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Faculty of Arts

Assignment Preparation and


Style Guide



The Faculty of Arts Assignment Preparation and Style Guide is available from the Arts Student Support Centre on your
campus, from the Arts Office in Warrnambool, or from http://www.deakin.edu.au/arts/student_resources.php.

Published by Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia.

Produced by the Faculty of Arts, Deakin University.

Deakin University 2004
Revised February 2006

Deakin University CRICOS Provider Code: 00113B (VIC), 02414F (NSW)



Contents
1 Study techniques..................................................................................................................... 1
Time management..................................................................................................................... 1
Effective learning strategies....................................................................................................... 1
Further help............................................................................................................................... 2
Arts course advisers...........................................................................................................................................2
Division of Student Life.......................................................................................................................................2
2 Essay writing ........................................................................................................................... 4
Essay-writing steps.................................................................................................................... 4
How to begin.............................................................................................................................. 5
Understanding the question....................................................................................................... 6
Planning your essay.................................................................................................................. 6
Inclusive language..................................................................................................................... 7
Introductions and conclusions................................................................................................... 8
Quoting...................................................................................................................................... 8
Polish your work........................................................................................................................ 9
3 Reports and other forms of writing...................................................................................... 11
What is a report?..................................................................................................................... 11
Purpose of a report ...........................................................................................................................................11
Structure of written reports...................................................................................................... 12
Cover ................................................................................................................................................................12
Synopsis or executive summary.......................................................................................................................12
Contents page...................................................................................................................................................12
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................12
Body..................................................................................................................................................................12
Conclusions......................................................................................................................................................12
Recommendations............................................................................................................................................12
References........................................................................................................................................................12
Appendices.......................................................................................................................................................12
Further information.................................................................................................................. 13
Structure and style of oral reports............................................................................................ 13
Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................13
Body..................................................................................................................................................................13
Supporting material...........................................................................................................................................13
Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................13
Preparing a report.................................................................................................................... 13
Research...........................................................................................................................................................14
Plan...................................................................................................................................................................14
Write..................................................................................................................................................................14
Revise...............................................................................................................................................................14
Rehearse..........................................................................................................................................................14




4 Assignment submission ....................................................................................................... 15
Type your essay................................................................................................................................................15
Always keep a copy of your assignment...........................................................................................................15
5 Referencing............................................................................................................................ 16
Why bother referencing?......................................................................................................... 16
Explanatory notes and appendices.......................................................................................... 16
Elements of a reference........................................................................................................... 16
Print sources............................................................................................................................ 17
Harvard system.................................................................................................................................................17
Oxford system...................................................................................................................................................18
Electronic sources................................................................................................................... 20
Web-based material..........................................................................................................................................20
Electronic journals or newspaper articles.........................................................................................................21
Electronic journals or newspaper articles in a database...................................................................................22
CD-ROMs.........................................................................................................................................................22
Electronic books................................................................................................................................................24
Emails as personal communications.................................................................................................................24
Online forums or discussion groups..................................................................................................................24
A word of warning.............................................................................................................................................25
Further information............................................................................................................................................25
Study materials........................................................................................................................ 25
Study Guides....................................................................................................................................................25
Readers............................................................................................................................................................25
Lectures............................................................................................................................................................26
Specialised sources................................................................................................................. 26
Government publications..................................................................................................................................26
Parliamentary debates......................................................................................................................................26
Parliamentary publications................................................................................................................................26
Conference papers...........................................................................................................................................27
Films, recordings, radio and television programs, and software.......................................................................27
Works of art.......................................................................................................................................................28
Further notes on referencing................................................................................................... 28
Abbreviations....................................................................................................................................................28
Arrangement of family names...........................................................................................................................28
Articles in edited collections..............................................................................................................................29
Italics.................................................................................................................................................................29
Material cited from a secondary source............................................................................................................29
Multiple authorship............................................................................................................................................29
Multiple works by one author ............................................................................................................................29
Personal communications.................................................................................................................................30
Place of publication...........................................................................................................................................30
Titles within titles...............................................................................................................................................30
Undated work....................................................................................................................................................30



6 Plagiarism and collusion ...................................................................................................... 31
Plagiarism................................................................................................................................ 31
Collusion.................................................................................................................................. 31
Avoiding plagiarism.................................................................................................................. 32
7 Academic writing style.......................................................................................................... 34
Good writing principles............................................................................................................ 34
Academic style........................................................................................................................ 34
Sentences.........................................................................................................................................................35
Active and passive voice...................................................................................................................................35
Paragraphs.......................................................................................................................................................35
Colloquialisms and clichs................................................................................................................................35
Verbosity...........................................................................................................................................................36
Agreement of tenses.........................................................................................................................................36
Spelling and meaning.............................................................................................................. 36
Common errors in punctuation................................................................................................. 37
Colons and semi-colons....................................................................................................................................37
The apostrophe.................................................................................................................................................37
8 References and further reading............................................................................................ 39
References.............................................................................................................................. 39
Further reading........................................................................................................................ 40

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1 Study techniques
University study is concerned with thinking, coming to terms with key concepts and theories
and learning to apply these in your own fields of investigation. Although your tutors and
lecturers are there to help, you will have to work quite independently.
Time management
Time management is a major problem facing Arts students. Although most students spend
relatively little time in the classroom, they have a lot of material to get through on their own.

It may help to:
Take a look at your week and try to work out how you are going to budget your time so that
you can get through your study and still have room for work, family, sporting and social
activities.
Try to devise a timetable that takes account of these competing demands.
Make time to do your most demanding study early in the day if you are at your best in the
morning. If you cant think straight before midday, it is no use setting aside a morning to
write a crucial essay.
Look at your timetable each week and see what adjustments you need to make.
Be specific about what you hope to achieve and break large tasks down so that the goals
you set yourself are realistic.
Effective learning strategies
The Unit Guide, printed course materials and the online learning environment for your unit in
Deakin Studies Online (DSO) are designed to help you structure your study. These resources
tell you what you should be reading and why, and will direct you to the major questions you
should be addressing. You will need to use what you have learnt in these preliminary steps to
complete the independent work involved in preparing your set assignments.

Always read with a purpose. Using the contents page and the index of a text to direct you to
the section that will be most useful. Read with a pen in your hand. While photocopying and
underlining may seem easier, taking notes will ensure that you actually process the material
you are reading. If you keep those notes accessible they may also save you work when you
need to refer to the book in the future. Ensure that you record details of the text you are
reading (author/editor, full title, publisher, place, date and page numbers) for later reference.

Taking notes in lectures or discussions serves a similar purpose. It ensures that you are
actually grasping the substance of what the lecturer is saying. A summary of key points in the
lecturers argument, and brief notes about the evidence on which this argument is based, will
be far more useful than a verbatim account that you will have to digest later.

Questions arising from your reading or lectures should be raised at tutorials. This is where
students should do the thinking and discussing, with the tutor acting mainly as a resource
person. You are all learning together, so read the required material and come prepared to
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participate. You will gain little of value by not completing the required material before you
attend. The tutorial is not a mini-lecture; it is an opportunity for you to participate. There is a
strong correlation between tutorial participation and success.
Further help
A guide such as this can only touch briefly on the ways in which you can make the most of
your time at University. If you want to read more, a useful guide is Making the Most of your Arts
Degree: A Guide for Students in Humanities and Social Sciences by John Clanchy, Brigid
Ballard and others (1994). Another very useful book to consult is the Handbook of Student
Skills by one of our Faculty staff members, Neil Burdess (1998). Chapter 1 is about getting
organised and chapters 2 and 3 look at what to do before, during and after lectures and
tutorials.
Arts course advisers
The Faculty of Arts has a strong interest in your welfare. Let your tutors or enrolment officers
know if you are having problems. All Faculty of Arts students are encouraged to contact course
enrolment officers or course advisers. They will assist in planning your course of study to
ensure it meets your particular needs and satisfies all course requirements.

You can directly contact the Arts course advisers for your campus:

Campus Phone Email
Melbourne
(03) 924 43909
(03) 924 43910
artsmelb@deakin.edu.au
Geelong
(03) 522 73387
(03) 522 73379
artsglg@deakin.edu.au
Warrnambool (03) 556 33314 artswbl@deakin.edu.au
Off campus/
Distance Education
(03) 522 73379
(03) 522 72477
artsglg@deakin.edu.au
Division of Student Life
The Division of Student Lifes academic skills advisers offer classes in academic skills, essay
writing and English at the start of both semesters and exam preparation classes near
examination time. Students can also make appointments to see academic skills advisers
individually by phoning the Division of Student Life:

Campus Phone Web
Melbourne (03) 924 46300
Geelong (03) 522 71221
Warrnambool (03) 556 33256
www.deakin.edu.au/studentlife

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Off-campus students are welcome to attend these classes or consult the Academic Skills web
pages at: www.deakin.edu.au/studentlife/academic_skills/.

Other staff in the Division of Student Life can help you in various ways. They can help you with
study, personal, health, access, employment and career issues whether you are on or off-
campus. Phone the above numbers, visit www.deakin.edu.au/studentlife, or visit the on-
campus office for full details of services to assist you.

Try not to wait until there is a crisis before taking advantage of the support services available
to you. However, if a crisis does occur, seek support as soon as possible. Please call the
numbers above and ask for an appointment.

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2 Essay writing
Writing an academic essay can be quite daunting. Students are often tempted to procrastinate,
thinking that they can complete a satisfactory draft the night before the due date. These last-
minute efforts are easily detected. What follows here are some useful hints on writing essays,
although the advice on planning and preparation applies to any form of academic writing.
While essays are the most common form of writing in the Faculty of Arts, not all assignments
are in essay form. You should read instructions for assignments carefully and follow the form
required. The next section contains some advice on writing reports.

In most academic disciplines in the Faculty of Arts, writing is primarily a means of
communicating ideas persuasively rather than a means of expressing personal opinions and
emotions. The essential purpose of the essay is to present an informed view.

To achieve this purpose, an essay should:
present its contentions clearly and systematically
carefully select and summarise evidence to support a balanced argument
analyse the documented evidence
draw considered conclusions from it.

You may also find it helpful to read about essay-writing techniques in books such as Essay
Writing for Students by John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard (1997) and Student Writers Handbook
by Douglas Bate and Peter Sharpe (1990).

Also available is a Deakin University booklet by Dennis Farrugia, Ros Gilchrist, Margaret
Kumar, Ruth Lee and Harvey Broadstock called Essay Writing: Understanding the Process,
available from the Division of Student Life for $5.00.

The Academic Skills Advisers have produced a video called Essay Writing Made Easy.
Multiple copies are available for loan in the Deakin Library.

You can also find material at:
www.deakin.edu.au/studentlife/academic_skills
Essay-writing steps
Here are some steps you should follow in writing your essay:

Choose a topic that appeals to you.
Select a topic that will hold your interest and is worthy of in-depth study. There will
generally be a choice of topics unless the teaching staff want you to address a central
concept in the course or practise a particular technique of interpreting evidence.

Know what your assessors are looking for.
Assessors are always looking for evidence that students understand the field they are
working in. Ensure that you have read the literature set in your unit of study, have applied
a critical eye to this work, and constructed your own analysis of the material.
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In particular, assessors will note:
whether you have fully comprehended the point at issue and have kept to the topic
whether you have argued an idea within a concise word limit
your ability to present thoughts reflectively and critically, and to support them with
evidence (as opposed to making unsupported, negative or destructive comments)
your ability to offer an original, imaginative and fresh approach to a topic
above all, your ability to argue your views coherently and logically, and to document your
evidence in a manner consistent with the conventions of the discipline.
How to begin
Take a long, careful look at the question. Usually it will have a number of parts, and you may
be asked to not merely regurgitate information or write a descriptive piece, but to critically
analyse the material you are reading.

To examine the material critically means to evaluate the various theories according to the
evidence available. It does not mean condemning something but being judicious in your
acceptance or otherwise of it.

The references set for an essay are an indication of the direction your lecturer has set out for
you to follow. The references will cover the material you need to read in order to answer the
question. Read as much material as you can on the topic, gradually constructing in your mind
a plan of how you aim to tackle the question.

Here are some tips:
If no references are specified, use the relevant sections of your study guide to find out
what you need to read.
While you are reading the references and summarising the evidence, record your thoughts
about the issues raised as well. This will then help you with the next task, which is to plan
the essay.
If you are unable to make a start once you have read the relevant material, you should
contact your tutor to discuss the question and possible approaches to it.
Do not wait until the deadline is looming before seeking assistance.
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Understanding the question
Questions often contain a descriptive element, an analytical element, and an element soliciting
your own views. The terms used in the question will direct you to the type of response
required. Some common terms are:

Summarise: to give a concise account of the main points in your own words.

Describe: to detail the main points or characteristics in your own words without
interpreting the information. This is seldom all that is required in an
essay.

Explain: to make the meaning of a concept clear, or present an interpretation of
causes and effects (e.g. of a social or historical phenomenon).
Examine: to investigate or research a topic.

Justify: to show adequate grounds for decisions or conclusions.

Discuss: to present a point of view using descriptions and interpretation, with
evidence to support your argument.

Contrast: to examine two or more approaches with a view to emphasising the
differences between them.

Compare: to discuss the similarities and differences between two approaches or
phenomena. Analyse: to examine critically so as to highlight the most
important components.
Evaluate: to study and assess the topic and make a judgment.

Critically evaluate: to make a judgment through a discussion of evidence.
Planning your essay
Essays need to be planned in order to answer the questions set. When you read your
references, take notes in a way that makes it easy to sort the material into a structure. For
instance, always make a note of the page number for each quotation or idea you get from your
reading, and record the bibliographical details of each reference as you go. Use subheadings
where necessary, and start a new paragraph for each quotation or idea to help you scan and
sort your notes later.

When you have finished reading each reference, make a note of the authors general position.
All writers, no matter how much they claim to be objective, write from their own particular
perspectives. There is no such thing as truly objective or value-free knowledge. Knowledge is
constructed by people who are influenced by the times in which they live and their own political
and social theories. You will need to understand this wider context when you critically examine
an authors work.

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When taking notes, do not just record information that supports your own viewpoint. You will
need to acknowledge and discuss evidence and arguments that run counter to your position,
and to argue your case rather than just make assertions.

Some students find that they work better with a plan; some do not. Try working with a plan and
see whether it is a method that suits you. Make sure you allow space to answer all aspects of
the question, or you will lose crucial marks. Allot a certain number of words to each part,
including the introduction and conclusion. If possible, discuss your plan with your lecturer or
tutor.

When you are planning your essay, it may be worth numbering the main points you are
making, and the sub-sections of each point. You might, for example, have point 1, with sub-
sections A, B and C, then point 2 with sub-sections A and B. This makes it possible to code
your notes to fit your evidence and quotations into the plan of the essay.

If all your references are handy and you have plenty of time, another method is to read over
the material without taking notes until you are ready to develop your ideas into a plan. Number
each point in your plan, as above. Then go back to your references and take notes according
to your plan. That way you dont take unnecessary notes and you can write your first draft
straight from your notes.
Inclusive language
Think carefully about the language you are using. Language helps us to construct our world
and it creates our picture of social reality. Aim for accuracy and precision in language, and
make your language inclusive.

All Australian universities now have policies that outlaw discriminatory language in academic
writing. You must ensure you dont include such language in your work. The fifth edition of the
Australian Government Style Manual defines discriminatory language in this way: language
use is discriminatory when it makes people invisible; when it excludes them or highlights only
one characteristic to the exclusion of other, often more relevant ones; when it stereotypes
people; treats people asymmetrically; and denigrates or insults people. (Style Manual, 1994,
p.122).

Some clear instances of such language are statements that are obviously racist, sexist,
homophobic or denigrating to people with disabilities or those suffering from certain medical
conditions, such as people who are HIV-positive. Discriminatory language can also be indirect,
such as when writers use denigrating suffixes (such as -ess or -ette), unnecessarily
emphasise a persons physical appearance, or use the passive voice when referring to non-
dominant social groups (Style Manual 1994, pp. 1234).

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Copies of the Universitys booklet Inclusive Language Guidelines can be obtained from the
Equity and Equal Opportunity Office:

Campus Phone Web
Melbourne (03) 924 46231
Geelong (03) 522 72671
Warrnambool (03) 556 33346
www.deakin.edu.au/hrs/eeo/eeo_program.php

A section in the sixth edition of the Australian Government Publishing Services Style Manual
for Authors Editors and Printers contains a comprehensive discussion of inclusive
communication (Style Manual 2002, pp. 4862).
Introductions and conclusions
Your introduction is best written once you know what your argument is going to be, or after you
have written your essay. Your introduction should state what you are going to do in the essay.
You should refer to all parts of the question and indicate your argument.

In your conclusion, you should summarise what you have done in the essay, once again
referring to all parts of the question. Restate your main argument and provide a thoughtful final
comment. Read essay-writing guides for sample introductions and conclusions. These are
crucial parts of your essay, so dont leave them out.
Quoting
Use quotations sparingly. When taking notes, make sure you record quotations in the exact
words used in the source text, and note the page numbers correctly.
Do not quote in italics (unless they appear as such in the text, or unless you are emphasising
something in which case, write italics mine in brackets after the quote to indicate that the
italics are not part of the original).
Short quotations (those of less than three lines) can be run into the existing text (with
quotation marks), but longer quotations should be indented as a separate paragraph (without
quotation marks). Either way, you should introduce each quotation so that it fits in with the
surrounding text.
It would not be correct, for example, to write:
Joan of Arc was not beautiful: I was no beauty.

But you could write:
Joan herself said: I was no beauty.
Joan commented that she was no beauty.


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In this case, however, it might be best not to quote at all, as the quote is not particularly
significant.
It would be better to write:
Joan herself commented that she was no beauty.

Only quote if there is a real point to it: to illustrate or provide evidence for a point you are
making as a point of reference; or if the language used is colourful or persuasive. In many
cases, it is better to put the ideas in your own words, with appropriate acknowledgment to the
author.

If you want to quote two sentences from a passage and omit the material in between, use an
ellipsis (...) to mark the sections deleted. If quoting a small segment of text creates problems of
interpretation, it is acceptable to make minimal changes to the text and enclose the new
material in square brackets.

Take, for example, the passage:
Public opinion has drifted away from the major parties. In successive elections, their
combined vote has fallen to around 70 per cent.

If you wanted to quote the second sentence only, you could amend it to read:
In successive elections, [the major parties] combined vote has fallen to around 70 per
cent.

It is also acceptable to add material in square brackets to clarify terms such as here, there,
now or recently, or to make minor amendments to remedy the fit between the grammar of the
quotation and the surrounding sentence.

Square brackets are also used with sic to indicate a peculiarity or error in the original text. For
example:
In the letter he protested, I thought you were a firend [sic] of mine.
Polish your work
Once you have drafted your written piece according to the plan you have made, go back over
it, revise it and proofread it carefully. Look for repetitions, instances where you have borrowed
too liberally from the texts you read, and instances where paragraphs do not link neatly. Check
that you have only introduced one idea in each paragraph and always link your paragraphs
logically in the development of your argument. If necessary, prune your first draft to fit the word
limit.

Read your assignment very carefully, looking for grammatical, spelling or typographical errors.
An excessive number of errors annoys the reader, and such sloppy work is likely to be marked
down. Do not rely solely on a spelling checker if you are writing on a word processor. It can tell
you if a word is spelt incorrectly, but not if it is the correct word to use. Even grammar checkers
will often fail to highlight mistakes.

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It is always best to print your work out and read it over in hard copy before you submit it, as
structural problems are harder to detect when you can only see a small fraction of the text on
your computer screen.

Tips for reviewing your work:
It sometimes helps to have a friend read over your work.
If you are using visual material, ask yourself whether it is necessary and relevant. Does it
strengthen the argument or only add colour? Like superfluous quotations, visual material
can be a distraction.
Do your introduction and conclusion match your argument? If not, make the necessary
changes.

Once you have revised the piece of writing, ensure that all your references and your
bibliography are correct. Refer to one of the systems described on pp. 1631 of this Guide
then apply the system preferred by the discipline for which you are writing the essay. Be
consistent!

Many of you will not have had recent experience in writing essays of the kind required for
university work. You may wish to discuss with your tutor or lecturer the option of submitting an
outline or plan of your essay for criticism and comment before submitting the essay for
marking. If your tutor or lecturer is willing to give you this kind of feedback, you should submit
your outline in plenty of time for it to be read and returned to you before the assignment due
date.
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3 Reports and other forms of writing
The academic essay is the most common form of writing required in the Faculty of Arts. There
are, however, other forms of writing used in various disciplines within the Faculty: reports,
hypertexts, websites, contributions to online discussions, media releases, literary reviews and
literature reviews, news articles and journal articles, annotated bibliographies, seminar
presentations, creative pieces and the exegesis which might accompany a creative work such
as a film or a novel.

You may be asked to present a report, either as an individual piece of work or the product of a
collaborative task. The form of report required will usually be quite specific to a particular
discipline, and differ from one unit to another. For example, a report in Politics is likely to reflect
the characteristics of Government Reports and this, of course, is entirely different to a
newspaper report or newspaper article. You should be informed and guided by the context of
the area of study within which you are operating, and by the information in the Unit Guide.

When you are given specific advice on the format required for reports in your discipline, please
follow it; however, this general information may be useful.
What is a report?
Reports differ from essays in that they focus on presenting information objectively rather than
present a coherently argued view on a topic. The term report can also refer to written or oral
reportsor presentations.
Purpose of a report
The purpose of a report is:
to convey information or ideas
sometimes, to make recommendations.

A report should be:
Clear - easy to understand.
Concise - as long as it needs to be and no longer.
Complete - include all the necessary information.
Correct!
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Structure of written reports
This is a brief outline of the typical elements of a written report.
Cover
Would usually align with a corporate image and include:
title of report
addressee (who its written for)
author, company, (Unit Code), date.
Synopsis or executive summary
Summary of report, recommendations.
Contents page
Shows the organisation of the report and reflects the headings used.
Introduction
Presents an outline of context, scope, purpose and summarises the main points.
Body
Contains information arranged with clear headings, organised, for example, with a numbering
system.
Conclusions
Sums up main points.
Recommendations
States what should be done.
References
Lists resources used rather than presenting a full bibliography of works consulted.
Appendices
Contains supporting data (e.g. large tables, charts).
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Further information
Further information on report writing and examples of an Executive Summary, Introduction,
Recommendations and Conclusion are available on the Student Life, Academic Skills website
at:
<www.deakin.edu.au/studentlife/academic_skills/undergraduate/handouts/report.php#anchor>

The Communications Skills Handbook (2003) by Summers and Smith (see further reading)
also has a comprehensive section on report writing on pp. 3745.
Structure and style of oral reports
Oral reports have similar elements but the language style is more discursive.
Introduction
Outlines context, scope, purpose, introduces main points and can present recommendations.
Body
Information is introduced with verbal signposts (e.g. The first problem is; Next Id like to
consider).
Supporting material
Graphics and other material may be integrated into your presentation. This may be done with
the use of presentation software such as MS PowerPoint or the use of handouts. Always
ensure that you have sufficient copies for your audience and that additional material is clearly
labelled.
Conclusion
Sums up main points and makes recommendations.
Preparing a report
The broad steps to follow when you are preparing a report are:
Research the information and collect your ideas.
Plan the structure of the report, though it will be different depending on whether it is written
or oral.
Write the report.
Revise your report to make sure there are no mistakes.
Rehearse (for oral reports) so you can deliver your presentation without looking at your
notes.

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Research
Define the audience, purpose, scope and context of your report.
Find relevant information to fit.
Keep track of bibliographic details.
Plan
Organise your report into sections.
Give your sections headings for a written report.
Give your sections verbal signposts if youre doing an oral presentation.
Write
Keep it simple but interesting.
Use short clear sentences.
Integrate your graphics into the report (these may be illustrations, charts or diagrams).
Make sure your captions are clear.
Organise any appendices that you need to include.
Revise
Check that your report is clear, concise, complete and correct.
Rehearse
Practise your oral report, working just from your outline.
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4 Assignment submission
Before you submit your work you should check it thoroughly to make sure you have reworked
and polished it to the best of your ability.
Type your essay
It is best to submit a typed essay if you can. In some areas of study all work for assessment
must be typed, and it is your responsibility to establish what is expected in each case.
Type the question at the top of each essay so the assessor can see clearly which topic
you are doing.
Use A4-sized paper (single not double-sided).
Select a font with a minimum point size of 11 and use double (or 1.5) spacing.
Leave a margin of 5cm (2 inches) on the left-hand side of the page and 15mm (1/2 inch)
on the right-hand side of the page.
Number your pages.
When the essay is complete, corner-staple it together with the Deakin University
Assignment Attachment Sheet.
Do not fold your assignment or place it in a folder unless specifically directed to do so. This
will facilitate the handling of your assignment and expedite its correction and return to you.
Always keep a copy of your assignment
Assignments sometimes go astray, and you cannot expect to be given the benefit of the doubt
if you say you have submitted an essay but cannot provide a replacement copy. If you are
using a word processor, be sure to back up your files.

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5 Referencing
Why bother referencing?
In academic writing, it is vital that you correctly acknowledge the source of the information,
whether it be a book, article, government report, newspaper article, interview, radio program,
or any other source. Good scholarship requires the identification of the source of ideas, data or
direct quotations.

There is no single required style for the presentation of notes and references in the Faculty of
Arts. The references can appear within the text, at the foot of the page or at the end of the
essay. However, various conventions set out the form these notes should take. This guide
outlines two of the most widely used referencing systems: Harvard and Oxford. However you
should be aware that there are variations within these two systems, and that certain disciplines
may prefer one form or the other, or may designate some other form altogether. You should
check your Unit Guide for further information or seek advice from your tutors before you begin
to write. Whatever form you choose, remember, be consistent!

Your referencing should provide enough information to enable the reader to trace the original
source of the quotation or idea; be consistent in style; and list all the major sources, including
Study Guides and Readers, used in the writing of the essay.
Explanatory notes and appendices
At times you may wish to make points that are relevant but not central to the argument and
would distract the reader if included in the main text. These might be examples, comments,
definitions of terms or brief mentions of contrary arguments. Such subsidiary material can be
included as a note, either at the bottom of the page (i.e. footnote) or at the end of the essay
(i.e. endnote). These notes should never be used simply to circumvent the word limit, and
should be used sparingly.

Substantial discussions of peripheral points or compilations of factual material should be put
into an appendix at the end of the essay, after the conclusion and endnotes but before the
reference list. An appendix should only be added if it is really necessary.
Elements of a reference
So that the reader can identify and locate the work being used as a source, each reference
must include the following information:
name of author(s)
title
publisher
date of publication
place of publication
page number(s).

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You should also note if there is an editor, compiler or translator, a number of editionsin
which case the name or the number of the edition used needs to be citedor a series in which
the book appears.

Exactly where and in what form such information appears in your essay depends on the
citation or reference system used. The two main systems used in referencing are the Oxford
and Harvard systems.
Print sources
Harvard system
The Harvard system is common in scientific and social science writing. It allows readers to
make an immediate association between an idea or fact and its source. The following
examples are taken from the Style Manual (2002) which is a version of an authordate system
derived from the Harvard system. Whichever system you use, always be consistent. Check
with the teaching team for your unit and/or consult the Unit Guide.

Examples
Seven oclock every morning they used to all walk down to the mill. Then youd hear the
whistle and youd know it was time to get up ... Those whistles regulated your life as well
as theirs. It was strange when they stopped (Wilson, Mrs P 1984, recorded interview, 10
August).

The whistles stopped in the textile mills of Geelong during the early 1970s. The
3000strong workforce was halved, and for a time sackings ran at 60 per day (Geelong
Advertiser 1974). In 1971, the Textile Workers Union had 3364 members in the Geelong
District; by 1973, there were only 1398 (Hughes 1977, p. 10). Along with this overall
decline went a shift in the sexual division of labour. Men went from being a minority of 42
per cent in the mills operating in 1961 (Australian Textile Workers Union 1961) to a 61 per
cent majority in 1986 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1986).

Both male and female workers experienced the agonies of restructuring. The oil crisis and
global rationalisation of the car and aluminium industries reduced male employment, while
female employment was cut in textiles, clothing and footwear (Hughes 1977; Linge &
McKay 1981; Rich 1987).

Note that family names only are used. Initials or first names are added only when they are
required to distinguish between authors of the same family name. Textual references are
placed at the end of a sentence whenever possible, or after an idea or fact cited if it is in mid-
sentence.

List of references
If you are using the Harvard system, you should include at the end of your essay a list of
references in alphabetical order by authors family names, with different works by the same
author listed chronologically. For the above passage, this would include references as
represented in the following examples.

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Examples

Australian Bureau of Statistics 1986, Census of Population and Housing, Local
Government Area, Geelong Statistical District, Australian Government Publishing
Service, Canberra.

Australian Textile Workers Union 1961, Weekly employment records in Geelong by mill.
Photocopied. Guiness, B 1974, Textiles to cop it tough, Geelong Advertiser, 3
October, p. 10.

Hughes, W 1977, The state of the textile industry, Textile Topics, vol. 1, no. 16, pp. 10
12.

Linge, G & McKay, J 1981, Structural Change in Australia: Some Spatial and
Organisational Responses, Research School of Pacific Studies, Publication HG/15,
Canberra.

Rich, D 1987, The Industrial Geography of Australia, Methuen, North Ryde, NSW.

Note: A list of references does not need to include personal communications (AGPS 1994, p.
165).

Further information
For further information on referencing, see the Style Manual (2002) or the Communications
Skills Handbook (2003).

An online tutorial on using the Harvard system can be found on the Deakin Library website at:
www.deakin.edu.au/library/tutorials/webpac/mod4/refb01.htm.
Oxford system
The following is an example of how you would apply the Oxford system.
Seven oclock every morning they used to all walk down to the mill. Then youd hear the
whistle and youd know it was time to get up ... Those whistles regulated your life as well
as theirs. It was strange when they stopped.
1


The whistles stopped in the textile mills of Geelong during the early 1970s. The
3000strong workforce was halved, and for a time sackings ran at 60 per day.
2
In 1971,
the Textile Workers Union had 3364 members in the Geelong District; by 1973, there
were only 1398.
3
Along with this overall decline went a shift in the sexual division of
labour. Men went from being a minority of 42 per cent in the mills operating in 1961
4
to a
61 per cent majority in 1986.
5


Both male and female workers experienced the agonies of restructuring. The oil crisis and
global rationalisation of the car and aluminium industries reduced male employment, while
female employment was cut in textiles, clothing and footwear.
6


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Example
The following references would appear at the end of the page if you were using footnotes or at
the end of the essay or assignment if endnotes. Most word processors will do the numbering
automatically, or you can type them in.
________________________________________________________
1
Mrs P Wilson, interviewed by the author, tape recording, Geelong, Victoria, 10 August
1984.
2
Textiles to cop it tough, Geelong Advertiser, 3 October 1974, p.10.
3
WR Hughes, The state of the textile industry, Textile Topics, 1, 16, February 1977, p.
10.
4
Australian Textile Workers Union, Weekly employment records in Geelong, by mill.
Photocopied, 1961.
5
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Census of Population and Housing, Local Government
Area, Geelong Statistical District, Australian Government Publishing Service,
Canberra, 1986.
6
Hughes, op. cit, 1977, p. 10; G. Linge and J. McKay, Structural Change in Australia:
Some Spatial and Organisational Responses, Research School of Pacific Studies,
Publication HG/15, Canberra, 1981; D. Rich, The Industrial Geography of Australia,
Methuen, North Ryde, 1987.
The reference numbers in the text point the reader to the notes, which may appear either at
the bottom of the page or at the end of the work. Note that where an author has been cited
more than once, the second reference in the notes need only be a brief version of the full
citationjust enough to make it clear it is the same source and distinguish it from any others
by the same author or by another whose name is similar. So note 6 reads: Hughes, op. cit.
(opere citato, Latin, in the work cited) or just Hughes 1977.

The bibliography
The Oxford system uses a bibliography rather than a list of references. The bibliography lists
all the works you have consulted, not only those directly referred to in the notes. As in the
Harvard system, the family name precedes the initials or first name. References are arranged
in alphabetical order according to the authors family name. The bibliography for this passage
would look like the following.

Example
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Census of Population and Housing, Local Government
Area, Geelong Statistical District, Australian Government Publishing Service,
Canberra, 1986.
Australian Textile Workers Union, Weekly employment records in Geelong by mill.
Photocopied, 1961.
Grant, E, Geelong Advertiser, Textiles to cop it tough, 3 October 1974, p. 10. Hughes,
WR, The state of the textile industry, Textile Topics, 1, 16, (February), 1977. Linge, G
and McKay, J, Structural Change in Australia: Some Spatial and Organisation
Responses, Research School of Pacific Studies, Publication HG/15, Canberra, 1981.
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Rich, D, The Industrial Geography of Australia, Methuen, North Ryde, 1987.
Wilson, Mrs P, Interview by the author, tape recording, Geelong, Victoria, 10 August 1994.
Electronic sources
Wherever possible, apply general citation principles for electronic material. If all the information
you need is not available, include as much information as you have. As online material is often
updated or revised and may have been changed since the time you cited it, remember to
include the date that you viewed the material. It is not necessary to indicate the format of the
material because this is made obvious by including the address of the site.
Web-based material
Harvard system
In the text, the citation for online material includes the family name(s) of the author(s), or the
name of the authoring organisation, document date or date of last revision (which may require
the date and the month as well as the year), page or paragraph number(s).

Examples
The trend estimate for total sales of new cars has shown continuous growth for the last
twelve months (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003).
(White 29 June 1997)
(Ruggiero 2 July 2003, para. 5)
(IPRA 2002, para. 7)
Fraser (n.d. para. 2) argues that the primary means of achieving is, etc.

If the author(s) are not identifiable, begin with the name of the organisation.
If the name of the organisation is not identifiable, begin with the title.
If no date is listed, insert n.d.
If there are no page numbers, use paragraph numbers.

In the reference list include family name, initial(s) of the author(s) or name of organisation,
document date or date of last revision, Title, Title of the complete work (if any), date material
was viewed, <URL>.

Examples
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003, Key national indicators, ABS Statsite, viewed 8
December 2003, <http://www.abs.gov.au/>.
International Public Relations Association 2003, IPRA Golden World Awards 2002,
Golden World Awards for Excellence, viewed 31 August 2003,
<http://ipranet.org/index1.htm>.
New York Review of Books, viewed 1 May 2003, <http://www.nybooks.com/>.
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Ruggiero, R 2 July 2003, An enabling environment for development: The contribution of
the multilateral trading system, Address delivered to ECOSOC, Geneva, viewed 21
July 2003 <http://www.wto.org/wto/new/ecosoc.htm>.
Scriven, M and Paul, R n.d., Defining Critical Thinking, viewed 1 March 2003,
<http://www.criticalthinking.org/University/univclass/Defining.html>.
White, DE 29 June 1997, The god undeified: Mary Shelleys Valperga, Italy, and the
Aesthetic of Desire, Romanticism on the Net, viewed 2 July 1997, vol. 6, May 1997,
<http://users.ox.ac.uk/~scat0385/valperga.html>.

Oxford system
The first reference lists initial(s) and family name(s) of the author(s), the title of the document
(in single quotation marks), the title of the complete work (if any, in italics), the date the
material was viewed, the address (preceded by angle < > brackets), the document date or
date of last revision.

Example
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Key national indicators, ABS Statsite,
<http://www.abs.gov.au/> 2003, viewed 8 December 2003.
DE White, The god undeified: Mary Shelleys Valperga, Italy, and the Aesthetic of
Desire, Romanticism On the Net, vol. 6, May 1997,
<http://users.ox.ac.uk/~scat0385/valperga.html> 29 June 1997, viewed 2 July 1997.
Subsequent references can be abbreviated to include only the title of the work, or the name of
the author or organisation. In other cases, follow the rules outlined for print sources.

For references to conference papers, presentations and addresses use the following format.

Example
R Ruggiero, The contribution of the multilateral trading system, Address delivered to
ECOSOC, Geneva, 2 July, 1997, <http://www.wto.org/wto/new/ecosoc.htm> , viewed
21 July 1997.
Electronic journals or newspaper articles
In the reference list include family name, initial(s) of the author(s), date of publication, Title
Journal or Newspaper Title, volume, issue number, page number/s (if any), day date of
newspaper article (if applicable), date material was viewed, <URL>.

Examples (Harvard)
Hudson, P 2003, Prices set in handgun crackdown, The Age, 30 June, p. 7, viewed 30
June 2003, <http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/06/29/1056825278337.html>.

Nelson, DN 2001, Beyond defence planning, Defence Studies, vol. 1, no. 3, 2 March
2001, <http://www.frankcass.com/jnls/def.htm>.

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White, DE 1997, The god undeified: Mary Shelleys Valperga, Italy, and the Aesthetic
of Desire, Romanticism On the Net, vol. 6, viewed 2 July 1997,
<http://users.ox.ac.uk/~scat0385/valperga.html>.

If the author(s) are not identifiable, begin with the name of the organisation.

If the name of the organisation is not identifiable, begin with the title.
Electronic journals or newspaper articles in a database
In the reference list include family name, initial(s) of the author(s), date of publication, Title,
Journal title, volume, issue number, page number(s) (if any), day month of newspaper article (if
applicable), date material was viewed, <Name of Database>.

Examples
Analysis: Czechs to say grudging yes to EU, United Press International, 12 June
2003, viewed 27 July 2003, <Academic Search Elite>.

Berman R, Haber S & Weingast BR 2003, The Dilemma of reforming a Post-
Saddam Iraq, Reason, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 678, viewed 17 May 2003, <PAIS
International>.

Nicholson, B 2003, PM hints at more great causes, The Sunday Age, 8 June, p. 8,
viewed 2 September 2003, <Lexis Nexis Academic Universe>.

Sorkin, J 2003, Envisioning high performance, Art Journal, vol. 62, no. 2, viewed 1 June
2003, <Expanded Academic ASAP>.
CD-ROMs
In both systems, the style for citation of CD-ROMs can take two forms, depending on whether
you have information about the author(s) of the material you are citing.

Where a CD-ROM has identifiable authors, or consists of a compilation of individually authored
articles or a database of previously published material, the citation should begin with the
authors name. Where the authors are not identifiable, or the reference is to an entire CD-ROM
database, the citation begins with the title of the work.

Harvard system
For the Harvard system, where the work has identifiable authors, the citation in the text
includes the family name(s) of the author(s), or the name of the authoring organisation, and
the date of publication.

Example (Harvard)
Brown (1997)
United States Department of State (1993).


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The reference list should include the family name(s) and initial(s) of the author(s), the date of
publication, the title of the document or article (within single quotation marks), the title of the
publication (if any, italicised), the format (i.e. CD-ROM), and the volume and issue numbers,
and page information if any, followed by the title of the CD-ROM, the vendor and the frequency
of updating if known. If not all of this information is available, include as much information as
you have.

Example
Brown, FG 1997, The psyche of accountants, Psychometry, CD-ROM, vol. 34, no.
1, pp.1224, PsycLIT, SilverPlatter, quarterly updating.

United States Department of State 1993, Industrial outlook for petroleum and natural
gas, National Trade Data Bank, CD-ROM, United States Department of Commerce.

If the authors are not identifiable or the reference is to an entire CD-ROM database, then the
citation in the text includes the title of the CD-ROM and the date of publication.

Example
Hathaway Primary School (1996)

The corresponding reference in the reference list gives the title of the CD-ROM, the format (i.e.
CD-ROM), the date of publication, the producer, the vendor and the frequency of updating (if
known).

Hathaway Primary School: A Multimedia Case Study 1996, CD-ROM, Deakin University,
Geelong, Vic.

Oxford system
Where a CD-ROM has identifiable authors, or consists of a compilation of individually authored
articles or a database of previously published material, list the initial(s) and family name(s) of
the author(s), the title of the document or article (within single quotation marks), the title of the
publication (if any, in italics), the format (i.e. CD-ROM), the volume and issue numbers, the
date of publication and the page information if any, followed by the title of the CD-ROM, the
vendor and the frequency of updating if known. If all of this information is not available, include
as much as you have.

Examples
FG Brown, The psyche of accountants, Psychometry, CD-ROM, vol. 34, no. 1, 1997, pp.
1224, PsycLIT, SilverPlatter, quarterly updating.

United States Department of State, Industrial outlook for petroleum and natural gas,
1993, National
Trade Data Bank, CD-ROM, United States Department of Commerce.

Subsequent references need only an abbreviated form of the first reference. In most cases
this will include only the title of the work, or the name of the author or organisation. In other
cases, follow the rules outlined for print sources.

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If the authors are not identifiable, or the reference is to an entire CD-ROM database, the
first reference lists the title of the CD-ROM, the producer, the format (i.e. CD-ROM), the
date of publication, the vendor and the frequency of updating (if known)

Example (Harvard)
Hathaway Primary School: A Multimedia Case Study Deakin University, CD-ROM, 1997,
Geelong, Vic.

Example (Oxford)
Hathaway Primary School: A Multimedia Case Study Deakin University, CD-ROM,
Geelong, Vic, 1997.
Electronic books
In the reference list
Family name, initial(s) of the author(s), date of original publication (date of web version) Title of
the complete work, date material was viewed, <URL> or Name of Ebook
Collection/Database>.

Examples
Baynton, B 1902 (web edn 1997), Bush Studies, viewed 20 May 2001,
<http://purl.library.usyd.edu.au/setis/id/p00031>.

Whitman, W 1855 (web edn 1999), Poems of Walt Whitman, viewed 1 June 2003,
<netLibrary>.
Emails as personal communications
Citation of material from emails should be treated as personal communications and should
therefore be cited in the text only and not in the list of references. Note that you should not
include the email address of the author of such information.

(Author initial, family name(s), pers. comm., date of posting as day, month, year.)

Examples
(L Brown, pers. comm., 12 June 2001)
Mr L Brown confirmed this by email on 12 June 2001.
Online forums or discussion groups
You may be asked to reference comments made by fellow students and teaching staff in online
discussion, for example, in Deakin Studies Online (DSO) when you write your essays. Check
your Unit Guide or with the teaching staff in your unit to see if this is a requirement of your
assessment tasks. If this is the case, the format for referencing is as follows.

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Example (Harvard)
Jackson, M, 30 March 2003, Revisions of the heroic model, The Heroic Tradition
and Childrens Literature, viewed 2 April 2003.

Example (Oxford)
Jackson, M, Revisions of the heroic model, The Heroic Tradition and Childrens Literature,
30 March 2003, viewed 2 April 2003.
A word of warning
A lot of information available on the Internet may not be of the quality required for academic
work. Dont forget the Reference Collection in the Library. Also remember the rules about
plagiarism. Academics read widely in the fields you are studying and will be aware when work
might be someone elses.
Further information
For further advice on citing electronic information, refer to Xia Li and Nancy B Cranes
Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information which is held in the library.

There are many other sources you may wish to cite in your essay. If there is anything you are
unsure of, consult the books listed at the end of this Guide. The books may present minor
differences in either system. The main thing to remember is to select a way of referencing you
like and be consistent throughout your essay.
Study materials
Study Guides
Cite Study Guides in full.

Example (Harvard)
Fenner, Peter 1994, The Self and its Destiny in Buddhism, Study Guide, Deakin
University, Geelong, Vic.

Example (Oxford)
Fenner, Peter, The Self and its Destiny in Buddhism, Study Guide, Deakin University,
Geelong, Vic, 1994.

Note: Where there is no author, cite the editor. Where there is no editor, cite the title.
Readers
Cite the original author, date and title of the article, but if the page numbers of the original
article are not reproduced in the Reader, cite it as follows.


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Example (Harvard)
Ursula Le Guin 1986, Bryn Mawr Commencement Address in Projects in Womens
Studies, Reader, Deakin University, Geelong, pp. 30616.

Example (Oxford)
Ursula Le Guin, Bryn Mawr Commencement Address in Projects in Womens
Studies, Reader, Deakin University, Geelong, 1986, pp. 30616.

Note: each article from the Reader used in an essay must be listed individually by author and
title as in the previous example.
Lectures
For lectures, cite by speakers surname, date, lecture and place.
Specialised sources
Government publications
Government publications should be listed under the name of the department concerned unless
there is a specific author. If the publication is known by an abbreviated title this should be
included in the list of references and cross-referenced to the full title.

Example
Commission of Inquiry into Poverty 1975c, Poverty in Australia, First Main Report (Prof.
R.F. Henderson, Chairman) AGPS, Canberra.

Henderson Report See Commission of Inquiry into Poverty 1975c.
Parliamentary debates
References to parliamentary debates (Hansard) should be cited in the following way.

Example (Harvard)
Australia, Senate 1964, Debates Vol. S25, p. 65.

Example (Oxford)
Australia, Senate, Commonwealth Parliamentary Debates, Vol. S25, 1964, p. 65.
Parliamentary publications
References to parliamentary papers should take the following form.
Example (Harvard)
Australian Parliament 1976, Department of Foreign Affairs Annual Report 1975,
Parl. Paper 142, Canberra.

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Example (Oxford)
Department of Foreign Affairs Annual Report 1975, Commonwealth Parliamentary
Papers, 1976, vol. 6, no. 142.
Conference papers
Put in all the details available.

Example (in Harvard)
Lindstrom, Ake 1982, Sweden: Civil Defence in the Context of a Total Defence Posture,
paper presented at Conference on Civil Defence and Australias Security, Australian
National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, Strategic and Defence
Studies Centre, 20 August.

Example (in Oxford)
Lindstrom, Ake, Sweden: Civil Defence in the Context of a Total Defence Posture,
paper presented at Conference on Civil Defence and Australias Security, Australian
National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, Strategic and Defence
Studies Centre, 20 August 1982.
Films, recordings, radio and television programs, and software
In general, films, audio and video recordings, radio and television programs, and software are
identified by their titles. Therefore, citations of these source materials include the title and the
date of production, recording, broadcast or transmission. (Note that titles of episodes of a
program are given in single quotation marks, but the title of the program is given in italics.)

Citations in the text should take the following form if you are using the Harvard system.

Examples
A Room with a View (1985)
General Ledger Program (1995)
The Third Millennium (27 July 1997)

In the reference list, the full reference gives the title; date of production or recording, format,
broadcast or transmission; the publisher; the place of production, recording, broadcast or
transmission and special credits (if any).

Examples (Harvard)
A Room with a View 1985, motion picture, Cinecom International Films, London, producer I
Merchant.
General Ledger Program 1995, computer software, Ver. 1.3, Deakin University, Geelong,
Vic.

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The Third Millennium 27 July 1997, Compass: Inside the Vatican, television program,
ABC Television, Melbourne.

Examples (Oxford)
For the Oxford system, citations in both notes and bibliography should take the form:
A Room with a View, motion picture, Cinecom International Films, London, producer I.
Merchant, 1985.
The Third Millennium, Compass: Inside the Vatican, television program, ABC Television,
Melbourne, 27 July 1997.
General Ledger Program, computer software, Ver. 1.3, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic.,
1995.
Works of art
Include the artist, title of work and year in the body of your essay:

Artemisia Gentileschis Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting, 1630 is a classic work.

In the reference list also cite the medium (e.g. oil, woodcut), dimensions, and the collection or
gallery the work is held in.
Further notes on referencing
Abbreviations
Well-known abbreviations such as CSIRO may be used, but an alphabetical list of
abbreviations should be given at the beginning of the list of references (if using Harvard
system) or bibliography (if using Oxford system). Alternatively, spell out a title in full the first
time it is used and put the abbreviation after it.
Arrangement of family names
Care should be taken in the arrangement of surnames, following the practice of the nation to
which the author belongs.

Examples
Beauvoir, Simone de (French)
Bonin, Theda von (German)
De La Mare, Walter (English)
Deng Xiaoping (Chinese)
De Sica, Vittorio (Italian)
Mai Van Bo (Vietnamese)
Ramony Cajal, Santiago (Spanish)
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Articles in edited collections
In your list of references or bibliography, separately identify each author you have read.

Example (in Harvard)

Ludwig, Wendy 1983, Women and land rights: A review in Gale, Fay (ed.), We Are
Bosses Ourselves: The Status and Role of Aboriginal Women Today, Australian
Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, pp. 7883.

Example (in Oxford)

Ludwig, Wendy, Women and land rights: A review in Gale, Fay (ed.), We Are
Bosses Ourselves: The Status and Role of Aboriginal Women Today, Australian
Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra, 1983, pp. 7883.

In subsequent references to the same collection, list the author, date and title of the article,
then just in Gale (ed.), op. cit. and the page numbers.
Italics
The title of a book, journal, newspaper or work of art should be italicised where possible, or
otherwise underlined. Unpublished material is neither italicised nor underlined.
Material cited from a secondary source
Show details for both sources.

Example (Harvard)

Naomi Weisstein (1968, cited in Robin Morgan, 1970) has shown that ...

Then make sure you cite the full Robin Morgan reference at the end.

In Oxford style, the note would give full details of both references, but only the Morgan book
would be listed in the bibliography.
Multiple authorship
Where an article has two authors, cite both, in the order in which they are listed in the work. If
there are more than two, cite the first author, followed by et al. (i.e. and others).
Multiple works by one author
In the Harvard system, if an author has more than one work in the same year, use the letters a,
b, c and so on, to distinguish one from the other in the references. The order of the letters
depends on the alphabetical order of the titles. Thus two 1985 books by Gena Corea, The
Hidden Malpractice and The Mother Machine, will be cited as 1985a and 1985b respectively.

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Personal communications
Comments made in lectures or tutorials are better followed up in your reading, but sometimes
you may wish to acknowledge a conversation or a letter.

Example
Securo, Mary, personal communication, 10 June 1995.
Place of publication
Include the state or country if the place of publication is not well known or if confusion may
arise.

Example
Cambridge, Mass. and Cambridge, UK.

If two or more places of publication are listed, cite only the first. Place of publication is only
required for journals if there are two different journals with the same or similar titles.

Example
World Geographic (Sydney), World Geographic (London).
Titles within titles
In books, titles within titles are distinguished by means of single quotation marks.

Example
The Annotated Jane Eyre.

In articles, they are distinguished by means of double quotation marks

Example
The Annotated Jane Eyre.
Undated work
If a reference is undated, put n.d. (no date) where the date would usually be: Use Greenpeace
(n.d.) have suggested... in the text; and in the list of references write Greenpeace, n.d.,
Nuclear testing pamphlet.

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6 Plagiarism and collusion
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is a form of intellectual dishonesty and cheating. More precisely, it involves using
another persons words or material and presenting them as your own work. The Deakin
University Plagiarism and Collusion Policy is available at:
<http://www.deakin.edu.au/theguide>.

The Deakin University Plagiarism and Collusion Policy (Deakin University, 2003) states that:
Plagiarism occurs when a student passes off as the students own work, or copies
without acknowledgement of its authorship, the work of any other person.

The most common form of plagiarism is the copying of passages from sources such as books,
articles, class materials or the Internet without properly and completely acknowledging the
source.

Remember:
If you copy word-for-word from someone elses work, the copied passage must be placed
in quotation marks and the source (including the actual page numbers) must be cited.
If you paraphrase a passage (that is, if you simply summarise or rework someone elses
writings or other material in your own words) you must accurately record the source,
including page numbers.
If you make use of the ideas of others more broadly, you must still acknowledge the source
of those ideas.
If you draw material from the internet or other electronic sources, it must also be properly
and completely acknowledged, in the same way as you would acknowledge material from
printed and other sources.
Collusion
Collusion occurs when a student obtains the agreement of another person for a
fraudulent purpose with the intent of obtaining an advantage in submitting an
assignment or other work.
<http://www.deakin.edu.au/theguide>

Collusion is also considered a form of cheating. It is unacceptable for several people to
collude in writing an essay so that essentially the same essay is presented several times,
with a different author each time. You can often profit from discussing your work with
others, but the actual work should be your own unless you are working on a designated
group project.

Plagiarism and/or collusion is unacceptable in university work. In written work submitted for
assessment in the Faculty of Arts, plagiarism and/or collusion will be regarded as grounds for
failure and will lead to proceedings under the Deakin University Regulation 4.1(1) Student
Discipline, Part 4, Academic Offences.
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Avoiding plagiarism
Some examples follow of correct and incorrect referencing to clarify what is and is not
acceptable in the use of anothers work. This example is drawn from Babbie, E 1975, The
Practice of Social Research, Wadsworth, Appendix A12.

Example
The original work
Gall, J 1975, Systematics: How Systems Work and Especially How They Fail,
Quadrangle, New York, pp.1214.

The laws of growth
Systems are like babies: once you get one, you have it. They dont go away. On the contrary,
they display the most remarkable persistence. They not only persist; they grow. And as they
grow they encroach. The growth potential of systems was explored in a tentative, preliminary
way by Parkinson, who concluded that administrative systems maintain an average growth of
5 to 6 percent per annum regardless of the work to be done. Parkinson was right so far as he
goes, and we must give him full honours for initiating the serious study of this important topic.
But what Parkinson failed to perceive, we now enunciate the general systems analogue of
Parkinsons Law.

Acceptable ways to make use of this work
John Gall in his work on Systematics (1975, p. 12) draws a humorous parallel between
systems and infants: Systems are like babies: once you get one, you have it. They dont go
away. On the contrary, they display the most remarkable persistence. They not only persist;
they grow.

The author has been specified, so the citation does not include his name again.

John Gall warns that systems are like babies. Create a system and it sticks around. Worse yet,
Gall notes, systems keep growing larger and larger (1975, p. 12).

It has also been suggested that systems have a natural tendency to persist, even grow and
encroach (Gall, 1975, p. 12).

Here, the authors name is not given in the main text, so is included in the reference. The full
citation would be given in the bibliography.

Unacceptable uses of the same material
In this paper, I want to look at some of the characteristics of the social systems we create in
our organisations. First, systems are like babies: once you get one, its yours. They dont go
away. On the contrary, they display the most remarkable persistence: they grow.

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It is unacceptable to quote directly like this from someone elses work without using quotation
marks and giving a full citation.

In this paper, I want to look at some of the characteristics of the social systems we create in
our organisations. First, systems are a lot like children: once you get one, its yours. They dont
go away: they persist. They not only persist, in fact: they grow.

It is unacceptable to edit anothers work and present it as your own.

In this paper, I want to look at some of the characteristics of the social systems we create in
our organisations. One thing Ive noticed is that once you create a system, it never seems to
go away. Just the opposite, in fact: systems have a tendency to grow. You might say systems
are a lot like children in that respect.

It is unacceptable to paraphrase someone elses ideas and present them as your own.

Remember:
Plagiarism will result in the failure of your assignment
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7 Academic writing style
Good writing principles
If you are worried about your English expression, it is advisable to purchase one of the many
books on usage. This guide only touches on a few areas of concern. A reference book such as
W Strunk and EB White The Elements of Style (2000) will provide a comprehensive
explanation of good usage. These are some of the problems most commonly noted by markers
in the Faculty.
Academic style
Academic writing is formal writing; this means full sentences with correct grammar and
punctuation. Remember to focus on facts, evidence and argument rather than just telling a
story (unless you are specifically asked to do this).

The use of third person is preferred in your writing. This is an impersonal style of writing, from
the viewpoint of an observer.

Examples
Students should never plagiarise.
One has to be very careful
The author has argued her case very strongly

It is possible to use the first person sometimes. This is the use of I, my.

Examples
I think the author has
In my professional experience

This is appropriate when you have been asked to give a personal response in an
essay, but otherwise, check with your unit chair as to whether it is acceptable.

Second person is the use of we, our, you, and so on.

Example
Our country is magnificentwe need to look after our environment.

Do not use second personit is too casual and conversational for academic writing.

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Sentences
Check that you have written full sentences. A sentence must contain a verb (an action word)
and usually contains a subject, verb and object

Examples
The fields were full of flowers. (sentence)
Fields full of flowers. (non-sentence)

If your sentences are too long, divide them into shorter ones to make your meaning
clearer. Keep a dictionary handy to assist with your spelling and a thesaurus to assist
with variety of expression.
Active and passive voice
Clear, direct expression is hampered by excessive use of what is known as the passive
voice: verbs that take the form A was done by B rather than B did A. The passive voice
tends towards stuffiness, and even pretentiousness.

Example (passive)
The reception was attended by the professor.
In the active voice, the same information can be conveyed much more simply and directly.

Example (active)
The professor attended the reception.

On the other hand, the use of the passive voice is sometimes unavoidable. It can provide
variety of style or supply rhetorical impact. It also makes it possible to avoid the tiresome use
of phrases such as his and her.
There are other occasions when it is desirable to use the passive voice. The most obvious is
when you wish to convey a certain degree of vagueness, since the facts might not be
completely verifiable. Such a passage might start with phrases like: It is believed that,
Reportedly, or According to reports. It is also legitimate to use the passive voice when you
wish to note a viewpoint without attributing it to anyone in particular.
Paragraphs
Avoid paragraphs that are either too long or too short. One-sentence paragraphs and
paragraphs that extend over most of the page will not present your argument to advantage.
Remember that each paragraph should contain only one idea, but it should explain the idea
fully, so that the paragraphs show the logical steps in the development of your argument.
Colloquialisms and clichs
Some words and phrases have lost their effectiveness through overuse. Many expressions
like a calculated risk or a near miss or figures of speech such as blind as a bat are
inappropriate in a formal written piece. Avoid words such as incredible, unreal, basically
and amazing. You should also avoid the use of contractions such as cant or wont, since
these are too informal to be included in your academic writing.
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Colloquialisms are often vague as well as informal. If something you have written strikes you
as being too general, or you are not sure of the point you are making, do not leave it. Work out
what you are saying and use the exact words needed to pinpoint your meaning

Go through your first draft and cut out all superfluous words. Avoid clichs such as: the
moment of truth; stand up and be counted; last but not least; in this day and age; at this
point in time; slowly but surely.
Verbosity
Avoid verbosity. For example, it is better to say cheaper than more economically viable,
prevent than serve to prevent, investigate than perform an investigation of.
Agreement of tenses
Your tenses should be consistent throughout the essay. For example, it is incorrect
to write:
Women in the nineteenth century wore voluminous clothing. They find this difficult to
keep clean when they are working around the house.

The sentence should read:
Women in the nineteenth century wore voluminous clothing. They found this difficult to
keep clean when they were working around the house.
Spelling and meaning
Always keep a good desk dictionary beside you while you are writingsuch as the Macquarie,
Oxford, Chambers or Collins. Be consistent in spelling words with variant forms (e.g. verandah
or veranda). Avoid American forms such as dove for the English dived. Use Australian
spellings for words such as recognise (rather than recognize) and labour (rather than labor)
except when you are using a direct quotation that uses the American spelling. Never change
direct quotes.

Make sure you know the difference between the following.

Examples
accept / except loath / loathe
advice / advise maybe / may be
affect / effect past / passed
aggravate / irritate practice / practise
all together / altogether principal / principle
discreet / discrete stationary / stationery
itch / scratch their / there / theyre
its / its then / than
laid / lay / laying to / too
lead / led whose / whos.
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Common errors in punctuation
Colons and semi-colons
Semi-colons are used to separate closely related independent clauses where a full stop could
be used, but would make too sharp a separation.

Example
Your car is new; mine is five years old.
The blockade had gone on for a month; the armys supplies were running low.

Semi-colons are also used to separate the terms in a complex string of clauses or phrases
introduced by a colon (see example that follows).

Colons are used to indicate that something is to follow. The following series of statements
is introduced by colons and separated by semi-colons.

Example
Here are the facts: the money was there five minutes before he entered the room; it was
missing immediately after he left; the next day he bought a new suit, although he had
previously spent all of this months allowance.

Colons can also introduce a list. Note that you do not need to have a comma at the end of
each item in a list, though you do need to end with a full stop.

Example
The matters raised included:
(a) ............
(b) ............
(c) .............

You can use a colon to introduce a quote, but not an example introduced by for example,
including, such as, that is, namely and so on.
The apostrophe
Note: Its means it is. It NEVER has an apostrophe to denote possession.

Example
Its (it is) a dog. Its coat is brown. Its (it is) good tempered.

Also avoid using apostrophes to form plurals, even after abbreviations or acronyms:

Example
Potatoes not potatos
POWs not POWs

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An apostrophe followed by s is added to singular nouns to denote ownership:

Example
The dogs coat is brown.

For singular nouns ending in s you may omit the final s.

Example
Jamess, Charless, Dickenss are correct, but James, Charles, Dickens are
acceptable.
An apostrophe without an s is added to plural nouns ending in s: babies clothing, the
harpies wings, the characters words (several characters). Be careful of plural nouns
that do not end in s: mens, womens and childrens not mens womens and childrens.

Note that whos means who is, while whose means of whom.

Example
Whos this mysterious hero, whispered the courtiers, whose charm and good
humour have won the heart of the princess?

Dates and apostrophes
Apostrophes are not used to form plurals; use 1990s, not 1990s. Sometimes dates are
abbreviated to 90s, 68 and so on, but it is better to use the full four-digit form.
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8 References and further reading
References
Anderson, J & Poole, M 1998, Thesis and Assignment Writing, 3rd edn, John Wiley, Sydney.
Babbie, E 1975, The Practice of Social Research, Wadsworth Pub Co, California, US.
Bate, D & Sharpe, P 1996, Writers Handbook for University Students, Harcourt Brace, Sydney.
Berry, R 1986, How to Write a Research Paper, 2nd edn, Pergamon, Oxford.
Clanchy, J & Ballard, B 1997, Essay Writing for Students: A Practical Guide, 3rd edn, Addison
Wesley Longman, Melbourne.
Clanchy, J (ed.) 1994, Making the Most of your Arts Degree: A Guide for Students in
Humanities and Social Sciences, Longman Cheshire, South Melbourne, Vic.
Deakin University 2003, Policies procedures and guidelines, The Guide: A Deakin University
Information Service, viewed 8 December 2003, <http:www.deakin.edu.au/theguide>.
Essay Writing Made Easy, videorecording, 1996, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic.
Evans, D & Gruba, P 2002, How to write a better thesis, 2nd edn, Melbourne University Press,
Carlton South.
Farrugia, D, Lee, R, Gilchrist, R, Kumar, M, Broadstock, H 2001, Essay Writing: Understanding
the Process, Division of Student Life, Deakin University, Geelong.
Harmon, GL & Dickinson, RF 1970, Write Now! Substance, Strategy, Style, Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, New York.
Hastings, E 1984, How to Study at Tertiary Level, Melbourne.
Li, X. & Crane, NB 1996, Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information 2nd edn,
Information Today, Medford NJ.
Marshall, L & Rowland, F 1993, A Guide to Learning Independently, 2nd edn, Longman
Cheshire, Melbourne.
Martin, J 1988, Second Chance: Women Returning to Study, Penguin, Harmondsworth.
Strunk, W & White, EB 2000, The Elements of Style, 4th edn, Allyn and Bacon, Boston.
Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 1994, 4th edn, AGPS, Canberra.
Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers 2002, 6th edn, rev. Snooks & Co, John Wiley and
Sons, Canberra.
Turabian, KL 1996, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edn,
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


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Further reading
Barnet, S 1997, A Short Guide to Writing About Art, 5th edn, Longman, New York.
Burdess, N 1998, The Handbook of Student Skills 2nd edn, Prentice Hall, Sydney.
Hughes, J, Nunn, S & Bruenjes, A 1995, Honours Handbook: A Guide for Students, School of
Social Inquiry, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic.
Forrestal, P 1996, Look it Up!: A Reference Book for Students of English, 3rd edn, Nelson,
Melbourne.
Ritter, RM (ed.) 2002, The Oxford Guide to Style, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Ryan, T n.d., Communication Skills and Study Skills: A User-friendly Guide for Students, Deakin
University, Geelong, Vic.
Summers, J & Smith B, Communication Skills Handbook: How to Succeed in Written and Oral
Communication, John Wiley & Sons, Australia, Queensland.
Wallace, A, Shirato, T & Bright, P, 1999, Beginning University: Thinking, Researching and
Writing for Success, Allen and Unwin, St Leonards, NSW.
Williams, J 1995, Style: Toward Clarity and Grace, rev. edn, Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Note: This reference list has been formatted using the authordate system as presented in the
Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers (2002).