the
R|ghts of the Oh||d, |n Art|c|e 17(d}, st|pu|ates that 'States Part|es sha||
encourage the mass med|a to have part|cu|ar regard to the ||ngu|st|c needs of
the ch||d who be|ongs to a m|nor|ty group or who |s |nd|genous".

OSOE part|c|pat|ng States have undertaken to create cond|t|ons for persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to have equa| opportun|ty to be effect|ve|y
|nvo|ved |n the pub||c ||fe, econom|c act|v|t|es, and bu||d|ng of the|r soc|et|es
(Ohapter lv of the Geneva Document}. Art|c|e 15 of the Framework
Oonvent|on states that 'The Part|es sha|| create the cond|t|ons necessary for
the effect|ve part|c|pat|on of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n
cu|tura|, soc|a| and econom|c ||fe and |n pub||c affa|rs, |n part|cu|ar those
affect|ng them". ln paragraph 33 of the Oopenhagen Document, OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States have undertaken when adopt|ng measures to, |nter a||a,
protect the ||ngu|st|c |dent|ty of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, and to conduct 'due
consu|tat|ons, |nc|ud|ng contacts w|th organ|zat|ons or assoc|at|ons of such
m|nor|t|es, |n accordance w|th the dec|s|on-mak|ng procedures of each
State". ln Ohapter lll of the Geneva Document, OSOE part|c|pat|ng States
have recogn|zed that appropr|ate democrat|c part|c|pat|on of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es or the|r representat|ves |n dec|s|on-mak|ng or
consu|tat|ve bod|es const|tutes an |mportant e|ement of effect|ve part|c|pat|on
|n pub||c affa|rs. Art|c|e 11(3} of the European |anguage Oharter requ|res
Part|es to ensure that the |nterests of m|nor|ty |anguage users are
represented or taken |nto account spec|f|ca||y w|th|n broadcast med|a
regu|atory bod|es.

6} The need for |ndependent regu|atory bod|es der|ves from the pr|nc|p|es of
democracy and good governance and from |nternat|ona| best pract|ces. The
Oounc|| of Europe`s Oomm|ttee of M|n|sters Recommendat|on No. R (99} 1 to
Member States on Measures to Promote Med|a P|ura||sm notes that
'nat|ona| bod|es respons|b|e for award|ng ||cences to pr|vate broadcasters
shou|d pay attent|on to p|ura||sm |n the d|scharge of the|r m|ss|on" (Append|x,
|tem l, Regu|at|on of ownersh|p: broadcast|ng and the press}. More
spec|f|ca||y, the 1998 Os|o Recommendat|ons regard|ng the ||ngu|st|c R|ghts
of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es states |n Recommendat|on 10 that pub||c med|a bod|es
'oversee|ng the content and or|entat|on of programm|ng shou|d be
|ndependent and shou|d |nc|ude persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
serv|ng |n the|r |ndependent capac|ty".

7} ln Recommendat|on No. R (96} 10 of the Oomm|ttee of M|n|sters of the
Oounc|| of Europe to Members States on the Guarantee of the lndependence
of Pub||c Serv|ce Broadcast|ng, the ro|e of pub||c serv|ce broadcast|ng |s
under||ned 'as an essent|a| factor of p|ura||st|c commun|cat|on wh|ch |s
access|b|e to everyone at both nat|ona| and reg|ona| |eve|s, through the
prov|s|on of a bas|c comprehens|ve programme serv|ce compr|s|ng
|nformat|on, educat|on, cu|ture and enterta|nment". The ro|e of pub||c serv|ce
broadcast|ng |n ensur|ng programm|ng of qua||ty and ba|ance has been
recogn|zed by the European Oourt of Human R|ghts |n, e.g., the |e|||s Csse
Media Guidelines


71
(para. 33}. The European |anguage Oharter exp||c|t|y contemp|ates |n Art|c|e
11(1} broadcasters carry|ng out 'a pub||c serv|ce m|ss|on" to address the
needs of users of m|nor|ty |anguages. The Oounc|| of Europe`s Oomm|ttee of
M|n|sters Recommendat|on Rec (2003} 9 to Member States on Measures to
Promote the Democrat|c and Soc|a| Oontr|but|on of D|g|ta| Broadcast|ng
stresses that the ro|e of pub||c serv|ce broadcasters |n a democrat|c soc|ety
|s to support 'the va|ues under|y|ng the po||t|ca|, |ega| and soc|a| structures of
democrat|c soc|et|es, and |n part|cu|ar respect for human r|ghts, cu|ture and
po||t|ca| p|ura||sm".

Accord|ng to the Oomm|ttee of M|n|sters of the Oounc|| of Europe 'wh||e
pub||c serv|ce broadcasters have a spec|a| comm|tment to promote a cu|ture
of to|erance and understand|ng, the broadcast|ng med|a as a who|e are a
potent force for creat|ng an atmosphere |n wh|ch |nto|erance can be
cha||enged" (Append|x to Recommendat|on No. R (97} 21 to Member States
on The Med|a and the Promot|on of a Ou|ture of To|erance, |tem 5}. ln
Recommendat|on No. R (99} 14 to Member States on n|versa| Oommun|ty
Serv|ce Ooncern|ng New Oommun|cat|on and lnformat|on Serv|ces, the
Oomm|ttee of M|n|sters po|nts to the synerget|c effects of co-operat|on
between pub||c author|t|es and the pr|vate sector for the benef|t of users of
new commun|cat|on and |nformat|on serv|ces.

8} The poss|b|||ty for persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es to estab||sh and
ma|nta|n broadcast med|a |n the|r own |anguage |s guaranteed by Art|c|e
9(3} of the Framework Oonvent|on. Art|c|e 11 of the European |anguage
Oharter spec|f|es opt|ons wh|ch States may pursue |n order to rea||ze such
poss|b|||t|es for ||ngu|st|c m|nor|t|es.


III. Regu|at|on

9} Regu|at|on of the broadcast med|a must be |n conform|ty w|th the genera|
pr|nc|p|es enumerated |n these Gu|de||nes, |nc|ud|ng freedom of express|on,
the protect|on of cu|tura| and ||ngu|st|c d|vers|ty through m|nor|ty |anguage
broadcast|ng, and the protect|on of ||ngu|st|c |dent|ty, w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on.
Regu|at|ons that |nterfere w|th the r|ght to freedom of express|on are subject
to the requ|rements of Art|c|e 19(3} of the lOOPR and Art|c|e 10(2} of the
EOHR, the |atter of wh|ch st|pu|ates |n part that no restr|ct|ons sha|| be p|aced
on the exerc|se of these freedoms other than such 'as are prescr|bed by |aw
and are necessary |n a democrat|c soc|ety, |n the |nterests of nat|ona|
secur|ty, terr|tor|a| |ntegr|ty or pub||c safety, for the prevent|on of d|sorder or
cr|me, for the protect|on of hea|th or mora|s, for the protect|on of the
reputat|on or r|ghts of others, for prevent|ng the d|sc|osure of |nformat|on
rece|ved |n conf|dence, or for ma|nta|n|ng the author|ty and |mpart|a||ty of the
jud|c|ary".

ln accordance w|th Art|c|e 10(1} of the EOHR, ||cens|ng const|tutes a poss|b|e
avenue for med|a regu|at|on. Art|c|e 9(2} of the Framework Oonvent|on states
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


72
that w|th regard to freedom of express|on and access by nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
to the med|a, States Part|es may requ|re '||cens|ng, w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on
and based on object|ve cr|ter|a, of sound rad|o and te|ev|s|on broadcast|ng,
or c|nema enterpr|ses." W|th|n the OSOE, |n both the Oracow Document
(para. 6.1} and the report of the Geneva Document (Ohapter vll}, part|c|pat|ng
States have comm|tted to regu|at|ng the broadcast med|a on|y as prescr|bed
by |aw and cons|stent w|th |nternat|ona| standards.

10} The OSOE part|c|pat|ng States recogn|ze the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to 'd|ssem|nate, have access to and exchange |nformat|on
|n the|r mother tongue" (v|enna Document, Oo-operat|on |n Human|tar|an and
Other F|e|ds, Human Oontacts, para. 45; Oopenhagen Document, para.
32.5}. Th|s r|ght shou|d not be |mpa|red through ||cens|ng or other types of
regu|at|on. The European Oomm|ss|on of Human R|ghts |n |ts dec|s|on on
adm|ss|b|||ty |n the Csse o/ ve|e|| /||e||s||.es |o|s||sd|o Se|| .. 5w||ze||s|d
(16 October 1986, App. No. 10746/84}, c|t|ng the s|d,s|de judgment,
stated that a ||cens|ng system must respect the requ|rements of p|ura||sm,
to|erance and broadm|ndedness. The Oomm|ss|on exp|a|ned that th|s
|nc|udes the |anguage of the broadcast:

[.| Refusa| to grant a broadcast|ng ||cence may ra|se a prob|em under
Art|c|e 10, |n conjunct|on w|th Art|c|e 14 of the [European| Oonvent|on |n
spec|f|c c|rcumstances. Such a prob|em wou|d ar|se, for examp|e, |f the
refusa| to grant a ||cence resu|ted d|rect|y |n a cons|derab|e proport|on of
the |nhab|tants of the area concerned be|ng depr|ved of broadcasts |n
the|r mother tongue.

W|th regard to pr|vate med|a, the Par||amentary Assemb|y of the Oounc|| of
Europe |n paragraph 17(v|} of Recommendat|on 1589 (2003} on Freedom of
Express|on |n the Med|a |n Europe has urged Member States 'to abo||sh
restr|ct|ons on the estab||shment and funct|on|ng of pr|vate med|a
broadcast|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages".

11} W|th regard to the proport|ona||ty of any regu|at|on, the European Oourt
of Human R|ghts has cons|stent|y found Art|c|e 10 of the EOHR to requ|re
that broadcast|ng regu|at|ons pursue a |eg|t|mate a|m and be proport|onate
to that a|m.

ln paragraph 32 of the |e|||s Csse, the Oourt enumerated the fo||ow|ng
cons|derat|ons, other than techn|ca|, for appropr|ate ||cens|ng: 'the nature
and object|ves of a proposed stat|on, |ts potent|a| aud|ence at nat|ona|,
reg|ona| or |oca| |eve|, the r|ghts and needs of the spec|f|c aud|ence and the
ob||gat|ons der|ved from |nternat|ona| |ega| |nstruments". ln |ts judgment |n the
case of 7e|e 1 |||.s|/e||se|ese||sc|s/| /S .. /0s|||s (21 September 2000,
App. No. 32240/96, paras. 39-40}, the Oourt found that the s|ze of the
target aud|ence and the|r ease of access to a|ternat|ve broadcasts (e.g.,
through cab|e te|ev|s|on} are re|evant factors |n determ|n|ng the
proport|ona||ty of restr|ct|ons. ln the ve|e|| /||e||s||.es Csse, the
Media Guidelines


73
Oomm|ss|on spec|f|ed that po||t|ca| c|rcumstances - 'such as cu|tura| and
||ngu|st|c p|ura||sm, ba|ance between |ow|and and mounta|n reg|ons and a
ba|anced federa||st po||cy" - may a|so be taken |nto account when assess|ng
proport|ona||ty of regu|at|on.

12} The regu|at|on of the trans|at|on, dubb|ng, post-synchron|sat|on and
subt|t||ng of aud|ov|sua| works |n m|nor|ty |anguages and |nto m|nor|ty
|anguages shou|d be cons|stent w|th the r|ght to freedom of express|on,
contr|bute to the fu|f||ment of |nternat|ona| ob||gat|ons regard|ng m|nor|ty
protect|on as we|| as the promot|on of understand|ng, to|erance and
fr|endsh|p between persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and the major|ty
popu|at|on of the State. Regu|at|ons shou|d not |nterfere w|th the
broadcast|ng or the rece|pt of broadcasts |n m|nor|ty |anguages. Art|c|e 12 of
the European |anguage Oharter requ|res States Part|es to foster access to
works produced |n reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguages by a|d|ng and deve|op|ng
trans|at|on, dubb|ng, post-synchron|sat|on and subt|t||ng, and, |f necessary,
by creat|ng, promot|ng and f|nanc|ng trans|at|on and term|no|og|ca| research
serv|ces.

13} The lOOPR and EOHR guarantee the freedom of express|on 'regard|ess of
front|ers". The free recept|on of transfront|er broadcast|ng |s an aspect
of the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to estab||sh and
ma|nta|n free and peacefu| contacts across front|ers part|cu|ar|y w|th those
w|th whom they share an ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c or re||g|ous |dent|ty, or
common cu|tura| her|tage, as st|pu|ated |n Art|c|e 17 of the Framework
Oonvent|on and, |n s|m||ar terms, |n paragraph 32.4 of the Oopenhagen
Document.

Art|c|e 4 of the EOTT states, |n part, that the Part|es sha|| 'guarantee freedom
of recept|on and sha|| not restr|ct the retransm|ss|on on the|r terr|tor|es of
programme serv|ces wh|ch comp|y w|th the terms of th|s convent|on". ln
add|t|on, Art|c|e 11(2} of the European |anguage Oharter, wh||e perm|tt|ng
regu|at|on, states that 'The Part|es undertake to guarantee freedom of d|rect
recept|on of rad|o and te|ev|s|on broadcasts from ne|ghbour|ng countr|es |n a
|anguage used |n |dent|ca| or s|m||ar form to a reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguage,
and not to oppose the retransm|ss|on of rad|o and te|ev|s|on broadcasts from
ne|ghbour|ng countr|es |n such a |anguage".

F|na||y, the pr|nc|p|e that transfront|er broadcast|ng does not re||eve States of
the|r ob||gat|on to fac|||tate domest|ca||y produced broadcast|ng |s der|ved
from Art|c|e 9 of the Framework Oonvent|on. Accord|ng to the Adv|sory
Oomm|ttee under the Framework Oonvent|on, 'ava||ab|||ty of [.|
programmes from ne|ghbour|ng states does not obv|ate the necess|ty for
ensur|ng programm|ng on domest|c |ssues concern|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
and programm|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages" (2002 Op|n|on on A|ban|a, para.
50}. More spec|f|ca||y, Recommendat|on 11 of the Os|o Recommendat|ons
regard|ng the ||ngu|st|c R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es states that 'Access to
med|a or|g|nat|ng from abroad sha|| not be undu|y restr|cted. Such access
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


74
shou|d not just|fy a d|m|nut|on of broadcast t|me a||ocated to the m|nor|ty |n
the pub||c|y funded med|a of the State of res|dence of the m|nor|t|es
concerned".


IV. Promot|on of m|nor|ty |anguages

14} The pr|nc|p|e that States shou|d support broadcast|ng |n m|nor|ty
|anguages |s ref|ected |n a var|ety of |nternat|ona| |nstruments. nder Art|c|e
27 of the lOOPR States Part|es are ob||ged to ensure the effect|ve enjoyment
of the r|ghts of m|nor|t|es and to take such pos|t|ve measures as may be
necessary |n order to protect the r|ghts of members of m|nor|ty groups to
enjoy and deve|op the|r cu|ture and |anguage. The .N. Dec|arat|on on
M|nor|t|es states |n Art|c|e 4(1} that 'States sha|| take measures where
requ|red" to ensure that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es effect|ve|y
exerc|se the|r human r|ghts. The Framework Oonvent|on states |n Art|c|e 6(1}
that Part|es sha|| 'promote mutua| respect and understand|ng and co-
operat|on" among persons, '|rrespect|ve of ||ngu|st|c |dent|ty", through, |nter
a||a, the med|a. The European |anguage Oharter states |n Art|c|e 7(1}(c} that
the Part|es agree on 'the need for reso|ute act|on to promote reg|ona| or
m|nor|ty |anguages |n order to safeguard them". nder Art|c|e 10(3} of the
EOTT, States Part|es 'undertake to |ook together for the most appropr|ate
|nstruments and procedures to support, w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on between
broadcasters, the act|v|ty and deve|opment of European product|on,
part|cu|ar|y |n countr|es w|th a |ow aud|ov|sua| product|on capac|ty or
restr|cted |anguage area". More spec|f|ca||y, Art|c|e 11(1}(a, b and c} of the
European |anguage Oharter requ|res the State to create, encourage or
fac|||tate rad|o or te|ev|s|on channe|s or programm|ng |n reg|ona| or m|nor|ty
|anguages. Moreover, Art|c|e 11(1}(d} of the European |anguage Oharter
requ|res States Part|es 'to encourage and/or fac|||tate the product|on and
d|str|but|on of aud|o and aud|ov|sua| works |n reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguages".

||kew|se, |nternat|ona| |nstruments po|nt exp||c|t|y to the need to prov|de
mean|ngfu| access to m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng. The Framework
Oonvent|on, for examp|e, prov|des |n Art|c|e 9(4} that: 'ln the framework of
the|r |ega| systems, the Part|es sha|| adopt adequate measures |n order to
fac|||tate access to the med|a for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es".
Art|c|e 9(1} forb|ds d|scr|m|nat|on aga|nst persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es |n the|r access to the med|a. The European |anguage Oharter
ob||ges States Part|es |n Art|c|e 12(1}(a} to 'foster the d|fferent means of
access to works produced |n [reg|ona| or m|nor|ty| |anguages".

15} The requ|rements that States, when prov|d|ng mean|ngfu| access to m|nor|ty
|anguage broadcast|ng, take |nto account the numer|ca| s|ze,
concentrat|on and d|str|but|on as we|| as needs and |nterests of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, are |ntended to ass|st States |n
|mp|ement|ng effect|ve equa||ty of access. The European |anguage Oharter,
|n Art|c|e 11(1}, states that po||cy towards the med|a shou|d be des|gned,
Media Guidelines


75
, 'accord|ng to the s|tuat|on of each |anguage". Recommendat|on 9
of the Os|o Recommendat|ons regard|ng the ||ngu|st|c R|ghts of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es states more spec|f|ca||y that broadcast t|me and qua||ty shou|d be
'commensurate w|th the numer|ca| s|ze and concentrat|on of the nat|ona|
m|nor|ty and appropr|ate to |ts s|tuat|on and needs". ln fac|||tat|ng access to
the med|a for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, the Framework
Oonvent|on requ|res States Part|es to perm|t cu|tura| p|ura||sm and to
promote to|erance (Art|c|e 9(4}} as we|| as to promote mutua| respect and
understand|ng and co-operat|on among a|| persons (Art|c|e 6(1}}. Art|c|e
7(1}(e} of the European |anguage Oharter h|gh||ghts the |mportance of the
ma|ntenance of ||nks, |nc|ud|ng through broadcast|ng, between groups us|ng
a reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguage and other groups |n the State emp|oy|ng a
|anguage used |n |dent|ca| or s|m||ar form, as we|| as the estab||shment of
cu|tura| re|at|ons w|th other groups |n the State us|ng d|fferent |anguages. The
same |nstrument a|so under||nes the |mportance of the prov|s|on of fac|||t|es
enab||ng non-speakers of a reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguage ||v|ng |n the area
where |t |s used to |earn |t |f they so des|re (Art|c|e 7(1}(g}}. Accord|ng|y, an
appropr|ate |eve| of m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng shou|d be encouraged at
the nat|onw|de |eve|. Th|s |s part|cu|ar|y re|evant for d|spersed m|nor|t|es.

Subparts A, B and O of th|s sect|on of the Gu|de||nes present a non-
exhaust|ve ||st of recommended ways that States may promote m|nor|ty
|anguages |n the broadcast med|a. They ref|ect best State pract|ces as we||
as the pr|nc|p|es set out |n the Gu|de||nes. The spec|a| respons|b|||ty to enab|e
the ex|stence of pub||c serv|ce broadcast|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages |s
h|gh||ghted. The Oentra| European ln|t|at|ve`s 1994 lnstrument for the
Protect|on of M|nor|t|es states |n Art|c|e 19, , that 'ln [the| case of Tv
and rad|o |n pub||c ownersh|p, the States w||| assure, whenever appropr|ate
and poss|b|e, that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es have the r|ght of
free access to such med|a |nc|ud|ng the product|on of such programmes |n
the|r own |anguage." ln the framework of the E, the June 1997 Protoco| on
the System of Pub||c Broadcast|ng |n the Member States to the Treaty of
Amsterdam estab||shes that 'the system of pub||c broadcast|ng |n the
Member States |s d|rect|y re|ated to the democrat|c, soc|a| and cu|tura| needs
of each soc|ety and to the need to preserve med|a p|ura||sm".

Encouragement of m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng by the pr|vate med|a |s
poss|b|e through a var|ety of means, |nc|ud|ng ||cens|ng. The Oounc|| of
Europe`s Oomm|ttee of M|n|sters has recommended to Member States that
'nat|ona| bod|es respons|b|e for award|ng ||cences to pr|vate broadcasters
shou|d pay part|cu|ar attent|on to the promot|on of med|a p|ura||sm |n the
d|scharge of the|r m|ss|on" (Append|x to Recommendat|on No. R (99} 1 to
Member States on Measures to Promote Med|a P|ura||sm, |tem l, Regu|at|on
of ownersh|p: broadcast|ng and the press}. The OSOE Geneva Document, |n
Ohapter vll, ca||s for spec|f|c support by the State to the e|ectron|c mass
med|a by prov|d|ng |nformat|on so that the |atter takes |nto account |n the|r
programmes, |nter a||a, the ||ngu|st|c |dent|ty of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


76
16} The ca|| for States to cons|der prov|d|ng f|nanc|a| support for m|nor|ty
|anguage broadcast|ng |s der|ved from the requ|rements of effect|ve equa||ty
|n access to the broadcast med|a for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es. Art|c|e 19 of the Oentra| European ln|t|at|ve`s lnstrument for the
Protect|on of M|nor|ty R|ghts st|pu|ates, , that 'States guarantee the
r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to a nat|ona| m|nor|ty to ava|| themse|ves of the
med|a |n the|r own |anguage, |n conform|ty w|th re|evant State regu|at|ons
and w|th poss|b|e f|nanc|a| ass|stance". The pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on
requ|res that m|nor|ty |anguage broadcasters rece|ve an equ|tab|e proport|on
of State support for the med|a. Art|c|e 11(1}(f} of the European |anguage
Oharter st|pu|ates that States Part|es must e|ther 'cover the add|t|ona| costs
of those med|a wh|ch use reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguages, wherever the |aw
prov|des for f|nanc|a| ass|stance |n genera| for the med|a," or 'app|y ex|st|ng
measures for f|nanc|a| ass|stance a|so to aud|ov|sua| product|on |n the
reg|ona| or m|nor|ty |anguages".

Regard|ng the product|on and d|str|but|on of aud|ov|sua| works |n
m|nor|ty |anguages, as noted above Art|c|e 11(1}(d} of the European
|anguage Oharter ob||ges States Part|es 'to encourage and/or fac|||tate the
product|on and d|str|but|on of aud|o and aud|ov|sua| works |n the reg|ona| or
m|nor|ty |anguages." ln Recommendat|on No. R (93} 5 of the Oomm|ttee of
M|n|sters of the Oounc|| of Europe, ent|t|ed Oonta|n|ng Pr|nc|p|es A|med at
Promot|ng the D|str|but|on and Broadcast|ng of Aud|ov|sua| Works Or|g|nated
|n Oountr|es or Reg|ons w|th a |ow Aud|ov|sua| Output or a ||m|ted
Geograph|c or ||ngu|st|c Ooverage on the European Te|ev|s|on Markets, the
Oomm|ttee has expressed the v|ew that the freedoms enshr|ned |n Art|c|e 10
of the EOHR 'can be exerc|sed mean|ngfu||y by aud|ov|sua| producers |n
countr|es and reg|ons w|th a |ow aud|ov|sua| output or a ||m|ted geograph|c
or ||ngu|st|c coverage by enab||ng them to have an effect|ve access to the
European te|ev|s|on markets for the d|str|but|on of the|r works". W|th|n the
European n|on, Rec|ta| 31 of the Preamb|e to D|rect|ve 97/36/EO stresses
the need for the Oommun|ty to promote |ndependent producers 'tak|ng |nto
account the aud|ov|sua| capac|ty of each Member State and the need to
protect |esser used |anguages of the European n|on." ln def|n|ng the not|on
of '|ndependent producer", Member States shou|d 'take appropr|ate account
of cr|ter|a such as the ownersh|p of the product|on company, the amount of
programmes supp||ed to the same broadcaster and the ownersh|p of
secondary r|ghts" (D|rect|ve 97/36/EO of the European Par||ament and of the
Oounc|| of 30 June 1997 amend|ng Oounc|| D|rect|ve 89/552/EEO on The
Oo-ord|nat|on of Oerta|n Prov|s|ons |a|d Down by |aw, Regu|at|on or
Adm|n|strat|ve Act|on |n Member States Ooncern|ng the Pursu|t of Te|ev|s|on
Broadcast|ng Act|v|t|es}.

17} The requ|rement to bu||d the capac|ty of m|nor|ty |anguage broadcast|ng |s
|mp||c|t |n the requ|rements of many of the |nstruments c|ted above. Art|c|e
11(1}(g} of the European |anguage Oharter exp||c|t|y requ|res States Part|es
'to support the tra|n|ng of journa||sts and other staff for med|a us|ng reg|ona|
or m|nor|ty |anguages".
Policing Recommendations



77
Recommendat|ons
on Po||c|ng |n
Mu|t|-Ethn|c Soc|et|es &
Exp|anatory Note - 2006

Introduct|on

ln |ts He|s|nk| Dec|s|ons of Ju|y 1992, the Organ|zat|on for Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on |n
Europe (OSOE} estab||shed the pos|t|on of H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
(HONM} to be 'an |nstrument of conf||ct prevent|on at the ear||est poss|b|e stage". Th|s
mandate was created |arge|y |n react|on to the s|tuat|on |n the former Yugos|av|a wh|ch
some feared wou|d be repeated e|sewhere |n Europe, espec|a||y among the countr|es |n
trans|t|on to democracy, and cou|d underm|ne the prom|se of peace and prosper|ty as
env|saged |n the Oharter of Par|s for a New Europe adopted by the Heads of State and
Government |n November 1990.

Through the course of more than ten years of |ntense act|v|ty, the HONM has
|dent|f|ed certa|n recurrent |ssues and themes concern|ng m|nor|t|es wh|ch have
become the subject of h|s attent|on |n a number of States |n wh|ch he |s |nvo|ved.
Among these are the |ssues of m|nor|ty educat|on and the use of m|nor|ty
|anguages, wh|ch are of part|cu|ar |mportance for the ma|ntenance and deve|opment
of the |dent|ty of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Other |mportant |ssues are
the effect|ve part|c|pat|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the governance of States and the
use of m|nor|ty |anguages as a veh|c|e of commun|cat|on |n the broadcast med|a.
W|th a v|ew to ach|ev|ng an appropr|ate and coherent app||cat|on of re|evant m|nor|ty
r|ghts |n the OSOE area, the HONM requested four groups of |nternat|ona||y recogn|zed
|ndependent experts to e|aborate four sets of gu|dance on these recurrent |ssues: The
Hague Recommendat|ons regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es (1996}; The Os|o Recommendat|ons regard|ng the L|ngu|st|c R|ghts
of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (1998}; The Lund Recommendat|ons on the Effect|ve
Part|c|pat|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n Pub||c L|fe (1999}; and Gu|de||nes on the
use of M|nor|ty Languages |n the Broadcast Med|a (2003}. These documents have
subsequent|y served as references for |aw and po||cy makers |n a number of States.
The recommendat|ons are ava||ab|e (|n severa| |anguages} free of charge from the Off|ce
of the HONM and may be accessed e|ectron|ca||y (<www.osce.org/hcnm>}.

Another |ssue wh|ch has ar|sen |n severa| s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch the HONM has been
|nvo|ved |s that of po||c|ng |n mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es. ln a number of States, the HONM
has encountered the absence of |nst|tut|ona| mechan|sms to support the |nteract|on
and co-operat|on between po||ce and persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. ln
comb|nat|on w|th the |ack of appropr|ate tra|n|ng for operat|on |n a mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety,
an often mono-ethn|c compos|t|on of the po||ce serv|ce and d|scr|m|natory pract|ces,
po||ce have generated negat|ve react|ons among nat|ona| m|nor|ty commun|t|es |n a
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


78
number of s|tuat|ons and even become a conf||ct cata|yst. ln contrast, the HONM
has seen |n other States how efforts to make the po||ce serv|ce more representat|ve
of the commun|ty |t serves and to enhance commun|cat|on between po||ce and
nat|ona| m|nor|ty commun|t|es not on|y strengthened |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons but a|so
|ncreased the operat|ona| effect|veness of po||ce.

Ref|ect|ng th|s |mportant ro|e of the po||ce, the HONM engaged |n a process of
ana|ys|s of |nternat|ona| standards and pract|ces |n the area of po||c|ng. To th|s end,
the HONM, |n consu|tat|on w|th the Strateg|c Po||ce Matters n|t |n the OSOE
Secretar|at, appo|nted a consu|tant (Dr Rob|n Oak|ey, |ndependent consu|tant and
Honorary Research Fe||ow at the Oentre for Ethn|c M|nor|ty Stud|es, Roya| Ho||oway
- n|vers|ty of |ondon} to adv|se h|m and brought together a group of h|gh|y
exper|enced experts compr|s|ng representat|ves of re|evant |nternat|ona|
organ|zat|ons a|ong w|th sen|or po||ce off|cers, |ndependent experts and non-
governmenta| actors w|th part|cu|ar expert|se |n the f|e|d. An |n|t|a| meet|ng of the
experts was convened by the HONM |n June 2005, fo||owed by a meet|ng |n
October and a conc|ud|ng meet|ng |n December. As a resu|t of th|s process, the
fo||ow|ng set of recommendat|ons on po||c|ng |n mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es was
e|aborated.

The |ndependent experts were:
Mr. Steve Bennett, D|rector, Po||ce Educat|on and Deve|opment, OSOE
M|ss|on |n Kosovo; Ms. l|ze Brands Kehr|s, D|rector, |atv|an Oentre for
Human R|ghts and Ethn|c Stud|es; Dr Anastas|a Or|ck|ey, Oha|rperson,
European Mon|tor|ng Oentre on Rac|sm and enophob|a; Mr. Francesc
Gu|||en, Oh|ef of Staff, Deputy M|n|ster of the lnter|or, Government of
Oata|unya, Spa|n; Professor Kr|st|n Henrard, Department of lnternat|ona| and
Oonst|tut|ona| |aw, n|vers|ty of Gron|ngen; Dr Gordan Ka|ajdz|ev, Member
Execut|ve Board, Macedon|an He|s|nk| Oomm|ttee on Human R|ghts; Dr
Jen Ka|tenbach, Par||amentary Oomm|ss|oner of Hungary for Nat|ona| and
Ethn|c M|nor|t|es R|ghts; Mr. M|chae| Ke||ett, Representat|ve of the Network
of Po||ce and Human R|ghts Oo-ord|nators of the Oounc|| of Europe, Head of
North West Reg|ona| Asset Recovery Team, n|ted K|ngdom; Dr Rob|n
Oak|ey, lndependent Oonsu|tant; Mr. St|g Odorf, Po||ce n|t, Genera|
Secretar|at of the European n|on, Oounc|| of the European n|on; Mr.
T|mothy Parsons, Hate Or|mes Expert, OSOE ODlHR To|erance and Non-
D|scr|m|nat|on Programme; Mr. Kar| Pettersson, Po||ce Affa|rs Off|cer,
Strateg|c Po||ce Matters n|t, OSOE Secretar|at; Mr. lvan Shushkev|ch,
Po||ce Oo|one| (ret.}, Deputy D|rector Genera|, M|||tary Oh|efs O|ub of the
Russ|an Federat|on; Mr. Ohr|s Tay|or, lndependent Oonsu|tant; Mr. R|nus
v|sser, Po||ce Academy of the Nether|ands.

The purpose of the accompany|ng Recommendat|ons ||ke The Hague, Os|o, |und
Recommendat|ons and the Med|a Gu|de||nes before them, |s to encourage and
fac|||tate the adopt|on by States of spec|f|c measures to a||ev|ate tens|ons re|at|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and thus to serve the u|t|mate conf||ct prevent|on goa| of the HONM.
The Recommendat|ons are formu|ated |n terms of the po||c|ng of 'nat|ona|
Policing Recommendations



79
m|nor|t|es" |n 'mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es". ln the v|ew of the experts, the term 'nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es" encompasses a w|de range of m|nor|ty groups, |nc|ud|ng re||g|ous,
||ngu|st|c and cu|tura| as we|| as ethn|c m|nor|t|es. ln pr|nc|p|e, the Recommendat|ons
are re|evant for a|| of those groups. S|m||ar|y, |t shou|d be noted that the word
'm|nor|t|es" |s used at some po|nts |n the Recommendat|ons as a conven|ent
abbrev|at|on for the phrase 'persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es".

The Recommendat|ons a|m to prov|de States w|th some pract|ca| gu|dance |n
deve|op|ng po||c|es and |aw |n accordance w|th |nternat|ona| norms and standards,
and based on |nternat|ona| exper|ence and best pract|ce wh|ch can ba|ance and
meet the needs and |nterests of a|| sectors of the popu|at|on, |nc|ud|ng those of
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Obv|ous|y the Recommendat|ons need to be
|mp|emented |n a way wh|ch |s sens|t|ve to the spec|f|c s|tuat|on |n each State -
|nc|ud|ng such factors as the ongo|ng po||ce reform process and the actua| s|tuat|on on
the ground.

The Recommendat|ons are d|v|ded |nto s|x sub-head|ngs wh|ch group the twenty-three
|nd|v|dua| recommendat|ons under genera| pr|nc|p|es; recru|tment and representat|on;
tra|n|ng and profess|ona| support; engag|ng w|th ethn|c commun|t|es; operat|ona|
pract|ces; and the prevent|on and management of conf||ct. A|| gu|de||nes are to be
|nterpreted |n accordance w|th the Genera| Pr|nc|p|es |n Part l wh|ch a|so estab||sh the
need for States to deve|op po||cy and |aw |n th|s area and prov|de gu|dance |n th|s
respect. ln Part ll through Part vl some spec|f|c po|nts of act|on are suggested to the
governments, po||ce serv|ces and nat|ona| m|nor|ty commun|t|es. A more deta||ed
exp|anat|on of each recommendat|on or gu|de||ne |s prov|ded |n an accompany|ng
Exp|anatory Note where|n express reference to the re|evant |nternat|ona| standards |s
found and examp|es of good pract|ce are e|aborated.

The centra| message of the Recommendat|ons |s that good po||c|ng |n mu|t|-ethn|c
soc|et|es |s dependent on the estab||shment of a re|at|onsh|p of trust and
conf|dence, bu||t on regu|ar commun|cat|on and pract|ca| co-operat|on, between the
po||ce and the m|nor|t|es. A|| part|es benef|t from such a re|at|onsh|p. The m|nor|t|es
benef|t from po||c|ng wh|ch |s more sens|t|ve to the|r concerns and more respons|ve
to the|r requ|rements for persona| protect|on and access to just|ce. The po||ce
benef|t from greater effect|veness, s|nce good commun|cat|on and co-operat|on are
keys to effect|ve po||c|ng |n any commun|ty. The state benef|ts both from the
|ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es and from the greater effect|veness of |ts po||c|ng. For States
seek|ng to |ntegrate m|nor|t|es, and at the same t|me deve|op profess|ona| serv|ce-
or|ented commun|ty po||c|ng, the Recommendat|ons prov|de a pract|ca| way
forward.

lt |s hoped that the Recommendat|ons w||| be broad|y d|ssem|nated and w|de|y used.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


80
Recommendat|ons

I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es

1} States shou|d adopt po||c|es wh|ch c|ear|y recogn|ze the |mportance of
po||c|ng for |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons. These po||c|es shou|d form part of w|der
po||c|es and programmes to promote the |ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es at nat|ona|
and |oca| |eve|s. They shou|d a|so be co-ord|nated w|th w|der act|on to
promote profess|ona||sat|on and a serv|ce-or|entat|on |n po||c|ng, and to
ensure that a|| po||c|ng |s carr|ed out |n accordance w|th |nternat|ona|
standards on human r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to
m|nor|t|es.

2} States w||| need to ensure that the po||ce and the genera| pub||c, |nc|ud|ng
m|nor|t|es, understand the ro|e of the po||ce |n promot|ng good |nter-ethn|c
re|at|ons. They w||| a|so need to ensure that the po||ce are tasked and
equ|pped to carry th|s ro|e out. Po||t|ca| and po||ce |eaders shou|d pub||c|y
state the|r support for th|s ro|e, and promote understand|ng and support for
|t genera||y among the pub||c.

3} Act|on p|ans to |mp|ement these po||c|es, and a|so to mon|tor the|r
|mp|ementat|on on a regu|ar bas|s, shou|d be deve|oped by state author|t|es
and po||ce |n c|ose co-operat|on w|th m|nor|ty representat|ves.


II. Recru|tment and representat|on

4} The compos|t|on of the po||ce - at |oca|, reg|ona| and nat|ona| |eve|s and
|nc|ud|ng sen|or as we|| as jun|or ranks, and a|so c|v|||an personne| - shou|d
ref|ect the d|vers|ty of the popu|at|on. The pub||c |mage of the po||ce as an
ethn|ca||y representat|ve body needs to be act|ve|y promoted.

5} Stat|st|ca| targets shou|d be set for |ncreas|ng the representat|veness of the
po||ce, and mon|tor|ng of the ethn|c compos|t|on of the po||ce shou|d be
|ntroduced |n order to measure progress.

6} ln|t|at|ves to |ncrease recru|tment of underrepresented m|nor|t|es w||| need to
be |ntroduced. These shou|d |nc|ude spec|a| measures to encourage
app||cants and to ass|st them to ach|eve the requ|red standards, together
w|th act|ons to remove any d|rect or |nd|rect d|scr|m|natory barr|ers.

7} Measures w||| a|so need to be |ntroduced to ensure that po||ce off|cers from
a m|nor|ty background are accepted and treated equa||y |ns|de the po||ce
organ|zat|on, wh|ch shou|d prov|de a neutra| work|ng env|ronment, and have
equa| opportun|t|es for progress|on |n the|r careers.


Policing Recommendations



81
III. Tra|n|ng and profess|ona| deve|opment

8} Po||ce need to rece|ve tra|n|ng and other forms of profess|ona| support
requ|red to understand and respond appropr|ate|y to the sens|t|v|t|es of
m|nor|t|es, and so that they are ab|e to carry out the|r po||c|ng ro|es effect|ve|y
|n ways wh|ch promote harmony and reduce tens|ons.

9} lt |s recommended that tra|n|ng |n m|nor|ty |ssues and |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons |s
|nc|uded |n both |n|t|a| and |n-serv|ce tra|n|ng, and prov|ded for sen|or as we||
as jun|or po||ce off|cers. Representat|ves of m|nor|t|es shou|d be |nvo|ved |n
both the p|ann|ng and de||very of tra|n|ng.

10} Po||ce codes of conduct shou|d |nc|ude profess|ona| standards for po||c|ng |n
mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es, and po||ce tra|n|ng programmes shou|d |nc|ude
components spec|f|ca||y des|gned to ach|eve these standards. Breaches of
these standards shou|d be subject to remed|a| act|on, and exemp|ary good
pract|ce shou|d rece|ve profess|ona| and pub||c recogn|t|on.

11} lt |s recommended that po||ce managers and superv|sors are c|ear|y tasked
w|th the respons|b|||ty to ensure that the|r staff ach|eve these standards |n
the|r dea||ngs w|th m|nor|t|es, and shou|d prov|de |eadersh|p and set
examp|es of good pract|ce |n the|r own work.


IV. Engag|ng w|th ethn|c commun|t|es

12} Po||ce shou|d be tasked w|th deve|op|ng methods and pract|ces to
commun|cate and co-operate w|th m|nor|t|es and to bu||d conf|dence
together at |oca|, reg|ona| and nat|ona| |eve|s.

13} Po||ce w||| need to ensure they have the capab|||ty to commun|cate w|th
m|nor|t|es |n m|nor|ty |anguages, wherever poss|b|e by recru|tment and
tra|n|ng of mu|t|||ngua| staff, and a|so by use of qua||f|ed |nterpreters.

14} Po||ce shou|d p|ay a proact|ve ro|e |n prov|d|ng encouragement and support
to m|nor|t|es to ass|st them to commun|cate and co-operate w|th the po||ce,
for examp|e by act|ng as partners |n |n|t|at|ves to promote recru|tment and to
prov|de tra|n|ng on m|nor|ty |ssues. M|nor|t|es for the|r part shou|d be ready
to commun|cate and co-operate w|th the po||ce for the purpose of |ncreas|ng
commun|ty safety and access to just|ce.

15} lt |s recommended that mechan|sms are estab||shed to ensure that po||ce
are democrat|ca||y accountab|e for the|r act|ons to peop|e from a|| sect|ons of
the commun|ty. These need to |nc|ude effect|ve systems for mak|ng and
fo||ow|ng up comp|a|nts, wh|ch are access|b|e to persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. A|| sect|ons of the commun|ty need to be aware of the|r
r|ghts and respons|b|||t|es |n re|at|on to the po||ce, and of the powers of the
po||ce and the serv|ces they are expected to prov|de.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


82
V. Operat|ona| pract|ces

16} Measures shou|d be taken to ensure that po||ce enforce the |aw |n an
|mpart|a| and non-d|scr|m|natory manner wh|ch does not s|ng|e out any
part|cu|ar group, e.g. by engag|ng |n 'rac|a| prof|||ng". Such measures shou|d
|nc|ude codes for the conduct of operat|ona| pract|ces, such as use of po||ce
powers to stop and search peop|e on the street and |n other pub||c p|aces.

17} Po||ce shou|d take steps to encourage the report|ng by persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es of cr|me, |n order to promote commun|ty safety and
access to just|ce.

18} When undertak|ng regu|ar patro|s |n mu|t|-ethn|c areas, po||ce shou|d where
poss|b|e dep|oy ethn|ca||y m|xed teams |n order to bu||d pub||c conf|dence
and |ncrease the|r operat|ona| effect|veness. Po||ce shou|d a|so ensure the|r
tact|cs and appearance (e.g. numbers, v|s|b|||ty of weapons, cho|ce of
un|forms} are appropr|ate to the task and do not unnecessar||y provoke fear
and tens|on.

19} Po||ce shou|d ensure that ant|-d|scr|m|nat|on |aw |s enforced v|gorous|y and
effect|ve|y. ln part|cu|ar, po||ce shou|d take steps to encourage the report|ng
of cr|mes mot|vated by ethn|c hatred, and ensure that they are fu||y recorded
and |nvest|gated.

20} States need to ensure that mechan|sms to prov|de adv|ce and support for
v|ct|ms of cr|me are equa||y access|b|e to and effect|ve for persons be|ong|ng
to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.


VI. Prevent|on and management of conf||ct

21} Po||ce shou|d be tasked and tra|ned to p|ay a proact|ve ro|e |n deve|op|ng a
re|at|onsh|p w|th m|nor|t|es a|med at |dent|fy|ng and |f poss|b|e reduc|ng
tens|ons wh|ch can |ead to |nter-ethn|c conf||cts.

22} Po||ce a|so need to be tra|ned and equ|pped to manage c|v|| d|sturbances
and |nc|dents of |nter-ethn|c conf||ct |n a profess|ona| and non-part|san
manner, w|th the a|m of de-esca|at|ng conf||cts and of reso|v|ng them
through med|at|on where poss|b|e and w|th m|n|ma| use of force.

23} Espec|a||y at the |oca| |eve|, po||ce shou|d co-operate c|ose|y w|th other
pub||c author|t|es to ensure the|r act|ons to prevent and manage |nter-ethn|c
conf||ct are co-ord|nated w|th w|der act|on to promote the |ntegrat|on of
m|nor|t|es and to bu||d a successfu| mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety.


Policing Recommendations



83
Exp|anatory Note

I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es


1} 5|s|es s|o0|d sdoo| oo||c|es w||c| c|es||, |eco||ze ||e |moo||s|ce o/
oo||c|| /o| |||e|-e||||c |e|s||o|s. 7|ese oo||c|es s|o0|d /o|m os|| o/
w|de| oo||c|es s|d o|o|smmes |o o|omo|e ||e |||e|s||o| o/ m||o||||es
s| |s||o|s| s|d |ocs| |e.e|s. 7|e, s|o0|d s|so oe co-o|d||s|ed w|||
w|de| sc||o| |o o|omo|e o|o/ess|o|s||ss||o| s|d s se|.|ce-o||e||s||o| ||
oo||c||, s|d |o e|s0|e ||s| s|| oo||c|| |s cs|||ed o0| || scco|ds|ce
w||| |||e||s||o|s| s|s|ds|ds o| |0ms| ||||s, ||c|0d|| ||||s o/
oe|so|s oe|o||| |o m||o||||es.

ln a mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety good |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons and the |ntegrat|on of persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es depend on the percept|on of a|| ethn|c groups that
the act|v|t|es of the state are |eg|t|mate and effect|ve.
1
ln part|cu|ar, the ro|e of the
po||ce as the 'front-||ne" and most v|s|b|e |aw enforcement agency |s cruc|a|: po||ce
are gate-keepers to just|ce for m|nor|t|es. M|nor|t|es who perce|ve the po||ce as
enforc|ng the |aw |mpart|a||y and prov|d|ng access to just|ce and commun|ty safety
are ||ke|y to ho|d the state |n respect; fa||ure by po||ce and other respons|b|e
author|t|es to estab||sh the|r |eg|t|macy |n the eyes of m|nor|t|es can resu|t |n
resentment and fear and a c||mate |n wh|ch extrem|sm can f|our|sh.

Acceptance of the po||ce as |eg|t|mate and effect|ve, whether at nat|ona|, reg|ona| or
|oca| |eve|, depends on the estab||shment of a re|at|onsh|p of trust, based on good
commun|cat|on and pract|ca| co-operat|on, between the po||ce and m|nor|t|es. The
estab||shment of such a re|at|onsh|p w||| not on|y |mprove |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons but
w||| a|so contr|bute to the eff|c|ency of po||c|ng. The recommendat|ons be|ow, based
on exper|ence, are |ntended to he|p States ach|eve such re|at|onsh|ps.

Governments need to demonstrate |eadersh|p by sett|ng out a c|ear 'v|s|on" of the
ro|e of po||ce |n bu||d|ng and susta|n|ng an effect|ve democrat|c mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety.
They need to consu|t w|de|y |n order to w|n mu|t|-party and mu|t|-ethn|c consensus
on the|r po||c|es on po||c|ng and m|nor|t|es, wh|ch may otherw|se prove soc|a||y
d|v|s|ve or may become the target of po||t|ca| r|va|r|es. The po||c|es and the measures
requ|red to |mp|ement them need to be expressed |n c|ear forma| 'po||cy
statements", wh|ch are pub||c|y supported by po||t|ca| |eaders and put |nto effect
through |eg|s|at|ve and other |nstruments.


1
The Recommendat|ons are formu|ated |n terms of the po||c|ng of 'nat|ona| m|nor|t|es" |n
'mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es". ln the v|ew of the experts, the term 'nat|ona| m|nor|t|es" encompasses
a w|de range of m|nor|ty groups, |nc|ud|ng re||g|ous, ||ngu|st|c and cu|tura| as we|| as ethn|c
m|nor|t|es. ln pr|nc|p|e, the Recommendat|ons are re|evant for a|| of those groups. S|m||ar|y, |t
shou|d be noted that the word 'm|nor|t|es" |s used at some po|nts |n the Recommendat|ons as
a conven|ent abbrev|at|on for the phrase 'persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es".
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


84
A po||cy on po||c|ng needs to be part of a w|der nat|ona| strategy to promote
|ntegrat|on and to bu||d a mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety. Th|s shou|d |nc|ude measures to
encourage part|c|pat|on by persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es |n the po||t|ca| and
econom|c ||fe of the state, as we|| as measures |n f|e|ds such as educat|on,
|anguage, po||t|ca| representat|on, broadcast|ng and tack||ng poverty and exc|us|on.
Progress on broader aspects of |ntegrat|on w||| make |t eas|er to |ntroduce measures
needed for mu|t|-ethn|c po||c|ng.

A po||cy on m|nor|ty po||c|ng needs to be an |ntegra| - though c|ear|y targeted and
|dent|f|ab|e - part of po||ce deve|opment programmes. Good commun|cat|on and
co-operat|on based on trust |s the key to effect|ve po||c|ng of major|ty, as we|| as
m|nor|ty, commun|t|es. A repress|ve or 'contro|-or|ented" approach, |n wh|ch bas|c
human and m|nor|ty r|ghts are |gnored or v|o|ated, cannot prov|de a context |n wh|ch
good re|at|ons between po||ce and m|nor|t|es can f|our|sh.

The democrat|sat|on and profess|ona||sat|on of the po||ce are therefore essent|a|
pre-cond|t|ons for enab||ng po||ce to p|ay the|r ro|e |n bu||d|ng a successfu|
democrat|c mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety, as |s the |ntroduct|on of a serv|ce-or|ented and
human r|ghts-based approach to po||c|ng accompan|ed by 'commun|ty po||c|ng" at
the |oca| |eve|.
2



2} States w||| need to ensure that the po||ce and the genera| pub||c,
|nc|ud|ng m|nor|t|es, understand the ro|e of the po||ce |n promot|ng
good |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons. They w||| a|so need to ensure that the po||ce
are tasked and equ|pped to carry th|s ro|e out. Po||t|ca| and po||ce
|eaders shou|d pub||c|y state the|r support for th|s ro|e, and promote
understand|ng and support for |t genera||y among the pub||c.

lmp|ementat|on of po||c|es des|gned to strengthen the capac|ty of po||ce to promote
good |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons |s not s|mp|y a techn|ca| exerc|se but |nvo|ves a change |n
po||ce cu|ture. lt requ|res understand|ng and comm|tment on the part of po||cy
makers, and of po||ce at a|| |eve|s |n the organ|zat|on. The estab||shed cu|ture w|th|n

2
For deta||s of re|evant |nternat|ona| norms and standards on po||c|ng and human r|ghts see
the U|||ed ^s||o|s Code o/ Co|d0c| /o| |sw E|/o|ceme|| O//|c|s|s (1979}, ava||ab|e at
<http://www.uncj|n.org/Standards/Oonduct/ conduct.htm|> and the Co0|c|| o/ E0|ooe
E0|ooes| Code o/ |o||ce E|||cs (2001}, ava||ab|e at <http://www.coe.|nt/ T/E/|ega|_Affa|rs/
|ega|_co-operat|on/Po||ce_and_|nterna|_secur|ty/Documents/_lntro_Documents.asp
=P234_5187>. These documents set out c|ear |nternat|ona| standards for profess|ona| po||c|ng
that are |n accordance w|th |nternat|ona| human r|ghts. These standards shou|d serve as the
bas|s for a|| po||c|ng po||cy and pract|ce re|at|ng to m|nor|t|es and |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons, and
po||ce |eaders need to be v|g||ant |n ensur|ng that such standards are observed at a|| t|mes.
The Rotterdam Oharter |o||c|| /o| s /0|||-E||||c 5oc|e|, (1996}, ava||ab|e at
<http://www.rotterdamcharter.n|/>, a |ega||y non-b|nd|ng document wh|ch was produced
jo|nt|y by representat|ves of po||ce, mun|c|pa| author|t|es and NGOs from across Europe, a|so
prov|des genera| gu|dance based on pract|ca| exper|ence. Po||c|ng po||cy re|at|ng to m|nor|t|es
shou|d a|so take account of the more genera| r|ghts set out |n the E0|ooes| Co|.e|||o| o|
0ms| ||||s and |n the Oounc|| of Europe F|smewo|| Co|.e|||o| /o| ||e ||o|ec||o| o/
^s||o|s| /||o||||es (1994}, ava||ab|e at <http://www.coe.|nt/T/E/ human_ r|ghts/m|nor|t|es/>.
Policing Recommendations



85
the po||ce organ|zat|on may not be sympathet|c to address|ng these |ssues: |t may
|ndeed be host||e to them, and may a|so be genera||y res|stant to change. Moreover,
po||ce may see themse|ves (consc|ous|y or unconsc|ous|y} as represent|ng the
dom|nant ethn|c group, and as protect|ng |ts |nterests, and may therefore v|ew such
po||c|es as an unwe|come threat. lt |s |mportant to recogn|ze that exp|o|tat|ve
treatment of part|cu|ar ethn|c groups, ||ke the pract|ce of demand|ng br|bes from
vu|nerab|e ethn|c groups, |s a form of po||ce corrupt|on wh|ch |s not on|y contrary to
|nternat|ona| |aw and human r|ghts, but a|so ser|ous|y underm|nes the capab|||ty of
the po||ce to promote good |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons.

lt |s therefore essent|a| that po||t|ca| |eaders ensure that sen|or po||ce off|c|a|s fu||y
understand the |mportance of the|r ro|e |n promot|ng good |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons, and
are fu||y comm|tted to |mp|ement|ng |t. The|r ro|e |nvo|ves not on|y promot|ng good
ethn|c re|at|ons externa||y, but a|so |nterna||y w|th|n the po||ce organ|zat|on, |nc|ud|ng
ensur|ng that d|scr|m|nat|on on ethn|c or re|ated grounds does not take p|ace (or |f |t
does, |s dea|t w|th effect|ve|y}. Po||ce |eaders |n turn need to ensure that a|| po||ce
personne| - |n a|| reg|ons, a|| spec|a||sms and a|| ranks |n the h|erarchy - a|so
apprec|ate th|s ro|e, and |ts |mp||cat|on for the|r everyday pract|ce. O|ear statements
of support for th|s ro|e therefore need to be made by po||ce |eaders at a|| |eve|s, and
|t shou|d be emphas|zed |n a|| tra|n|ng. Act|ons wh|ch underm|ne th|s ro|e, wh|ch
favour part|cu|ar ethn|c groups, or wh|ch exp|o|t, d|scr|m|nate aga|nst or express
host|||ty towards m|nor|t|es, shou|d not be to|erated. Both po||cy makers and po||ce
|eaders need to work towards estab||sh|ng a cu|ture |n the po||ce organ|zat|on that
we|comes and respects ethn|c d|vers|ty both |nterna||y and externa||y, and |n wh|ch
po||ce see themse|ves as pos|t|ve agents and ro|e mode|s for creat|ng a successfu|
mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety (see a|so under Recommendat|on 7}.


3} /c||o| o|s|s |o |mo|eme|| ||ese oo||c|es, s|d s|so |o mo|||o| ||e||
|mo|eme||s||o| o| s |e0|s| oss|s, s|o0|d oe de.e|ooed o, s|s|e
s0||o||||es s|d oo||ce || c|ose co-ooe|s||o| w||| m||o|||,
|eo|ese||s||.es.

lt |s |mportant to know whether po||c|es and measures are be|ng effect|ve and are
ach|ev|ng the resu|ts |ntended. M|nor|t|es |n part|cu|ar are ||ke|y to be keen to know
whether progress |s be|ng made. lt |s |mportant that accurate |nformat|on |s
co||ected and made ava||ab|e. Act|on p|ans and mon|tor|ng can he|p to overcome
these cha||enges. Act|on p|ans to |mp|ement these po||c|es shou|d:

lnvo|ve an |ntegrated approach, |ncorporat|ng a|| f|e|ds of act|on
|dent|f|ed |n the Recommendat|ons;
Be based on ana|ys|s of spec|f|c prob|ems and needs |n po||ce-m|nor|ty
re|at|ons: |ndependent research may need to be comm|ss|oned for th|s
purpose;
ldent|fy and task the persons respons|b|e (|n both the government and
the po||ce organ|zat|on} for |mp|ement|ng po||c|es on po||c|ng and
m|nor|t|es;
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


86
Estab||sh where appropr|ate spec|f|c posts or un|ts to carry out or co-
ord|nate the necessary work;
lnc|ude prov|s|on for suff|c|ent f|nanc|a| and other resources;
Prov|de for cont|nu|ng consu|tat|on and co-operat|on w|th po||ce (e.g.
through profess|ona| assoc|at|ons} and w|th m|nor|t|es (e.g. through
NGOs} at a|| stages;
lnc|ude estab||sh|ng |oca| p||ot projects, as a usefu| f|rst step.

lt |s a|so essent|a| that the |mp|ementat|on of po||c|es on po||c|ng and m|nor|t|es |s
mon|tored on a regu|ar bas|s. Government and po||ce off|c|a|s shou|d rout|ne|y do
th|s for the|r own adm|n|strat|ve purposes, and they shou|d produce reports that are
pub||c|y access|b|e. However, to |ncrease pub||c conf|dence and ensure democrat|c
accountab|||ty, such mon|tor|ng shou|d a|so be undertaken by an |ndependent body.
The ro|e can be p|ayed by par||amentary human r|ghts |nst|tut|ons (e.g. Par||amentary
Oomm|ss|ons or Ombudspersons} or other pub||c overs|ght bod|es. Such bod|es
shou|d have the r|ght to quest|on pub||c off|c|a|s and ho|d open hear|ngs, and the|r
reports too shou|d be pub||c|y ava||ab|e. Whatever the methods used to mon|tor the
|mp|ementat|on of such po||c|es, |t |s essent|a| that both the m|nor|t|es and the po||ce
are consu|ted effect|ve|y, and that the|r percept|ons and exper|ences are recorded
and addressed |n prepar|ng reports and recommendat|ons. Po||ce shou|d we|come
rather than res|st such |ndependent scrut|ny, recogn|z|ng the benef|ts that |t can
br|ng to an open-m|nded and progress|ve organ|zat|on. lf there have been m|stakes
or fa||ures, these shou|d not be concea|ed, but ana|ysed for the pos|t|ve |essons that
can be |earned for the future. Deve|op|ng and |mp|ement|ng such po||c|es |s not a
task that shou|d be undertaken qu|ck|y, but needs to be based on a step-by-step
approach over a per|od of t|me.
3



II. Recru|tment and representat|on

4} 7|e comoos|||o| o/ ||e oo||ce - s| |ocs|, |e|o|s| s|d |s||o|s| |e.e|s
s|d ||c|0d|| se||o| ss we|| ss |0||o| |s||s, s|d s|so c|.|||s| oe|so||e|
- s|o0|d |e/|ec| ||e d|.e|s||, o/ ||e ooo0|s||o|. 7|e o0o||c |mse o/ ||e
oo||ce ss s| e||||cs||, |eo|ese||s||.e ood, |eeds |o oe sc||.e|,
o|omo|ed.

Equ|tab|e representat|on of m|nor|t|es |n the po||ce organ|zat|on |s |mportant for
severa| reasons:

a} As an |nd|cator that members of a|| ethn|c groups have equa|
opportun|ty as |nd|v|dua|s to jo|n and progress |n careers |n the po||ce;

3
For further |nformat|on and adv|ce on |mp|ement|ng po||ce reform programmes see the
Oounc|| of Europe`s |o||ce s|d 0ms| ||||s ||o|smme, and |n part|cu|ar the pub||cat|on:
Po||c|ng |n a Democrat|c Soc|ety - ls Your Po||ce Serv|ce a Human R|ghts Ohamp|on? Ava||ab|e
at <http://www.coe.|nt/t/e/human_r|ghts/po||ce/2._pub||cat|ons/>.
Policing Recommendations



87
b} As a way of promot|ng |ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es through the|r
part|c|pat|on |n the pub||c ||fe of the state and |ts |nst|tut|ons;
4


c} As a way of prov|d|ng the po||ce organ|zat|on |nterna||y w|th a range of
know|edge and sk|||s (|nc|ud|ng |anguage sk|||s} that are requ|red for
work|ng |n an ethn|ca||y d|verse commun|ty;

d} As a means of he|p|ng po||ce to bu||d re|at|onsh|ps externa||y w|th
m|nor|ty commun|t|es based on effect|ve commun|cat|on, co-operat|on
and mutua| conf|dence.

For a|| of these reasons, |ncreas|ng the representat|veness of the po||ce shou|d be
regarded as a major pr|or|ty. Th|s has been endorsed |n Op|n|ons of the Oounc|| of
Europe Adv|sory Oomm|ttee for the Framework Oonvent|on on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es.
5

Po||ce therefore need not on|y to act|ve|y promote the|r pub||c |mage as an ethn|ca||y
representat|ve body, but a|so to pub||c|se the steps they are tak|ng to make th|s a
rea||ty (e.g. by methods set out under Recommendat|on 12}. They shou|d take care
that these efforts encompass sma||er and marg|na||sed m|nor|t|es as we|| as |arger
and more |ntegrated groups. They a|so need to ensure that |n a|| po||ce act|v|ty,
m|nor|t|es are treated fa|r|y and w|th respect, so that m|nor|t|es perce|ve the po||ce
organ|zat|on as a des|rab|e p|ace of emp|oyment.

lt |s |mportant that the mu|t|-ethn|c character of the po||ce |s both present and v|s|b|e
|n a|| reg|ons. Th|s |s as |mportant |n mono-ethn|c as we|| as mu|t|-ethn|c |oca||t|es,
and espec|a||y so |n reg|ons where m|nor|t|es are the ma|n res|dent|a| group. lt |s a|so
|mportant that m|nor|t|es are present |n sen|or pos|t|ons w|th|n the h|erarchy, and not
on|y |n the |owest ranks. Th|s not on|y shows that opportun|t|es to ach|eve sen|or
rank are open to a|| groups, but br|ngs a m|nor|ty perspect|ve d|rect|y |nto po||cy-
mak|ng at sen|or execut|ve |eve|s, and |nd|cates that |n the|r po||cy management the
po||ce are a genu|ne|y mu|t|-ethn|c organ|zat|on. Where po||ce organ|zat|ons are not
|n the short term ab|e to recru|t m|nor|ty persons d|rect|y to sen|or posts, then the
appo|ntment of su|tab|y exper|enced persons from m|nor|t|es as spec|a||st adv|sers |s
an a|ternat|ve method of br|ng|ng m|nor|ty perspect|ves |nto the management of
po||c|ng.


5} 5|s||s||cs| |s|e|s s|o0|d oe se| /o| ||c|ess|| ||e |eo|ese||s||.e|ess o/
||e oo||ce, s|d mo|||o||| o/ ||e e||||c comoos|||o| o/ ||e oo||ce
s|o0|d oe ||||od0ced || o|de| |o mess0|e o|o|ess.

A strateg|c approach shou|d be adopted for ensur|ng that the ethn|c compos|t|on of
the po||ce w||| become representat|ve of the popu|at|on. The des|red ethn|c
compos|t|on shou|d be |dent|f|ed as the goa| to be ach|eved, and |nter|m targets
shou|d be set that are rea||st|c to ach|eve w|th|n a set t|me-frame.

4
See the OSOE HONM |0|d |ecomme|ds||o|s o| ||e E//ec||.e |s|||c|os||o| o/ ^s||o|s|
/||o||||es || |0o||c ||/e 8 Exo|s|s|o|, ^o|e (1999}, ava||ab|e |n severa| |anguages at
<http://www.osce.org/hcnm/documents.htm|>.
5
Ava||ab|e at <http://www.coe.|nt/T/E/human_r|ghts/m|nor|t|es/>.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


88
'Targets" shou|d be c|ear|y d|st|ngu|shed from 'quotas". Targets are a|ms or goa|s
for the |ncreased representat|on of part|cu|ar groups wh|ch can be ach|eved |n
var|ous ways. Examp|es of methods wh|ch ensure equa| opportun|t|es for |nd|v|dua|s
at the po|nt of se|ect|on are descr|bed under Recommendat|on 6. The use of targets
to ensure that staff are representat|ve of the popu|at|on const|tutes good pract|ce.
Ouotas are a||ocat|ons of p|aces for members of part|cu|ar groups to be f|||ed dur|ng
a se|ect|on process. The use of quotas as a means of ach|ev|ng targets for
recru|tment of m|nor|t|es often g|ves r|se to comp|a|nts of unfa|rness and r|sks
|ower|ng standards and shou|d be avo|ded |f poss|b|e.

However the use of quotas may be appropr|ate and just|f|ab|e |n spec|a|
c|rcumstances. Where, for examp|e, as part of a po||ce reform programme |n a
mu|t|-ethn|c State an ent|re|y or |arge|y new cadre of However the use of quotas
may be appropr|ate and just|f|ab|e |n spec|a| c|rcumstances. Where, for examp|e, as
part of a po||ce reform programme |n a mu|t|-ethn|c State an ent|re|y or |arge|y new
cadre of po||ce personne| |s be|ng estab||shed, |t may be essent|a| for |eg|t|macy and
effect|veness that th|s cadre |s from the outset ethn|ca||y representat|ve of the
popu|at|on as a who|e. ln such c|rcumstances |t may be just|f|ab|e to set and f|||
ethn|c quotas, espec|a||y at the |n|t|a| stage of se|ect|on and tra|n|ng, prov|ded that
the proper m|n|mum profess|ona| standards are requ|red for members of a|| groups
at the stage at wh|ch they become conf|rmed as po||ce off|cers. However, the use of
ethn|c quotas shou|d be cons|dered on|y for a trans|t|ona| per|od after wh|ch the a|m
shou|d be to ach|eve the targets by other means.

Data need to be co||ected on a regu|ar bas|s to test whether these targets are be|ng
met. Governments need to determ|ne what bod|es are respons|b|e for each of these
tasks, and ass|gn respons|b|||t|es accord|ng|y. Such 'ethn|c mon|tor|ng" shou|d be
||nked to, or |ntegrated w|th, more genera| mon|tor|ng of the workforce to ensure
comp||ance w|th |nternat|ona| |aw and the state`s w|der emp|oyment po||c|es.

The co||ect|on of ethn|c data |s a sens|t|ve and controvers|a| |ssue, and data
protect|on |aws appear to h|nder the co||ect|on of data on ethn|c|ty |n some
countr|es. However, States shou|d not avo|d th|s |ssue, and such data shou|d be
co||ected and processed w|th due regard to European standards concern|ng the
protect|on of persona| data and the r|ght to se|f-|dent|f|cat|on (every person's r|ght to
choose whether to be treated or not to be treated as be|ong|ng to a m|nor|ty}. Ethn|c
data shou|d be anonym|sed, converted |nto stat|st|ca| data, and any poss|b|||ty of |ts
be|ng traced back to the persona| databases shou|d be avo|ded. Prov|ded these
safeguards are met, the r|ghts of |nd|v|dua|s shou|d not be v|o|ated. But w|thout
such data, |t w||| not be poss|b|e for States to mon|tor whether act|ons taken to
|mprove the ethn|c representat|veness of the po||ce are hav|ng the des|red effect.


6} |||||s||.es |o ||c|esse |ec|0||me|| o/ 0|de||eo|ese||ed m||o||||es w|||
|eed |o oe ||||od0ced. 7|ese s|o0|d ||c|0de soec|s| mess0|es |o
e|co0|se soo||cs||s s|d |o sss|s| ||em |o sc||e.e ||e |eq0||ed
s|s|ds|ds, |oe||e| w||| sc||o|s |o |emo.e s|, d||ec| o| ||d||ec|
d|sc||m||s|o|, os|||e|s.
Policing Recommendations



89
nderrepresentat|on of m|nor|t|es |n the po||ce occurs for a var|ety of reasons. These
|nc|ude |gnorance of opportun|t|es, |ack of educat|ona| qua||f|cat|ons, past
exper|ence of abuse by po||ce |n such commun|t|es, and d|rect or |nd|rect
d|scr|m|nat|on |n recru|tment processes. lf recru|tment of m|nor|t|es |s to be
|ncreased, the prec|se reasons for underrepresentat|on |n any part|cu|ar State need
f|rst to be ana|ysed, and then addressed by means of spec|a| measures.

The spec|a| measures that are ||ke|y to be appropr|ate are the fo||ow|ng:

a} ln|t|at|ves to |ncrease |nformat|on |n m|nor|ty commun|t|es about
emp|oyment opportun|t|es |n the po||ce, to create a pos|t|ve |mage of
the po||ce, and to pos|t|ve|y encourage |nterested persons to app|y.
Such |n|t|at|ves cou|d |nc|ude d|str|but|on of |eaf|ets, use of rad|o and
te|ev|s|on (|nc|ud|ng advert|sements}, v|s|ts by po||ce to schoo|s and
commun|ty centres (|nc|ud|ng cu|tura| and re||g|ous centres},
opportun|t|es for young peop|e to v|s|t po||ce stat|ons or tra|n|ng
schoo|s, and jo|nt |n|t|at|ves w|th commun|ty |eaders and ethn|c
assoc|at|ons/NGOs. Targeted recru|tment campa|gns, us|ng many or a||
of these methods, cou|d be a|med at part|cu|ar underrepresented
groups.

b} Measures to address the |ack of suff|c|ent educat|ona| qua||f|cat|ons |n
potent|a| app||cants who are otherw|se su|tab|e and we|| mot|vated.
These m|ght be |ntens|ve short courses des|gned to br|ng prov|s|ona||y
se|ected cand|dates up to the requ|red entry |eve|.

c} Act|on to |dent|fy and address any poss|b|e causes of d|scr|m|nat|on
aga|nst m|nor|ty app||cants |n the recru|tment and se|ect|on process.
These cou|d |nc|ude prov|d|ng tra|n|ng |n fa|r recru|tment and se|ect|on
for those respons|b|e for these tasks; rev|ew|ng procedures (e.g.
re||ance on persona| |nterv|ews} for poss|b|e b|as or unnecessary
d|sadvantage to m|nor|ty cand|dates; and rev|ew|ng cr|ter|a for se|ect|on
to ensure they are fu||y just|f|ab|e and do not set unnecessary hurd|es
that |nd|rect|y d|sadvantage m|nor|t|es.

When |ntroduc|ng such |n|t|at|ves, |t |s essent|a| that standards are not |owered for
m|nor|ty app||cants at the po|nt of entry |nto the po||ce. Persons be|ong|ng to ethn|c
major|t|es (and the med|a} are somet|mes qu|ck to suspect and a||ege that standards
are be|ng |owered, and that they themse|ves are now be|ng d|scr|m|nated aga|nst
wh||e spec|a| favours are be|ng granted to m|nor|t|es. Po||ce |eaders need to prov|de
assurances that th|s |s not happen|ng. ln fact, those who are ||ke|y to be most
concerned that standards shou|d not be |owered are the po||ce off|cers from a
m|nor|ty background themse|ves: they w||| not want to be regarded as 'second-
c|ass po||ce off|cers".


7} /ess0|es w||| s|so |eed |o oe ||||od0ced |o e|s0|e ||s| oo||ce o//|ce|s
/|om s m||o|||, osc||o0|d s|e scceo|ed s|d ||es|ed eq0s||, ||s|de ||e
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


90
oo||ce o|s||zs||o|, w||c| s|o0|d o|o.|de s |e0||s| wo||||
e|.||o|me||, s|d |s.e eq0s| oooo||0||||es /o| o|o|ess|o| || ||e||
cs|ee|s.

When promot|ng ethn|c representat|veness |n the po||ce, |t |s not suff|c|ent to focus
on recru|tment a|one. Exper|ence shows that un|ess m|nor|t|es fee| they are treated
equa||y and w|th respect |ns|de the organ|zat|on, and have the same opportun|t|es to
progress |n the|r careers, they are ||ke|y to |eave the|r emp|oyment |n the po||ce. Th|s
tendency may occur espec|a||y |n the ear|y stages of m|nor|ty recru|tment, when
numbers are st||| sma|| and m|nor|ty off|cers may fee| persona||y |so|ated from other
members of the|r commun|t|es. Women po||ce from ethn|c backgrounds may a|so
face s|m||ar pressures, g|ven that they are a 'doub|e m|nor|ty" |n terms of both the|r
gender and ethn|c|ty.

For these reasons |t |s |mportant to ensure that there |s a neutra| work|ng
env|ronment, |.e. one |n wh|ch po||ce from m|nor|ty backgrounds are fu||y accepted
as equa|s and |nd|v|dua|s, and are not subject to any d|sadvantage or negat|ve
stereotyp|ng on account of the|r ethn|c |dent|ty. However, th|s shou|d a|so be an
env|ronment that |s sens|t|ve to d|vers|ty |n the needs, customs and re||g|ons of
d|fferent groups (e.g. w|th regard to matters of dress, d|et, and re||g|ous
observances such as prayer and ho|y days}. Pos|t|ve measures shou|d a|so be
cons|dered to support and encourage po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty backgrounds to
progress |n the|r careers: these cou|d |nc|ude spec|f|c career deve|opment tra|n|ng
programmes or prov|s|on of 'mentor|ng" schemes for those w|th potent|a| for
advancement. At the same t|me, |t |s |mportant that effect|ve |nterna| comp|a|nts
mechan|sms are |n p|ace, so that po||ce off|cers who exper|ence d|scr|m|nat|on do
not have to endure such behav|our |n s||ence. Managers need to encourage
m|nor|t|es to make comp|a|nts when they exper|ence d|scr|m|nat|on or other forms of
ethn|ca||y-mot|vated behav|our, so that they are aware of such prob|ems and can
dea| w|th them d|rect|y.

G|ven the spec|f|c |ssues affect|ng them, some po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty
backgrounds may fee| there are benef|ts |n com|ng together to form the|r own
profess|ona| assoc|at|ons. Po||ce author|t|es shou|d |n pr|nc|p|e support such
|n|t|at|ves, and be w||||ng to fac|||tate the|r estab||shment. Format|on of such
assoc|at|ons |s a human r|ght, and they can prov|de mutua| persona| support for
m|nor|ty po||ce espec|a||y when they are sma|| |n numbers and geograph|ca||y
|so|ated. They can a|so prov|de a channe| of commun|cat|on between the po||ce
author|t|es and po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty backgrounds, and a source of va|uab|e
adv|ce to the author|t|es on m|nor|ty |ssues. The author|t|es shou|d ensure that
members of the w|der major|ty understand the reasons for the format|on of such
assoc|at|ons, and that they apprec|ate that such assoc|at|ons can he|p to prov|de a
more secure foundat|on on wh|ch the |ntegrat|on of po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty
backgrounds |nto the organ|zat|on can be bu||t. However, there shou|d be no
compu|s|on on these po||ce off|cers to jo|n or form such assoc|at|ons, as some may
not w|sh to aff|rm the|r m|nor|ty |dent|ty |n th|s way.

Policing Recommendations



91
Part|cu|ar care needs to be taken over the post|ng and dep|oyment of po||ce off|cers
from m|nor|ty backgrounds. These po||ce off|cers shou|d not be recru|ted spec|f|ca||y
to work |n the|r own commun|t|es: they shou|d be recru|ted to become gener|c
profess|ona| po||ce off|cers who are capab|e of work|ng w|th a|| sect|ons of soc|ety.
Nonethe|ess, |n States where m|nor|t|es tend to be concentrated |n part|cu|ar
|oca||t|es or reg|ons, most po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty backgrounds are ||ke|y to be
recru|ted |n such reg|ons and to work |n them. As noted under Recommendat|on 4
above, th|s br|ngs |mportant benef|ts to the po||ce organ|zat|on |n terms of
commun|ty awareness, contacts and pub||c conf|dence. However, such off|cers
shou|d a|ways be regarded f|rst and foremost as gener|c po||ce off|cers, and then
second|y as ones whose part|cu|ar m|nor|ty background may qua||fy them for
undertak|ng part|cu|ar ro|es or contr|but|ng certa|n sk|||s. Po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty
backgrounds shou|d not be pressured to work |n m|nor|ty areas or commun|t|es,
and |ndeed shou|d be encouraged to ga|n exper|ence through work|ng |n m|xed
areas or commun|t|es other than the|r own. When these po||ce off|cers do work |n
the|r own commun|t|es, managers shou|d a|ways a|m to dep|oy them where poss|b|e
|n ethn|ca||y m|xed teams.

As a|ready noted, the types of |n|t|at|ves and changes set out above ca|| for a
fundamenta| sh|ft |n the cu|ture of the po||ce - from a mono-cu|tura| to a mu|t|-
cu|tura| organ|zat|on - and for other fundamenta| aspects of po||ce reform, |nc|ud|ng
the profess|ona||sat|on of the po||ce and the deve|opment of a 'pub||c-serv|ce"
or|entat|on. The process of cu|tura| change needs to be carefu||y managed, so that
the benef|ts are ga|ned as qu|ck|y as poss|b|e and organ|zat|ona| res|stance |s
m|n|m|sed. |eadersh|p, comm|tment and sk|||ed management by po||ce off|c|a|s at
the h|ghest |eve|s are requ|red for th|s purpose.
6



III. Tra|n|ng and profess|ona| deve|opment

8} |o||ce |eed |o |ece|.e ||s|||| s|d o||e| /o|ms o/ o|o/ess|o|s| s0ooo||
|eq0||ed |o 0|de|s|s|d s|d |esoo|d soo|oo||s|e|, |o ||e se|s|||.|||es o/
m||o||||es, s|d so ||s| ||e, cs||, o0| ||e|| oo||c|| |o|es e//ec||.e|, ||
ws,s w||c| o|omo|e |s|mo|, s|d |ed0ce |e|s|o|s.

Tra|n|ng |s an essent|a|, though by no means the on|y form of profess|ona| support
that po||ce requ|re |n order to be ab|e to carry out the|r ro|e effect|ve|y |n mu|t|-ethn|c
contexts. The a|m of such tra|n|ng shou|d be to prov|de po||ce w|th the spec|f|c
competences (|.e. awareness, know|edge and sk|||s} that are requ|red for work|ng |n
such env|ronments. A 'tra|n|ng needs ana|ys|s" shou|d be carr|ed out |n order to
|dent|fy these requ|rements.

The ma|n areas of need ||ke|y to be |dent|f|ed w||| |nc|ude: cu|tura| and re||g|ous
awareness, med|at|on and commun|ty re|at|ons sk|||s, |anguage tra|n|ng, and tra|n|ng

6
Further gu|dance on |ssues re|at|ng to recru|tment and representat|on |s |nc|uded |n the
book|et pub||shed by the European Po||c|ng and Human R|ghts P|atform: 7|e |ec|0||me|| s|d
|e|e|||o| o/ |o||ce O//|ce|s /|om /||o|||, Comm0||||es, ava||ab|e at <http://www.epphr.dk/
down|oads.htm>.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


92
|n human r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. ln mu|t|-
ethn|c soc|et|es, a|| po||ce shou|d rece|ve a m|n|mum of tra|n|ng |n these areas.
However, the extent to wh|ch |anguage tra|n|ng |s requ|red, and the prec|se content
of cu|tura| and re||g|ous awareness tra|n|ng, w||| depend on |oca| c|rcumstances.

Exper|ence shows that |t |s essent|a| that such tra|n|ng shou|d be pract|ca| and job-
re|ated. lf the tra|n|ng |s pure|y theoret|ca|, |t |s ||ke|y to have ||tt|e or no |mpact on
behav|our even |f cogn|t|ve |earn|ng takes p|ace. The tra|n|ng needs to show po||ce
the re|evance and pract|ca| |mp||cat|ons of new know|edge and sk|||s, and to
demonstrate how these w||| ass|st them to carry out the|r ro|e effect|ve|y and
profess|ona||y and br|ng benef|ts to them |n the|r everyday work.

Oare shou|d a|so be taken before attempt|ng to use tra|n|ng to d|rect|y change
po||ce att|tudes, espec|a||y among exper|enced po||ce off|cers. Among most adu|ts,
persona| att|tudes are deep|y rooted, and any attempt to change these dur|ng short
tra|n|ng courses |s ||ke|y to be res|sted or even counter-product|ve, un|ess h|gh|y
sk|||ed tra|ners are |nvo|ved. However, |t |s essent|a| that tra|n|ng does address the
subject of prejud|ce and stereotyp|ng of ethn|c groups as a potent|a| obstac|e to fa|r
and profess|ona| treatment of m|nor|t|es. Such tra|n|ng shou|d prov|de po||ce w|th an
opportun|ty to ref|ect on the|r own att|tudes and prejud|ces and on how to ensure
these do not |mpact negat|ve|y on the|r work.

The ma|n emphas|s |n tra|n|ng, therefore, shou|d ne|ther be on s|mp|y prov|d|ng
|nformat|on nor on chang|ng att|tudes, but rather on he|p|ng po||ce |n a pract|ca| way
to carry out the|r everyday work |n mu|t|-ethn|c contexts |n a manner that accords
w|th profess|ona| standards and |nternat|ona| human r|ghts. Tra|n|ng shou|d
therefore be seen as one part|cu|ar, though very |mportant, form of profess|ona|
support, and as a resource for profess|ona| deve|opment. Other forms of
profess|ona| support are referred to under Recommendat|ons 10 and 11 be|ow.

ln v|ew of the need to make tra|n|ng pract|ca|, |t |s |mportant that appropr|ate
methods are used. Forma| |ectures are ||ke|y to have ||m|ted va|ue on the|r own. They
need to be accompan|ed by |nteract|ve methods such as structured d|scuss|on and
debate, |nvo|v|ng exchange of op|n|on and exper|ence. Most va|uab|e of a|| are ||ke|y
to be pract|ca| exerc|ses and ro|e p|ays wh|ch s|mu|ate rea| po||c|ng tasks |n mu|t|-
ethn|c soc|et|es.

Th|s pract|ca| approach to tra|n|ng requ|res a change |n the ro|e of the tra|ner. Rather
than be|ng the expert who de||vers spec|a||st know|edge, the tra|ner needs to be a
fac|||tator of debate and exper|ent|a| |earn|ng, and to have the sk|||s and cred|b|||ty to
carry out th|s ro|e. The subject expert st||| has an |mportant ro|e, but becomes a
resource person whose know|edge of m|nor|t|es and |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons can be
drawn on. The ex|st|ng know|edge and exper|ence of tra|nees (espec|a||y where
they are exper|enced off|cers} re|at|ng to m|nor|t|es |s a|so an extreme|y |mportant
resource, wh|ch must be drawn on, shared and eva|uated.


Policing Recommendations



93
9} || |s |ecomme|ded ||s| ||s|||| || m||o|||, |ss0es s|d |||e|-e||||c
|e|s||o|s |s ||c|0ded || oo|| |||||s| s|d ||-se|.|ce ||s||||, s|d o|o.|ded
/o| se||o| ss we|| ss |0||o| oo||ce o//|ce|s. |eo|ese||s||.es o/ m||o||||es
s|o0|d oe ||.o|.ed || oo|| ||e o|s|||| s|d de||.e|, o/ ||s||||.

Tra|n|ng on m|nor|ty |ssues and ethn|c re|at|ons shou|d be an |ntegra| part of |n|t|a|
tra|n|ng for po||ce, and shou|d be ||nked to themes such as human r|ghts,
commun|ty po||c|ng and a serv|ce-or|ented approach. A|though m|nor|ty and ethn|c
|ssues shou|d rece|ve spec|f|c attent|on, they shou|d not be separated off from the
rest of the tra|n|ng: new recru|ts shou|d be tra|ned to carry out a|| po||c|ng tasks
w|th|n a mu|t|-ethn|c env|ronment as a matter of rout|ne. Exper|enced po||ce,
however, shou|d rece|ve ded|cated tra|n|ng on these subjects as part of the|r |n-
serv|ce tra|n|ng, part|cu|ar|y where the subjects have not been |nc|uded |n the|r
prev|ous tra|n|ng. For front-||ne po||ce, such tra|n|ng shou|d focus on actua|
operat|ona| tasks (patro|, |nvest|gat|on, arrest, etc.}, and shou|d be presented as a
pos|t|ve contr|but|on to the|r ongo|ng profess|ona| deve|opment. O|v|||an staff,
espec|a||y those who may be the f|rst po|nt of contact for members of the pub||c,
shou|d be |nc|uded |n such programmes.

Sen|or po||ce who are respons|b|e for management shou|d a|so rece|ve tra|n|ng on
these subjects, but |ts focus shou|d be d|fferent from tra|n|ng for po||ce who prov|de
(or d|rect|y superv|se} front-||ne serv|ce de||very. Wh||e sen|or po||ce need a genera|
understand|ng of front-||ne po||c|ng |ssues, the|r tra|n|ng shou|d focus on po||cy
|mp|ementat|on, standard-sett|ng and the management of organ|zat|ona| and
cu|tura| change, together w|th command respons|b|||t|es re|at|ng to the management
of ethn|c tens|ons and conf||cts |n the w|der commun|ty.

Oontr|butors from m|nor|ty commun|t|es are a|so an |mportant resource for po||ce
tra|n|ng on |ssues re|at|ng to m|nor|t|es and |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons. Po||ce need to
|earn at f|rst hand from m|nor|t|es about re|evant cu|tura| and re||g|ous pract|ces and
about m|nor|ty percept|ons of the po||ce. Tra|n|ng a|so prov|des the opportun|ty for
persona| |nteract|on w|th members of m|nor|t|es, and for engag|ng together |n
d|scuss|ons, exerc|ses and ro|e p|ays (|n wh|ch each can 'step |nto the other`s
shoes"}. Successfu| part|c|pat|on |n po||ce tra|n|ng by m|nor|t|es a|so bu||ds br|dges
and |ncreases m|nor|ty understand|ng of and conf|dence |n the po||ce. M|nor|t|es
shou|d not just be |nv|ted to attend spec|f|c tra|n|ng sess|ons, but shou|d be |nvo|ved
at a|| stages, |nc|ud|ng |n the p|ann|ng and eva|uat|on of such sess|ons and |n the
|n|t|a| process of |dent|fy|ng tra|n|ng needs. Po||ce shou|d deve|op regu|ar
partnersh|ps w|th a broad range of m|nor|ty assoc|at|ons so they can deve|op
conf|dence and sk||| at meet|ng po||ce tra|n|ng needs on m|nor|ty and |nter-ethn|c
|ssues. They shou|d a|so ensure that m|nor|ty contr|butors from these assoc|at|ons
are d|verse |n age, gender and other re|evant aspects, and do not so|e|y cons|st of
off|c|a||y- or se|f-appo|nted 'commun|ty |eaders".
7



7
Further gu|dance on such tra|n|ng may be found |n the chapter on 'Po||ce Tra|n|ng on
M|grants and Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es" |n the Oounc|| of Europe pub||cat|on, 0ms| ||||s s|d ||e
|o||ce (1997}. See a|so <http://www.coe.|nt/T/E/Human_R|ghts/Po||ce/2._Pub||cat|ons/ 2.1_
Tra|ners'_Supp|y_K|t/Ol(98}1_Workbook_for_pract|ce_or|ented_teach|ng.asp>.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


94
10} |o||ce codes o/ co|d0c| s|o0|d ||c|0de o|o/ess|o|s| s|s|ds|ds /o|
oo||c|| || m0|||-e||||c soc|e||es, s|d oo||ce ||s|||| o|o|smmes
s|o0|d ||c|0de comoo|e||s soec|/|cs||, des||ed |o sc||e.e ||ese
s|s|ds|ds. S|esc|es o/ ||ese s|s|ds|ds s|o0|d oe s0o|ec| |o |emed|s|
sc||o|, s|d exemo|s|, ood o|sc||ce s|o0|d |ece|.e o|o/ess|o|s| s|d
o0o||c |eco||||o|.

Profess|ona| tra|n|ng |s a form of educat|on that has a spec|f|c purpose: to equ|p a
person to carry out a spec|f|c profess|ona| ro|e |n accordance w|th profess|ona|
standards. ln order to def|ne those standards, codes of conduct need to be drawn
up, and competences |dent|f|ed wh|ch enab|e the profess|ona| to ach|eve those
standards. Th|s pr|nc|p|e shou|d be app||ed |n the context of po||ce tra|n|ng, and |n
part|cu|ar to po||ce tra|n|ng for work|ng |n mu|t|-ethn|c env|ronments. Tra|n|ng
programmes, and the 'tra|n|ng needs ana|yses" on wh|ch they are based (see under
Recommendat|on 8 above}, shou|d be des|gned to support the |mp|ementat|on of
such codes of conduct.

Oodes of conduct are based on |nternat|ona| standards and set out the genera|
eth|ca| pr|nc|p|es on wh|ch good profess|ona| po||c|ng |s based.
8
Oodes may a|so set
out the spec|f|c act|ons that shou|d be taken when carry|ng out spec|f|c po||c|ng
tasks - |n wh|ch case they are usua||y referred to as 'codes of pract|ce". Oodes of
pract|ce norma||y |nvo|ve the app||cat|on of eth|ca| pr|nc|p|es to the conduct of
spec|f|c po||c|ng tasks |n spec|f|c nat|ona| and |ega| c|rcumstances. Oodes of
pract|ce therefore shou|d be drawn up by |nd|v|dua| States.

lt |s part|cu|ar|y |mportant to draw up codes of conduct and spec|f|c pract|ce w|th
regard to po||c|ng |n mu|t|-ethn|c env|ronments due to the part|cu|ar cha||enges such
work may enta|| and |ts potent|a||y controvers|a| nature. Examp|es of potent|a||y
cha||eng|ng and controvers|a| po||c|ng tasks |nc|ude manag|ng overt ethn|c conf||ct,
de-esca|at|ng ethn|c tens|ons, conduct|ng stop-and-search operat|ons |n ethn|ca||y
sens|t|ve areas, or conduct|ng po||ce operat|ons genera||y |n m|nor|ty res|dent|a|
areas. Deta||ed codes of pract|ce shou|d prov|de spec|f|c gu|dance and support for
po||ce who undertake such tasks. (See under Recommendat|on 16 for further
exp|anat|on.} For |nstance, at the eth|ca| |eve|, there may be a greater r|sk of
corrupt|on ||nked to ethn|c bonds, and thus a greater need for v|g||ance and act|on
to ensure |ntegr|ty. However, such eth|ca| |ssues shou|d be addressed w|th|n
genera| codes of conduct for po||ce, rather than by des|gn|ng codes spec|f|ca||y for
work |n mu|t|-ethn|c env|ronments.

Oomp||ance w|th profess|ona| standards and codes of conduct shou|d be
recogn|zed by po||ce managers, and shou|d contr|bute favourab|y to progress |n a
po||ce off|cer`s career. Such progress shou|d be based on |nd|v|dua| assessments of
performance, measured aga|nst such standards. Fa||ure to comp|y w|th codes and
standards shou|d |ead to remed|a| act|on and |n ser|ous cases of m|sconduct to
d|sc|p||nary procedures aga|nst an off|cer. The ro|e of tra|n|ng shou|d be to ass|st

8
See the U|||ed ^s||o|s Code o/ Co|d0c| /o| |sw E|/o|ceme|| O//|c|s|s and the Co0|c|| o/
E0|ooe E0|ooes| Code o/ |o||ce E|||cs, c|ted |n footnote 2 above.
Policing Recommendations



95
po||ce to act |n accordance w|th these profess|ona| codes and standards. Po||ce
off|cers whose work demonstrates best pract|ce shou|d be |nv|ted to share the|r
exper|ence |n tra|n|ng sess|ons. A|| of these profess|ona| support mechan|sms
shou|d be app||ed spec|f|ca||y to the context of po||ce re|at|ons w|th m|nor|t|es.


11} || |s |ecomme|ded ||s| oo||ce ms|se|s s|d s0oe|.|so|s s|e c|es||,
|ss|ed w||| ||e |esoo|s|o||||, |o e|s0|e ||s| ||e|| s|s// sc||e.e ||ese
s|s|ds|ds || ||e|| des|||s w||| m||o||||es, s|d s|o0|d o|o.|de
|esde|s||o s|d se| exsmo|es o/ ood o|sc||ce || ||e|| ow| wo||.

Tra|n|ng and codes of conduct are not a|one suff|c|ent to ensure that actua| po||ce
pract|ce w||| accord w|th po||cy and profess|ona| standards. Exper|ence has shown
that the |eadersh|p prov|ded by sen|or po||ce off|cers, and the management and
superv|s|on of po||ce staff, are a|so v|ta| factors. More sen|or off|cers |n the h|erarchy
need to prov|de ro|e mode|s for the|r jun|ors, and demonstrate the requ|red
standards |n the|r everyday work. They need to make |t c|ear that they a|so expect
the|r subord|nates to act |n accordance w|th these standards, and they need to be
act|ve |n mon|tor|ng that a|| po||ce conduct comp||es w|th these standards and w|th
human r|ghts. lf pr|vate|y they den|grate these po||c|es or express negat|ve
stereotypes about m|nor|t|es, or |f they fa|| to address |nstances of d|scr|m|natory
behav|our aga|nst m|nor|t|es, then the|r staff w||| qu|ck|y |nfer that they are not ser|ous
|n the|r comm|tment. M|nor|t|es, who have a ||fet|me of exper|ence of detect|ng
d|fferent forms of d|scr|m|nat|on pract|sed by major|t|es, w||| a|so be qu|ck to detect
when they are be|ng treated fa|r|y and w|th genu|ne respect, and when they are not.

Po||ce managers and superv|sors shou|d rece|ve tra|n|ng to ensure they are aware of
the |mportance of these |ssues and can address them effect|ve|y. The bas|c
pr|nc|p|es for such tra|n|ng are set out under Recommendat|ons 9 and 10 above.
Oapab|||ty for dea||ng w|th mu|t|-ethn|c po||c|ng |ssues shou|d a|so be taken |nto
account |n the se|ect|on procedure for promot|on |nto sen|or ranks |n the po||ce
h|erarchy.

As |s emphas|zed under Recommendat|on 7, the u|t|mate goa| shou|d be that,
through f|rm and cons|stent |eadersh|p and management on these |ssues, a cu|tura|
change |n the po||ce organ|zat|on comes about over a per|od of years. On|y then w|||
the organ|zat|on |tse|f become a genu|ne|y mu|t|-ethn|c, profess|ona| and non-
part|san body, for wh|ch operat|ng fa|r|y and effect|ve|y |n a mu|t|-ethn|c env|ronment
|s a matter of rout|ne.


IV. Engag|ng w|th ethn|c commun|t|es

12} |o||ce s|o0|d oe |ss|ed w||| de.e|oo|| me||ods s|d o|sc||ces |o
comm0||cs|e s|d co-ooe|s|e w||| m||o||||es s|d |o o0||d co|/|de|ce
|oe||e| s| |ocs|, |e|o|s| s|d |s||o|s| |e.e|s.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


96
A democrat|c serv|ce-or|ented approach to po||c|ng |n genera|, and a commun|ty
po||c|ng approach |n part|cu|ar, requ|re regu|ar and effect|ve commun|cat|on
between po||ce and c|t|zens. Effect|ve po||c|ng |n a democrat|c soc|ety must be
based not on fear, but on consent. Po||ce need the support of the pub||c to carry
out the|r work, not s|mp|y because of the need to be democrat|ca||y accountab|e,
but a|so because the pract|ca| co-operat|on of the pub||c (e.g. |n prov|d|ng
|nte|||gence, report|ng cr|me, act|ng as w|tnesses, and so on} |s essent|a| for the
performance of the po||ce ro|e. ln any democrat|c State, therefore, po||ce need to
estab||sh methods and pract|ces to commun|cate w|th the pub||c at a|| |eve|s and
w|n the|r conf|dence.

Po||ce |n a mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety face an add|t|ona| cha||enge. Oommun|cat|on and
conf|dence-bu||d|ng needs to reach out to a var|ety of m|nor|ty groups, wh|ch may
be d|verse |n terms of |anguage, cu|ture, re||g|on and other c|rcumstances, and
wh|ch may be d|spersed or res|dent|a||y concentrated. Moreover, some of these
groups may have exper|enced d|scr|m|nat|on or other forms of oppress|on at the
hands of the state |n the past, |nc|ud|ng at the hands of the po||ce, and may
therefore cont|nue to bear a strong sense of d|strust towards po||ce. Po||ce therefore
need to make sure that the methods and pract|ces they use to commun|cate w|th
the pub||c take account of th|s d|vers|ty and past h|story, and can reach out
effect|ve|y to a|| d|fferent ethn|c and nat|ona| groups. Spec|a| efforts may be needed
to reach out to and ga|n the conf|dence of ethn|c and nat|ona| m|nor|t|es wh|ch have
exper|enced the most severe exc|us|on and d|sadvantage. Th|s may requ|re pat|ent|y
bu||d|ng up re|at|onsh|ps of trust w|th commun|t|es and the|r |eaders over a per|od of
t|me.

There are a var|ety of methods that po||ce may use for deve|op|ng commun|cat|on
w|th m|nor|t|es. Some methods, such as the use of |eaf|ets or rad|o and te|ev|s|on,
essent|a||y |nvo|ve one-way commun|cat|on and are part|cu|ar|y usefu| for convey|ng
|nformat|on. To reach m|nor|t|es by these means, |eaf|ets |n m|nor|ty |anguages and
broadcasts |n the mass med|a, |nc|ud|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages, shou|d be used.
More va|uab|e for bu||d|ng conf|dence and mutua| understand|ng, however, are
|nteract|ve methods that |nvo|ve persona| contact and commun|cat|on between
po||ce and m|nor|t|es. These |nc|ude the fo||ow|ng:

a} Oommun|ty forums. These shou|d have an ethn|ca||y representat|ve
membersh|p and shou|d meet on a regu|ar bas|s to d|scuss |ssues of
mutua| concern. Such forums shou|d p|ay a rout|ne consu|tat|ve ro|e, and
serve as a source of |nformat|on about and better understand|ng of the
|oca| commun|ty - and espec|a||y m|nor|ty concerns about the operat|on
of |aw enforcement agenc|es. They shou|d a|so he|p to br|ng the nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es c|oser to the state |nst|tut|ons, bu||d|ng trust |n the po||ce and
he|p|ng to prevent as we|| as to defuse tens|ons.

b} Pub||c meet|ngs. These shou|d enab|e the po||ce to consu|t w|th |oca|
commun|t|es on the w|dest poss|b|e bas|s. Pub||c meet|ngs shou|d be
open to a|| and shou|d focus on a part|cu|ar |ssue. They are espec|a||y
va|uab|e at t|mes of commun|ty tens|on, as they enab|e the po||ce to
Policing Recommendations



97
||sten d|rect|y to the fu|| range of commun|ty concerns and to d|ssem|nate
accurate |nformat|on about the s|tuat|on and about the po||ce response.

c} Oommun|ty adv|sory boards. Oommun|ty adv|sory boards serve the
spec|f|c purpose of adv|s|ng sen|or po||ce off|cers how the po||ce ro|e can
be carr|ed out most effect|ve|y |n the context of the |oca| commun|ty,
|nc|ud|ng matters such as the po||c|ng of ethn|c conf||cts, dea||ng w|th
|ssues of d|scr|m|nat|on, and engag|ng |n commun|ty consu|tat|on. Po||ce
shou|d |nv|te as members of adv|sory boards peop|e whom they cons|der
have the re|evant sk|||s and exper|ence to g|ve them such adv|ce. They
shou|d be peop|e who can g|ve such adv|ce from an |ndependent
perspect|ve, and not s|mp|y approve of whatever the po||ce propose.
Membersh|p shou|d ref|ect the d|verse ethn|c compos|t|on of the |oca|
commun|ty.

d} Jo|nt po||ce-commun|ty workshops. Such workshops wou|d br|ng
together po||ce and peop|e from the commun|ty to work together on
prob|em-so|v|ng re|ated to spec|f|c |ssues |n po||ce-commun|ty re|at|ons.
Part|c|pants shou|d be sma|| |n number, and carefu||y se|ected as
persons who can contr|bute to the so|ut|on of a def|ned prob|em or
|ssue. Th|s format can a|so be used for tra|n|ng purposes, to |ncrease
mutua| understand|ng and to |mprove methods of co-operat|on genera||y.
A sk|||ed fac|||tator shou|d be engaged to act as moderator for such
events.

e} Oommun|ty contact po|nts at po||ce stat|ons. These shou|d be staffed
w|th off|cers from the var|ous ethn|c backgrounds, and shou|d prov|de
|nformat|on to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es about |ega|
procedures and about opportun|t|es for recru|tment |nto the po||ce, as
we|| as serv|ng as a 'pub||c recept|on room" where such persons can
address |ssues of concern to the po||ce. Oontact po|nts cou|d a|so be
estab||shed |n reg|ona| and c|ty po||ce headquarters, and |n po||ce
academ|es and tra|n|ng schoo|s. ln add|t|on, 'open days" cou|d be
organ|zed |n po||ce stat|ons and other estab||shments at wh|ch tours
cou|d be prov|ded (|nc|ud|ng for schoo|ch||dren}, and these cou|d be
part|cu|ar|y targeted at persons from nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.

f} Ded|cated patro| off|cers regu|ar|y v|s|t|ng part|cu|ar commun|t|es. At |oca|
po||ce stat|ons, part|cu|ar off|cers cou|d be ass|gned respons|b|||ty for
deve|op|ng and ma|nta|n|ng contact w|th each nat|ona| m|nor|ty |n the
area. ln add|t|on to be|ng the contact person for the m|nor|ty w|th|n the
po||ce stat|on, they shou|d make regu|ar patro|s |n and v|s|ts to the
|oca||t|es |n wh|ch persons from such m|nor|t|es ||ve (|nc|ud|ng v|s|ts to
schoo|s}, and they shou|d estab||sh persona| contact and trust w|th
members of such commun|t|es as w|de|y as poss|b|e. ln th|s way the
po||ce can ensure they are |n touch w|th the needs and concerns of the
w|dest poss|b|e range of peop|e from nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, and estab||sh
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


98
||nes of commun|cat|on and re|at|onsh|ps of mutua| understand|ng and
trust.

Methods of these k|nds need to be used at a|| |eve|s: nat|ona|, reg|ona| and |oca|.
Both the personne| and |ssues w||| d|ffer accord|ng to the |eve|. For examp|e, at
nat|ona| |eve| sen|or po||ce and po||cy makers need to be meet|ng w|th nat|ona|-|eve|
m|nor|ty |eaders to d|scuss broad po||cy and strategy |ssues, or |nc|dents of nat|ona|
concern, wh||e at |oca| |eve| the focus w||| be on pract|ca| matters re|at|ng to
commun|ty po||c|ng or |nc|dents of concern |oca||y. Po||ce shou|d ensure that
m|nor|ty |anguages can be used as the med|um of commun|cat|on |n such meet|ngs
(see under Recommendat|on 13 be|ow}. ln add|t|on, when mak|ng pract|ca|
arrangements, po||ce shou|d be sens|t|ve to d|vers|ty |n re||g|ous and cu|tura|
pract|ces, for examp|e by tak|ng care not to schedu|e events on ho|y days or
fest|va|s. Po||ce a|so need to ensure that they reach women and young peop|e |n
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n the|r commun|cat|ons, and not on|y the o|der ma|e members of
such commun|t|es.


13} |o||ce w||| |eed |o e|s0|e ||e, |s.e ||e csoso||||, |o comm0||cs|e w|||
m||o||||es || m||o|||, |s|0ses, w|e|e.e| ooss|o|e o, |ec|0||me|| s|d
||s|||| o/ m0||||||0s| s|s//, s|d s|so o, 0se o/ q0s||/|ed |||e|o|e|e|s.

The Framework Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (Art|c|e 10} sets
out the r|ghts of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es to use the|r |anguages |n pub||c, and, so far as
poss|b|e, |n the|r re|at|ons w|th the adm|n|strat|ve author|t|es. lt a|so sets out the|r
r|ghts to use such |anguages |n s|tuat|ons |nvo|v|ng arrest or prosecut|on. Po||ce
therefore need to make prov|s|on for the use of such |anguages |n the|r dea||ngs w|th
persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, whether as emp|oyees, suspects,
w|tnesses, or s|mp|y as members of the pub||c genera||y (e.g. |n consu|tat|ons, cr|me
prevent|on act|v|t|es, or pub||c order s|tuat|ons.} G|ven that nat|ona| m|nor|t|es vary |n
the extent to wh|ch they actua||y use the|r own |anguages, and vary a|so |n the
extent to wh|ch they are f|uent and ||terate |n the off|c|a| |anguage(s} of the state, |t
may be appropr|ate to undertake a needs assessment to determ|ne what prov|s|on
|s |n pract|ce requ|red. Po||ce shou|d part|cu|ar|y bear |n m|nd that certa|n groups
w|th|n some nat|ona| m|nor|t|es (for examp|e, o|der peop|e or women} may be |ess
||ke|y to be f|uent |n the major|ty or off|c|a| |anguage, as they may have rece|ved |ess
forma| educat|on or have ||m|ted |nvo|vement |n pub||c ||fe.

Recru|tment of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |nto the po||ce w|||
|mmed|ate|y prov|de the po||ce organ|zat|on w|th a major resource to meet th|s need.
Po||ce from m|nor|ty backgrounds work|ng |n areas where the|r own m|nor|ty
commun|t|es res|de w||| be ab|e use the|r m|nor|ty |anguage |n the|r work. On
occas|on they may a|so be ab|e to act as |nterpreters for co||eagues, a|though |t |s
|mportant that the|r non-m|nor|ty co||eagues work|ng |n such areas shou|d rece|ve
appropr|ate tra|n|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguage sk|||s. lt w||| a|so be |mportant for po||ce to
have access to proper|y qua||f|ed and exper|enced |nterpreters for commun|cat|ng
w|th persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Espec|a||y when dea||ng w|th suspects
or w|tnesses, |t |s extreme|y |mportant that po||ce do not re|y for |nterpretat|on on
Policing Recommendations



99
fam||y members or other persons whose competence |s unknown, as th|s may g|ve
r|se to m|sunderstand|ngs and |naccurac|es wh|ch cou|d underm|ne the qua||ty of
po||ce work and poss|b|y g|ve r|se to ser|ous |njust|ce for persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.


14} |o||ce s|o0|d o|s, s o|osc||.e |o|e || o|o.|d|| e|co0|seme|| s|d
s0ooo|| |o m||o||||es |o sss|s| ||em |o comm0||cs|e s|d co-ooe|s|e
w||| ||e oo||ce, /o| exsmo|e o, sc||| ss os|||e|s || |||||s||.es |o
o|omo|e |ec|0||me|| s|d |o o|o.|de ||s|||| o| m||o|||, |ss0es.
/||o||||es /o| ||e|| os|| s|o0|d oe |esd, |o comm0||cs|e s|d co-
ooe|s|e w||| ||e oo||ce /o| ||e o0|oose o/ ||c|ess|| comm0|||, ss/e|,
s|d sccess |o |0s||ce.

Effect|ve po||c|ng |n a democracy |s dependent on hav|ng an act|ve and we||-
|nformed body of c|t|zens who take the|r c|v|c respons|b|||t|es ser|ous|y, and are
w||||ng to prov|de co-operat|on and support for po||ce to carry out the|r ro|e. ln a
mu|t|-ethn|c State, |t |s essent|a| that nat|ona| m|nor|t|es a|so p|ay an act|ve part |n
th|s process. As ment|oned under Recommendat|on 12 above, nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
may have |ess exper|ence of c|v|c part|c|pat|on, may face barr|ers to such
part|c|pat|on (e.g. |anguage or d|scr|m|nat|on}, and may |ack trust and conf|dence to
engage |n th|s way w|th pub||c author|t|es - and part|cu|ar|y the po||ce. lf the po||ce
are ser|ous about w|sh|ng to engage effect|ve|y w|th nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, then they
need to be proact|ve |n encourag|ng and support|ng m|nor|t|es to p|ay th|s ro|e,
rather than wa|t|ng pass|ve|y and then comp|a|n|ng |f m|nor|t|es do not come forward
to the same extent as other groups.

Po||ce therefore need to |dent|fy ways |n wh|ch they can he|p to empower m|nor|t|es
to become |nvo|ved |n th|s way, and to he|p them to bu||d the|r capac|ty to do so.
Po||ce a|so need to a||ocate resources for th|s purpose. Th|s empowerment can be
ach|eved part|y by genera| conf|dence-bu||d|ng measures of the k|nds set out under
Recommendat|on 12, and by promot|ng pub||c awareness of r|ghts and
respons|b|||t|es re|at|ng to po||c|ng and just|ce. However, |t can be more effect|ve |f
po||ce can bu||d structured and endur|ng re|at|onsh|ps w|th m|nor|ty commun|ty
assoc|at|ons and other NGOs that are act|ve |n th|s f|e|d. Such assoc|at|ons and
NGOs can ass|st po||ce to deve|op the|r commun|cat|on w|th m|nor|ty commun|t|es,
and can prov|de them w|th va|uab|e adv|ce and |nformat|on on m|nor|ty and ethn|c
|ssues. Po||ce can a|so estab||sh more forma| partnersh|ps w|th such bod|es to
undertake |n|t|at|ves such as |dent|fy|ng and support|ng potent|a| recru|ts from
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, prov|d|ng adv|ce and |nputs |nto po||ce tra|n|ng, and assess|ng
opt|ons for respond|ng to ethn|c tens|ons and conf||ct. A partnersh|p of th|s k|nd
shou|d |nvo|ve a forma| agreement between two or more separate organ|zat|ons to
work together on an equa| and cont|nu|ng bas|s to ach|eve a common purpose.

Bu||d|ng effect|ve co-operat|on w|th commun|ty groups and NGOs may take t|me,
and requ|res the deve|opment of trust and mutua| understand|ng. Both s|des may
|n|t|a||y be caut|ous: the m|nor|t|es may suspect that the po||ce have 'h|dden
agendas" such as to extract |nte|||gence about cr|m|na| act|v|t|es among nat|ona|
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


100
m|nor|t|es; wh||e the po||ce may have ||tt|e exper|ence of work|ng w|th c|v|| soc|ety
groups and may suspect these groups` mot|ves, espec|a||y |f they have been
pub||c|y cr|t|ca| of po||ce |n the past. What |s |mportant |s to f|nd common purposes
such as to |mprove po||ce-m|nor|ty re|at|ons and to |ncrease access to just|ce for
m|nor|t|es, and on th|s foundat|on to |dent|fy ways |n wh|ch each can he|p the other
wh||e respect|ng the|r d|fferent ro|es and sty|es of work|ng (|nc|ud|ng the cont|nued
r|ght of NGOs to cr|t|c|se the po||ce on beha|f of the|r commun|t|es when th|ngs are
done wrong}. Exper|ence shows, however, that the benef|ts to be ga|ned from such
partnersh|ps by both s|des are substant|a|, and tend to |ncrease w|th t|me. They a|so
prov|de a framework w|th|n wh|ch any subsequent prob|ems |n po||ce-m|nor|ty
re|at|onsh|ps can be addressed and reso|ved through d|a|ogue and med|at|on.
9


M|nor|t|es can themse|ves contr|bute to commun|ty safety and access to just|ce by
promot|ng awareness of r|ghts and respons|b|||t|es of the|r members under the |aw,
by prov|d|ng adv|ce and support for persons who are v|ct|ms of cr|me, by
encourag|ng c|v|c part|c|pat|on |n act|v|t|es re|at|ng to commun|ty safety and po||c|ng,
and by work|ng to promote the |nterests of and fa|r treatment for members of the|r
commun|t|es |n matters re|at|ng to po||c|ng and just|ce. The reso|ut|on of many
wrongs or d|sputes between persons w|th|n m|nor|ty commun|t|es may a|so be ab|e
to be reso|ved through med|at|on or other trad|t|ona| means w|th|n such
commun|t|es, w|thout recourse to the po||ce or other nat|ona| just|ce agenc|es.
However, |t |s a|so essent|a| that m|nor|t|es, or part|cu|ar groups w|th|n them, do not
take just|ce |nto the|r own hands (e.g. by undertak|ng 'v|g||ante" act|v|t|es}, and that
a|| members of m|nor|t|es have unrestr|cted access to the|r |ega| r|ghts and the
just|ce system of the state |n genera|. lt |s part|cu|ar|y |mportant that those women |n
m|nor|ty commun|t|es, who may face gender d|scr|m|nat|on or domest|c v|o|ence,
are not prevented by |nterna| commun|ty structures from hav|ng access to the|r |ega|
r|ghts and the just|ce system.


15} || |s |ecomme|ded ||s| mec|s||sms s|e es|so||s|ed |o e|s0|e ||s|
oo||ce s|e democ|s||cs||, scco0||so|e /o| ||e|| sc||o|s |o oeoo|e /|om
s|| sec||o|s o/ ||e comm0|||,. 7|ese |eed |o ||c|0de e//ec||.e s,s|ems
/o| ms||| s|d /o||ow|| 0o como|s|||s, w||c| s|e sccess|o|e |o
oe|so|s oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es. /|| sec||o|s o/ ||e comm0|||,
|eed |o oe sws|e o/ ||e|| ||||s s|d |esoo|s|o|||||es || |e|s||o| |o ||e
oo||ce, s|d o/ ||e oowe|s o/ ||e oo||ce s|d ||e se|.|ces ||e, s|e
exoec|ed |o o|o.|de.

ln a democracy po||ce shou|d be accountab|e not on|y under the |aw through the
courts and just|ce system, but a|so d|rect|y to the pub||c, to ensure that po||ce are
ab|e to exp|a|n the|r act|ons to the commun|t|es they serve and on whose consent
they are |n pract|ce dependent. Accountab|||ty |s a fundamenta| pr|nc|p|e for
'commun|ty po||c|ng".

9
Further gu|dance on bu||d|ng co-operat|on between po||ce and NGOs |s |nc|uded |n the
book|et pub||shed by the European Po||c|ng and Human R|ghts P|atform: |o||ce s|d ^GOs.
H|, s|d ow 0ms| ||||s ^GOs s|d |o||ce 5e|.|ces Cs| s|d 5|o0|d Ho|| 7oe||e|,
ava||ab|e at <http://www.epphr.dk/down|oads.htm>.
Policing Recommendations



101
To ensure democrat|c accountab|||ty, forma| structures need to be estab||shed at
both |oca| and nat|ona| |eve|s, such as forums or representat|ve boards, at wh|ch
po||ce are requ|red to report on the|r act|ons, and may be ca||ed on to exp|a|n and
just|fy them (see a|so under Recommendat|on 12 above}. Nat|ona| m|nor|t|es need to
be represented on such boards and to be ab|e to part|c|pate |n such forums, wh|ch
shou|d be he|d |n |ocat|ons wh|ch are access|b|e to them. Nat|ona| m|nor|t|es a|so
need to be free to ra|se the|r own |ssues of concern about po||c|ng, and to do so
us|ng m|nor|ty |anguages. These forma| structures shou|d not be managed d|rect|y
by the po||ce themse|ves, but estab||shed so they operate |ndependent|y. States
need to fac|||tate the estab||shment of such structures, to prov|de resources for
them, and to ensure that nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are ab|e to part|c|pate |n them
effect|ve|y. States shou|d a|so cons|der the potent|a| benef|ts of mak|ng the
estab||shment of accountab|||ty structures a requ|rement under the |aw.

Effect|ve mechan|sms to enab|e |nd|v|dua| c|t|zens to make comp|a|nts regard|ng
po||ce behav|our (|nc|ud|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages wherever poss|b|e} shou|d a|so be
an |ntegra| part of accountab|||ty structures. O|t|zens need to be ab|e to obta|n
exp|anat|ons of spec|f|c act|ons by po||ce that they be||eve have been harmfu| and
unprofess|ona|, and to obta|n redress where appropr|ate, w|thout need|ng to have
recourse to |aw. Some |nc|dents may be su|tab|e for reso|ut|on through d|a|ogue
between the c|t|zen and the po||ce, and comp|a|nts procedures shou|d a||ow for th|s
poss|b|||ty. More ser|ous |nc|dents shou|d be referred to an |ndependent po||ce
comp|a|nts body estab||shed for th|s purpose, or to a more genera| comp|a|nts
|nvest|gat|on body where th|s ex|sts, such as an Ombudsman. lt |s essent|a| that
m|nor|t|es are ab|e to have access to comp|a|nts mechan|sms, so that they have the
same access to redress aga|nst the abuse of po||ce powers as other c|t|zens. Po||ce
managers shou|d pos|t|ve|y support the ex|stence of such comp|a|nts systems, not
mere|y on pr|nc|p|e, but because the|r ex|stence he|ps to |ncrease commun|ty
conf|dence and because they generate |mportant |nformat|on for po||ce managers
about where po||ce performance may be go|ng wrong. States shou|d ensure that
po||ce comp|a|nts mechan|sms are |n p|ace and are work|ng effect|ve|y, that they
|nvo|ve some e|ement of c|v|||an (|nc|ud|ng nat|ona| m|nor|ty} part|c|pat|on and
overs|ght, and that they are fu||y access|b|e to a|| ethn|c and nat|ona| groups.

ln order to part|c|pate effect|ve|y |n commun|cat|on w|th po||ce, and |ndeed to
exerc|se the|r respons|b|||t|es as c|t|zens genera||y, m|nor|t|es need to be aware of
the|r r|ghts and respons|b|||t|es |n matters re|ated to po||c|ng, and a|so the powers of
the po||ce and the serv|ces they are expected to prov|de. A|though prov|s|on of such
awareness among c|t|zens may not be the|r spec|f|c respons|b|||ty, po||ce need
c|t|zens to have such awareness |n order for them to carry out the|r ro|e |n
accordance w|th democrat|c pr|nc|p|es. Po||ce shou|d therefore be w||||ng to act|ve|y
promote and part|c|pate |n pub||c educat|on for th|s purpose, and |n part|cu|ar to
support work |n schoo|s or by NGOs. They shou|d be w||||ng part|cu|ar|y to ass|st
awareness among m|nor|t|es, and to part|c|pate |n meet|ngs or tra|n|ng for
commun|ty |eaders organ|zed for th|s purpose. States, however, shou|d not |eave
th|s task so|e|y to the po||ce and NGOs, but shou|d ensure that |nformat|on about
the r|ghts and respons|b|||t|es of c|t|zens |n re|at|on to po||c|ng |s w|de|y ava||ab|e,
|nc|ud|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages, and |s |nc|uded |n the forma| curr|cu|um of schoo|s.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


102
V. Operat|ona| pract|ces

16} /ess0|es s|o0|d oe |s|e| |o e|s0|e ||s| oo||ce e|/o|ce ||e |sw || s|
|mos|||s| s|d |o|-d|sc||m||s|o|, ms||e| w||c| does |o| s|||e o0| s|,
os|||c0|s| |o0o, e.. o, e|s|| || '|sc|s| o|o/||||. 50c| mess0|es
s|o0|d ||c|0de codes /o| ||e co|d0c| o/ ooe|s||o|s| o|sc||ces, s0c| ss
||e 0se o/ oo||ce oowe|s |o s|oo s|d ses|c| oeoo|e o| ||e s||ee| s|d
|| o||e| o0o||c o|sces.

As has a|ready been noted, the po||ce |n a democracy are usua||y the most v|s|b|e of
the pub||c author|t|es, as we|| as be|ng those w|th the most |mmed|ate powers over
the everyday ||ves of c|t|zens. lt |s therefore essent|a| that the po||ce, as
representat|ves of the state, are seen to exerc|se the|r powers |n an exemp|ary
manner. Th|s requ|res that the po||ce a|ways act profess|ona||y and |n accordance
w|th human r|ghts, and app|y the |aw |n an |mpart|a| and non-d|scr|m|natory manner.

Po||ce off|cers are recru|ted from the w|der soc|ety, and may vary great|y |n the|r
know|edge about and prejud|ces re|at|ng to d|fferent m|nor|t|es. Such prejud|ces
may be shared and expressed open|y, or they may be concea|ed. ln e|ther form,
they may |nf|uence a po||ce off|cer`s behav|our towards part|cu|ar ethn|c groups.
There may a|ways be a danger, therefore, that po||ce off|cers treat members of
part|cu|ar ethn|c groups |n d|fferent ways, whether |n a d|rect or |nd|rect manner,
un|ess act|ve steps are taken to prevent th|s.

Spec|a| attent|on needs to be g|ven to the pract|ce of 'rac|a| prof|||ng". Th|s |s the
|nc|us|on of data about race or ethn|c|ty |n the prof||e of persons whom the po||ce cons|der are
more ||ke|y to comm|t a part|cu|ar cr|me. Persons f|tt|ng the resu|t|ng prof||es are spec|f|ca||y
targeted by |aw enforcement off|c|a|s and subjected to measures such as 'stop and
search", veh|c|e |nspect|on, |dent|ty checks, etc. Rac|a| prof|||ng |nvo|ves the use of
rac|a| or ethn|c stereotypes, rather than |nd|v|dua| behav|our, as a bas|s for mak|ng
dec|s|ons about who |s ||ke|y to be |nvo|ved |n cr|m|na| act|v|ty. There |s extens|ve
ev|dence that rac|a| prof|||ng |s w|de|y pract|sed on an |nforma| bas|s across the
OSOE reg|on by |aw enforcement agenc|es, even though off|c|a||y |t |s condemned.
The groups subject to rac|a| prof|||ng tend to d|ffer between States, a|though rac|a|
prof|||ng of Roma and Trave||er groups tends to be Europe-w|de.

Whatever the part|cu|ar ethn|c compos|t|on of the|r popu|at|ons, a|| States are
adv|sed to work towards |ntroduc|ng ethn|c mon|tor|ng of the outcomes of po||ce
operat|ons |n order to |dent|fy whether or not d|scr|m|nat|on |s tak|ng p|ace. Such
mon|tor|ng |nvo|ves measur|ng stat|st|ca||y whether or not po||ce operat|ons such as
'stop and search" |mpact fa|r|y and proport|onate|y on d|fferent ethn|c groups. se
of mon|tor|ng w||| ass|st States to ensure comp||ance w|th the|r |nternat|ona|
ob||gat|ons (e.g. under the European Oonvent|on on Human R|ghts and the
lnternat|ona| Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on} and the|r own
nat|ona| ob||gat|ons (e.g. under the|r const|tut|on and domest|c |aw} to prevent
d|scr|m|nat|on on ethn|c and re|ated grounds. Prov|ded such mon|tor|ng |s carr|ed
out w|th due regard to conf|dent|a||ty, and the data anonym|sed and aggregated |n
stat|st|ca| form, the r|ghts of |nd|v|dua|s shou|d not be v|o|ated.
Policing Recommendations



103
States need to ensure that they have c|ear po||c|es and profess|ona| standards that
requ|re equa| treatment and proh|b|t d|scr|m|nat|on |n the app||cat|on of the |aw by
po||ce, and that these are supported by tra|n|ng and deta||ed codes of pract|ce. As
|nd|cated |n Recommendat|on 10, such codes of pract|ce shou|d set out prec|se|y
the behav|our that |s expected of po||ce off|c|a|s |n carry|ng out spec|f|c po||c|ng
tasks, so that the r|sk of d|scr|m|natory or other unprofess|ona| behav|our |s
m|n|m|sed. ln part|cu|ar, they shou|d be drawn up for any tasks where there appears
to be a r|sk of d|scr|m|natory treatment occurr|ng: these cou|d |nc|ude use of po||ce
powers for stopp|ng or search|ng peop|e on the street or |n other pub||c p|aces, the
contro| of adm|ss|ons at borders, the use of force |n mak|ng arrests, the conduct of
po||ce 'ra|ds" |n res|dent|a| areas, and the management of ethn|c conf||cts and pub||c
d|sorder. Breaches of the codes shou|d be subject to d|sc|p||nary act|on.

ln v|ew of the |mportance |n mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es of ensur|ng that po||ce app|y the
|aw |n an |mpart|a| and non-d|scr|m|natory manner, States are encouraged to
cons|der undertak|ng a 'systemat|c assessment" of po||c|ng po||cy and pract|ce
genera||y w|th regard to ethn|c and nat|ona| m|nor|t|es.
10
Th|s assessment shou|d
measure current po||c|ng pract|ces aga|nst |nternat|ona| profess|ona| po||c|ng
standards and the requ|rements of |nternat|ona| human r|ghts. lt shou|d be based on
ev|dence obta|ned through research, ana|ys|s of |nc|dents, and consu|tat|on w|th
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and NGOs. Act|on p|ans shou|d be drawn up to address those
areas of po||c|ng where pract|ce fa||s be|ow |nternat|ona| standards.


17} |o||ce s|o0|d |s|e s|eos |o e|co0|se ||e |eoo|||| o, oe|so|s
oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es o/ c||me, || o|de| |o o|omo|e
comm0|||, ss/e|, s|d sccess |o |0s||ce.

Po||ce everywhere are h|gh|y dependent for the detect|on of cr|me on |nformat|on
from members of the pub||c. There |s extens|ve ev|dence from across the OSOE
reg|on that m|nor|t|es are |ess ||ke|y to report cr|me than those from other sect|ons of
soc|ety. lf po||ce are to be ab|e to respond equa||y to cr|me aga|nst persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, then they need to ensure that these persons are as
w||||ng to report cr|mes as anyone e|se. Po||ce a|so need to be equa||y eff|c|ent and
profess|ona| |n the way they record and |nvest|gate cr|mes aga|nst persons
be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, and |n br|ng|ng the perpetrators of such cr|mes to
just|ce. Persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are on|y ||ke|y to report cr|mes to
the po||ce |f they be||eve they w||| be treated w|th respect and that the|r a||egat|ons
w||| be taken ser|ous|y. Po||ce shou|d make sure that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es, ||ke a|| c|t|zens, are kept regu|ar|y |nformed of the progress and outcomes
of any cases |n wh|ch they are |nvo|ved as v|ct|ms or w|tnesses. Research by
cr|m|no|og|sts cons|stent|y shows that the persona| exper|ence of v|ct|ms of cr|me |n
the|r treatment by the po||ce |s one of the most powerfu| determ|nants of the |eve| of

10
As |s recommended |n the chapter on po||c|ng |n the O5CE /c||o| ||s| /o| ||e |mo|o.eme||
o| ||e 5||0s||o| o/ |oms s|d 5||||, 2003, ava||ab|e at <http://www.osce.org/documents/od|hr/
2003/11/1562_en.pdf>.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


104
trust and conf|dence |n the po||ce, not on|y among m|nor|t|es but |n a|| sect|ons of
the commun|ty.

Research has shown that other factors affect|ng the |eve| of report|ng by m|nor|t|es
of cr|me are the|r know|edge about procedures for report|ng cr|me and the|r
understand|ng of the cr|m|na| just|ce system genera||y. The po||ce can p|ay a major
ro|e |n |ncreas|ng |eve|s of know|edge and conf|dence among m|nor|t|es, |n
part|cu|ar, by seek|ng the co-operat|on of NGOs and commun|ty assoc|at|ons that
can d|ssem|nate |nformat|on about the report|ng of cr|me, and encourage v|ct|ms to
report |nc|dents and offer them support. Part|cu|ar attent|on shou|d be g|ven to the
need to ensure that such |nformat|on and support reaches women |n m|nor|ty
commun|t|es. Po||ce shou|d a|so take steps to ensure that m|nor|t|es can report
|nc|dents |n the|r own |anguages (see under Recommendat|on 13 above}.

O|t|zens w||| be more w||||ng to report cr|me to the po||ce when they be||eve that the
po||ce are do|ng a good job |n protect|ng them from cr|me genera||y. States shou|d
encourage po||ce and governmenta| author|t|es at |oca| |eve| to adopt and
|mp|ement po||c|es to promote 'commun|ty safety". By 'commun|ty safety" |s meant
the goa| of ensur|ng that the p|aces where peop|e ||ve and work are free from cr|me,
and that peop|e fee| secure both |n the|r homes and as they go about the|r da||y
bus|ness |n pub||c p|aces. NGOs and c|t|zens shou|d be act|ve|y |nvo|ved |n |n|t|at|ves
to ensure that the|r |oca||t|es are safe p|aces to ||ve and work, and shou|d be
encouraged to co-operate w|th the po||ce for th|s purpose. M|nor|t|es a|so need to
be act|ve|y |nvo|ved |n such act|v|t|es. Br|ng|ng together d|fferent ethn|c groups w|th
po||ce at |oca| |eve| to work jo|nt|y on the promot|on of commun|ty safety |s a
va|uab|e method of further|ng ethn|c |ntegrat|on |n a mu|t|-ethn|c soc|ety.


18} H|e| 0|de||s||| |e0|s| os||o|s || m0|||-e||||c s|ess, oo||ce s|o0|d
w|e|e ooss|o|e deo|o, e||||cs||, m|xed |esms || o|de| |o o0||d o0o||c
co|/|de|ce s|d ||c|esse ||e|| ooe|s||o|s| e//ec||.e|ess. |o||ce s|o0|d
s|so e|s0|e ||e|| |sc||cs s|d sooes|s|ce (e.. |0moe|s, .|s|o||||, o/
wesoo|s, c|o|ce o/ 0||/o|ms s|e soo|oo||s|e |o ||e |ss| s|d do |o|
0||ecesss|||, o|o.o|e /es| s|d |e|s|o|.

As exp|a|ned under Recommendat|on 4 above, |t |s |mportant |n a mu|t|-ethn|c
soc|ety that the compos|t|on of the po||ce |s representat|ve of that soc|ety. Th|s |s to
ensure both that the po||ce are seen to be |eg|t|mate by a|| ethn|c groups, and so
that the po||ce have the pract|ca| sk|||s and exper|ence to work w|th a|| sect|ons of
soc|ety.

Th|s |s espec|a||y |mportant at the operat|ona| |eve| |n |oca| areas that are mu|t|-ethn|c
|n the|r popu|at|on compos|t|on. Po||ce need to be ab|e to commun|cate w|th a||
groups and have the|r conf|dence, espec|a||y |n s|tuat|ons where there m|ght be
|nter-ethn|c tens|ons. The use of m|xed patro|s, and m|xed teams for |nvest|gat|ve or
other work, can ass|st po||ce to ach|eve th|s object|ve. M|xed teams can a|so
prov|de po||ce w|th a mu|t|||ngua| capab|||ty when carry|ng out po||c|ng tasks |n mu|t|-
ethn|c commun|t|es. At the same t|me, po||ce demonstrate to the pub||c a good-
Policing Recommendations



105
pract|ce mode| of mu|t|-ethn|c co-operat|on |n the prov|s|on of pub||c serv|ces, wh|ch
|s the bas|s for a successfu| mu|t|-ethn|c State.

The use of m|xed patro|s and work teams may requ|re carefu| support and
management where new recru|ts are |nvo|ved or where there have been any |nter-
ethn|c tens|ons w|th|n soc|ety at |arge. Managers need to be sens|t|ve to poss|b|e
sources of such tens|ons, and to the pressures that dea||ng w|th such tens|ons
w|th|n the commun|ty may p|ace upon off|cers from part|cu|ar ethn|c backgrounds.
Where po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty backgrounds are work|ng |n the|r own
commun|t|es, th|s may br|ng many advantages to both po||ce and the commun|ty.
However, |f there |s any conf||ct between the m|nor|ty and the po||ce genera||y, the
po||ce off|cer from a m|nor|ty background may be a focus for host|||ty (see a|so under
Recommendat|on 7 on the dep|oyment of po||ce off|cers from m|nor|ty
backgrounds}. There may a|so be pressures on off|cers from the major|ty work|ng |n
predom|nant|y m|nor|ty res|dent|a| areas, wh|ch a co||eague from a m|nor|ty
background can he|p to a||ev|ate or reso|ve. The use of m|xed patro|s and work
teams can therefore prov|de protect|on aga|nst these var|ous tendenc|es, and
aff|rms the ongo|ng comm|tment of the po||ce to mu|t|-ethn|c co-operat|on and
profess|ona| |ntegrat|on.


19} |o||ce s|o0|d e|s0|e ||s| s|||-d|sc||m||s||o| |sw |s e|/o|ced .|o|o0s|,
s|d e//ec||.e|,. || os|||c0|s|, oo||ce s|o0|d |s|e s|eos |o e|co0|se ||e
|eoo|||| o/ c||mes mo||.s|ed o, e||||c |s||ed, s|d e|s0|e ||s| ||e,
s|e /0||, |eco|ded s|d ||.es||s|ed.

The r|ght to equa| treatment |s a fundamenta| human r|ght, and a|| States have |aws
of some k|nd that address d|scr|m|nat|on. States vary |n the extent to wh|ch, and the
manner |n wh|ch, the|r |aws cover d|fferent forms of d|scr|m|nat|on. For examp|e, |n
some States, d|scr|m|nat|on |s covered by c|v|| |aw and |s not a respons|b|||ty of the
po||ce. A|so, acts of v|o|ence mot|vated by ethn|c hatred may be covered by spec|a|
|aws, may be regarded as aggravated cases under a more genera| cr|m|na| |aw, or
may not rece|ve any spec|a| recogn|t|on under the |aw.

Whatever the|r respons|b|||t|es under the |aw for tack||ng cr|me mot|vated by ethn|c
hatred and v|o|ence, po||ce need to ensure that they app|y these |aws f|rm|y and
cons|stent|y. Any democrat|c mu|t|-ethn|c State, for |ts successfu| funct|on|ng, |s
dependent on the po||ce for ensur|ng that |ts |aws aga|nst rac|sm and d|scr|m|nat|on
are |mp|emented effect|ve|y. Of course, th|s must be done |n conjunct|on w|th the
ro|e of prosecutors and the courts, accord|ng to the procedures and respons|b|||t|es
set out w|th|n each |nd|v|dua| State. Everywhere, however, the po||ce ro|e |s cruc|a|.

Acts of phys|ca| v|o|ence mot|vated by ethn|c hatred are the most ser|ous forms of
cr|me mot|vated by ethn|c hatred, and the most ser|ous threat to the stab|||ty and
we||-be|ng of mu|t|-ethn|c democrac|es genera||y. Such acts not on|y do ser|ous
harm to |nd|v|dua|s, but - because they target |nd|v|dua|s as members of ethn|c
groups - a|so threaten who|e commun|t|es and thus the fabr|c of soc|ety genera||y. lt
|s essent|a| that po||ce understand the |mportance of the|r ro|e |n tack||ng th|s form of
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


106
cr|me (e.g. through prov|s|on of tra|n|ng on th|s subject}, and that they apprec|ate the
dependence of the who|e soc|ety on the|r dea||ng w|th |t effect|ve|y.

The e|ement of rac|sm or ethn|c hatred |n cr|me |s often exp||c|t, though somet|mes |t
may be subt|e or concea|ed. ln mu|t|-ethn|c contexts, po||ce shou|d a|ways cons|der
the poss|b|||ty of such mot|vat|on |n cr|me, and (regard|ess of the|r own |n|t|a| v|ew on
the matter} shou|d a|ways accept for |nvest|gat|on the a||egat|on of the v|ct|m or any
other person that an e|ement of rac|a| mot|vat|on was |nvo|ved. The judgment by the
European Oourt of Human R|ghts |n the Nachova Oase makes c|ear that a||
European States have an ob||gat|on to |nvest|gate poss|b|e rac|st mot|ves beh|nd
acts of v|o|ence.
11


ln order to combat cr|me mot|vated by ethn|c hatred effect|ve|y, the f|rst requ|rement
|s that po||ce must have procedures for record|ng such cr|mes, and for |nvest|gat|ng
them effect|ve|y. These procedures need to ensure that ev|dence of the e|ement of
ethn|c mot|vat|on |s proper|y co||ected so that |t can be presented |n court. Po||ce
off|cers need to be tra|ned so that they fo||ow these procedures, and understand
why they are |mportant. Po||ce need to ensure that not on|y major|t|es but a|so
m|nor|t|es, who are d|sproport|onate|y v|ct|ms of such cr|mes, have the conf|dence
to report such cr|mes, and po||ce shou|d co-operate w|th NGOs and commun|ty
groups for th|s purpose. Po||ce shou|d a|so comp||e anonym|sed, aggregated
stat|st|ca| |nformat|on about such cr|mes, and ana|yse |t so that they can mon|tor the
|nc|dence of such cr|me and the|r own effect|veness |n respond|ng to |t. Such data
shou|d be made ava||ab|e to other pub||c author|t|es and NGOs, so that they can co-
operate w|th the po||ce |n undertak|ng prevent|ve act|on.
12



20} 5|s|es |eed |o e|s0|e ||s| mec|s||sms |o o|o.|de sd.|ce s|d s0ooo||
/o| .|c||ms o/ c||me s|e eq0s||, sccess|o|e |o s|d e//ec||.e /o| oe|so|s
oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es.

OSOE part|c|pat|ng States current|y vary |n the extent to wh|ch they recogn|ze the
needs and r|ghts of persons who have been v|ct|ms of cr|me, and |n the extent to
wh|ch they make prov|s|on for adv|ce and support for such persons. ln many States,
there |s ||tt|e or no such prov|s|on. However, |n recent years, the |nternat|ona|
commun|ty has p|aced |ncreas|ng emphas|s on the need for greater recogn|t|on of
the r|ghts of v|ct|ms of cr|me, by address|ng th|s |ssue w|th|n a var|ety of |nternat|ona|
convent|ons and dec|arat|ons, espec|a||y those re|at|ng to women and to ch||dren.
Such documents |dent|fy spec|f|c human r|ghts wh|ch are re|evant to v|ct|ms of
cr|me, |nc|ud|ng r|ghts to persona| freedom and d|gn|ty, to compensat|on, to
med|ca|, phys|ca| and soc|a| ass|stance, to |nformat|on about the progress of
cr|m|na| |nvest|gat|ons, and to access to just|ce genera||y.


11
European Oourt of Human R|ghts (Grand Ohamber} 6 Ju|y 2005, ^sc|o.s s|d o||e|s ..
S0|s||s, (app||cat|ons nos. 43577/98 and 43579/98}, ava||ab|e at <http://www.echr.coe.|nt>.
12
S|nce 2004, a spec|f|c OSOE programme - ||e OD|| |sw E|/o|ceme|| O//|ce| ||o|smme
o| Comos||| s|e C||me - has been ass|st|ng po||ce |n OSOE part|c|pat|ng States to address
these |ssues. See <http://www.osce.org/ od|hr/|tem_11_16251.htm|>.
Policing Recommendations



107
Even |n countr|es where such prov|s|on does ex|st, research has shown that ethn|c
m|nor|t|es, when they become v|ct|ms of cr|me, have |ess access to such support
and are |ess ||ke|y to benef|t from |t. Th|s may be for a var|ety of reasons, |nc|ud|ng:
the |ocat|on of such prov|s|on, |ack of awareness of (or conf|dence |n} such serv|ces
among m|nor|t|es, and the |ack of sens|t|v|ty of serv|ce-prov|ders to cu|tura| d|vers|ty
or |ack of ab|||ty to commun|cate |n m|nor|ty |anguages.

The respons|b|||ty for v|ct|m support does not ||e exc|us|ve|y or even ma|n|y w|th the
po||ce, but w|th the state genera||y. States need to estab||sh nat|ona| structures that
are capab|e of de||ver|ng v|ct|m support serv|ces |oca||y and serv|ces that are
access|b|e to and appropr|ate for the needs of a|| ethn|c groups. v|ct|m Support
organ|zat|ons need to be fu||y |ndependent of pub||c author|t|es (and seen to be
|ndependent}, wh||e a|so co-operat|ng c|ose|y w|th them. Max|mum use shou|d be
made of c|v|| soc|ety part|c|pat|on, and |nvo|vement of NGOs.

However, the po||ce have a cruc|a| ro|e to p|ay |n prov|d|ng support for v|ct|ms, and |t
|s a|so very much |n the |nterest of the effect|veness of po||c|ng that they carry out
th|s ro|e. Po||ce are frequent|y the f|rst po|nt of contact w|th pub||c author|t|es for
v|ct|ms of cr|me, who may at th|s stage be emot|ona||y d|stressed, phys|ca||y |njured,
unaware of the|r r|ghts, and |n urgent need of adv|ce and support. As we|| as
carry|ng out the|r dut|es w|th regard to the cr|m|na| |aw, po||ce need to be ab|e to
prov|de emergency support, and then d|rect v|ct|ms to other appropr|ate sources. lt
|s essent|a| that po||ce perform these |mmed|ate v|ct|m support tasks effect|ve|y,
both for the safety of the v|ct|m and |n order to ma|nta|n the v|ct|m`s conf|dence |n
the po||ce. Po||ce need to ma|nta|n th|s conf|dence so that v|ct|ms w||| be w||||ng to
prov|de |nformat|on for the |nvest|gat|on of the|r case, and a|so be w||||ng to test|fy |n
court. For these reasons |t |s essent|a| that po||ce keep v|ct|ms |nformed about the
progress of the|r |nvest|gat|ons. Po||ce may a|so need to prov|de v|ct|ms w|th
protect|on |n cases where there |s a threat to the|r safety fo||ow|ng the cr|me or due
to the|r w||||ngness to report |t to the po||ce.

Po||ce need to make sure that m|nor|t|es, as we|| as the major|ty, have conf|dence |n
the|r support and protect|on when they become v|ct|ms of cr|me. Where there has
been a h|story of conf||ct or |ack of trust between m|nor|t|es and po||ce, |t |s
|mportant for po||ce to take act|ve steps to overcome th|s potent|a| barr|er. Po||ce
shou|d pay spec|a| attent|on to the need to ensure support and protect|on for
v|ct|ms |n cases of cr|me or v|o|ence mot|vated by ethn|c hatred. Such cases
frequent|y |nvo|ve 'repeat v|ct|m|sat|on", or even reta||at|on and ongo|ng exchanges
of threats and acts of v|o|ence between members of d|fferent ethn|c groups. Who|e
commun|t|es, rather than just |nd|v|dua|s, may exper|ence v|ct|m|sat|on when cr|mes
mot|vated by ethn|c hatred occur, and po||ce shou|d recogn|ze the poss|b|e need to
prov|de support and protect|on at a commun|ty rather than so|e|y an |nd|v|dua| or
fam||y |eve|. Where appropr|ate, po||ce shou|d undertake r|sk assessments for th|s
purpose.


HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


108
VI. Prevent|on and management of conf||ct

21} |o||ce s|o0|d oe |ss|ed s|d ||s||ed |o o|s, s o|osc||.e |o|e ||
de.e|oo|| s |e|s||o|s||o w||| m||o||||es s|med s| |de|||/,|| s|d |/
ooss|o|e |ed0c|| |e|s|o|s w||c| cs| |esd |o |||e|-e||||c co|/||c|s.

As stated |n the lntroduct|on, the HONM has |dent|f|ed the po||ce as hav|ng a key
ro|e to p|ay |n the prevent|on of ethn|c conf||ct. Th|s ar|ses from a number of factors:
the respons|b|||ty of the po||ce for the ma|ntenance of pub||c order and tranqu||||ty,
the powers possessed by the po||ce for th|s purpose, the |nte|||gence ava||ab|e to the
po||ce about tens|ons or |nc|dents that cou|d g|ve r|se to ethn|c conf||ct, and the
profess|ona| sk|||s that can be emp|oyed by po||ce to he|p to ensure that such
tens|ons and |nc|dents do not actua||y deve|op |nto overt phys|ca| v|o|ence between
d|fferent ethn|c groups.

lt |s often supposed that the respons|b|||ty of the po||ce w|th regard to ethn|c conf||ct
|s ||m|ted to respond|ng to actua| |nc|dents of overt conf||ct: to restor|ng order and to
br|ng|ng to just|ce those |n breach of the |aw. Th|s v|ew fa||s to apprec|ate the
|mportance of the ro|e of po||ce at ear||er stages |n the potent|a| deve|opment of
such conf||ct, and a|so |n the de-esca|at|on of tens|ons between ethn|c groups once
pub||c order has been restored. Of course, the po||ce do not have exc|us|ve
respons|b|||ty for the prevent|on of such conf||ct and for tak|ng remed|a| act|on, but |n
co-operat|on w|th other pub||c author|t|es and w|th representat|ves of c|v|c soc|ety
they can p|ay a cruc|a| ro|e.

A key contr|but|on wh|ch the po||ce can make to the prevent|on of ethn|c conf||ct |s
mon|tor|ng the |eve|s of tens|on between ethn|c groups, on the bas|s of ev|dence
and systemat|c |nd|cators. The ev|dence shou|d cons|st of (a} the number and
ser|ousness of spec|f|c |nc|dents (e.g. threats or |nter-persona| v|o|ence} between
persons be|ong|ng to d|fferent groups that have potent|a| for esca|at|on, and (b}
|nte|||gence der|ved from commun|ty sources about genera| |eve|s of |nter-ethn|c
an|mos|ty w|th|n groups or about p|ans be|ng made for spec|f|c host||e act|ons. Such
|nte|||gence requ|res po||ce to bu||d re|at|onsh|ps of trust and good commun|cat|on
w|th a|| ethn|c groups, and to deve|op contacts w|th re||ab|e and unb|ased sources
of |nformat|on.

Systemat|c |nd|cators need to be deve|oped so that |nformat|on about |eve|s of
ethn|c tens|on can be gathered and compared over t|me and from d|fferent
geograph|ca| reg|ons. Such |nd|cators need to be mon|tored nat|ona||y as we|| as
|oca||y. Other pub||c author|t|es, such as |oca| or reg|ona| governments, and NGOs
may a|so be ab|e to contr|bute to the mon|tor|ng of such tens|ons. Wh||e deta||ed
|nformat|on used |n such mon|tor|ng may need to be conf|dent|a|, |t may be
|mportant for po||ce or governmenta| author|t|es to make the|r assessment pub||c|y
ava||ab|e |n certa|n c|rcumstances (for examp|e, |f the mass med|a or extrem|st
groups are, for the|r own purposes, exaggerat|ng the actua| |eve|s of tens|on}.

States shou|d ensure that systems for mon|tor|ng ethn|c tens|ons are estab||shed by
po||ce and funct|on effect|ve|y at both |oca| and nat|ona| |eve|s, and that
Policing Recommendations



109
respons|b|||ty for co||ect|ng and manag|ng such data |s c|ear|y ass|gned to part|cu|ar
staff members and that these staff members rece|ve tra|n|ng for carry|ng out th|s
ro|e.

States shou|d a|so ensure that a|| po||ce off|cers c|ear|y understand the |mportance
of the|r ro|e |n prevent|ng ethn|c tens|on and conf||ct, and that th|s ro|e |s ref|ected |n
po||ce tra|n|ng genera||y. The tra|n|ng needs to ensure that sen|or po||ce and
operat|ona| managers have a good understand|ng of the potent|a| causes and
dynam|cs of ethn|c conf||ct, have good med|at|on sk|||s, and apprec|ate how through
|eadersh|p the pub||c author|ty of the po||ce can be used to secure the comm|tment
of potent|a||y conf||ctua| groups to f|nd non-v|o|ent so|ut|ons.

States a|so need to ensure that 'prevent|on of ethn|c conf||ct" |s not understood by
po||ce to just|fy repress|ve act|ons that |nfr|nge m|nor|ty r|ghts, but that prevent|ve
act|ons shou|d form part of w|der po||c|es to promote the |ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es
and good |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons. The |eg|t|macy and effect|veness of the po||ce |n
secur|ng comm|tment to non-v|o|ent so|ut|ons among a|| ethn|c groups w||| depend
d|rect|y on whether the po||ce are perce|ved and trusted to act fa|r|y towards a||
groups |n accordance w|th human r|ghts.


22} |o||ce s|so |eed |o oe ||s||ed s|d eq0|ooed |o ms|se c|.||
d|s|0|os|ces s|d ||c|de||s o/ |||e|-e||||c co|/||c| || s o|o/ess|o|s| s|d
|o|-os|||ss| ms||e|, w||| ||e s|m o/ de-escs|s||| co|/||c|s s|d o/
|eso|.|| ||em |||o0| med|s||o| w|e|e ooss|o|e s|d w||| m|||ms| 0se
o/ /o|ce.

The management of pub||c order |s a key respons|b|||ty of po||ce |n a democrat|c
State. ln a mu|t|-ethn|c State, overt ethn|c conf||ct |s an acute|y ser|ous form of
pub||c d|sorder, as |t threatens the very foundat|ons of the soc|a| cohes|on of the
state. The capac|ty of the po||ce to manage and reso|ve any such outbreaks of
pub||c d|sorder |s therefore cruc|a| for the ma|ntenance of a successfu| mu|t|-ethn|c
soc|ety. Spec|f|c tra|n|ng shou|d be prov|ded for po||ce off|cers respons|b|e for the
management of c|v|| d|sturbances and |nc|dents of ethn|c conf||ct, and deta||ed
codes of pract|ce shou|d be drawn up re|at|ng to th|s task. (Genera| gu|dance on
tra|n|ng and codes of pract|ce |s prov|ded under Recommendat|ons 8-10 above.}

When manag|ng |nc|dents of |nter-ethn|c conf||ct, the po||ce need not on|y to be
techn|ca||y eff|c|ent, but a|so to ma|nta|n the|r |eg|t|macy |n the eyes of a|| groups and
act at a|| t|mes |n accordance w|th |nternat|ona| human r|ghts. A key |ssue |s the use
of force by po||ce. A|though the po||ce have the r|ght to use force to reso|ve overt
conf||cts |n accordance w|th the |aw, the|r profess|ona| a|m shou|d be to use the
m|n|mum amount of force necessary, and on|y to use |t as a |ast resort. A|ternat|ve
approaches such as med|at|on shou|d be used wherever poss|b|e, and c|ear
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


110
gu|de||nes shou|d be produced |dent|fy|ng the c|rcumstances |n wh|ch use of force |s
just|f|ed and how |t shou|d be exerc|sed.
13


Po||ce shou|d a|ways bear |n m|nd that the|r act|ons are not separate from or
'outs|de" the dynam|cs of |nter-ethn|c re|at|ons: they are an |ntegra| part of an
ongo|ng soc|a| and po||t|ca| process |n a democrat|c State. As the agency of the
state respons|b|e for manag|ng overt conf||ct |nterna||y, the|r act|ons may - at |east |n
the short or med|um term - have a cruc|a| effect on the deve|opment of |nter-ethn|c
re|at|ons and the future of the state genera||y. For these reasons the|r ab|||ty to
ma|nta|n the conf|dence of a|| ethn|c groups wh||st manag|ng conf||cts and restor|ng
pub||c order |s of fundamenta| |mportance. lf they act |n, or are perce|ved to act |n,
an ethn|ca||y part|san manner aga|nst m|nor|t|es wh||st carry|ng out th|s ro|e, |n the
eyes of m|nor|t|es the|r |eg|t|macy for act|ng as representat|ves of the state w||| be
destroyed. lt |s therefore essent|a| that a|| po||ce off|cers, whatever the|r ethn|c
background, act w|th str|ct profess|ona| |ntegr|ty |n dea||ng w|th s|tuat|ons of |nter-
ethn|c conf||ct.


23} Esoec|s||, s| ||e |ocs| |e.e|, oo||ce s|o0|d co-ooe|s|e c|ose|, w||| o||e|
o0o||c s0||o||||es |o e|s0|e ||e|| sc||o|s |o o|e.e|| s|d ms|se |||e|-
e||||c co|/||c| s|e co-o|d||s|ed w||| w|de| sc||o| |o o|omo|e ||e
|||e|s||o| o/ m||o||||es s|d |o o0||d s s0ccess/0| m0|||-e||||c soc|e|,.

Wh||st the management of overt ethn|c conf||ct |s the pr|mary respons|b|||ty of the
po||ce, the prevent|on of such conf||ct and the reso|ut|on of tens|ons fo||ow|ng |ts
occurrence are tasks the po||ce can and shou|d contr|bute to, but not ones the
po||ce shou|d address a|one. Other pub||c author|t|es a|so need to p|ay a ro|e,
espec|a||y by tak|ng the |ead |n address|ng the under|y|ng causes of such conf||ct.
Wh|ch author|t|es need to be |nvo|ved may depend to some extent on the nature of
these causes: for examp|e, |n some s|tuat|ons where the conf||ct |s ||nked to
res|dent|a| or property |ssues, hous|ng author|t|es may be ab|e to p|ay a major ro|e. A
key ro|e w||| be p|ayed by those author|t|es that have the capac|ty to br|ng together
members of the d|fferent groups that are |n conf||ct, to bu||d br|dges at the persona|
|eve|, and to deve|op jo|nt projects to advance common |nterests of var|ous k|nds. ln
the |ong run, educat|on - and espec|a||y educat|on that br|ngs together young
peop|e from the d|fferent groups - w||| p|ay a cruc|a| ro|e, so that educat|on
author|t|es must a|so be seen as hav|ng a key ro|e to p|ay. ln v|ew of the |mportance
of address|ng these |ssues at the |oca| |eve|, |oca| government w||| certa|n|y have a
major ro|e.

At both nat|ona| and |oca| |eve|s, the po||ce and other pub||c author|t|es need to
come together to deve|op spec|f|c strateg|es (|nc|ud|ng med|a strateg|es} to prevent
ethn|c conf||ct and ensure commun|ty cohes|on |n mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es. There are
many |nstances where such conf||ct has deve|oped, or has been exacerbated,

13
ln approach|ng the use of force genera||y, the po||ce shou|d fo||ow the N Gu|de||nes: Sss|c
||||c|o|es o| ||e Use o/ Fo|ce s|d F||es|ms o, |sw E|/o|ceme|| O//|c|s|s, ava||ab|e at
<http://www.unhchr.ch/htm|/menu3/b/h_comp 43.htm>.
Policing Recommendations



111
pr|mar||y because those respons|b|e d|d not recogn|ze the s|gns ear|y enough, d|d
not have the comm|tment to act, or fa||ed to act |n an effect|ve and co-ord|nated
manner. States need to ensure that they promote co-ord|nated act|on by the
re|evant author|t|es at both nat|ona| and |oca| |eve|s, and that th|s forms part of the|r
w|der strateg|es to promote the |ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es at a|| |eve|s. Forma|
structures and partnersh|ps w||| need to be estab||shed for th|s purpose. The ro|e of
the po||ce needs to be recogn|zed as |ntegra| to the process of bu||d|ng commun|ty
cohes|on |n mu|t|-ethn|c soc|et|es, and po||ce therefore need to be act|ve partners |n
the process a|ong w|th other pub||c author|t|es and w|th representat|ves of nat|ona|
and ethn|c m|nor|ty groups.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008




The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


113
The Bo|zano/Bozen
Recommendat|ons
on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n
lnter-State Re|at|ons
& Exp|anatory Note - 2008

Introduct|on

ln |ts He|s|nk| Dec|s|on of Ju|y 1992, the Organ|zat|on for Secur|ty and Oo-operat|on
|n Europe (OSOE} estab||shed the pos|t|on of H|gh Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es (HONM} to be an |nstrument of conf||ct prevent|on at the ear||est poss|b|e
stage |n regard to tens|ons |nvo|v|ng nat|ona| m|nor|ty |ssues. ln the course of 15
years of susta|ned act|v|ty, the |nst|tut|on of the HONM has ga|ned a un|que |ns|ght
|nto |dent|fy|ng and address|ng potent|a| causes of conf||ct |nvo|v|ng nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es. ln th|s context, the HONM has devoted much attent|on to those
s|tuat|ons |nvo|v|ng persons be|ong|ng to ethn|c groups who const|tute the
numer|ca| major|ty |n one State but the numer|ca| m|nor|ty |n another (usua||y
ne|ghbour|ng} State. Th|s |ssue engages the |nterest of government author|t|es |n
severa| States and const|tutes a potent|a| source of |nter-State tens|on, |f not
conf||ct. lndeed, such tens|ons have def|ned much of modern and contemporary
European h|story.

Ethno-cu|tura| and State boundar|es se|dom over|ap. A|most a|| States have
m|nor|t|es of some k|nd, w|th many be|ong|ng to commun|t|es wh|ch transcend State
front|ers. These commun|t|es often serve as a br|dge between States, contr|but|ng
to prosper|ty and fr|end|y re|at|ons, and foster|ng a c||mate of d|a|ogue and
to|erance. For th|s reason, persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es shou|d be ab|e
to estab||sh and ma|nta|n free and peacefu| contacts across State borders and to
deve|op cu|tura| and econom|c ||nks. When transfront|er cu|tura| t|es, however, take
on po||t|ca| s|gn|f|cance and States un||atera||y take steps to defend, protect or
support what they descr|be as 'the|r k|n" outs|de the|r sovere|gn jur|sd|ct|on, there |s
a r|sk of po||t|ca| tens|on or even v|o|ence.

ln the past, the HONM has confronted such tens|ons |n many reg|ons of the OSOE
area and rema|ns acute|y aware of potent|a| dangers assoc|ated w|th excess|ve
po||t|c|zat|on of m|nor|ty |ssues |n |nter-State re|at|ons. ln the v|ew of the HONM,
there |s a need for greater c|ar|ty on how States can pursue the|r |nterests w|th
regard to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es abroad w|thout jeopard|z|ng peace and good
ne|ghbour|y re|at|ons. lt |s for th|s reason that these Recommendat|ons have been
e|aborated, gu|ded by pr|nc|p|es of |nternat|ona| |aw and based on the extens|ve
exper|ence of the HONM. They are |ntended to c|ar|fy how States can support and
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


114
extend benef|ts to peop|e be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es res|d|ng |n other countr|es
|n ways that do not stra|n |nterethn|c or b||atera| re|at|ons.

The Recommendat|ons bu||d on the exper|ence of Ro|f Ekeus (HONM 2001-2007},
as set out |n h|s 2001 statement on 'Sovere|gnty, Respons|b|||ty and Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es", and on the 'Report on the Preferent|a| Treatment of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
by the|r K|n-State", |ssued by the Oounc|| of Europe`s Oomm|ss|on for Democracy
through |aw (ven|ce Oomm|ss|on} |n the same year. Both documents exp|a|n the
cond|t|ons under wh|ch and the ||m|tat|ons w|th|n wh|ch States may support c|t|zens
of another country based on shared ethn|c, cu|tura| or h|stor|ca| t|es. These
documents under||ne the dua| respons|b|||ty of States, wh|ch |s to protect and
promote the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es under the|r jur|sd|ct|on
and act as respons|b|e members of the |nternat|ona| commun|ty w|th respect to
m|nor|t|es under the jur|sd|ct|on of another State.

The ma|n tenets of the Recommendat|ons on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n lnter-State
Re|at|ons echo the two documents ment|oned above and st|pu|ate f|rst|y, that under
|nternat|ona| |aw, the respect for and protect|on of m|nor|ty r|ghts |s the respons|b|||ty
of the State where the m|nor|ty res|des. Second|y, other States may have an |nterest
|n the we||-be|ng of m|nor|ty groups abroad, espec|a||y those w|th whom they are
||nked by ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c or re||g|ous |dent|ty, or a common cu|tura|
her|tage. Th|s, however, does not ent|t|e or |mp|y a r|ght under |nternat|ona| |aw to
exerc|se jur|sd|ct|on over peop|e res|d|ng on the terr|tory of another State. F|na||y,
States can pursue th|s |nterest through extend|ng benef|ts to m|nor|t|es abroad on|y
|n consu|tat|on w|th the State of res|dence and w|th due respect for the pr|nc|p|es of
terr|tor|a| |ntegr|ty, sovere|gnty and fr|end|y, |nc|ud|ng good ne|ghbour|y, re|at|ons.
States shou|d ensure that the|r po||c|es w|th respect to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es abroad do
not underm|ne the |ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es |n the States where they res|de or fue|
separat|st tendenc|es.

The 19 |nd|v|dua| Recommendat|ons are d|v|ded |nto four sect|ons: genera|
pr|nc|p|es, State ob||gat|ons regard|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es,
benef|ts accorded by States to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es abroad and
mu|t||atera| and b||atera| |nstruments and mechan|sms. They prov|de both normat|ve
and pract|ca| gu|dance to States |n accordance w|th the genera| pr|nc|p|es of
sovere|gnty, human and m|nor|ty r|ghts and |nternat|ona| respons|b|||ty. A more
deta||ed exp|anat|on of the Recommendat|ons |s prov|ded |n an accompany|ng
Exp|anatory Note wh|ch conta|ns express reference to the re|evant |nternat|ona|
standards. Each recommendat|on |s |ntended to be read |n conjunct|on w|th the
spec|f|ca||y re|evant paragraphs of the Exp|anatory Note and w|th|n the context of
the document as a who|e.

lt shou|d be noted that the quest|on of nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n |nter-State re|at|ons has
often featured between the States of res|dence and the so-ca||ed 'k|n-States". Th|s
term has been used to descr|be States whose major|ty popu|at|on shares ethn|c or
cu|tura| character|st|cs w|th the m|nor|ty popu|at|on of another State. These
Recommendat|ons focus on the re|at|onsh|p between such States to a |arge extent,
but not exc|us|ve|y. They are a|so app||cab|e to a broader category of States that
The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


115
may have an |nterest |n m|nor|t|es abroad w|th bonds such as a shared h|story,
re||g|on or |anguage, wh|ch may or may not be cons|dered as const|tut|ng k|nsh|p. ln
add|t|on, 'k|n" |s regarded as one of the essent|a||y contested concepts that |acks
agreed sc|ent|f|c or |ega| def|n|t|on. For these reasons, the term 'k|n-State" |s not
used |n the text of the Recommendat|ons and |s referred to on|y spar|ng|y |n the
Exp|anatory Note when |t has an added exp|anatory va|ue.

The term 'nat|ona| m|nor|t|es" as used |n th|s document encompasses a w|de range
of m|nor|ty groups, |nc|ud|ng re||g|ous, ||ngu|st|c and cu|tura| as we|| as ethn|c
m|nor|t|es, regard|ess of whether these groups are recogn|zed as such by the States
where they res|de and |rrespect|ve of the denom|nat|on under wh|ch they are
recogn|zed. These Recommendat|ons are re|evant for a|| these groups. ln add|t|on,
the word 'm|nor|t|es" |s often used |n the Recommendat|ons as a conven|ent
abbrev|at|on of the phrase 'persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es".

ln prepar|ng the Recommendat|ons on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n lnter-State Re|at|ons,
the HONM rece|ved va|uab|e |nput and support from staff members, |nc|ud|ng Dr.
Nata||e Sabanadze, Professor Francesco Pa|ermo, Dr. Anne||es verst|che| and Mr.
Bob Deen. Former HONM staff members Dr. Wa|ter Kemp, n|ted Nat|ons Off|ce on
Drugs and Or|me, Professor John Packer, n|vers|ty of Essex, and Mrs. Dzenana
Hadz|omerov|c, Off|ce of the H|gh Representat|ve |n Bosn|a and Herzegov|na a|so
ass|sted |n the draft|ng of the document.

ln add|t|on, the HONM consu|ted the fo||ow|ng experts:

Professor Gudmundur A|fredsson, D|rector of the Raou| Wa||enberg lnst|tute
of Human R|ghts and Human|tar|an |aw, |und n|vers|ty; Prof. |ect. Bogdan
Aurescu, n|vers|ty of Bucharest and Subst|tute Member of the ven|ce
Oomm|ss|on; Mrs. l|ze Brands-Kehr|s, D|rector, |atv|an Oentre on Human
R|ghts, R|ga; Professor voj|n D|m|tr|jev|c, D|rector, Be|grade Oentre for
Human R|ghts; Professor Asbjorn E|de, Sen|or Fe||ow at the Norweg|an
lnst|tute of Human R|ghts, Os|o; Ms. S|mona Granata-Mengh|n|, Head of
Oonst|tut|ona| Oo-operat|on D|v|s|on, Secretar|at of the ven|ce Oomm|ss|on,
Strasbourg; Professor Jan Er|k He|gesen, Pres|dent of the ven|ce
Oomm|ss|on, Strasbourg; Professor Kr|st|n Henrard, Erasmus n|vers|ty
Rotterdam; Dr. En|k Horvth, |ndependent expert, Par|s; Mr. Antt|
Korkeak|v|, Oentre for Human R|ghts and G|oba| Just|ce at New York
n|vers|ty Schoo| of |aw; Dr. Emma |antschner, European Academy
Bo|zano/Bozen and n|vers|ty of Graz; Mr. Mark |att|mer, Execut|ve
D|rector, M|nor|ty R|ghts Group lnternat|ona|, |ondon; Professor Joseph
Marko, n|vers|ty of Graz; Professor Anna Matveeva, |ondon Schoo| of
Econom|cs and Po||t|ca| Sc|ence; Mr. A|an Ph||||ps, Pres|dent of the Adv|sory
Oomm|ttee on the Framework Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of Nat|ona|
M|nor|t|es of the Oounc|| of Europe, Strasbourg; Professor Eduardo Ru|z-
v|eytez, D|rector, Human R|ghts lnst|tute, n|vers|ty of Deusto, B||bao;
Professor |evente Sa|at, Babe-Bo|ya| n|vers|ty, O|uj-Napoca; Professor
P|eter van D|jk, Pres|dent of the Adm|n|strat|ve Jur|sd|ct|on D|v|s|on, Oounc||
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


116
of State of the Nether|ands, The Hague, and Member of the ven|ce
Oomm|ss|on; Professor M|tja Zagar, lnst|tute for Ethn|c Stud|es, |jub|jana.

The purpose of these Recommendat|ons |s to prov|de representat|ves of States,
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and |nternat|ona| organ|zat|ons w|th gu|dance on how to address
the quest|ons concern|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es that ar|se |n the context of |nter-State
re|at|ons |n a way that protects and promotes the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, prevents conf||ct, ma|nta|ns |nterethn|c harmony and strengthens
good ne|ghbour|y re|at|ons. By encourag|ng States to make the r|ght po||cy cho|ces
and take measures to a||ev|ate tens|ons re|ated to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es abroad, |t |s
hoped that the u|t|mate conf||ct prevent|on goa| of the HONM mandate w||| be
served.


Recommendat|ons

I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es

1} Sovere|gnty compr|ses the jur|sd|ct|on of the State over |ts terr|tory and
popu|at|on, and |s constra|ned on|y by the ||m|ts estab||shed by |nternat|ona|
|aw. No State may exerc|se jur|sd|ct|on over the popu|at|on or part of the
popu|at|on of another State w|th|n the terr|tory of that State w|thout |ts
consent.

2} Sovere|gnty a|so |mp||es the ob||gat|on of the State to respect and to ensure
the protect|on of human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms of a|| persons
w|th|n |ts terr|tory and subject to |ts jur|sd|ct|on, |nc|ud|ng the r|ghts and
freedoms of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. The respect for and
protect|on of m|nor|ty r|ghts |s pr|mar||y the respons|b|||ty of the State where
the m|nor|ty res|des.

3} The protect|on of human r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, |s a|so a matter of
|eg|t|mate concern to the |nternat|ona| commun|ty. States shou|d address
the|r concerns for persons or s|tuat|ons w|th|n other States through
|nternat|ona| co-operat|on and the conduct of fr|end|y re|at|ons. Th|s |nc|udes
the fu|| support by States of |nternat|ona| human r|ghts standards and the|r
agreed |nternat|ona| mon|tor|ng mechan|sms.

4} A State may have an |nterest - even a const|tut|ona||y dec|ared respons|b|||ty
- to support persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es res|d|ng |n other States
based on ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c, re||g|ous, h|stor|ca| or any other t|es.
However, th|s does not |mp|y, |n any way, a r|ght under |nternat|ona| |aw to
exerc|se jur|sd|ct|on over these persons on the terr|tory of another State
w|thout that State's consent.

The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


117
II. State ob||gat|ons regard|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es

5} States shou|d guarantee the r|ght of everyone, |nc|ud|ng persons be|ong|ng
to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, to equa||ty before the |aw and to equa| protect|on
under the |aw. ln th|s respect, d|scr|m|nat|on based on be|ong|ng to a
nat|ona| m|nor|ty or re|ated grounds |s proh|b|ted. Ach|ev|ng substant|ve
equa||ty may requ|re spec|a| measures and such measures shou|d not be
regarded as be|ng d|scr|m|natory.

6} States shou|d respect and promote the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |nc|ud|ng the r|ght free|y to express, preserve and deve|op
the|r cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c or re||g|ous |dent|ty free from any attempts at
ass|m||at|on aga|nst the|r w|||.

7} States shou|d promote the |ntegrat|on of soc|ety and strengthen soc|a|
cohes|on. Th|s |mp||es that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es are g|ven
an effect|ve vo|ce at a|| |eve|s of governance, espec|a||y w|th regard to, but
not ||m|ted to, those matters wh|ch affect them. lntegrat|on can on|y be
ach|eved |f persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |n turn, part|c|pate |n a||
aspects of pub||c ||fe and respect the ru|es and regu|at|ons of the country
they res|de |n.

8} States shou|d not undu|y restr|ct the r|ght of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es to estab||sh and ma|nta|n un|mpeded and peacefu| contacts
across front|ers w|th persons |awfu||y res|d|ng |n other States, |n part|cu|ar
those w|th whom they share a nat|ona| or ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c or
re||g|ous |dent|ty, or a common cu|tura| her|tage.


III. Benef|ts accorded by states to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es abroad

9} States may extend benef|ts to persons res|d|ng abroad, tak|ng |nto account
the aforement|oned pr|nc|p|es. Such benef|ts may |nc|ude, , cu|tura|
and educat|ona| opportun|t|es, trave| benef|ts, work perm|ts and fac|||tated
access to v|sas. They shou|d be granted on a non-d|scr|m|natory bas|s. The
State of res|dence shou|d not obstruct the rece|pt or enjoyment of such
benef|ts, wh|ch are cons|stent w|th |nternat|ona| |aw and the pr|nc|p|es
under|y|ng these Recommendat|ons.

10} States shou|d refra|n from tak|ng un||atera| steps, |nc|ud|ng extend|ng
benef|ts to fore|gners on the bas|s of ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c, re||g|ous or
h|stor|ca| t|es that have the |ntent|on or effect of underm|n|ng the pr|nc|p|es of
terr|tor|a| |ntegr|ty. States shou|d not prov|de d|rect or |nd|rect support for
s|m||ar |n|t|at|ves undertaken by non-State actors.

11} States may take preferred ||ngu|st|c competenc|es and cu|tura|, h|stor|ca| or
fam|||a| t|es |nto account |n the|r dec|s|on to grant c|t|zensh|p to |nd|v|dua|s
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


118
abroad. States shou|d, however, ensure that such a conferra| of c|t|zensh|p
respects the pr|nc|p|es of fr|end|y, |nc|ud|ng good ne|ghbour|y, re|at|ons and
terr|tor|a| sovere|gnty, and shou|d refra|n from conferr|ng c|t|zensh|p en
masse, even |f dua| c|t|zensh|p |s a||owed by the State of res|dence. lf a State
does accept dua| c|t|zensh|p as part of |ts |ega| system, |t shou|d not
d|scr|m|nate aga|nst dua| nat|ona|s.

12} States may offer ass|stance to support educat|on abroad, for examp|e, w|th
regard to textbooks, |anguage tra|n|ng, teacher tra|n|ng, scho|arsh|ps and
schoo| fac|||t|es. Such support shou|d be non-d|scr|m|natory, have the exp||c|t
or presumed consent of the State of res|dence and be |n ||ne w|th app||cab|e
domest|c and |nternat|ona| educat|ona| standards.

13} States may prov|de support to cu|tura|, re||g|ous or other non-governmenta|
organ|zat|ons respect|ng the |aws and w|th exp||c|t or |mp||ed consent of the
country |n wh|ch they are reg|stered or operat|ng. However, States shou|d
refra|n from f|nanc|ng po||t|ca| part|es of an ethn|c or re||g|ous character |n a
fore|gn country, as th|s may have destab|||z|ng effects and underm|ne good
|nter-State re|at|ons.

14} The free recept|on of transfront|er broadcasts, whether d|rect or by means of
retransm|ss|on or rebroadcast|ng, may not be proh|b|ted on the bas|s of
ethn|c|ty, cu|ture, |anguage or re||g|on. ||m|tat|ons are restr|cted to
broadcasts that use hate speech or |nc|te v|o|ence, rac|sm or d|scr|m|nat|on.

15} When grant|ng benef|ts to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es res|d|ng
abroad, States shou|d ensure that they are cons|stent |n the|r support for
persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es w|th|n the|r own jur|sd|ct|on. Shou|d States
demonstrate greater |nterest |n m|nor|t|es abroad than at home or act|ve|y
support a part|cu|ar m|nor|ty |n one country wh||e neg|ect|ng |t e|sewhere, the
mot|ves and cred|b|||ty of the|r act|ons may be put |nto quest|on.


IV. Mu|t||atera| and b||atera| |nstruments and mechan|sms

16} States shou|d co-operate across |nternat|ona| front|ers w|th|n the framework
of fr|end|y b||atera| and mu|t||atera| re|at|ons and on a terr|tor|a| rather than an
ethn|c bas|s. Transfront|er co-operat|on between |oca| and reg|ona|
author|t|es and m|nor|ty se|f-governments can contr|bute to to|erance and
prosper|ty, strengthen |nter-State re|at|ons and encourage d|a|ogue on
m|nor|ty |ssues.

17} ln dea||ng w|th |ssues concern|ng the protect|on of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, States shou|d be gu|ded by the ru|es and the pr|nc|p|es
estab||shed |n |nternat|ona| human r|ghts documents, |nc|ud|ng those
mu|t||atera| |nstruments and mechan|sms wh|ch have been created
spec|f|ca||y to support the |mp|ementat|on of standards and comm|tments
re|at|ng to m|nor|t|es.
The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


119
18} States are encouraged to conc|ude b||atera| treat|es and make other b||atera|
arrangements |n order to enhance and further deve|op the |eve| of protect|on
for persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. These mechan|sms offer
veh|c|es through wh|ch States can share |nformat|on and concerns, pursue
|nterests and |deas, and further support m|nor|t|es on the bas|s of fr|end|y
re|at|ons. A b||atera| approach shou|d fo||ow the sp|r|t of fundamenta| ru|es
and pr|nc|p|es |a|d down |n mu|t||atera| |nstruments.

19} States shou|d make good use of a|| ava||ab|e domest|c and |nternat|ona|
|nstruments |n order to effect|ve|y address poss|b|e d|sputes and to avert
conf||cts over m|nor|ty |ssues. Th|s may |nc|ude adv|sory and consu|tat|ve
bod|es such as m|nor|ty counc||s, jo|nt comm|ss|ons and re|evant
|nternat|ona| organ|zat|ons. Med|at|on or arb|trat|on mechan|sms shou|d be
estab||shed |n advance through appropr|ate b||atera| or mu|t||atera|
agreements.


Exp|anatory Note

I. Genera| pr|nc|p|es

1} 5o.e|e|||, como||ses ||e |0||sd|c||o| o/ ||e 5|s|e o.e| ||s |e||||o|, s|d
ooo0|s||o|, s|d |s co|s||s||ed o||, o, ||e ||m||s es|so||s|ed o,
|||e||s||o|s| |sw. ^o 5|s|e ms, exe|c|se |0||sd|c||o| o.e| ||e ooo0|s||o|
o| os|| o/ ||e ooo0|s||o| o/ s|o||e| 5|s|e w||||| ||e |e||||o|, o/ ||s|
5|s|e w|||o0| ||s co|se||.

The pr|nc|p|e of State sovere|gnty |s a cornerstone of |nternat|ona| |aw, as cod|f|ed |n
Art|c|es 1 and 2 of the Oharter of the n|ted Nat|ons (here|nafter: 'N Oharter"} and
reaff|rmed |n severa| other |nternat|ona| documents. These |nc|ude the 1975 OSOE
He|s|nk| F|na| Act (Pr|nc|p|e lv}, the 1990 Oharter of Par|s for a New Europe, and, |n
part|cu|ar w|th regard to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, the 1990 OSOE Document of the
Oopenhagen Meet|ng on the Human D|mens|on (here|nafter: 'Oopenhagen
Document"} (paragraph 37}, the 1995 Framework Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of
Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es of the Oounc|| of Europe (here|nafter: 'FONM"} (Preamb|e and
Art|c|e 21}, the 1992 N Dec|arat|on on the R|ghts of Persons Be|ong|ng to Nat|ona|
or Ethn|c, Re||g|ous and ||ngu|st|c M|nor|t|es (here|nafter: 'N Dec|arat|on on
M|nor|t|es"} (Art|c|e 8 (4}}, and the 1994 E Oonc|ud|ng Document of the lnaugura|
Oonference for a Pact on Stab|||ty |n Europe (here|nafter: 'Stab|||ty Pact"} (paragraph
1.6}. lnternat|ona| |aw prov|des for extraterr|tor|a| jur|sd|ct|on for spec|f|c cases and |n
certa|n s|tuat|ons, but |n a restr|cted form.


2} 5o.e|e|||, s|so |mo||es ||e oo||s||o| o/ ||e 5|s|e |o |esoec| s|d |o
e|s0|e ||e o|o|ec||o| o/ |0ms| ||||s s|d /0|dsme||s| /|eedoms o/ s||
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


120
oe|so|s w||||| ||s |e||||o|, s|d s0o|ec| |o ||s |0||sd|c||o|, ||c|0d|| ||e
||||s s|d /|eedoms o/ oe|so|s oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es. 7|e
|esoec| /o| s|d o|o|ec||o| o/ m||o|||, ||||s |s o||ms|||, ||e
|esoo|s|o||||, o/ ||e 5|s|e w|e|e ||e m||o|||, |es|des.

S|nce the Second Wor|d War, a |ega| reg|me has been deve|oped fo||ow|ng the
pr|nc|p|e that protect|on of human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms, |nc|ud|ng those
of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es, |s the respons|b|||ty of the State that has
jur|sd|ct|on over the persons concerned. nder |nternat|ona| |aw, therefore, States
are ob||ged to secure to everyone w|th|n the|r jur|sd|ct|on the enjoyment of human
r|ghts and freedoms, |nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts. Th|s respons|b|||ty to protect |s
|nc|uded |n, among others, the He|s|nk| F|na| Act (Pr|nc|p|e vll, para.4}, the 1950
European Oonvent|on for the Protect|on of Human R|ghts and Fundamenta|
Freedoms (here|nafter: 'EOHR"} (Art|c|e 1}, and w|th regard to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es |n
part|cu|ar, |n the 1966 N lnternat|ona| Oovenant on O|v|| and Po||t|ca| R|ghts
(here|nafter: 'lOOPR"} (Art|c|e 27}, the N Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es (Art|c|e 1(1}}, the
OSOE Oopenhagen Document (paragraphs 33(1} and 36(2}} and the FONM (Art|c|e
1}. Oonsequent|y, the protect|on of m|nor|ty r|ghts |s pr|mar||y but not exc|us|ve|y the
respons|b|||ty of the State where the m|nor|ty res|des: |t |s a|so a matter of |eg|t|mate
concern for the |nternat|ona| commun|ty, as further e|aborated |n Recommendat|on
3 be|ow.

The preservat|on of peace and stab|||ty requ|res that persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es
are treated and protected |n an |ntegrated way to the extent that the|r spec|a| status
and s|tuat|on a||ows th|s. The fundamenta| ||nk between protect|on and promot|on of
m|nor|ty r|ghts and the ma|ntenance of peace and stab|||ty has been emphas|zed a
number of t|mes by the OSOE part|c|pat|ng States, beg|nn|ng w|th Pr|nc|p|e vll of the
Deca|ogue of the He|s|nk| F|na| Act. Th|s ||nk has been re|terated |n subsequent
documents such as the 1983 Oonc|ud|ng Document of Madr|d (Pr|nc|p|e 15}, the
1989 Oonc|ud|ng Document of v|enna (Pr|nc|p|es 18 and 19} and the 1990 Oharter
of Par|s for a New Europe, as we|| as |n the Organ|zat|on`s Summ|t Documents,
|nc|ud|ng the 1990 Oopenhagen Document (Part lv, paragraph 30}, the 1992
He|s|nk| Document (Part lv, paragraph 24} and the 1996 ||sbon Document (Part l,
||sbon Dec|arat|on on a Oommon and Oomprehens|ve Secur|ty Mode| for Europe
for the Twenty-F|rst Oentury, paragraph 2}. A more spec|f|c ||nk |s estab||shed, |||e|
s||s, |n the preamb|e to the 1992 N Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es, |n the preamb|e of
the FONM and |n the F|na| Dec|arat|on of the Oounc|| of Europe 1993 v|enna
Summ|t. Protect|on of m|nor|ty r|ghts by the State |n wh|ch m|nor|t|es res|de |s,
therefore, not on|y one of the cornerstones of |nternat|ona| |aw but a|so a
precond|t|on for peace, secur|ty and democrat|c governance, espec|a||y |n mu|t|-
ethn|c States.

3} 7|e o|o|ec||o| o/ |0ms| ||||s, ||c|0d|| m||o|||, ||||s, |s s|so s
ms||e| o/ |e|||ms|e co|ce|| |o ||e |||e||s||o|s| comm0|||,. 5|s|es
s|o0|d sdd|ess ||e|| co|ce||s /o| oe|so|s o| s||0s||o|s w||||| o||e|
5|s|es |||o0| |||e||s||o|s| co-ooe|s||o| s|d ||e co|d0c| o/ /||e|d|,
|e|s||o|s. 7||s ||c|0des ||e /0|| s0ooo|| o, 5|s|es o/ |||e||s||o|s| |0ms|
||||s s|s|ds|ds s|d ||e|| s|eed |||e||s||o|s| mo|||o||| mec|s||sms.
The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


121
Wh||e the protect|on of human r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, |s pr|mar||y the
respons|b|||ty of the State where the m|nor|ty res|des, |t |s a|so a matter of |eg|t|mate
|nternat|ona| concern. Th|s has been emphas|zed, |||e| s||s, by the OSOE
part|c|pat|ng States |n the 1991 Document of the Moscow Meet|ng of the
Oonference on the Human D|mens|on of the OSOE, as respect for these r|ghts and
freedoms const|tutes one of the foundat|ons of |nternat|ona| |ega| order. W|th regard
to m|nor|ty r|ghts |n part|cu|ar, th|s has been under||ned |n Sect|on ll, paragraph 3 of
the 1991 Report of the OSOE Meet|ng of Experts on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n Geneva,
wh|ch states that '|ssues concern|ng m|nor|t|es, as we|| as comp||ance w|th
|nternat|ona| ob||gat|ons and comm|tments concern|ng the r|ghts of persons
be|ong|ng to them, are matters of |eg|t|mate |nternat|ona| concern and consequent|y
do not const|tute exc|us|ve|y an |nterna| affa|r of the respect|ve State".

As the protect|on of human r|ghts, |nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, fa||s w|th|n the scope of
|nternat|ona| co-operat|on, the concerns of States for peop|e or s|tuat|ons w|th|n
other States must be expressed w|th|n the framework of the bas|c pr|nc|p|es of
|nternat|ona| |aw, |nc|ud|ng the conduct of fr|end|y re|at|ons. Wh||e pursu|ng b||atera|
agreements, States shou|d ensure that these do not underm|ne or contrad|ct
|nternat|ona| standards set out |n mu|t||atera| |nstruments. Th|s |ssue |s e|aborated |n
Sect|on lv of these Recommendat|ons. States shou|d co-operate on quest|ons
re|at|ng to persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es, |||e| s||s, by exchang|ng |nformat|on and
exper|ences, |nc|ud|ng for examp|e through jo|nt comm|ss|ons, |n order to promote
mutua| understand|ng and conf|dence. The procedura| pr|nc|p|es of good
ne|ghbour||ness, fr|end|y re|at|ons and |nternat|ona| co-operat|on are stated |n, |||e|
s||s, the N Oharter (Art|c|e 1(2}}, the 1970 Dec|arat|on on Pr|nc|p|es of lnternat|ona|
|aw concern|ng Fr|end|y Re|at|ons and Oooperat|on among States |n accordance
w|th the Oharter of the n|ted Nat|ons and the OSOE Oharter of Par|s for a New
Europe. These pr|nc|p|es, |n part|cu|ar regard|ng m|nor|t|es, are reaff|rmed |n the N
Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es (Art|c|es 6 and 7}, |n the OSOE Oopenhagen Document
(paragraph 36(1}}, |n the FONM (Art|c|es 1, 2 and 18} and |n the Stab|||ty Pact
(paragraph 1(5}}.

ln the context of |nternat|ona| respons|b|||ty to respect and protect human r|ghts,
|nc|ud|ng m|nor|ty r|ghts, States are ob||ged to fu|f|| the|r report|ng ob||gat|ons to
|nternat|ona| superv|sory bod|es and to ensure that the r|ghts of commun|cat|on to
|nternat|ona| courts and tr|buna|s are observed. Superv|sory and adv|sory bod|es
p|ay an |mportant ro|e |n promot|ng transparency, understand|ng and goodw|||, and
ensure that |nternat|ona| |ega| norms are uphe|d; States shou|d support, deve|op
and fu||y part|c|pate |n these mechan|sms.


4} / 5|s|e ms, |s.e s| |||e|es| - e.e| s co|s|||0||o|s||, dec|s|ed
|esoo|s|o||||, - |o s0ooo|| oe|so|s oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es
|es|d|| || o||e| 5|s|es ossed o| e||||c, c0||0|s|, |||0|s||c, |e|||o0s,
||s|o||cs| o| s|, o||e| ||es. owe.e|, |||s does |o| |mo|,, || s|, ws,, s
|||| 0|de| |||e||s||o|s| |sw |o exe|c|se |0||sd|c||o| o.e| ||ese oe|so|s
o| ||e |e||||o|, o/ s|o||e| 5|s|e w|||o0| ||s| 5|s|e's co|se||.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


122
Th|s pr|nc|p|e po|nts to the d|st|nct|on between r|ghts and |nterests, as we|| as
between |nternat|ona| and domest|c |aw. A State may have an |nterest |n support|ng
persons ||v|ng abroad shar|ng ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c, re||g|ous, h|stor|ca| or other
character|st|cs w|th |ts major|ty popu|at|on and th|s may even be enshr|ned |n |ts
const|tut|on. Th|s |nterest, however, even |f |a|d down |n domest|c |aw, does not
|mp|y, |n any way, a r|ght under |nternat|ona| |aw to exerc|se jur|sd|ct|on over these
persons. A State cannot exerc|se |ts powers, |n any form, on the terr|tory of other
States w|thout the consent of those States. lnternat|ona| |aw on|y prov|des for str|ct|y
def|ned except|ons to th|s ru|e, such as the exerc|se of jur|sd|ct|on re|ated to States`
embass|es, sh|ps or c|t|zens abroad.

As a ru|e, a State may prov|de consu|ar protect|on to |ts c|t|zens abroad on|y after
consu|tat|on and agreement w|th the State of res|dence or sojourn, w|th the
except|on of the most urgent human|tar|an c|rcumstances when such consu|tat|on |s
not poss|b|e or stands |n the way of effect|ve protect|on. Th|s requ|rement of
prev|ous consu|tat|on app||es a fort|or| |f the person abroad |s not a c|t|zen of the
|nterven|ng State. The fact that the State cons|ders a person abroad to be one of |ts
'k|n", does not just|fy any un||atera| |ntervent|on on that person`s beha|f.


II. State ob||gat|ons regard|ng persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona| m|nor|t|es

5} 5|s|es s|o0|d 0s|s||ee ||e |||| o/ e.e|,o|e, ||c|0d|| oe|so|s
oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es, |o eq0s|||, oe/o|e ||e |sw s|d |o eq0s|
o|o|ec||o| 0|de| ||e |sw. || |||s |esoec|, d|sc||m||s||o| ossed o|
oe|o||| |o s |s||o|s| m||o|||, o| |e|s|ed |o0|ds |s o|o||o||ed.
/c||e.|| s0os|s|||.e eq0s|||, ms, |eq0||e soec|s| mess0|es s|d s0c|
mess0|es s|o0|d |o| oe |es|ded ss oe|| d|sc||m||s|o|,.

The pr|nc|p|es of non-d|scr|m|nat|on and equa||ty are expressed |n v|rtua||y a||
|nternat|ona| human r|ghts |nstruments, |nc|ud|ng notab|y the 1948 n|versa|
Dec|arat|on of Human R|ghts (Art|c|e 2 and 7}, the lOOPR (Art|c|es 2, 26 and 27} and
the 1966 lnternat|ona| Oovenant on Econom|c, Soc|a| and Ou|tura| R|ghts (Art|c|e 2}.
Art|c|e 1 of the 1965 lnternat|ona| Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A|| Forms of
Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on makes c|ear that th|s |nstrument a|so proh|b|ts d|scr|m|nat|on
on the bas|s of 'descent, or nat|ona| or ethn|c or|g|n". Art|c|e 14 of the EOHR a|so
express|y extends the pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on to cover grounds of 'nat|ona|
or soc|a| or|g|n, [or| assoc|at|on w|th a nat|ona| m|nor|ty" and Protoco| 12 add|t|ona|
to the EOHR estab||shes a genera| c|ause aga|nst d|scr|m|nat|on.

ln more recent t|mes, the pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on on grounds of, |||e| s||s,
nat|ona| and ethn|c or|g|n has been cod|f|ed by the European n|on |n the 1997
Amsterdam Treaty (Art|c|e 13 TE}, the 2000 Oharter of Fundamenta| R|ghts of the
European n|on (Art|c|e 22} and the D|rect|ves 2000/43/EO and 2000/78/EO. The
OSOE has a|so |nc|uded the pr|nc|p|es of non-d|scr|m|nat|on and equa||ty |n the
He|s|nk| F|na| Act (Pr|nc|p|e vll}, |n the 1989 Oonc|ud|ng Document of v|enna
(paragraphs 13.7 and 13.8} and |n the Oopenhagen Document (paragraphs 5.9,
25.3 and 25.4}. W|th regard to m|nor|t|es |n part|cu|ar, the enjoyment of m|nor|ty
The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


123
r|ghts w|thout d|scr|m|nat|on |s conta|ned |n the N Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es (Art|c|e
2.1} and |n the OSOE Oopenhagen Document (paragraph 31}. Not |east, most
OSOE part|c|pat|ng States |ncorporate these pr|nc|p|es and standards |n the|r
const|tut|ons.

The FONM (Art|c|e 4} spec|f|ca||y proh|b|ts d|scr|m|nat|on based on be|ong|ng to a
m|nor|ty |n paragraph 1. Paragraph 2 a|so spec|f|es that add|t|ona| and adequate
measures may be requ|red to promote the fu|| and effect|ve equa||ty between
persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es and those be|ong|ng to the major|ty. Such measures
need to be |n conform|ty w|th the proport|ona||ty pr|nc|p|e |n order not to be
cons|dered d|scr|m|natory. Th|s |ssue |s further e|aborated |n Recommendat|on 10.


6} 5|s|es s|o0|d |esoec| s|d o|omo|e ||e ||||s o/ oe|so|s oe|o||| |o
|s||o|s| m||o||||es, ||c|0d|| ||e |||| /|ee|, |o exo|ess, o|ese|.e s|d
de.e|oo ||e|| c0||0|s|, |||0|s||c o| |e|||o0s |de||||, /|ee /|om s|,
s||emo|s s| sss|m||s||o| ss||s| ||e|| w|||.

|essons from the past have shown that respect for m|nor|ty r|ghts |s essent|a| for
peace and stab|||ty w|th|n and between States. Persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es have
the r|ght to ma|nta|n and deve|op the|r cu|ture, and to preserve the essent|a|
e|ements of the|r |dent|ty, name|y the|r re||g|on, |anguage, trad|t|ons and cu|tura|
her|tage. Th|s r|ght can on|y be exerc|sed |f States absta|n from any attempts to
ass|m||ate m|nor|t|es aga|nst the|r w|||.

lnternat|ona| |aw aff|rms the ob||gat|on of States to promote the r|ght of persons
be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es to ma|nta|n the|r |dent|ty by prov|d|ng adequate opportun|t|es
to deve|op the|r cu|ture, to use the|r |anguage, to pract|ce the|r re||g|on and to
effect|ve|y part|c|pate |n pub||c affa|rs. Th|s ob||gat|on |s |a|d down |n, |||e| s||s, the
lOOPR (Art|c|e 27}, |n the 1960 NESOO Oonvent|on aga|nst D|scr|m|nat|on |n
Educat|on (Art|c|e 5.1.c.}, |n the N Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es (Art|c|es 1, 2(2} and
2(3}}, |n the OSOE Oopenhagen Document (paragraphs 33 and 35} and |n the
FONM (Art|c|es 5(1}, 8 and 10-15}. Spec|f|c recommendat|ons and gu|de||nes on the
effect|ve |mp|ementat|on of these r|ghts have been pub||shed by the HONM,
|nc|ud|ng |n regard to educat|on (The Hague Recommendat|ons regard|ng the
Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es, 1996}, use of |anguage (Os|o
Recommendat|ons regard|ng the ||ngu|st|c R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es, 1998} and
effect|ve part|c|pat|on |n pub||c ||fe (|und Recommendat|ons on the Effect|ve
Part|c|pat|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n Pub||c ||fe, 1999}.


7} 5|s|es s|o0|d o|omo|e ||e |||e|s||o| o/ soc|e|, s|d s||e|||e| soc|s|
co|es|o|. 7||s |mo||es ||s| oe|so|s oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es s|e
|.e| s| e//ec||.e .o|ce s| s|| |e.e|s o/ o.e||s|ce, esoec|s||, w|||
|es|d |o, o0| |o| ||m||ed |o, ||ose ms||e|s w||c| s//ec| ||em.
|||e|s||o| cs| o||, oe sc||e.ed |/ oe|so|s oe|o||| |o |s||o|s|
m||o||||es, || |0||, os|||c|os|e || s|| ssoec|s o/ o0o||c ||/e s|d |esoec| ||e
|0|es s|d |e0|s||o|s o/ ||e co0|||, ||e, |es|de ||.
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


124
Based on the exper|ence of the HONM, peace, stab|||ty, secur|ty and prosper|ty can
on|y be ach|eved |n soc|et|es promot|ng the |ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es wh||e respect|ng
the|r d|vers|ty. lntegrat|on w|th respect for d|vers|ty |s not a matter of 'e|ther/or", but
a quest|on of f|nd|ng the appropr|ate ba|ance, acknow|edg|ng the r|ght of m|nor|t|es
to ma|nta|n and deve|op the|r own |anguage, cu|ture and |dent|ty and at the same
t|me ach|ev|ng an |ntegrated soc|ety where every person |n the State has the
opportun|ty to take part |n and |nf|uence the po||t|ca|, soc|a| and econom|c ||fe of
ma|nstream soc|ety. Th|s pr|nc|p|e |s underp|nned, |||e| s||s, by the FONM (Art|c|es 5
and 6}.

A we||-|ntegrated soc|ety |n wh|ch a|| part|c|pate and |nteract |s |n the |nterest of both
States and m|nor|t|es. lt |s the resu|t of a cont|nuous and democrat|c process that
contr|butes to good governance and requ|res comm|tment from both s|des.
Separat|on between commun|t|es and groups |s not usua||y a good bas|s on wh|ch
to bu||d a we||-funct|on|ng soc|ety w|th good prospects of future stab|||ty. lntegrat|on
|nvo|ves |nteract|on, not just to|erat|ng a p|ura||ty of cu|tures.

Aga|nst such a background, persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es not on|y have the r|ght
to opportun|t|es to deve|op the|r |dent|ty (as re|terated |n Recommendat|on 6 above},
but a|so a respons|b|||ty to part|c|pate |n cu|tura|, soc|a| and econom|c ||fe and |n
pub||c affa|rs, thus |ntegrat|ng |nto the w|der nat|ona| soc|ety. Th|s |nc|udes, for
|nstance, the need to |earn the State |anguage wh||e at the same t|me enjoy
adequate opportun|t|es for |earn|ng of, and |n, the m|nor|ty |anguage, as put forward
|n the Oopenhagen Document (paragraph 34}, The Hague Recommendat|ons
Regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (no. 1} and the Exp|anatory
Report to Art|c|e 14 of the FONM. lntegrat|on a|so |mp||es that nat|ona| m|nor|t|es
shou|d part|c|pate |n a|| aspects of governance of the|r country of res|dence; the|r
|nvo|vement shou|d not be restr|cted to those areas that spec|f|ca||y concern them.


8} 5|s|es s|o0|d |o| 0|d0|, |es|||c| ||e |||| o/ oe|so|s oe|o||| |o
|s||o|s| m||o||||es |o es|so||s| s|d ms|||s|| 0||moeded s|d oesce/0|
co||sc|s sc|oss /|o|||e|s w||| oe|so|s |sw/0||, |es|d|| || o||e| 5|s|es,
|| os|||c0|s| ||ose w||| w|om ||e, s|s|e s |s||o|s| o| e||||c, c0||0|s|,
|||0|s||c o| |e|||o0s |de||||,, o| s commo| c0||0|s| |e|||se.

Estab||sh|ng and ma|nta|n|ng un|mpeded and peacefu| contacts across front|ers w|th
peop|e |awfu||y res|d|ng |n other States, w|th whom they share a common nat|ona| or
ethn|c or|g|n, a cu|tura| her|tage or a re||g|ous be||ef, |s a fundamenta| r|ght of
persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es. Th|s fundamenta| m|nor|ty r|ght |s st|pu|ated |n the
N Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es (Art|c|e 2(5}}, |n the OSOE Oopenhagen Document
(paragraph 32 (4}}, and |n the FONM (Art|c|e 17 (1}}. Th|s Recommendat|on therefore
concerns an |nd|v|dua| r|ght and States shou|d refra|n from |nterfer|ng w|th |t except
|n s|tuat|ons where there |s a substant|ated overr|d|ng secur|ty r|sk. Mu|t||atera| and
b||atera| |nstruments and mechan|sms for transfront|er co-operat|on among States
are dea|t w|th |n Sect|on lv of the Recommendat|ons.


The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


125
III. Benef|ts accorded by states to persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es abroad

9} 5|s|es ms, ex|e|d oe|e/||s |o oe|so|s |es|d|| so|osd, |s||| |||o
scco0|| ||e s/o|eme|||o|ed o|||c|o|es. 50c| oe|e/||s ms, ||c|0de,
|||e| s||s, c0||0|s| s|d ed0cs||o|s| oooo||0||||es, ||s.e| oe|e/||s, wo||
oe|m||s s|d /sc||||s|ed sccess |o .|sss. 7|e, s|o0|d oe |s||ed o| s
|o|-d|sc||m||s|o|, oss|s. 7|e 5|s|e o/ |es|de|ce s|o0|d |o| oos||0c|
||e |ece|o| o| e||o,me|| o/ s0c| oe|e/||s, w||c| s|e co|s|s|e|| w|||
|||e||s||o|s| |sw s|d ||e o|||c|o|es 0|de||,|| ||ese
|ecomme|ds||o|s.

States may have an |nterest |n support|ng persons res|d|ng abroad, |nc|ud|ng by
accord|ng benef|ts to them. Accord|ng to the 2001 'Report on the Preferent|a|
Treatment of M|nor|t|es by the|r K|n-State" adopted by the European Oomm|ss|on
for Democracy Through |aw (here|nafter: 'ven|ce Oomm|ss|on Report" - OD|-lNF
(2001} 19}, the poss|b|||ty for States to adopt un||atera| measures on the protect|on
of 'k|n-m|nor|t|es", |rrespect|ve of whether they ||ve |n ne|ghbour|ng or |n other
countr|es, |s cond|t|ona| on respect for the fo||ow|ng pr|nc|p|es: a} the terr|tor|a|
sovere|gnty of States; b} pacta sunt servanda; c} fr|end|y re|at|ons amongst States,
and d} the respect of human r|ghts and fundamenta| freedoms, |n part|cu|ar the
proh|b|t|on of d|scr|m|nat|on. The mere fact that the benef|c|ar|es of th|s k|nd of
support are fore|gners does not const|tute an |nfr|ngement of the pr|nc|p|e of
terr|tor|a| sovere|gnty of other States.

The same report acknow|edges that a State can |eg|t|mate|y |ssue |aws or
regu|at|ons concern|ng c|t|zens of other countr|es w|thout seek|ng the pr|or consent
of the State |n wh|ch they res|de, as |ong as the effects of these |aws or regu|at|ons
are to take p|ace w|th|n |ts own borders on|y. For examp|e, a State can un||atera||y
dec|de to grant a certa|n number of scho|arsh|ps to mer|tor|ous fore|gn students
who w|sh to pursue the|r stud|es |n the un|vers|t|es of that State.

However, when a |aw |s spec|f|ca||y d|rected at fore|gners res|d|ng |n a fore|gn
country and the effects of th|s |aw are to take p|ace abroad, the State of res|dence
of the |nd|v|dua|s concerned shou|d be consu|ted. ln th|s regard, a d|st|nct|on shou|d
be made between s|tuat|ons |n wh|ch the consent of the State affected |s |mp||ed,
name|y |n the f|e|ds covered by treat|es or |nternat|ona| customs, and those |n wh|ch
consent shou|d be exp||c|t (Sect|on D.a.|. of the ven|ce Oomm|ss|on Report}.

Peace, stab|||ty and fr|end|y re|at|ons between States requ|re that the State of
res|dence does not obstruct the rece|pt or enjoyment of benef|ts as |ong as they
comp|y w|th |nternat|ona| |aw and standards. These prov|de that benef|ts shou|d be
non-d|scr|m|natory, |.e. they shou|d pursue a |eg|t|mate a|m and be proport|onate.

As set out |n the ven|ce Oomm|ss|on Report, a |eg|t|mate a|m can be the foster|ng of
cu|tura| ||nks between the target popu|at|on and the popu|at|on of the 'k|n-State".
The promot|on of educat|ona| or persona| ||nks cou|d a|so const|tute a |eg|t|mate
a|m. Benef|ts extended by States therefore may |nc|ude cu|tura| and educat|ona|
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


126
opportun|t|es, trave| benef|ts, work perm|ts, fac|||tated access to v|sas and
acqu|s|t|on of property.

The enjoyment of such benef|ts |s frequent|y made cond|t|ona| on the possess|on of
|dent|ty documents |ssued by the 'k|n-State". These documents shou|d on|y be a
proof of ent|t|ement to the serv|ces prov|ded for under a spec|f|ed |aw or regu|at|on.
They shou|d not a|m at estab||sh|ng a po||t|ca| bond between |ts ho|der and the 'k|n-
State" and shou|d not subst|tute for an |dent|ty document |ssued by the author|t|es
of the State of res|dence.

To be non-d|scr|m|natory, preferent|a| treatment must target and affect persons |n
the same c|rcumstances equa||y. Th|s requ|res that the |mpact of measures grant|ng
preferent|a| benef|ts to certa|n fore|gners |s proport|onate, |.e. the |east ||m|t|ng on the
forma| equa| treatment of a|| persons be|ong|ng to the same category. For examp|e,
as po|nted out |n the ven|ce Oomm|ss|on report, d|fferent|a| treatment |n grant|ng
benef|ts |n educat|on may be just|f|ed by the |eg|t|mate a|m of foster|ng the cu|tura|
||nks of the targeted popu|at|on w|th the popu|at|on of the 'k|n-State". ln order to be
acceptab|e, however, the benef|ts accorded must be genu|ne|y ||nked w|th the
cu|ture of the 'k|n-State", be open to a|| |nterested and qua||f|ed |nd|v|dua|s,
|rrespect|ve of the|r ethn|c background and be proport|onate. For |nstance,
educat|ona| benef|ts prov|ded on a non d|scr|m|natory bas|s such as ||ngu|st|c
prof|c|ency can |eg|t|mate|y be used as a precond|t|on for the enjoyment of such a
benef|t.


10} 5|s|es s|o0|d |e/|s|| /|om |s||| 0|||s|e|s| s|eos, ||c|0d|| ex|e|d||
oe|e/||s |o /o|e||e|s o| ||e oss|s o/ e||||c, c0||0|s|, |||0|s||c, |e|||o0s
o| ||s|o||cs| ||es ||s| |s.e ||e |||e|||o| o| e//ec| o/ 0|de|m|||| ||e
o|||c|o|es o/ |e||||o||s| |||e|||,. 5|s|es s|o0|d |o| o|o.|de d||ec| o|
||d||ec| s0ooo|| /o| s|m||s| |||||s||.es 0|de||s|e| o, |o|-5|s|e sc|o|s.

Extend|ng benef|ts to part|cu|ar groups abroad that cou|d fue| separat|st tendenc|es
and have a weaken|ng or fragment|ng effect |n the States where the fore|gners
res|de, v|o|ates the pr|nc|p|es of sovere|gnty and fr|end|y re|at|ons between States.
n||atera| steps of th|s k|nd may |nc|ude se|ect|ve f|nanc|ng of fore|gn po||t|ca| part|es
based on ethn|c, cu|tura|, ||ngu|st|c or re||g|ous t|es, d|str|but|on of |dent|ty papers
cert|fy|ng ethn|c or|g|n, or grant|ng c|t|zensh|p en masse to c|t|zens of another State,
as further e|aborated |n Recommendat|on 11.

Furthermore, |nternat|ona| peace and secur|ty can be threatened by acts that
underm|ne the soc|eta| |ntegrat|on and soc|a| cohes|on of other States. Art|c|e 1 of
the N Oharter under||nes the |mportance of prevent|ng and remov|ng threats to
peace. H|story shows that when States pursue un||atera| po||c|es - |nc|ud|ng those
of a symbo||c nature - on the bas|s of nat|ona| k|nsh|p to protect m|nor|t|es ||v|ng
outs|de of the jur|sd|ct|on of the State, th|s somet|mes |eads to tens|ons and
fr|ct|ons; even v|o|ent conf||ct.

The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


127
The same effect can be caused by |n|t|at|ves w|th the same a|m taken by non-State
actors, |nc|ud|ng re||g|ous |nst|tut|ons, w|th d|rect or |nd|rect support from State
author|t|es. ln add|t|on, States shou|d take prevent|ve and remed|a| act|on aga|nst
non-State actors w|th|n the|r borders who |ntroduce measures or support |n|t|at|ves
|n re|at|on to m|nor|ty groups abroad that |nc|te v|o|ence or fue| separat|st
tendenc|es. Th|s must be read |n c|ose connect|on w|th Recommendat|on 3, wh|ch
stresses the |mportance of |nternat|ona| co-operat|on and the conduct of fr|end|y
re|at|ons |n dea||ng w|th concerns about peop|e or s|tuat|ons |n other States.


11} 5|s|es ms, |s|e o|e/e||ed |||0|s||c comoe|e|c|es s|d c0||0|s|,
||s|o||cs| o| /sm|||s| ||es |||o scco0|| || ||e|| dec|s|o| |o |s||
c|||ze|s||o |o ||d|.|d0s|s so|osd. 5|s|es s|o0|d, |owe.e|, e|s0|e ||s|
s0c| s co|/e||s| o/ c|||ze|s||o |esoec|s ||e o|||c|o|es o/ /||e|d|,,
||c|0d|| ood |e||oo0||,, |e|s||o|s s|d |e||||o||s| so.e|e|||,, s|d
s|o0|d |e/|s|| /|om co|/e|||| c|||ze|s||o e| mssse, e.e| |/ d0s|
c|||ze|s||o |s s||owed o, ||e 5|s|e o/ |es|de|ce. |/ s 5|s|e does scceo|
d0s| c|||ze|s||o ss os|| o/ ||s |es| s,s|em, || s|o0|d |o| d|sc||m||s|e
ss||s| d0s| |s||o|s|s.

The conferra| of c|t|zensh|p |s genera||y cons|dered to fa|| under the exc|us|ve
domest|c jur|sd|ct|on of each |nd|v|dua| State and may be based on preferred
||ngu|st|c competenc|es as we|| as on cu|tura|, h|stor|ca| or fam|||a| t|es. When th|s
|nvo|ves persons res|d|ng abroad, however, |t can be a h|gh|y sens|t|ve |ssue.
Oontested c|a|ms or compet|ng attempts by the States concerned to exerc|se
jur|sd|ct|on over the|r c|t|zens, |rrespect|ve of the p|ace of res|dence, have the
potent|a| to create tens|ons. Th|s |s part|cu|ar|y ||ke|y to happen when c|t|zensh|p |s
conferred en masse, |.e. to a spec|f|ed group of |nd|v|dua|s or |n substant|a| numbers
re|at|ve to the s|ze of the popu|at|on of the State of res|dence or one of |ts terr|tor|a|
subd|v|s|ons. States shou|d therefore refra|n from grant|ng c|t|zensh|p w|thout the
ex|stence of a genu|ne ||nk between the State and the |nd|v|dua| upon whom |t |s
conferred, as ru|ed by the lnternat|ona| Oourt of Just|ce |n the Nottebohm Oase
(1955 l.O.J. 4}.

Even though States have the r|ght to free|y determ|ne who the|r c|t|zens are, they
shou|d not abuse th|s r|ght by v|o|at|ng the pr|nc|p|es of sovere|gnty and fr|end|y,
|nc|ud|ng good ne|ghbour|y, re|at|ons. Fu|| cons|derat|on shou|d be g|ven to the
consequences of bestow|ng c|t|zensh|p on the mere bas|s of ethn|c, nat|ona|,
||ngu|st|c, cu|tura| or re||g|ous t|es, espec|a||y |f conferred on res|dents of a
ne|ghbour|ng State. lt cou|d for examp|e |ead to d|fferent|a| treatment for these
|nd|v|dua|s as compared w|th other res|dents of the 'k|n-State" who may be den|ed
access to c|t|zensh|p. Art|c|e 5 of the 1965 N Oonvent|on on the E||m|nat|on of A||
Forms of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on and Art|c|e 5 of the 1997 European Oonvent|on on
Nat|ona||ty prov|de that the ru|es of a State on c|t|zensh|p must not conta|n
d|st|nct|ons or |nc|ude any pract|ce that const|tutes d|scr|m|nat|on on the grounds of,
|||e| s||s, nat|ona| or ethn|c or|g|n.

HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


128
lt shou|d be noted |n th|s regard that wh||e States have ||m|ted jur|sd|ct|on over the|r
c|t|zens res|d|ng abroad, th|s shou|d be exerc|sed w|th respect for the pr|nc|p|es of
sovere|gnty and fr|end|y, |nc|ud|ng good ne|ghbour|y, re|at|ons. Moreover, the State
of res|dence ho|ds pr|mary respons|b|||ty for the protect|on of |ts res|dents, |nc|ud|ng
persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es, even though they may ho|d mu|t|p|e c|t|zensh|p, and
shou|d not d|scr|m|nate aga|nst dua| c|t|zens. To avo|d conf||ct of |oya|t|es, a State
can |eg|t|mate|y ask |ts c|t|zens to resc|nd other c|t|zensh|ps before tak|ng up h|gh
po||t|ca| pos|t|ons such as Head of State or a member of government.


12} 5|s|es ms, o//e| sss|s|s|ce |o s0ooo|| ed0cs||o| so|osd, /o| exsmo|e,
w||| |es|d |o |ex|ooo|s, |s|0se ||s||||, |esc|e| ||s||||,
sc|o|s|s||os s|d sc|oo| /sc|||||es. 50c| s0ooo|| s|o0|d oe |o|-
d|sc||m||s|o|,, |s.e ||e exo||c|| o| |mo||ed co|se|| o/ ||e 5|s|e o/
|es|de|ce s|d oe || |||e w||| soo||cso|e domes||c s|d |||e||s||o|s|
ed0cs||o|s| s|s|ds|ds.

Ou|ture does not stop at State borders. Ass|stance and support |n educat|ona|
matters abroad can contr|bute |n a construct|ve way to the deve|opment and the
promot|on of ||ngu|st|c and cu|tura| p|ura||sm. States may express the|r |nterest |n
spec|f|c ||ngu|st|c, cu|tura| or ethn|c groups ||v|ng abroad by ass|st|ng them w|th
cu|tura| |n|t|at|ves. Th|s cou|d |nc|ude for |nstance the prov|s|on of textbooks,
|anguage tra|n|ng, teacher tra|n|ng, scho|arsh|ps and schoo| prem|ses and fac|||t|es,
support for ||brar|es, museums, the arts and the ||ke. Such support shou|d wherever
poss|b|e be prov|ded by |nvo|v|ng the author|t|es of the State of res|dence. W|th
regard to textbooks, States shou|d ensure that a|| educat|ona| mater|a|s, |nc|ud|ng
those prov|ded by other States, correspond to the|r domest|c and |nternat|ona|
educat|ona| standards and prov|de a ba|anced p|cture that respects common|y
accepted va|ues of to|erance and a p|ura||ty of v|ews and cu|tures.

The N Oonvent|on aga|nst D|scr|m|nat|on |n Educat|on (Art|c|e 5} st|pu|ates, on the
one hand, that educat|on sha|| promote understand|ng, to|erance and fr|endsh|p
among a|| nat|ons, rac|a| or re||g|ous groups. On the other hand, |t acknow|edges
that persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es have the r|ght to carry on the|r educat|ona|
act|v|t|es w|thout prejud|ce to nat|ona| sovere|gnty. The |mportance of |nternat|ona|
co-operat|on |n the f|e|d of educat|on |s recogn|zed, |||e| s||s, |n the Hague
Recommendat|ons Regard|ng the Educat|on R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es
(Recommendat|on nos. 1-3} and |n the 1989 N Oonvent|on on the R|ghts of the
Oh||d (Art|c|e 28.3}. The funct|on of educat|on to foster to|erance and |ntercu|tura|
understand|ng |s acknow|edged |n the same Oonvent|on (Art|c|e 29.1 ||t b-d / (b}, (c},
and (d}}.

Fo||ow|ng the pr|nc|p|e of good re|at|ons, cu|tura| and educat|ona| support to
part|cu|ar groups abroad shou|d be prov|ded w|th the exp||c|t or |mp||ed consent of
the State where the benef|c|ary group res|des. Accord|ng to the ven|ce Oomm|ss|on
Report, when benef|ts prov|ded by 'k|n-States" have an obv|ous cu|tura| a|m such
as promot|ng the study of the|r nat|ona| |anguage and cu|ture, consent of the State
of res|dence can even be presumed. ln th|s case, 'k|n-States" may take un||atera|
The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


129
adm|n|strat|ve or |eg|s|at|ve measures that shou|d not be undu|y restr|cted by the
State of res|dence, as |ong as the|r effect |s compat|b|e w|th the pr|nc|p|es set out |n
Recommendat|on 10 and does not v|o|ate the pr|nc|p|e of non-d|scr|m|nat|on as set
out |n Recommendat|on 9.


13} 5|s|es ms, o|o.|de s0ooo|| |o c0||0|s|, |e|||o0s o| o||e| |o|-
o.e||me||s| o|s||zs||o|s |esoec||| ||e |sws s|d w||| exo||c|| o|
|mo||ed co|se|| o/ ||e co0|||, || w||c| ||e, s|e |e|s|e|ed o|
ooe|s|||. owe.e|, 5|s|es s|o0|d |e/|s|| /|om /||s|c|| oo||||cs|
os|||es o/ s| e||||c o| |e|||o0s c|s|sc|e| || s /o|e|| co0|||,, ss |||s
ms, |s.e des|so|||z|| e//ec|s s|d 0|de|m||e ood |||e|-5|s|e
|e|s||o|s.

Support for c|v|| soc|ety abroad can take many forms. ln f|e|ds other than educat|on
and cu|ture, the preferent|a| treatment of m|nor|ty groups res|d|ng |n another State |s
more prob|emat|c and, as po|nted out |n the ven|ce Oomm|ss|on Report, shou|d be
cons|dered to be the except|on rather than the ru|e. Measures that have
extraterr|tor|a| effects |n f|e|ds other than cu|tura| and educat|ona| support shou|d
on|y be undertaken w|th the exp||c|t consent of the States |n whose jur|sd|ct|on such
effects wou|d occur.

As ment|oned |n Recommendat|on 10, support by a fore|gn State must not have
destab|||z|ng or fragment|ng effects. Ass|stance to organ|zat|ons abroad shou|d be
prov|ded |n the sp|r|t of good ne|ghbour||ness and enhance reg|ona| co-operat|on
w|thout jeopard|z|ng sovere|gnty or cohes|on w|th|n mu|t|-ethn|c States. ln th|s
context support and f|nanc|ng of po||t|ca| part|es and movements abroad w|th an
ethn|c or re||g|ous character shou|d be d|scouraged, as th|s has an |mpact on the
domest|c po||t|ca| processes and often contr|butes to excess|ve po||t|c|zat|on of
m|nor|ty |ssues to the detr|ment of soc|eta| |ntegrat|on and good |nter-State re|at|ons.


14} 7|e /|ee |eceo||o| o/ ||s|s/|o|||e| o|osdcss|s, w|e||e| d||ec| o| o,
mes|s o/ |e||s|sm|ss|o| o| |eo|osdcss|||, ms, |o| oe o|o||o||ed o|
||e oss|s o/ e||||c||,, c0||0|e, |s|0se o| |e|||o|. ||m||s||o|s s|e
|es|||c|ed |o o|osdcss|s ||s| 0se |s|e soeec| o| ||c||e .|o|e|ce, |sc|sm
o| d|sc||m||s||o|.

States shou|d not obstruct the free recept|on of transfront|er broadcast|ng. Th|s
wou|d be an encroachment on freedom of express|on, as guaranteed by
|nternat|ona| human r|ghts |nstruments and, w|th regard to transfront|er te|ev|s|on |n
part|cu|ar, by Art|c|e 4 of the 1989 European Oonvent|on on Transfront|er Te|ev|s|on
(here|nafter: EOTT}. Recommendat|on 13 of the Gu|de||nes on the use of M|nor|ty
|anguages |n the Broadcast Med|a (here|nafter: Med|a Gu|de||nes} under||nes that
the free recept|on of transfront|er broadcasts 'sha|| not be proh|b|ted on the bas|s of
|anguage". ln add|t|on, Art|c|e 9 (1} of the FONM states that freedom of express|on
|nc|udes freedom to ho|d op|n|ons and to rece|ve and |mpart |nformat|on and |deas
|n the m|nor|ty |anguage, w|thout |nterference by pub||c author|t|es and regard|ess of
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


130
front|ers. States shou|d, therefore, ensure that persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es are not d|scr|m|nated aga|nst |n the|r access to domest|c and fore|gn
med|a. Moreover, Art|c|e 11(2} of the 1992 European Oharter for Reg|ona| or
M|nor|ty |anguages, wh||e perm|tt|ng regu|at|on, states that '[t|he Part|es undertake
to guarantee freedom of d|rect recept|on of rad|o and te|ev|s|on broadcasts from
ne|ghbour|ng countr|es |n a |anguage used |n |dent|ca| or s|m||ar form to a reg|ona| or
m|nor|ty |anguage, and not to oppose the retransm|ss|on of rad|o and te|ev|s|on
broadcasts from ne|ghbour|ng countr|es |n such a |anguage".

The States where m|nor|t|es res|de can |mpose ||m|tat|ons on fore|gn pr|nt,
broadcast and other, |nc|ud|ng new, med|a that advocate nat|ona|, rac|a| or re||g|ous
hatred that const|tute |nc|tement to d|scr|m|nat|on, rac|sm, v|o|ence and host|||ty or
use hate speech. Art|c|e 20 of the lOOPR |s express |n th|s regard (|nc|ud|ng
proh|b|t|on of any propaganda for war}. The EOHR (Art|c|e 10} aff|rms that the r|ght
to freedom of express|on |nc|udes 'freedom to ho|d op|n|ons and to rece|ve and
|mpart |nformat|on and |deas w|thout |nterference by pub||c author|ty and regard|ess
of front|ers". The same art|c|e prov|des that the exerc|se of these freedoms 'may be
subject to such forma||t|es, cond|t|ons, restr|ct|ons or pena|t|es as are prescr|bed by
|aw and are necessary |n a democrat|c soc|ety, |n the |nterests of nat|ona| secur|ty,
terr|tor|a| |ntegr|ty or pub||c safety, for the prevent|on of d|sorder or cr|me [.|".
Accord|ng to the European Oourt of Human R|ghts, restr|ct|ons must be
proport|onate to the |eg|t|mate a|m pursued (see for examp|e Handys|de v. K,
judgment of 7 December 1976, Ser|es A, No. 24}.

At the same t|me, the ava||ab|||ty of fore|gn broadcast|ng |n a m|nor|ty |anguage does
not exonerate the State from fu|f||||ng |ts ob||gat|on to fac|||tate domest|ca||y
produced broadcast|ng |n that |anguage nor does |t just|fy a reduct|on of the
broadcast t|me |n that |anguage. Th|s pr|nc|p|e |s set out |n the HONM`s Med|a
Gu|de||nes (Recommendat|on 13(2}} and |n the Os|o Recommendat|ons regard|ng
the ||ngu|st|c R|ghts of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es (Recommendat|on 11}. The same
pr|nc|p|e |s reaff|rmed by the Adv|sory Oomm|ttee on the FONM
(AOFO/lNF/OP/l(2003}004, paragraph 50}, wh|ch states that 'ava||ab|||ty of [.|
programmes from ne|ghbour|ng States does not obv|ate the necess|ty for ensur|ng
programm|ng on domest|c |ssues concern|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es and programm|ng
|n m|nor|ty |anguages". ln order to foster soc|a| cohes|on and the promot|on of
|ntegrat|on of m|nor|t|es |nto the w|der soc|ety, |t |s |mportant that they have access
not on|y to fore|gn broadcast|ng |n the|r |anguage, but a|so to the med|a |n the|r
country of res|dence. States shou|d therefore fac|||tate both domest|ca||y produced
broadcast|ng |n m|nor|ty |anguages and the access|b|||ty of ma|nstream med|a.


15} H|e| |s|||| oe|e/||s |o oe|so|s oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es
|es|d|| so|osd, 5|s|es s|o0|d e|s0|e ||s| ||e, s|e co|s|s|e|| || ||e||
s0ooo|| /o| oe|so|s oe|o||| |o m||o||||es w||||| ||e|| ow| |0||sd|c||o|.
5|o0|d 5|s|es demo|s||s|e |es|e| |||e|es| || m||o||||es so|osd ||s| s|
|ome o| sc||.e|, s0ooo|| s os|||c0|s| m||o|||, || o|e co0|||, w|||e
|e|ec||| || e|sew|e|e, ||e mo||.es s|d c|ed|o||||, o/ ||e|| sc||o|s ms,
oe o0| |||o q0es||o|.
The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


131
The protect|on and promot|on of the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es |s f|rst
and foremost the ob||gat|on of the State |n whose jur|sd|ct|on these persons res|de.
Oonsequent|y, there |s a |og|ca| expectat|on that when a State offers, pursues or
promotes r|ghts or po||c|es concern|ng the s|tuat|on of certa|n m|nor|t|es abroad, th|s
same State w||| a|so protect and promote the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to
m|nor|t|es w|th|n |ts own borders |n a proport|ona| way. States shou|d a|so be
cons|stent |n the|r treatment of 'k|n-m|nor|t|es" |n the d|fferent countr|es |n wh|ch
they res|de and avo|d overt d|screpanc|es between s|m||ar s|tuat|ons. The State
where the m|nor|ty |n quest|on res|des may draw attent|on to such d|screpanc|es
and quest|on the under|y|ng mot|ves.

nder no c|rcumstances shou|d th|s examp|e be read as a pretext to dev|ate from
the pr|nc|p|es conta|ned |n Recommendat|ons 2, 5 and 6 or, more genera||y, from
the |nternat|ona| standards concern|ng the protect|on of persons be|ong|ng to
m|nor|t|es. States that refra|n from pursu|ng act|ve po||c|es w|th regard to m|nor|t|es
abroad are not ent|t|ed to neg|ect the m|nor|t|es res|d|ng |n the|r terr|tor|es.
Oonverse|y, th|s Recommendat|on shou|d not be |nterpreted as encourag|ng fu||
rec|proc|ty |n |nter-State re|at|ons regard|ng protect|on of m|nor|t|es, s|nce domest|c
standards set by |nd|v|dua| States are not a|ways app||cab|e to the s|tuat|on |n other
States.


IV. Mu|t||atera| and b||atera| |nstruments and mechan|sms

16} 5|s|es s|o0|d co-ooe|s|e sc|oss |||e||s||o|s| /|o|||e|s w||||| ||e
/|smewo|| o/ /||e|d|, o||s|e|s| s|d m0||||s|e|s| |e|s||o|s s|d o| s
|e||||o||s| |s||e| ||s| s| e||||c oss|s. 7|s|s/|o|||e| co-ooe|s||o|
oe|wee| |ocs| s|d |e|o|s| s0||o||||es s|d m||o|||, se|/-o.e||me||s
cs| co||||o0|e |o |o|e|s|ce s|d o|osoe|||,, s||e|||e| |||e|-5|s|e
|e|s||o|s s|d e|co0|se d|s|o0e o| m||o|||, |ss0es.

As reaff|rmed |n the Preamb|e of the FONM, 'the rea||sat|on of a to|erant and
prosperous Europe does not depend so|e|y on co-operat|on between States but
a|so requ|res transfront|er co-operat|on between |oca| and reg|ona| author|t|es
w|thout prejud|ce to the const|tut|on and terr|tor|a| |ntegr|ty of each State". An
|ncreas|ng number of |nternat|ona| and supranat|ona| |nstruments have been
deve|oped over recent decades to promote transfront|er re|at|ons. The f|rst was the
1980 European Out||ne Oonvent|on on Transfront|er Oo-operat|on between
Terr|tor|a| Oommun|t|es or Author|t|es and |ts add|t|ona| protoco|s. More recent|y, the
European n|on a|so made an |mportant contr|but|on |n deve|op|ng the |ega|
|nstruments for transfront|er co-operat|on by adopt|ng the 2006 Regu|at|on (EO} No.
1082/2006 of the European Par||ament and the Oounc|| on a European Group|ng of
Terr|tor|a| Oooperat|on (EGTO}.

W|th regard to m|nor|t|es |n part|cu|ar, Art|c|es 17 and 18 of the FONM encourage
States to take measures to promote transfront|er co-operat|on as a means to
|mp|ement the protect|on and promot|on of the |dent|ty of persons be|ong|ng to
nat|ona| m|nor|t|es. Transfront|er co-operat|on shou|d, however, take p|ace on a
HCNM thematic recommendations 1996 - 2008


132
terr|tor|a| rather than an ethn|c bas|s: |t shou|d be des|gned for the benef|t of the
who|e popu|at|on res|d|ng |n the terr|tory of a sub-State ent|ty. Moreover, such co-
operat|on shou|d be conducted on the bas|s of fr|end|y b||atera| and mu|t||atera|
re|at|ons, stemm|ng from the genera| |nternat|ona| |ega| pr|nc|p|e of fr|end|y and good
ne|ghbour|y re|at|ons, a|ready e|aborated |n Recommendat|on 3.


17} || des||| w||| |ss0es co|ce|||| ||e o|o|ec||o| o/ oe|so|s oe|o|||
|o |s||o|s| m||o||||es, 5|s|es s|o0|d oe 0|ded o, ||e |0|es s|d ||e
o|||c|o|es es|so||s|ed || |||e||s||o|s| |0ms| ||||s doc0me||s,
||c|0d|| ||ose m0||||s|e|s| ||s||0me||s s|d mec|s||sms w||c| |s.e
oee| c|es|ed soec|/|cs||, |o s0ooo|| ||e |mo|eme||s||o| o/ s|s|ds|ds
s|d comm||me||s |e|s||| |o m||o||||es.

As part of |nternat|ona| human r|ghts, the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to nat|ona|
m|nor|t|es are un|versa|. Aga|nst th|s background, |t |s |mportant that these r|ghts are
|nterpreted |n a un|form way and accord|ng to the standards conta|ned |n mu|t||atera|
|nstruments, notab|y of the n|ted Nat|ons, the OSOE, the Oounc|| of Europe and
the E. As stated |n Recommendat|on 3, m|nor|ty r|ghts are a matter of |nternat|ona|
concern. States may therefore prefer to vo|ce the|r concerns through mu|t||atera|
mechan|sms, as b||atera| re|at|ons may be affected by unequa| negot|at|ng pos|t|ons
and may over|ook m|nor|t|es w|thout a 'k|n-State".

lt shou|d be noted that transparency he|ps to promote understand|ng and goodw|||,
and that |ndependent mon|tor|ng he|ps ensure that |nternat|ona| |ega| norms are
uphe|d. States cou|d, therefore, benef|t from report|ng cons|stent|y on a|| the|r
act|v|t|es |nvo|v|ng nat|ona| m|nor|t|es abroad to |nternat|ona| bod|es such as the
Oomm|ttee on E||m|nat|on of Rac|a| D|scr|m|nat|on (OERD} or the Adv|sory
Oomm|ttee on the FONM.


18} 5|s|es s|e e|co0|sed |o co|c|0de o||s|e|s| ||es||es s|d ms|e o||e|
o||s|e|s| s||s|eme||s || o|de| |o e||s|ce s|d /0|||e| de.e|oo ||e |e.e|
o/ o|o|ec||o| /o| oe|so|s oe|o||| |o |s||o|s| m||o||||es. 7|ese
mec|s||sms o//e| .e||c|es |||o0| w||c| 5|s|es cs| s|s|e ||/o|ms||o|
s|d co|ce||s, o0|s0e |||e|es|s s|d |dess, s|d /0|||e| s0ooo||
m||o||||es o| ||e oss|s o/ /||e|d|, |e|s||o|s. / o||s|e|s| soo|osc| s|o0|d
/o||ow ||e so|||| o/ /0|dsme||s| |0|es s|d o|||c|o|es |s|d dow| ||
m0||||s|e|s| ||s||0me||s.

ln recent t|mes there has been a cons|derab|e |ncrease of b||atera| treat|es on
transfront|er co-operat|on |n |nter-State re|at|ons that a|m to |mprove m|nor|ty
protect|on through, |||e| s||s, the estab||shment of jo|nt comm|ss|ons. W|th|n the
framework of |nternat|ona| standards, b||atera| treat|es and the mechan|sms they
env|sage can serve a usefu| funct|on |n respect|ng and promot|ng the r|ghts of
persons be|ong|ng to m|nor|t|es. Art|c|e 18 of the FONM encourages States to
conc|ude such agreements. They can offer a veh|c|e through wh|ch States can
share |nformat|on and concerns, pursue |nterests and |deas, and further protect
The Bolzano/Bozen Recommendations


133
part|cu|ar m|nor|t|es on the bas|s of the consent of the State |n whose jur|sd|ct|on the
m|nor|ty res|des. Art|c|es 26 and 31 of the 1969 v|enna Oonvent|on on the |aw of
Treat|es st|pu|ate that treat|es shou|d be |mp|emented and |nterpreted |n good fa|th.
B||atera| treat|es shou|d not fa|| be|ow and preferab|y shou|d go beyond and
comp|ement |nternat|ona| m|n|mum standards. They shou|d not be formu|ated |n
such a way that g|ves r|se to |nterpretat|on d|vergent from the mu|t||atera||y set
standards and shou|d supp|ement rather than subst|tute the ob||gat|ons of the State
of res|dence.


19} 5|s|es s|o0|d ms|e ood 0se o/ s|| s.s||so|e domes||c s|d |||e||s||o|s|
||s||0me||s || o|de| |o e//ec||.e|, sdd|ess ooss|o|e d|so0|es s|d |o
s.e|| co|/||c|s o.e| m||o|||, |ss0es. 7||s ms, ||c|0de sd.|so|, s|d
co|s0||s||.e ood|es s0c| ss m||o|||, co0|c||s, |o||| comm|ss|o|s s|d
|e|e.s|| |||e||s||o|s| o|s||zs||o|s. /ed|s||o| o| s|o|||s||o|
mec|s||sms s|o0|d oe es|so||s|ed || sd.s|ce |||o0| soo|oo||s|e
o||s|e|s| o| m0||||s|e|s| s|eeme||s.

B||atera| agreements for the protect|on of the r|ghts of persons be|ong|ng to
m|nor|t|es on the terr|tory of both States often prov|de for jo|nt comm|ss|ons to
mon|tor and |mp|ement such agreements. Moreover, |eg|s|at|on |n many States
prov|des for adv|sory bod|es on m|nor|ty |ssues. ln order to be effect|ve, these
bod|es shou|d |nc|ude m|nor|ty representat|ves and others who can offer spec|f|c
expert|se, be prov|ded w|th adequate resources and be g|ven ser|ous attent|on by
dec|s|on makers. Th|s has been aff|rmed by the N Dec|arat|on on M|nor|t|es
(Art|c|es 2(2} and 2(3}}, the Oopenhagen Document (paragraph 35}, the FONM
(Art|c|e 15} and, w|th regard to adv|sory and consu|tat|ve bod|es |n part|cu|ar, by the
|und Recommendat|ons on the Effect|ve Part|c|pat|on of Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es |n
Pub||c ||fe (12 and 13}.

Adv|sory and expert bod|es such as the ven|ce Oomm|ss|on may offer usefu|
gu|dance and |ega| adv|ce to the States on content|ous |eg|s|at|ve |n|t|at|ves and
shou|d be consu|ted pr|or to the|r adopt|on. Moreover, such |eg|s|at|on shou|d be
subject to domest|c per|od|c rev|ew and may |nc|ude sunset c|auses.
ln the case of d|sputes, |nternat|ona| exper|ence, |nc|ud|ng that of the H|gh
Oomm|ss|oner on Nat|ona| M|nor|t|es, has revea|ed the va|ue of the |nvo|vement of
|ndependent th|rd part|es or mu|t||atera| med|at|on and arb|trat|on mechan|sms |n
f|nd|ng peacefu| and v|ab|e so|ut|ons. The comb|ned use of mu|t||atera| and b||atera|
|nstruments can a|so be usefu| and |ead to a more d|spass|onate d|scourse and
remed|a| act|on.