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# Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 1 of 33

## Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida

E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
Five-Story Shear Plane Frame
Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis

Comparison between hand calculations based on the theory of structural dynamics and
ETABS analysis procedure results

Problem:
Five-story shear plane frame with story-height of 3.0m and single bay of 4.0m
The mathematical model consists from squares columns (
2
60 60 cm ) with infinitely
rigid beams ( =
beam
I ).
The entire mass of each story is assumed to be lumped at its level with total value of
typical story mass ( m kN m / sec . 100
2
= ).
The material of columns and beams has modulus of elasticity equal to
(
2 6
/ 10 . 2 m kN E = ).
Assumed damping ratio ( 05 . 0 = ).
The frame is subjected to dynamic response spectra as defined in UBC-97 with
assumed design parameters :
Seismic zone factor ( 3 . 0 = Z )
Soil profile type (
B
S )

Evaluate the following:
(a). Natural vibration frequencies and corresponding vibration
mode shapes.
(b). Periods corresponding to vibration mode shapes.
(c). Response spectrum accelerations corresponding to periods.
(d). Maximum modal displacement corresponding to
vibration mode shapes.
(e). Maximum story-displacement according to
(f). Maximum modal elastic forces (inertia-forces) at story-levels.
(g). Maximum modal story-shear forces.
(h). Maximum total story-shear forces according to
(i). Modal participation factors.
(j). Modal participating mass ratios.

Notes:
The matrix analysis will be done by using MATLAB software (high performance
language for technical computing & solve engineering problems).
Compare hand-calculation results with equivalents obtained from ETABS analysis.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 2 of 33

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Introduction:
A shear frame may be defined as a structure in which there is no rotation of a horizontal
section at the level of the floor. In this respect the deflected frame will have many of the
features of a cantilever beam that is deflected by shear forces, Hence the name Shear Frame.
To accomplish such deflection in frame, we must assume that: (1) the total mass of the
structure is concentrated at the levels of the floors; (2) the beams on the floor are infinitely
rigid as compared to the columns; and (3) the deformation of the structure is independent of
the axial forces present in the columns. These assumptions transform the problem from a
structure with an infinite number of degree of freedom (due to the distributed mass) to a
structure which has only as many degrees as it has lumped masses at the floor levels.
According to previous discussion a five stories frame modeled as a shear frame will have five
degrees of freedom, that is, the five horizontal displacements at the floor levels. The second
assumption introduces the requirement that the joints between beams and columns are fixed
against rotation. The third assumption leads to the condition that the rigid beams will remain
horizontal during motion.

Determination of Lumped mass matrix:
For shear structure; the mass matrix is a diagonal matrix (the nonzero elements are only in the
main diagonal) whereas each one of these elements represents the total equivalent entire mass
of the story as a concentrated lumped mass at the level of this story with understanding that
only horizontal displacement of this mass is possible.

Therefore the lumped mass matrix is given by:
m kN
m
m
m
m
m
M / sec .
100 0 0 0 0
0 100 0 0 0
0 0 100 0 0
0 0 0 100 0
0 0 0 0 100
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
2
5
4
3
2
1

=

Determination of stiffness matrix:
The stiffness matrix of shear frame can be determined by applying a unit displacement to each
story alternately and evaluation the resulting story forces. Because the beams are infinitely
rigid comparison to columns; then the story forces can easily be determined by adding the
side-sway stiffness of the appropriates stories which equal in this case to the total sum of
columns stiffness of that stories.

In shear frame as defined previously the stiffness of column with two ends fixed against
rotation is given by:
3
12
h
EI
K
c
c
=
Where (h ) is the story height, and (
c
I ) is the moment of inertia of column's section given by:
4
3 3
0108 . 0
12
6 . 0 6 . 0
60 . 0
12
m I m a where
a a
I
c c
=

= =

=
The stiffness of the story is given by:
m kN
h
EI
K K K
c
c c i
/ 19200
3
0108 . 0 10 2 24 24
. 2
3
6
3
=

= = = =

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 3 of 33

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The stiffness matrix of the structure is given by:

m kN
K K K
K K K K
K K K K
K K K K
K K
K /
2 1 0 0 0
1 2 1 0 0
0 1 2 1 0
0 0 1 2 1
0 0 0 1 1
19200
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0 0
5 4 4
4 4 3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1

+
+
+
+

=

where
i
K K and K K K K =
5 4 3 2 1
, , , the entire stiffness of the story.

Natural vibration frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes:
Based on the dynamics of structures theory, the natural vibration frequencies and
corresponding mode shapes can be determined by solve the equation:
0 ] [
2
= M K
This equation is called an eigenvalue problem. The quantities
2
are the eigenvalues
indicating the square of free vibration frequencies, while the corresponding displacement
vectors represent the corresponding mode of vibrating system known as the eigenvectors
or mode shapes.
Hence a nontrivial solution is possible 0 only when the determinant M K
2
equal
to zero (due to Cramer's rule). Expanding the determinant will give an algebraic equation
of the N
th
degree in the frequency parameter
2
for a system having N degrees of freedom.
The N roots of this equation ) , . . . , , , (
2 2
3
2
2
2
1 N
represent the frequencies of the N modes
of vibration which are possible in the system. The mode having the lowest frequency is
called the first mode or the fundamental mode, the next higher frequency is the second
mode, etc.

It is easily to solve this problem by using MATLAB (Mathematical Programming
Language), where mathematically we can write:

) ) ( ( ] , [ K M inv eig =

Where is the vector of square of frequencies.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 4 of 33

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Type this code in MATLAB editor

MATLAB CODE:
>> [ModeShapes,Omega]=eig(inv(M)*K)

The result will be:
Square of Frequencies matrix

=
707.0414 0 0 0 0
0 543.5194 0 0 0
0 0 3511 . 329 0 0
0 0 0 5335 . 132 0
0 0 0 0 5547 . 15

To get Frequencies Matrix, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> Freq = zeros(5)
>> for i=1:5
Freq(i,i)= omega(i,i)^0.5
end

The result will be:
sec /
26.5902 0 0 0 0
0 23.3135 0 0 0
0 0 18.1480 0 0
0 0 0 11.5123 0
0 0 0 0 3.9439

=

Mode shapes matrix:

=
0.0326 0.0549 0.0597 0.0456 - 0.0170
0.0549 - 0.0456 - 0.0170 0.0597 - 0.0326
0.0597 0.0170 - 0.0549 - 0.0326 - 0.0456
0.0456 - 0.0597 0.0326 - 0.0170 0.0549
0.0170 0.0326 - 0.0456 0.0549 0.0597

Mode shapes vectors:

=
0.0170
0.0326
0.0456
0.0549
0.0597
1
,

=
0.0456 -
0.0597 -
0.0326 -
0.0170
0.0549
2
,

=
0.0597
0.0170
0.0549 -
0.0326 -
0.0456
3
,

=
0.0549
0.0456 -
0.0170 -
0.0597
0.0326 -
4
,

=
0.0326
0.0549 -
0.0597
0.0456 -
0.0170
5

mode shape-1 mode shape-2 mode shape-3 mode shape-4 mode shape-5

sec /
9439 . 3
1
=

sec /
5123 . 11
2
=

sec /
1480 . 18
3
=

sec /
3135 . 23
4
=

sec /
5902 . 26
5
=

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 5 of 33

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The five mode shapes for this frame are sketched below:

sec /
9439 . 3
1
=

sec /
5123 . 11
2
=

sec /
1480 . 18
3
=

sec /
3135 . 23
4
=

sec /
5902 . 26
5
=

Determination of Period Matrix:
The period (T) of motion is given as a function of frequency as following: (sec)
2

= T
This is mean that each mode shape of vibration has relative period
To get the period matrix of the structure; type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> Period = zeros(5)
>> for i=1:5
Period(i,i) = 2 * pi /freq(i,i)
end

The period matrix will be:
sec
0.2363 0 0 0 0
0 0.2695 0 0 0
0 0 0.3462 0 0
0 0 0 0.5458 0
0 0 0 0 1.5931

= T
Where the period of 1
st
,
2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
and 5
th
mode shapes are given respectively: (1.5931,
0.5458, 0.3462, 0.2695, 0.2363 sec).
Note that the period of the first mode shape is the biggest one (T=1.5931 sec) which is called
the fundamental period. The next lesser one is come with second mode shape, etc.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 6 of 33

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Determination of response spectrum Acceleration Matrix:
We can determine the mass acceleration depending on the response spectrum.
The response spectrum is a plot of maximum accelerations for all values of periods, in other
word for a system has specified period based on its mass and stiffness the response spectrum
function gives the maximum acceleration can occur in the entire mass of this system. That is
mean; if we know the vibration period of a specific mass we can determine its acceleration
depending on response spectrum function.

The response spectrum function depending on the site characteristics, therefore the design
codes give the response spectrum as a function of zone and soil profile, where the zone
reflects the acceleration occur in the mother bed rock and the soil profile reflect the effect of
the soil under structure in decrease or increase the amplitude of the motion. So it is very
important to know that for a structure has specified period (T) will vibrate in different
accelerations due to the site which the structure located.

The determination of the design response spectra as per UBC97 requires two design
parameters:

=
=

=
3 . 0
3 . 0
) (
) 3 ( 3 . 0 :
V
a
B
C
C
S profile Soil
Zone for Z Factor Zone Seismic

This plot has two characteristics periods
sec 08 . 0 2 . 0
sec 4 . 0
3 . 0 5 . 2
3 . 0
5 . 2
= =
=

= =
s o
a
V
s
T T
C
C
T

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 7 of 33

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If the period of vibration mode is greater than
s
T , then the relative acceleration is given by:
2
sec /
943 . 2
81 . 9
3 . 0 3 . 0
m
T T
g
T
g
T
C
S
V
a
= = = =
Else, if the period is lesser than
s
T and greater than
o
T , then the relative acceleration is given
by:
2
sec / 3575 . 7 81 . 9 3 . 0 5 . 2 5 . 2 m g C S
V a
= = =

To get the acceleration matrix according to the period of vibration mode shapes, type the
following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> Sa = zeros(5)
>> for i=1:5
if Period(i,i) > 0.4
Sa(i,i) = 0.3 * 9.81 / Period(i,i)
else
Sa(i,i) = 0.75 * 9.81
end;
end

The acceleration matrix will be:

2
sec /
7.3575 0 0 0 0
0 7.3575 0 0 0
0 0 7.3575 0 0
0 0 0 5.3923 0
0 0 0 0 1.8473
m S
a

=
Note: if the structure has a period lesser than or equal to characteristic periods
s
T , then the
entire mass of this structure will vibrate according to the maximum probable acceleration.
This will be lead to create a maximum inertia force in mass. Therefore it is very important to
scale the ratio of the structure's stiffness to its mass to get a value of period more than
s
T as
much as possible, but at the same time we have to avoid getting a more flexible structure

Determination of maximum modal displacement:
The maximum modal displacement matrix is given by:

=
a
S
m
L
U
*

where: (L) is the matrix of modal excitation factor given by: { } 1 M L
T
=

*
m is the generalized modal mass matrix given by: = M m
T *

To get the matrix of modal excitation factor; type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> LL = ModeShapes' * M * [1;1;1;1;1]
>> for i=1:5
L(i,i) = LL(i,1)
end

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 8 of 33

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The result will be:

=
0.8853 0 0 0 0
0 1.9377 0 0 0
0 0 3.4796 0 0
0 0 0 6.6022 - 0
0 0 0 0 20.9706
L

To get the generalized modal mass matrix, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> ModalMass = ModeShapes' * M * ModeShapes

The result will be:

=
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1
*
m

To get the maximum modal displacement, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> U_Modal = ModeShapes * (L/ModalMass) * (Sa/Omega)

The result will be:
m U

=
0.0003 0.0014 0.0046 0.0122 0.0423
0.0005 - 0.0012 - 0.0013 0.0160 0.0812
0.0005 0.0004 - 0.0043 - 0.0088 0.1135
0.0004 - 0.0016 0.0025 - 0.0046 - 0.1366
0.0002 0.0009 - 0.0035 0.0147 - 0.1487

Where the relative displacement vectors due to each mode shape will be as the following:

=
0.0423
0.0812
0.1135
0.1366
0.1487
1
U ,

=
0.0122
0.0160
0.0088
0.0046 -
0.0147 -
2
U ,

=
0.0046
0.0013
0.0043 -
0.0025 -
0.0035
3
U ,

=
0.0014
0.0012 -
0.0004 -
0.0016
0.0009 -
4
U ,

=
0.0003
0.0005 -
0.0005
0.0004 -
0.0002
5
U

Note that
i
U is the vector of maximum displacements at story-levels due to relative mode
shape
i
.
(we can see clearly that the maximum lateral displacement at 5
th
story due to 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th

and 5
th
mode shapes are given respectively :0.1487, -0.0147, 0.0035, -0.0009, 0.0002 m )

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 9 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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Determination of maximum story-displacement:

Maximum total response cannot be obtained, in general, by merely adding the modal maxima
because these maxima usually do not occur at the same time. In most cases, when one mode
achieves its maximum response, the other modal responses are less than their individual
maxima. Therefore, although the superposition of the modal spectral values obviously
provides an upper limit to the total response, it generally over estimates this maximum by a
significant amount. A number of different formulas have been proposed to obtain a more
reasonable estimate of the maximum response from the spectral values. The simplest and
most popular of these is the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS) of the maximum
modal responses. Thus if the maximum modal displacements are given as previous, the SRSS
approximation of the maximum total displacements is given by:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
2
max
U U U U U U U
n
i
i
+ + + + = =

=

Where the terms under the radical sign represent the vectors of the maximum modal
displacements squared.

It is very important to know that the SRSS method is fundamentally sound when the modal
frequencies are well separated. However, when the frequencies of major contributing modes
are very close together, the SRSS method can give poor results, in which case the more
general complete quadratic combination (CQC) method should be used.

To get the maximum total displacement matrix, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> for i=1:5
s = 0
for j=1:5
s = s + U_Modal(i,j)^2
end
U_Max(i,1) = s^0.5
end

The result will be:
m U

=
0.0443
0.0828
0.1139
0.1367
0.1494
max

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 10 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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Determination of maximum modal elastic-forces:

The maximum modal elastic forces occur at the story-levels is given by:
a s
S
m
L
M f
*
=
To get the matrix of modal elastic forces, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> fs = M * ModeShapes * L /ModalMass * Sa

The result will be:
kN f
s

=
21.2359 78.2015 152.8106 162.2452 65.8146
35.7296 - 64.9722 - 43.4944 212.4961 126.2973
38.8794 24.2207 - 140.4308 - 116.0654 176.5481
29.6853 - 85.0955 83.4652 - 60.4827 - 212.4961
11.0662 46.4792 - 116.6741 195.2809 - 231.2289

The relative elastic force vectors due to each mode shape will be as the following:

=
65.8146
126.2973
176.5481
212.4961
231.2289
1 s
f ,

=
162.2452
212.4961
116.0654
60.4827 -
195.2809 -
2 s
f ,

=
152.8106
43.4944
140.4308 -
83.4652 -
116.6741
3 s
f ,

=
78.2015
64.9722 -
24.2207 -
85.0955
46.4792 -
4 s
f ,

=
21.2359
35.7296 -
38.8794
29.6853 -
11.0662
5 s
f

where
si
f is the vector of maximum elastic forces at story-levels due to relative mode shape
i
.
(we can see clearly that the maximum elastic force at 5
th
story due to 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
and 5
th

mode shapes are given respectively :231.2289, -195.2809, 116.6741, -46.4792, 11.0662 kN)

Determinations of maximum modal story shear forces:

We can get the shear force acting on a certain story by assembly the elastic-forces acting
above the level of this story. Therefore the story-shear force is given by: ( )

+ =
=
n
j i
i s j
f V
1

To assembly the elastic-forces at each story level, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> for i=1:5
for j=1:5
s = 0
for a=1:j
s=s+fs(a,i)
end
V_Modal(j,i)=s
end
end
Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 11 of 33

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The result will be:
kN V

=
5.7667 27.6249 89.0831 235.0431 812.3849
15.4692 - 50.5766 - 63.7274 - 72.7979 746.5703
20.2604 14.3956 107.2219 - 139.6982 - 620.2730
18.6190 - 38.6163 33.2089 255.7636 - 443.7249
11.0662 46.4792 - 116.6741 195.2809 - 231.2289

The relative shear force vectors due to each mode shape will be as the following:

=
812.3849
746.5703
620.2730
443.7249
231.2289
1
V ,

=
235.0431
72.7979
139.6982 -
255.7636 -
195.2809 -
2
V ,

=
89.0831
63.7274 -
107.2219 -
33.2089
116.6741
3
V ,

=
27.6249
50.5766 -
14.3956
38.6163
46.4792 -
4
V ,

=
5.7667
15.4692 -
20.2604
18.6190 -
11.0662
5
V

where
i
V is the vector of shear forces at story-levels due to relative mode shape
i
.
(We can see clearly that the shear force at 1
st
story due to 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
and 5
th
mode shapes
are given respectively: 812.3849, 235.0431, 89.0831, 27.6249, 5.7667 kN)

Determinations of maximum total story shear forces:

Similarly to previous (Determination of maximum story-level displacement), the maximum
total story shear forces could be approximated from the modal maxima by using SRSS
combination method as the following:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
2
max
V V V V V V V
n
i
i
+ + + + = =

=

To get the maximum total story shear-forces matrix, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> for i=1:5
s = 0
for j=1:5
s = s+V_Modal(i,j)^2
end
V_Max(i,1)=s^0.5
end

The result will be:
kN V

=
850.8506
754.6690
645.2662
515.0219
327.8674
max

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 12 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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Determination of modal participation factors:

The modal participation factor representing the interaction between the mode shape and the
spatial distribution of the external load.
this factor given by:
*
m
L
MPF =
To get the matrix of modal participation factor, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> MPF = L / ModalMass

The result will be:

=
0.8853 0 0 0 0
0 1.9377 0 0 0
0 0 3.4796 0 0
0 0 0 6.6022 - 0
0 0 0 0 20.9706
MPF

Determination of modal participating mass ratio:
The modal participating mass ratio represent the part of the total mass which responding to
earthquake motion in each mode, therefore this ratio is very important to determine the
adequate number of mode shapes which give a reasonable part of vibration mass which will
respond to the motion.

The UBC-97 Code declares that we need an adequate number of mode shapes to insure that
90% of the mass at least will respond due to earthquake motion.

The modal participating mass ratio given by:
( )
%
* 2

=
i
m
m L
MPMR
To get the modal participating mass ratio matrix, type the following code:

MATLAB CODE:
>> Segma_M = 0
>> for i=1:5
Segma_M = Segma_M + M(i,i)
end
>> MPMR = ((L*L/ModalMass)/Segma_M)*100

The result will be:

=
0.1568 0 0 0 0
0 0.7509 0 0 0
0 0 2.4216 0 0
0 0 0 8.7177 0
0 0 0 0 87.9530
MPMR

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 13 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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Note that the part of mass which will respond to the motion for 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
and 5
th
are
given respectively: 87.95%, 8.72%, 2.42%, 0.75% and 0.16%).

Due to MPMR, we see that the first mode shape is most important one, because 87.95% of
mass will respond to ground motion, when only 8.72% of mass will respond in the second
mode shape, etc.
Note that the only first-two mode shapes will be adequate to insure that more than 90% of the
mass will vibrate responding to ground motion.

References:

Clough, R., and J . Penzien. 1993. Dynamics of Structures, Second Edition. McGraw- Hill.

Paz, M. 1985. Structural Dynamics, theory and computation. Van Nostrand Reinhold.

International Conference of Building Official 1997, Uniform Building Code. Whittier, California.

CSI Analysis Reference Manual. CSI Computers & Structures, Berkeley, California.

ETABS Software Verification Examples, CSI Computers & Structures, Berkeley, California.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 14 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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MATLAB CODE

>> % Define Lumped Mass Matrix
>> M = [100 0 0 0 0;
0 100 0 0 0;
0 0 100 0 0;
0 0 0 100 0;
0 0 0 0 100]
M =

100 0 0 0 0
0 100 0 0 0
0 0 100 0 0
0 0 0 100 0
0 0 0 0 100

>> % Define Stiffness Matrix
>> K = 19200.*[1 -1 0 0 0;
-1 2 -1 0 0;
0 -1 2 -1 0;
0 0 -1 2 -1;
0 0 0 -1 2]

K =

19200 -19200 0 0 0
-19200 38400 -19200 0 0
0 -19200 38400 -19200 0
0 0 -19200 38400 -19200
0 0 0 -19200 38400

>> % ModeShapes & Squared Frequencies
>> [ModeShapes,Omega]=eig(inv(M)*K)

Omega =

15.5547 0 0 0 0
0 132.5335 0 0 0
0 0 329.3511 0 0
0 0 0 543.5194 0
0 0 0 0 707.0414

ModeShapes =

0.0597 0.0549 0.0456 -0.0326 0.0170
0.0549 0.0170 -0.0326 0.0597 -0.0456
0.0456 -0.0326 -0.0549 -0.0170 0.0597
0.0326 -0.0597 0.0170 -0.0456 -0.0549
0.0170 -0.0456 0.0597 0.0549 0.0326

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 15 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com

MATLAB CODE

>> Freq = zeros(5)
>> for i=1:5
Freq(i,i)= omega(i,i)^0.5
end

Freq =

3.9439 0 0 0 0
0 11.5123 0 0 0
0 0 18.1480 0 0
0 0 0 23.3135 0
0 0 0 0 26.5902

>> %Period Matrix
>> Period = zeros(5)
>> for i=1:5
Period(i,i) = 2 * pi /freq(i,i)
end

Period =

1.5931 0 0 0 0
0 0.5458 0 0 0
0 0 0.3462 0 0
0 0 0 0.2695 0
0 0 0 0 0.2363

>> %Acceleration Matrix
>> Sa = zeros(5)
>> for i=1:5
if Period(i,i) > 0.4
Sa(i,i) = 0.3 * 9.81 / Period(i,i)
else
Sa(i,i) = 0.75 * 9.81
end;
end

Sa =

1.8473 0 0 0 0
0 5.3923 0 0 0
0 0 7.3575 0 0
0 0 0 7.3575 0
0 0 0 0 7.3575

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 16 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
MATLAB CODE

>> %Modal Excitation Matrix
>> LL = ModeShapes' * M * [1;1;1;1;1]
>> for i=1:5
L(i,i) = LL(i,1)
end

L =

20.9706 0 0 0 0
0 -6.6022 0 0 0
0 0 3.4796 0 0
0 0 0 1.9377 0
0 0 0 0 0.8853

>> % Modal Mass Matrix
>> ModalMass = ModeShapes' * M * ModeShapes

ModalMass =

1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000

>> %Modal Displacement
>> U_Modal = ModeShapes * (L/ModalMass) * (Sa/Omega)

U_Modal =

0.1487 -0.0147 0.0035 -0.0009 0.0002
0.1366 -0.0046 -0.0025 0.0016 -0.0004
0.1135 0.0088 -0.0043 -0.0004 0.0005
0.0812 0.0160 0.0013 -0.0012 -0.0005
0.0423 0.0122 0.0046 0.0014 0.0003

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 17 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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MATLAB CODE

>> %Maximum Story Displacement due to SRSS Combination
>> for i=1:5
s = 0
for j=1:5
s = s + U_Modal(i,j)^2
end
U_Max(i,1) = s^0.5
end

U_Max =

0.1494
0.1367
0.1139
0.0828
0.0443

>> %Maximum Modal Elastic Forces Matrix
>> fs = M * ModeShapes * L /ModalMass * Sa

fs =

231.2289 -195.2809 116.6741 -46.4792 11.0662
212.4961 -60.4827 -83.4652 85.0955 -29.6853
176.5481 116.0654 -140.4308 -24.2207 38.8794
126.2973 212.4961 43.4944 -64.9722 -35.7296
65.8146 162.2452 152.8106 78.2015 21.2359

>> %Maximum Modal Story-Shear Matrix
>> for i=1:5
for j=1:5
s = 0
for a=1:j
s=s+fs(a,i)
end
V_Modal(j,i)=s
end
end

V_Modal =

231.2289 -195.2809 116.6741 -46.4792 11.0662
443.7249 -255.7636 33.2089 38.6163 -18.6190
620.2730 -139.6982 -107.2219 14.3956 20.2604
746.5703 72.7979 -63.7274 -50.5766 -15.4692
812.3849 235.0431 89.0831 27.6249 5.7667

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 18 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
MATLAB CODE

>> %Maximum Total Story Shear Forces due to SRSS Combination
>> for i=1:5
s = 0
for j=1:5
s = s+V_Modal(i,j)^2
end
V_Max(i,1)=s^0.5
end

V_Max =

327.8674
515.0219
645.2662
754.6690
850.8506

>> %Modal Participation Factor
>> MPF = L / ModalMass

MPF =

20.9706 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 -6.6022 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 3.4796 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9377 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8853

>> %Modal Participating Mass Ratio
>> Segma_M = 0
>> for i=1:5
Segma_M = Segma_M + M(i,i)
end
>> MPMR = ((L*L/ModalMass)/Segma_M)*100

MPMR =

87.9530 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 8.7177 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 2.4216 0.0000 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7509 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1568

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 19 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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ETABS MODEL

Build of Mathematical Computer Model:

The frame is modeled as five-story consist from two-column line, singly bay system with
story-height 3m & length of bay 4m. kN-m-second units are used.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 20 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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ETABS MODEL

Define material properties: (Modulus of elasticity, Self-Mass of Material)
Assume that the self-weight of the frame elements is neglected

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 21 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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ETABS MODEL

Define Column's Properties:

The column is modeled to have infinite axial area, so that axial deformation is neglected.
Also, Zero column shear area is input to trigger the ETABS option of neglecting shear
deformation. These deformations are neglected to be consistent with the hand-calculated
model with which the result are compared.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 22 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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ETABS MODEL

Define Beam's Properties:

The beam is modeled as a rigid beam to have infinite moment of inertia compared to column,
so that axial deformation is neglected. Also, neglecting both shear deformations and axial
deformations.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 23 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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ETABS MODEL

Build the model to be as following:

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 24 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Draw Point Object at the mid-span of beams in order to assign lumped mass at the story-
level.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 25 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Assign Lumped Mass at story-level.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 26 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Define Mass Source:

Assign Diaphragm at Story-Level:

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 27 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Define Response Spectrum Function (UBC97 Design Spectrum):

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 28 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Define & Assign Response Spectrum Case Data:

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 29 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Define Analysis options:

Perform analysis.

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 30 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Building Mode-Shapes:

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 31 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Mode-Shapes:

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 32 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
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ETABS MODEL

Periods and Accelerations:

Maximum Story-Displacement according to SRSS combination:

Maximum Story-Shear Force according to SRSS combination:

Dynamic Response Spectrum Analysis Shear Plane Frame Page 33 of 33

Edited by: Eng.Hussein Rida
E-mail: eng_hussein_rida@yahoo.com
ETABS MODEL

Modal Participation Factor:

Modal Participating Mass Ratio: