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SECTI ON V

CONSTRUCTI ON, MAI NTENANCE, AND I NSPECTI ON


1. Constructi on
Probabl y the mo s t cri ti cal stage i n corrosi on control i s
the constructi on of the pi pel i ne. Thi s i ncl udes trenchi ng,
l ayi ng, and connecti ng the pi pe; coati ng; f i l l i ng the trench;
z
- and i nstal l i ng cathodi c protecti on. Of course, bef ore one can
i ntel l i gentl y pl an a corrosi on protecti on system, it is advi s-
abl e to make a corrosi on survey on the path the pi pel i ne w i l l
take. 'The i mportance of soi l resi sti vi ty, sol utes, moi sture,
etc., on corrosi vi ty has been noted previ ousl y. It i s al most
essenti al to have detai l ed speci f i cati ons f or al l aspects of
the corrosi on protecti on system as part of the constructi on
contract .
The preval ence of i nterf erence between casi ngs under road-
ways and roadbeds and cathodi cal l y protected pi pel i ne; has been
menti oned ear l i er ( 22, 669 casi ngs shorted and 302 Leaks i nsi de
casi ngs reported by the companies surveyed). The research and
test resul ts reported i n Reference 559 i ndi cate consi derabl e
progress toward el i mi nati on of the requi rement f or casi ng pi pe-
l i nes under roadbeds, i .e., there i s evi dence t o support the
contenti on that casi ngs are unnecessary f or saf ety and are
harmful i n terns of control l i ng corrosi on. The f ol l odi ng comment
from the questi onnai re i s of i nterest i n thi s regard: " A l l
states should adopt a law si mi i a. r to Czl i f srni a' s thar, would
not requi re casi ngs. Our company, Lor oxe, has 'lad shorted
casinqs. 4.t the ti mz these l >n es w-re !_aici, :e used the best
135
i nsul ators and seals avai l abl e. For i nstance, on 390 mi l es of
20-22-inch pi pe i nsi de 26-inch casi ng we had over 2,800 feet of
coated l i ne shorted to the casi ng" (Q495).
Fol l owi ng vari ous stages of constructi on, thorough i nspec-
ti ons are desi rabl e. Both good i nstruments and wel l trai ned
i nspectors are necessary. El ectri cal methods can be used to
determi ne i f proper i nsul ati on or connecti on between j oi nts
has been obtai ned, whi chever i s desi red (227). I nspecti on of
coati ngs i s parti cul arl y i mportant. To mi ni mi ze cathodi c pro-
tecti on current requi rements, great care must be taken to re-
pai r al l hol i days. Hol i days i n i nsul ati ng coati ngs are normal l y
detected by "j eepi ng," i n which a hi gh vol tage el ectrode i s
passed over the coati ng. A hol i day i s i ndi cated by current
passage, as detected by sui tabl e i nstrumentati on. Al though
speci f i c vol tage di f f erences are sometimes recommended (e.g.,
403), the real l y i mportant quanti ty i s the el ectri c f i el d. The
f i el d must be suf f i ci ent to cause a di scharge through ai r, but
not so l arge as to damage the coati ng. A f i el d of 120 V / mi l
across the coati ng has been recommended (686). Some engi neers
recommend checki ng the coati ng agai n j ust af ter l ayi ng the pi pe-
l i ne i n the di tch and bef ore coveri ng.
Al though el aborate trench dressi ngs are not necessary, i t
i s general l y desi rabl e to remove l arge rocks to avoi d damage
to the coati ng. U s e of rock shi el ds i s very poor practi ce be-
cause they may provi de good condi ti ons f or mi crobi ol ogi cal
acti on and i nsul ate pi pi ng from cathodi c protecti on currents.
One gas company recommended i nstal l ati on of a Mg anode
c
136
"i nspecti on system" (555).
A Mg anode was i nstal l ed on the pi pe
duri ng the f i r st day of constructi on and the pi pe potenti al was
read at the end of each day of constructi on. A sudden drop i n
potenti al si gnal ed contact wi th f orei gn structures, shorted cas-
i ngs, or l arge secti ons of uncoated or poorl y coated pi pe. Thi s
was parti cul arl y usef ul i n l ayi ng submari ne pi pel i nes.
a
The condi ti ons under which pl ant appl i ed coati ngs or over-
the- di tch appl i ed coati ngs were pref erred are l i sted i n Tabl es
36 and 37, respecti vel y, f or the companies surveyed. Some rep-
resentati ve standards and speci f i cati ons f or coati ngs and thei r
appl i cati on are l i sted i n Tabl e 3 8 .
TABLE- 35
CONDI TI ONS UNDER WHI CH PLANT APPLI ED COATINGS ARE PREFERRED
Condi ti on Number of Companies
All condi ti ons 62
S mal l j obs 35
Urban areas, poor ri ght of way, and where
submari ne constructi on methods are used 27
Whenever economi cal 15
S mal l si zes 15
Wi nterti me condi ti ons 10
Fl at terrai n 7
New constructi on 5
When usi ng thi n f i l m epoxy or pol yethyl ene coati ngs
When proper handl i ng i s assured 3
Cased highway crossi ngs 2
Rugged terrai n 2
Centri f ugal l y spun pi pe I
When used f or pumping stati on pi pi ng 1
5
-
*
1
TABLE 37
CONDI TI ONS UNDER WHICH OVER-THE-DI TCH APPLI ED COATI NGS A m PREFERRED
Condi ti on Number of Companies
None 76
Open country, cross country 29
Large j obs, l ong l i nes 25
Large pi pe si zes 18
Where consi dered economical 18
16
A t f i el d j oi nts
Rocky rugged terrai n 15
Summertime condi ti ons 11
J obs requi ri ng l i ttl e handl i ng of the coated pi pe
Recoating on replacement 9
10
Short runs, odd si zes, or extremely heavy secti ons 8
Under al l condi ti ons 8
New constructi on proj ects 7
I n the vi ci ni ty of pumping stati ons 1
When work i s done by an experi enced contractor 1
Table 39 l i sts the f i el d practi ces used by the companies
surveyed to ensure good coati ngs.
TABLE 39
FI ELD PRACTICES USED TO ENSURE GOOD COATI NGS
Practice Number of Companies
Fi el d i nspecti ng 356
Holiday detecti ng 322
Rock shi el di ng 248
Sand backf i l l i ng i n rock areas 279
Most of the companies surveyed used hi gh mol ecul ar weight
pol yethyl ene j acketed copper cabl e for cathodi c protecti on con-
ductors. The thermi t process was used by 309 companies to attach
138
TABLE 38
STANDARDS AND SPECI FI CATI ONS FOR COATINGS
Type of
Par meters Coati ng Organi zati on Date Ref.
Appl i cati on
Appl i cati on
Appl i cati on, i nspecti on
Appl i cati on procedures
Adhesion
Adhesion
Composi ti on, wei ght,
strength , saturati on
Fungi resi stance
Leakage conductance
Materi al s, appl i cati on,
i nspecti on mai ntenance
Materi al s, appl i cati on
Material thi ckness, tear
Coal t ar NACE
Vari ous UK
Coal tar NACE
enamel for mari ne
envi rons
Coal tar and NRPCA
asphal t enamel s
Pai nts ASTM
Bi tumi nous AWWA
Asbestos NACE
f el t
Pl asti c ASTM
I nsul ati ng NACE
Mastics NACE
Wrapped, mas t i c The Asphal t
i nteri or asphal t I nsti tute
Fi brous gl ass NACE
strength, breaki ng strength, rei nf orced
pl i abi l i ty, porosi ty pi pe wrap
Properti es , test methods, Wax
use
NACE
Strength, pl i abi l i ty, Bituminous NACE
porosi ty saturated
gl ass pi pe wrap
1957
1966
1957
1967
1967
1966
1962
1963
1957
1957
1958
1962
1967
1961
1962
Surf ace preparati on Pai nts Swedish stand- 1967
Testi ng, appl i cati on, Asphal t NACE 1953
composi ti on 1958
Thi ckness, bendabi l i ty, I nsul ati ng AGA 1970
i mpact resi stance,
ards A ssoc.
- weatheri ng, abrasi on
resi stance, penetrati on,
thermal agi ng, cathodi c
L. di sbondi ng, soi l stress,
water penetrati on, capa-
ci tance
Thi ckness, uni f ormi ty, Zn, Cd
smoothness, bri ghtness,
surf ace f i ni sh
Weights (per area) I nsul ati ng
6177
82,708
6173
480
718
588
6188
719
6191
6179
720
6192
6190
6182
6192
731
6178
6180
700
UK,USA,Germany 1963 243
1966 481 NAPCA
139
the conductor to the pi pe (Table 40) . For hi gh strength (X52 or
above) steel pi pe the thermi t process was l i mi t ed general l y to a
15-gram cartri dge. One hundred and three companies apparentl y
have used X-52 or above hi gh strength steel pi pe.
TABLE 40
METHODS CURRENTLY USED FOR ATTACHING CONDUCTOR TO PIPE
Method Number of Companies
.
Thermi t process 309
Sol der 23
Conductor brazed to steel coupon
wel ded to pi pe 87
Bol ted connecti on 4 6
Other 22
2. Mai ntenance
Deteri orati on begi ns when a pi pel i ne i s compl eted. I n addi -
ti on to natural processes such as l i ghtni ng, man of ten acceler-
ates the process wi th vari ous earth-movi ng machi nes which damage
coati ngs and met al . Thus, regul ar mai ntenance i s necessary to
keep the pi pel i ne operati ng. I n the crudest method, repai r is
i ni ti ated onl y when l eaks mani f est themsel ves. Tabl e 41 l i sts
the methods used to repai r corrosi on l eaks by the companies i n
the survey.
Repai r may consi st of repl aci ng ol d pi pe secti ons wi th new
pi pe. As poi nted out earl i er new pi pe i s anodi c wi th respect
to ol d pi pe, and so shoul d be protected by coati ng and/or
cathodi c protecti on. Tabl e 42 l i sts the f actors that the sur-
veyed companies take i nto consi derati on i n the repl acement cr
140
abandonment of corroded pi pe.
TABLE 41
METHODS USED TO REPAI R CORROSION LEAKS
Method Number of Companies
Clamps 226
Replacement 204
Weld l eak 85
ANSI B31.8 procedures 11
Welded patches and other devi ces 10
I nsert pl asti c i nternal l y 9
Abandonment 4
Reduce l i ne pressure 4
Redwood or oak pl ug fol l owed by patch 3
D r i l l , tap, and pl ug 1
Recaulk j oi nts 1
Tabl e 43 shows the cri teri a used f or repl acement f or the
water system of a l arge ci ty. Thi s i s a systemati c rati onal
approach that coul d be extended to gas and oi l systems.
I nternal coati ngs may be appl i ed, parti cul arl y i n l arge
di ameter l i nes. I n one method f or l eak repai r of gas l i nes
a suspensi on of rubber parti cl es i s pumped through the pi pes
*
and pl ugs the l eaks ( 7 2 3 ) . The companies surveyed reported
varyi ng experi ence and pref erence regardi ng the ef f ecti veness
of avai l abl e commercial seal ants i n repai ri ng corrosi on l eaks.
TABLE 42
FACTORS TAKEN I NTO CONSIDERATION I N THE FU3PLACEMRnTT
OR ABANDONMENT OF CORRODED PI PE
Factors Number of Companies
Leak hi story
Locati on of corroded pi pe
Condi ti on of pi pe
Age of pi pe
Operati ng pressure
Present and f uture pl ans f or pi pe
Cost of repai r versus cost to repl ace
Depth/Si ze of pi t s and spaci ng
Saf ety consi derati ons
Extent of Corrosi on
Econclmics
Soi l res i sti vi ty/ soi l Type
Type of pi pe
Si ze of pi pe
V i sual i nspecti on/appearance
Feasi bi l i ty of cathodi c protecti on
Damage to area and i nconveni ence of i noperabl e l i ne
Pi pe potenti al
W a l l thi ckness
Anal ysi s of sample secti on
14 2
76
68
67
47
46
45
4 1
39
37
36
26
22
2 1
18
1 4
9
8
6
1
i
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TABLE 4 3
CRI TERI A FOR REPLACEMENT OF 12- I NCH AND SMALLER MAI NS (9685)
A. Length - The study l ength used w i l l be approxi matel y 600
f eet, or one bl ock the l ong way, or t wo bl ocks
the short way.
B. Poi nts Requi red - A minimum of 10 poi nts w i l l be requi red
to j usti f y rel ayi ng.
C. B as i s f or Poi nts
1. General Consi derati ons
.
a.
b.
C.
Age of Main
1. over 80 years ol d
2. 51 - 80 years ol d
3 . 21 - 50 years ol d
4. 0 - 20 years ol d
Hi storv of L eaks and Breaks
1. Pi pe wal l corrosi on l eak
2. Beam break or j oi nt l eak
Standards
Materi al or workmanship not con-
formi ng t o standards
2. Hvdraul i c Consi derati ons
a.
b.
C.
Divergency from the Standard Gi rd
1. Two or more si zes
2. One si ze
Smal l Si ze Mains
3 poi nts
2 poi nts
1 poi nt
0 poi nts
2 poi nts
2 poi nts
2 poi nts
2 poi nts
1 poi nt
1. 4 " main
2. 2" or smal l er mains
3 . 3 " main
3 poi nts
2 poi nts
1 poi nt
Carryi ng Capaci ty
To be recondi ti oned i f less than 5 orher poi nts
Flow coef f i ci ents (Hazen Wi l l i ams I'C'') :
1. L ess than 75
2. 75 - 100
3 . More than 100
2 poi nts
1 poi nt
0 poi nts
TABLE 4 3
(conti nued)
Head Loss per 1,000 Feet (Peak Hour Condi ti ons) a.
1. More than 5 f eet
2. L ess than 5 f eet
2 poi nts
0 poi nts
3. Corrosi on Consi derati ons
a. Actual Corrosi on of the Main - (5 f t runni ng l ength)
1. P i t s mor e than 75% of the wal l
thi ckness 5 poi nts
2. P i t s 50 - 75% of the wal l thi ckness 3 poi nts
3 . . P i t s less than 50% of the wal l
thi ckness 0 poi nts
b. Soi l Resi stance i n Ohm Cm
1. L ess than 1, 000
2. 1, 000 - 2, 000
3 . Over 2, 000
3 poi nts
1 poi nt
0 poi nts
c. Gal vani zed Pi pe 2 poi nts
4 . Speci al Consi derati ons
Any one of the fol l owi ng ci rcumstances may, i n themsel ves,
be suf f i ci ent cr i ter i a f or main repl acement.
1. Di vergency from standard depth
2. Extreme external l oadi ng
3 . I nspecti on
Tabl e 44 i ndi cates the frequency of survei l l ance or tests
performed by the 373 operati ng companies surveyed. Other than
annual measurements of pi pe- to- soi l potenti al at test stati ons,
current i nterf erence, and l i ne current measurements, mo s t of
the measurements are unschedul ed, used i nf requentl y, or used
onl y on occasi ons when the opportuni ty presents i tsel f .
Vari ous i nspecti on rethods have been desi gned to l ocate
probl ems bef ore l eaks devel op. Several of these are aimed
1 4 4
TABLE 44
FREQUENCIES OF SURVEILLANCE METHODS
Type of Survei l l ance T est A* B T Q1 Q2 S1 S2 01 W M U R X 0 2
A e ro bi c ba c t e ri a 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32 18 42 0
Anaerobi c bacteri a
2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 40 30 50 0
Coati ng conductance survey (l ocal 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 68 22 45 4
Coati ng conductance survey (l ongl i ne) 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 68 18 45 4
Coati ng Di sconti nui ty Survey (Pearson) 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 82 25 78 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 55 20 33 0 Earth current test (pi pe vi ci ni ty) 6 1 0
Li ne current measurement 77 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 71 43 32 3
Surface potenti al survey
P cl ose i nterval 2 1 7 2 0 4 0 0 0 1 1 94 44 36 5
0 1 0 0 0 0 1 65 2 1 26 0 Continuous 10 1 0
191 38 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 38 11 5 3 20
(at test stati ons)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 4 2 9 1 Redox potenti al 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 105 75 4 1 7 soi l resi sti vi ty survey 11 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 18 54 2 Chemical anal yses 1 1 0
Current i nterf erence 59 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 5 89 90 11 7
Other 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 7 3 1 3 4
B el l hol e i nspecti on 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 1 73 192 18 6
(coati ng and pi pe condi ti on)
rp
ul
Pi pe-to-soi l potent- i al survey
*A = Annually W = Weekly
B = Bi annual l y M = Monthly
T = Tri enni al l y U = Unscheduled
Ql = Quarterl y
Q2 = Qui nquenni al l y X = I nf requentl y
S1 = Sexenni al l y 02 = Other than the above
S2 = Septenni al l y
01 - Octenni al l y
i i = On occasi ons when opportuni ty presents i tsel f
at the coati ng, which may be the part of the system mos t vul ner-
abl e to probl ems. The general condi ti on of an i nsul ati ng coat-
i ng on buri ed pi pel i nes i s i ndi cated by the average current den-
si t y requi red f or cathodi c protecti on or by the l eakage conduc-
tance of the coati ng ( 6191) . A l arge gas pi pel i ne company
cl assi fi es pi pe as "bare" i f 1 ampere or more i s requi red per
mi l e of 3-i nch equi val ent pi pe (Q403). Speci f i c coati ng de-
f ects may be l ocated by several i nstruments. One of the most
common i s the Pearson hol i day detector ( 60) . General l y, an
operator wal ks al ong the pi pel i ne whi l e audi o-frequency current
i s conducted to ground through met al cl eats i n hi s shoes. A
second operator wal ks 20 f eet behi nd wi th an audi o detector.
Sudden i ncreases i n si gnal occur when even a s mal l hol i day i s
present. Experi ence i s needed t o understand the si gnal f l uctua-
ti ons and to l ocate fl aws i n the coati ng (608).
A surf ace potenti al survey i s usef ul f or reveal i ng "hot
spots" i n systems not havi ng cathodi c protecti on. I n one pro-
cedure two CuS04 el ectrodes are connected to a potenti ometer
( 601) . The rear el ectrode i s pl aced di rectl y over the l i ne and
the l ead el ectrode extended di rectl y over the pi pe. The elec-
trodes are then "l eap-frogged" one separati on di stance unti l
the survey i s compl eted. Corrodi ng secti ons of pi pe are i ndi c-
ated by sharp peaks or changes of pol ari ty.
-
Potenti al surveys may al so be performed by passi ng a rol l i ng
el ectrode al ong the pi pe, wi th the other si de of the potenti o-
met er connected di rectl y t o the pi pe. I f a recorder i s attached
by gears to the rol l i ng el ectrode, then potenti al versus di stance
146
i s automati cal l y di spl ayed. I t has been poi nted out that poten-
ti al surveys cannot detect s mal l , l ocal i zed corrosi on cel l s,
which would be expected on bare pi pel i nes (6172).
C ar e must be taken when el ectri cal contact must be made di r-
*
ectl y t o the pi pi ng. Probes cause hol i days, and i f bri ght metal
i s created by scratchi ng it may corrode rapi dl y, bei ng anodi c. A
better approach i s to i nstal l test ref erence l eads on the pi pi ng
at the t i me of constructi on.
Unf ortunatel y, methods requi ri ng el ectri cal contact to the
soi l are di f f i cul t t o use when the pi pe passes under concrete
or rock. Thus, methods have been devi sed not requi ri ng elec-
tri cal contact of an el ectrode to the soi l . I n one method,
pi ck-up l oops are employed t o detect the magneti c f i el d gener-
ated by current fl owi ng i n the pi pe. Sudden drops i n output
w i t h di stance si gni f y current l eakage through the coati ng ( 403) .
A t thi s t i me, the best i ndi cator of pi pel i ne corrosi on
appears to be cl ose moni tori ng and i nterpreti ng of the pi pe
potenti al s. Si nce it i s current l eavi ng a buri ed structure
that causes corrosi on, the optimum measurement would be the
determi nati on of the current l eavi ng t he structure. I n the
near f uture it may be possi bl e t o measure the current fl ow
patterns i n the pi pe by a magneti c gradi ometer. The use of a
magneti c gradi ometer may al l ow the detecti on of the vari ati on
- changes i n the magneti c f i el d of the pi pe current and pi npoi nt
l ocati on, di recti on, and ampl i tude of current fl ow. Addi ti on-
al l y, thi s i nstrument can concei vabl y be used at speeds from 20
to 200 mi l e s per hour external to or i n the pi pel i ne ( 799) .
*I ntervi ew wi th A. W. Peabody, 1970.
147
The i ndustry i s i n need of easy-to-use, accurate i nstruments
that combine as many corrosi on rel ated f actors (soi l resi sti vi ty,
pT:, pi pe potenti al , etc.) as would be practi cal (Q252, Q220,
Q505, 4606, Q8.2, Q490, Q699). Automated surveys and remote
i nstruments w i l l become mor e desi rabl e wi th f uture i ncreases
i n cathodi c protecti on and i nterf erence (Q282). *
Hydrostati c testi ng can be used to detect l eaks and corro-
si on weakened areas (598, 599) . Progressi vel y smaller fl aws
are detected as pressure i s i ncreased. Surpri si ngl y, the hydro-
stati c proof test acts f avorabl y on survi vi ng f l aws, probabl y
by causi ng pl asti c deformati on at the t i p of cracks and pi ts
( 599) . Thi s decreases the stress concentrati on there and i ntro-
duces f avorabl e resi dual stresses -- mechani cal stress rel i ef .
Pi pel i ne i nteri ors can al so be moni tored f or corrosi on.
A magneti c survey i nstrument has been devel oped which travel s
i n the l i ne and l ocates pi tti ng and general metal loss ( 335) .
Smal l di ameter tel evi si on cameras have been devel oped which
travel i n the l i ne. Ul trasoni c thi ckness detectors may ei ther
be used i nternal l y or external l y on exposed pi pes.
Leaks may be detected i n several ways. The l east desi rabl e
method, but very commonly used, i s to note l eakage when a suf f i -
ci ent amount has taken pl ace to be apparent. I n l ong pi pel i nes
l arge l eaks are sometimes noti ced by di screpanci es i n i nventory
or transported product, i .e., l ess product emi t s from the pi pe-
l i ne than i s i ntroduced. L eaks can be l ocated by cl osi ng of f
secti ons of the pi pe system and observi ng pressure decay i n
secti ons contai ni ng l eaks. G as l eaks are somet i mes l ocated by
148
"sni f f i ng" i nstruments which detect gas. Di scol orati on of vege-
tati on i s al so used as a l eak i ndi cator.
The theory and fundamental s of l eakage testi ng are di scussed
i n Reference 812. T est categori es, reasons f or testi ng, choi ce
of procedures, test pl anni ng, fl ow characteri sti cs, and gui de-
l i nes f or wri ti ng speci f i cati ons are i ncl uded, A detai l ed des-
cri pti on of test methods i s gi ven which covers the use of
standards, mass spectrometers, gas detectors, pressure and flow
measurements, bubbl e detecti on, radi oacti ve traci ng, hal i de
torches, soni c methods, el ectromagneti c energy absorpti on,
chemi cal i ndi cators, hi gh potenti al di scharges, i oni zed gases,
thermal conducti vi ty gages, and several speci al appl i cati ons.
An extensi ve l i sti ng of characteri sti cs and sources of commer-
ci al l y avai l abl e l eak detectors i ncl udes addresses of manufac-
turers, code symbol s f or types of equi pment, trade names, and
characteri sti cs of the equi pment. Properti es of trace gases
and saf ety measures f or thei r use are al so di scussel l .
r
Suppl emental observati ons duri ng the i nspecti on of corro-
si on l eaks by the surveyed companies are shown i n Tabl e 45.
The "other" observati on (Part E) consi sted of pi pe potenti al s,
stray currents, l ocati on and depth of pi ts, el ectri cal conti n-
- ui ty of gasketed j oi nts, soi l r esi sti vi ty, and the revi ew of
cathodi c protecti on reports to determi ne i f there had been any
deteri orati on or i nterrupti on of cathodi c protecti on pri or t o
l eaks.
Many companies have devel oped correl ati ons (Tabl e 45, P ar t
F) wi th l eak frequency and wi th some of the observati ons made
149
TABLE 45
SUPPLEMENTAL OBSERVATI ONS ON THE I NSPECTI ON OF CORROSION LEAKS
Number of Companies
- Observati ons Y e s No
(A) General Condi ti on Df Coati ng, i ncl udi ng
Bond to Pi pe 30 4 20
(B) Soi l Type and/or Texture 282 40
(C) Soi l Moi sture 236 71
(D) Proxi mi ty of Other Pi pel i nes or Structures
(Possi bi l i ty of Cathodi c I nterf erence) 269 50
(E) Other 79 33
(F) Have Any of these Observati ons Been
Correl ated wi th Leak Frequency? 109 214
duri ng l eak i nspecti ons. One of the most common methods used
to devel op correl ati ons was to f i l e a report when a l eak had
been repai red. The contents of the report general l y i ndi cated
the type of l eak, l ocati on on the peri meter of the pi pe, type
of corrosi on causi ng the l eak, soi l type, soi l resi sti vi ty,
amount of cathodi c protecti on, type of repai r made, etc. The
l eaks wer e pl otted by geographi c l ocati on on a yearl y basi s.
Over a peri od of t i me hot spots wer e l ocated and soi l resis-
ti vi ti es wer e known by areas, so that f uture pi pi ng coul d be
i ni ti al l y l ai d wi t h adequate protecti on appl i ed and ol d pi pi ng
coul d be economi cal l y schedul ed f or repl acement bef ore seri ous
probl ems arose. A second coirunonly used system, which i s very
much l i ke the f i r st system, was to record the soi l r esi sti vi ty
when a l eak was repai red and mai ntai n a graph pl otti ng l eaks
as a f uncti on of soi l resi sti vi ty. A s i n the previ ous system,
t hi s gave a basi s f or judgment when a secti on of pi pe shoul
150
be recondi ti oned or repl aced and al so i ndi cated l evel s of protec-
ti on requi red on new pi pi ng by geographi cal area accordi ng to the
soi l resi sti vi ty. The thi rd system was to pl ot cumul ati ve l eak-
age as a f uncti on of t i me on semi l og graph paper and augment
preventi ve measures when a sharp i ncrease i n the sl ope of the
graph was observed. A theoreti cal l y better method would be t o
pl ot cumul ati ve l eakage as a f uncti on of t i me on l og-l og graph
paper as i ndi cated by Equati on 10. The l og-l og pl ot shoul d be
l i near and may gi ve val i d extrapol ati ons of f uture l eaks. I t
shoul d be noted that l eak data on the number of l eaks repai red
duri ng eveni ng shi f ts are apt to be i nf l ated.
-
A standard record system shoul d be devel oped by the i ndustry
associ ati ons that w i l l al l o w stati sti cal correl ati ons between
corrosi on vari abl es and other vari abl es such as l eak frequency
on a regi onal or nati onwi de basi s ( Q2 5 0 , 0114). An excel l ent
example on thi s type of correl ati on on 22,000 mi l es of coated
pi pel i nes i s reported i n Reference 474.
Two typi cal l eak reports are shown i n Tabl es 46 and 47.
151
TABLE 46
UNDERGROUND PI PE INSPECTION REPORT (Q685)
Make Separate Report f or Each Si ze, Ki nd, and I ndi vi dual L i ne
~
Trunk Feeder Di stri butor
Si ze Cal vani zed- C ast
Kind: Steel C.A. Conc. I ron
Date Lai d:
PI PE DATA
-
. _ . -7
MAINS I SOI L RESISTIVITY
Ohm-CM
Locati on
Remarks
Nati ve
PI PE TO SOIL POTENTIALS
No scal e, No pi ts Perf ect
Graphi ti zati on or Scal e or pi tti ng to
pi tti ng ._ 7 -8 zc ----I-- 1/3 thru 1/3 thru pi pe w a l l
I Protected
nspectea
Bare Spots
Pockets
Sagging
LEAKAGE PROTECTI VE COATI NG DATA
Condi ti on
Pi pe Wall (Taints Fi tti ngs
Tap. - Good Fai r Poor
wail
Graphi ti zati on or
pi tti ng from 1/ 3 to
2/3 thru w a l l
Graphi ti zati on or
pi tti ng 2/3 or more
thru wal l
Graphi ti zati on or
pi tti ng thru pi pe
CONDI TI ON OF FI PE
_-
Cl ass Cast I r on Steel
Scal e or pi tti ng
from 1/3 t o 2/3 thru
wal l
Scal e or pi tti ng
2/3 or more thru
wal l
Perf orati ons
Bond
Moi sture Present Under
E
_ _ _ . ~~-
No graphi ti zati on I Coati ng: Y e s NO
I
w al l I I
Type
Red Rock
Dec. Grani
Shal e
Grave 1
Sand
Lo am
Clay
Si l t
Peat
te Gray
Bl ack
Y el l ow
Brown
Red
I3 lue
Green
Date
REPLACEMENT DATA
Age
L eaks
(Min. 2/yr.-3i n5 yrs)
Pi tti ng
Soi l Resi sti vi ty
Gal vani zed Pi pe
CATHODI C PROTECT I ON
Si ze
SOI L DATA
Check All Appl i cabl e Items
Aggl omerati on
Many
Boul ders
Stones
Few
Pe bb 1 e s
Hard Lumps
Texture Packi ng
Fi ne Loose
Medi um Medium
Coarse Hard
I nspected by:
L
TABLE 47
LEAK REPAI R REPORT (Q114)
1,ocati on: of RO No.
Street Ft.
Street Ci ty
Map No.
Date
Si ze & Type of Pi pe:
( ")C.I. ( , l )ML & cs ( ")Gal v. ( ")A.C.
( " ) W. I ron ( ' I ) Bi tumi nous Coated Steel
1. What part was damaged?
a. ( ) Pi pe Barrel
b. ( ) J oi nt
Type: ( ) Welded ( ) Lead ( ) Cement
( ) Mi neral l ead ( ) Fl anged
c. ( ) Val ve
d. ( ) Fl anged nuts, bol ts, ti e rods
e. ( ) Other (Expl ai n on back)
2. What type of corrosi on damage?
a. ( ) Pi tti ng
b. ( ) General corrosi on
c. ( ) Graphi ti zed cast i ron
(Pi pe looks OK , but has l i ttl e strength because
the i ron has di ssol ved, l eavi ng mostl y carbon.)
d. ( ) No corrosi on damage
3. What repai rs wer e made?
a. ( ) Leak clamp c. ( ) Recaulked j oi nt
b. ( ) Welded d. ( ) Replaced secti on
-
e. ( ) Other
4 . Shoul d the pi pe be repl aced?
a. ( ) Y e s b. ( ) N o c. ( ) N o t sure
5. How bi g was the l eak?
a. ( ) Ci rcumf erenti al break c. ( ) Large hol e
b. ( ) Smal l hol e (under 1") d. ( ) Spl i t
6. What i s soi l l i ke?
a. ( ) Cl ay or adobe
b. ( ) Loam
7 . Was a 32-pound anode i nstal l ed?
c. ( ) Sandy
d. ( ) Gravel
ID. ( ) No (omi t anode onl y i f no corrosi on
- --
a. ( ) Y es
damage i s fdund. )
-
8. Where was the l eak? ! C i r cl e number cl osest t o l eak)
153
Foreman :
SECTION V I
ECONOMICS
Economics are the scale by which the ef f ects of corrosi on
and the methods of control l i ng corrosi on are measured. I deal l y,
enough economic data would be avai l abl e to enabl e one to cal cul ate I
the opti mal course of acti on f or al l concei vabl e si tuati ons. Un-
happi l y, there i s a real pauci ty of data avai l abl e, and.much of
what i s publ i shed i s probabl y based on specul ati on and unsup-
ported estimates. No economic i nformati on was unearthed i n the
repl i es to the questi onnai re.
Corrosi on i s expensi ve. Val uabl e products are l ost when
pi pel i nes l eak. L ost pumping t i me i s never recovered. Escaped
products may rui n crops, i nj ure wi l dl i f e, despoi l natural beauty,
and damage property. C ost s coul d and shoul d be assi gned to prop-
erty damage and hazards. Toxi c, fl ammabl e, and expl osi ve products
consti tute hazards to human l i f e and wel l -bei ng. The damage re-
sul ti ng from a l eak depends on the pressure i n the pi pel i ne, the
f l ui d it carri es, and the l ocati on of the pi pel i ne. Leaks are
expensi ve to l ocate and t o repai r. When pi pe secti ons must be
repl aced, fl ow i s i nterrupted wi th consequent loss i n revenue.
I t has been esti mated that the extra pumping costs due to r ust on
the i nteri or of pi pes amounts to $40,000,000/year i n the U. S.
( 4 9 3 ) .
A 1950 survey i n Arkansas, Kansas, W e s t Texas, and New
Mexico reveal ed that 44 percent of the sour crude oi l wel l s were
economi cal l y af f ected by corrosi on (6185). I n Arkansas the corro-
si on costs averaged $1250 per well per year. I n Kansas, the
154
average was about $2000 and i n West Texas-New Mexico $270. U s e
of the corrosi on i nhi bi tors reduced the costs t o $100, $225, and
$220 per w el l per year, respecti vel y, f or corrosi on control pl us
remai ni ng corrosi on costs. Corrosi on coul d cost about $1000 per
year per w el l i n sweet oi l w el l s when the sal t water content i s
above 40 percent (553). I n a 1963 survey (6193) of 8919 oi l and
gas wel l s , the r ati o of reported savi ngs t o corrosi on control
costs was about 5:l . Much l arger r ati os were found i n of f shore
operati ons. Neverthel ess, many operators have made l i ttl e or no
attempt to control corrosi on.
I n use of coati ngs the i mportant f actor i s real l y the cost/
ef f ecti veness r ati o or the r ati o of savi ngs t o cost over the l i f e
of the pi pe. To obtai n val i d compari sons on such a basi s i s not
si mpl e, however. I f al l coati ngs cost the same on a vol umetri c
basi s then one coul d si mpl y prepare speci mens havi ng the same
thi ckness -- but costs vary wi del y. One cannot compare coati ngs
prepared so that the cost per uni t l ength i s the same because the
ef f ecti veness of a coati ng i ncreases wi th thi ckness, but i n an
unpredi ctabl e manner. A thorough study would uti l i ze a range of
thi ckness f or each type of coati ng and then compare the minima i n
cost/ef f ecti veness (or maxima i n savi ngs/cost) of each. Thi s has
not yet been done. There are l i ttl e publ i shed data on ei ther cost
of appl i cati on and mai ntenance or on savi ngs.
The costs f or control of i nternal corrosi on i n two average
sour crude oi l gatheri ng l i nes are compared i n Reference 793. I t
was concl uded that concrete l i ni ngs and corrosi on i nhi bi tors
appeared most economi cal i n the l arger, l onger l i nes. Concrete
I -
:- 3 5
l i ni ngs, i nternal pl asti c coati ngs, and pl asti c pi pe appeared
most economi cal f or shorter, smaller l i nes. Protecti ve measures
provi ded savi ngs of 9 cents to 25.5 cents per foot of pi pe per
year.
The cost of cathodi c protecti on depends greatl y on the qual -
i t y of the coati ng, the i sol ati on, and the mechani cal j oi nt bonds
(158). The C as t I ron Pi pe Research Associ ati on has asserted that
cathodi c protecti on of pi pe systems adds at l east 10 percent to
4
the total proj ect cost ( 789) . Presumabl y, thi s f i gure i s f or
bare cast i ron pi pe. The i nstal l ati on cost of cathodi c protecti on
on bare oi l storage tank bottoms was found t o be about 3 percent
of the tank bottom i nvestment (793). The total annual operati ng
expense was about 1.25 percent of one repai r j ob or about 25
percent of the annual repai r cost wi thout protecti on. Payout f or
cathodi c protecti on was esti mated at 1.5 years. I nstal l ati on of
cathodi c protecti on on modern coated pi pel i nes i s cl ai med to cost
less than 0.5 percent of the total costs, wi th mai ntenance and
operati ng costs l ess than $28 per mi l e year ( 492) . A total cost
of 4.2 cents/ f t was esti mated f or 30 years of protecti on of a
100,000-foot l ong, 5/8-i nch OD pi pel i ne ( 474) .
Gal vani c cathodi c protecti on reduced the mai ntenance costs
per overhaul of U. S. Navy destroyers by $10,000 to $20, 000 ( 491) .
B ar e of f shore pi pel i ne was protected by zi nc bracel ets f or an
esti mated cost of $40/mi l e/year as compared to $100/mi l e/year f or *
an i mpressed-current system (728). For an esti mated 40 years Of
protecti on the cost of the bracel ets was 0.5 percent of the pi pe-
l i ne. I t was claimed that the l owest total costs are obtai ned by
156
cathodi c protecti on combined wi th "reasonabl y" coated l i nes (793).
"Reasonabl e" appears to mean an adherent i nsul ati ng coati ng of
l ong l i f eti me but wi thout any attempts t o make it hol i day-f ree.
Some pi pe system operators i nstal l cathodi c protecti on at some
t i me af ter l ayi ng the pi pe. I t has been esti mated that onl y about
15 percent of a pi pe system w i l l be subj ect t o rapi d corrosi on
( 601) . One procedure i s to perform a survey of pi pe potenti al and
protect onl y those areas contai ni ng "hot spots." The payout peri -
A
od f or the cost of the survey and the cathodi c protecti on was
found t o be 2 to 5 years. A total of $258/mi l e/year was saved on
one l i ne over a 6-year peri od.
Another procedure i s t o i nstal l cathodi c protecti on t o an
area onl y when l eaks have al ready devel oped. With bare pi pe i t
has been found t o be cheaper t o appl y cathodi c protecti on than t o
repl ace the l i ne wi th new coated pi pe (592). Al though savi ngs
wer e real i zed by cathodi c protecti on af t er several years, a l arge
gas company found that more money would have been saved by appl i -
cati on bef ore l eaks had devel oped (589).
I n cal cul ati ng costs and savi ngs of vari ous protecti on
methods, one must not onl y attempt t o account f or al l di rect
and i ndi rect expenses, but al so take i nto account the t i me val ue
of money. Several di f f erent methods of accompl i shi ng thi s have
been used (e.g., 591, 493, 705) . The ef f ect of accounti ng f or
* i nterest and desi red pr of i t i s to i ncrease the cost of present
capi tal i nvestments as compared t o expenses occurri ng l ater.
SECTI ON V I 1
OTHER PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WI TH CORROSI ON OF PIPELINES
1. Trai ni ng of Corrosi on Engi neers and Techni ci ans
Accordi ng to Reference 305 few engi neeri ng graduates have
recei ved any trai ni ng i n corrosi on control . A s a r esul t the ac-
qui si ti on of the necessary sk i l l s t o perform wel l as a corrosi on
engi neer i s l argel y a personal responsi bi l i ty. Amateur.bungl i ng
i s common i n corrosi on control work, parti cul arl y i n cathodi c
-
protecti on; t o hel p al l evi ate thi s si tuati on, the Bri ti sh Associa-
ti on of Corrosi on Engi neers was formed to provi de educati on i n
corrosi on control and prof essi onal qual i f i cati on standards.
A vari ety of wel l subscri bed short courses are of f ered i n al l
parts of the U.S.
However, there appears t o be a need f or more courses at more ad-
vanced l evel s. Evening courses are gi ven by some uni versi ti es.
NACE w i l l soon publ i sh a basi c corrosi on course.
Many books and papers are avai l abl e f or sel f - teachi ng, as i l l us-
trated by the ref erences f or thi s report. I nformal i nformati on
f l ow among practi ci ng corrosi on engi neers i s probabl y as great as
i n any other techni cal speci al ty, and i s parti cul arl y noti ceabl e
at l ocal NACE meeti ngs. Neverthel ess, one senses a real def i ci en-
cy of understandi ng of fundamental and theoreti cal aspects of
corrosi on control , al though regard f or corrosi on consul tants i s *
somewhat mixed. Ni nety-fi ve of the surveyed companies used con-
sul tants i n thei r corrosi on control ef f orts.
.)
Unfortunatel y, no sati sf actory method of determi ni ng or
certi f yi ng competence of corrosi on engi neers and techni cal per-
sonnel exi sts i n the Uni ted States. The fact that corrosi on
158
control has devel oped as an art rather than a sci ence i s exem-
pl i f i ed by the extensi ve use of undefi ned t er ms and misnomers;
e.g., pi pe t o soi l potenti al i s general l y used f or the potenti al
between a buri ed pi pe and a hal f cel l l ocated on the soi l surf ace;
a saturated copper-copper sul f ate hal f cel l i s one i.n which the
copper sul f ate, rather than the copper, i s saturated; terms such
as "zero swi ng" are used wi thout preci se def i ni ti on.
.
-
Tabl e 48 l i sts the publ i cati ons and i nf ormati on sources which
were thought to contri bute the most t o the respondi ng compani es'
corrosi on control program.
TABLE 48
PUl3LICATIONS AND I NFORNATI ON SOURCES WHI CH HAVE BEEN FOUND
TO CONTRIBUTE RlOST TO CORROSION
CONTROL PROGEIAPIS
:dumber of ConFanies
Source '&lost 2nd 3rd 4th
Aiierican G as Associ ati on
Averi can Petrol eum I nsti tute
Commi ttees/fl eeti ngs
Consul tants
El ectrochemi cal Soci ety
Yon t h 1 y Mag a z i ne s
NACE Pub1 i cati ons
Nati onal Bureau of Standards
Paci f i c Coast G as Associ ati on
Short Courses/Seni nars
Text Books
-
2 11 9 1
1 1 9 0
37 53 29 9
14 9 14 6
r! 0 0 1
31 G? 38 28
54 36 21 6
0 0 1 1
1 1 0 3
138 60 35 8
17 21 11 2
2. I nterf erence wi th Smal l Pi pi ng Systems
While the pi pel i ne i ndustry has been hi ghl y successf ul i n
mi ni rti zi ng corrosi on caused by cathodi c i nterf erence between i ts
members, there remai ns a substanti al quanti ty of pi pe i n custody
of operators of s mal l water and gas compani es, ranches, i ndustri al
pl ants, restaurants, other busi nesses, home owners, etc., which
i s subj ected to i nterf erence. To comprehend the hazard, it i s
onl y necessary to poi nt out that 30 microamperes are suf f i ci ent
to cause a l eak i n one year i f the pi t i n a 1/8-i nch pi pe w al l
has the form of a parabol oi dal segment wi th depth and surf ace
razi us equal to the wal l thi ckness of the pi pe. Further, oper-
ati ng pi pel i nes may be subj ected t o s mal l , undetected i nterf erence
currents. Cathodi c i nterf erence may be anti ci pated under the
f ol l owi ng condi ti ons.
a. I f the surf ace or deep w el l anode i s l ess than 1000 feet
di stant f r om the pi pel i ne of concern.
b. I f the offended pi pe i s i nf eri or i n coati ng as measured
by conductance, and (1) crosses the protected pi pe or ( 2) paral l el s
wi thi n 15 di ameters of the protected pi pe.
The f oregoi ng are not performance rul es but are i ndi cators for
concern.
3 . Grounding of El ectri c Ci rcui ts on Water Pi pe
Stray currents caused by groundi ng of el ectri cal ci r cui ts on
water pi pes are a corrosi on hazard to al l underground pi pi ng.
Thi s common practi ce penal i zes the owner of the pi pi ng. For the
-
owner it i s economi cal l y better to pay the i ni t i al cost of i n-
stal l i ng a separate groundi ng el ectrode than to have a
160
deteri orated pi pi ng system at a l ater date. I t i s al so saf er t o
i nstal l a separate groundi ng el ectrode.
4. Mechani cal Damage t o Pi pi ng
Mechani cal damage t o pi pi ng has been establ i shed as one of
the maj or causes of pi pel i ne acci dents. When a pi pel i ne i s rup-
tured by nechani cal equi pment, the cause i s obvi ous. A more i n-
si di ous probl em ari ses when mechani cal
equi pment contacts pi pi ng
and damages the coati ng and/or pi pe wi thout rupturi ng it. A t
a l ater t i me corrosi on takes i ts t ol l and another acci dent or l eak
i s chal ked up to corrosi on.
5, I mproper U s e of Cathodi c Protecti on
I t has been noted that there has been some i nepti tude among
those engaged i n' corrosi on mi ti gati on through cathodi c protecti on;
t hi s i ncompetence i s mani fested i n real or i nci pi ent f ai l ures
rangi ng from one t o many i nci dences. They i ncl ude:
a. Del i berate resi stance coupl i ng below ground of anode and
cathode cabl es to match the current and vol tage output wi th the
recti f i er capaci ty.
b. Connecti ng and operati ng r ecti f i er s i n reverse pol ari ty,
i .e., wi th the cathodi c cabl e from the pi pel i ne connected to the
posi ti ve termi nal of the r ecti f i er .
c. Cathodi cal l y protecti ng unbonded mechani cal l y coupl ed
pi pe i ncl udi ng l eaded cast i ron j oi nts.
SECTI ON VI11
GAPS I N THE TECHNOLOGY AND COMCLUSI ONS
f he f ol l owi ng concl usi ons have been dr awn f r omt he col l ect i ve
i nf or mat i on of t he l i t er at ur e sear ch, t he quest i onnai r e r esul t s,
per sonal i nt er vi ews, meet i ngs at t ended, and per sonal exper i ence.
On exi st i ng pi pel i nes, i t may not be pr act i cabl e t o t ot al l y
el i mi nat e al l cor r osi on. The goal i s r at her t o br i ng cor r osi on
t o an accept abl e l evel f or t he l owest cost . Thi s i s not t o say
t hat al l owi ng a " f ew" l eaks t o devel op i s consi der ed "accept -
abl e, " i n vi ew of t he pot ent i al hazar d t o l i f e and pr oper t y.
On t he ot her hand, i t i s not r at i onal t o i nsi st on el i mi nat i ng
al l cor r osi on when a r easonabl e cor r osi on cont r ol pr ogr amwi l l
pr event cor r osi on l eaks dur i nq t he usef ul l i f e of a pi pel i ne.
Much coul d be l ear ned about cor r osi on mechani sms under
aut hent i c f i el d condi t i ons by det ai l ed exami nat i on of cor r oded
pi pel i nes. Pi t s and cr acks and sur r oundi ng envi r ons shoul d be
par t i cul ar l y i nvest i gat ed. Thi s shoul d i ncl ude mi cr o pH measur e-
ment s, mi cr oscopi c exami nat i on cf t he cor r osi on pr oduct , X- r ay
anal ysi s of sol i d cor r osi on pr oduct s, met al l ogr aphi c sect i oni ng
and mi cr oscopi c exami nat i on, chemi cal anal yses, bact er i ol ogi cal
cul t ur es, et c. Much woul d. be gai ned i f t he i ndust r y knew mor e
about t he basi c cor r osi on i nechani sms associ at ed wi t h pi pel i nes.
St eel pi pe sel domf ai l s by uni f or mcor r osi on. I t. f ai l s pr e-
domi nant l y by l ocal i zed et t ack i n t he f or mof pi t s. The pi t s
ar e i ni t i at ed by some sor t of i nhomogenei t y. Chl or i de i on seems
t o be par t i cul ar l y i mpl i cat ed as a causat i ve agent f or pi t t i ng,
as wel l as f or cr evi ce cor r osi on.
c
162
Stray di rect currents from el ectri c rai l ways, hi gh vol tage
di r ect current (HVDC) power transmi ssi on, pi ck-up from overhead
AC power l i nes, and cathodi c protecti on have caused and w i l l
conti nue t o cause seri ous corrosi on probl ems.
I deal l y, el ectri c
rai l ways and power transmi ssi on l i nes shoul d not contact the
soi l , much l ess use soi l return f or any porti on of the power.
Further studi es on the ef f ect of KVDC are needed, and methods of
reduci ng the corrosi on ef f ects of HVDC need t o be devel oped.
i nf l uence of AC on corrosi on has not been wel l expl ored, but i s
The
known to cause some corrosi on.
power to water l i nes shoul d be di sconti nued.
The practi ce of groundi ng AC
Cathodi c protecti on i nterf erence i s general l y bei ng handl ed
wel l by pri vate groups but w i l l conti nue to be a persi stent
probl em.
hi gh densi ty of underground metal l i c structures creates severe
i nterf erence probl ems and may be i nef f ecti ve due t o el ectri cal
shi el di ng. Methods f or avoi di ng i nterf erence and shi el di ng i n
Cathodi c protecti on of pi pes i n areas contai ni ng a
some such si tuati ons do not appear t o be avai l abl e or known.
Unqual i fi ed cathodi c protecti on enthusi asts may unwi tti ngl y
create i ntol erabl e corrosi on hazards t o unbonded mechani cal l y
coupl ed underground f aci l i ti es.
Anodes di schargi ng 10 or mor e
amperes 05 current may create a hazardous gradi ent wi thi n a
radi us of 1000 f eet. Endangered structures may i ncl ude ground
wi r es , rei nf orci ng bars i n concrete, and the l i ke, i n add.i ti on
to l ead covered cabl es and ut i l i t y pi pi ng.
The vari ous types of mechani cal corrosi on ef f ects i n the
underground envi ronment are not well understood.
I n parti cul ar,
163
no certai n method i s known f or avoi di ng catastrophi c f ai l ure by
stress cracki ng of hi gh strength steels. Hard spots i n the
pi pe due to manufacture and wel di ng shoul d be avoi ded. I t i s
not even certai n that stress cracki ng i s l i mi t ed to hi gh strength
steels. There i s some evi dence that cathodi c protecti on may
cause hydrogen embri ttl ement of some steel s, but more fundamental
knowledge i s badl y needed. Causti c ernbri ttl ement cracki ng may
take pl ace downstream from compressor stati ons when cathodi c
protecti on i s appl i ed, but thi s possi bi l i ty has not been ade-
quatel y i nvesti gated.
Twenty-two l eaks wer e attri buted to hydrogen bl i steri ng by
the surveyed compani es. Hydrogen i s generated both by corrosi on
i n an aci d envi ronment and by cathodi c protecti on, especi al l y at
hi gh potenti al s. Metals wi t h voi ds and i ncl usi ons are parti cu-
l ar l y suscepti bl e.
I ntergranul ar corrosi on of many stai nl ess steel s i s rapi d
when the thermal cycl e of wel di ng generates certai n types of i n-
homogenei ti es.
Temperature has an effect on corrosi on. I n f rozen soi l s, no
corrosi on of steel pi l i ngs was observed. Thi s cannot be extrap-
ol ated t o transportati on of petrol eum i n col d envi ronments,
si nce the pi pes would be heated i n such cases. Stress corrosi on
cracki ng i s more common i n pi pe l eadi ng from compressor stati ons,
.l
presumabl y because of el evated temperatures there.
Al though corrosi on occurs on al l steel buri ed underground,
the corrosi on rate can be nzgl i gi bl y low. I t has been found
that l eaks i n a pi pel i ne occur predomi nantl y i n soi l s l ow i n
164
resi sti vi ty. Pi tti ng of pi pel i nes i n stati sti cal l y uni form soi l s
was found i n at l east one i nstance t o occur onl y at poi nts where
the r esi sti vi ty was below about 1200 ohm-cm. Noncorrosi ve soi l
i s general l y i ndi cated by a hi gh r esi sti vi ty, 5000 ohm-cm or
hi gher. I t shoul d be noted, however, that r esi sti vi ty may change,
f or example by appl i cati on of chemi cal f er ti l i zer s. There i s a
-
growi ng real i zati on that other f actors, i ncl udi ng the change i n
soi l resi stance, the chemi cal speci es i n the soi l , the moi sture,
and the texture, can al so i nf l uence corrosi on.
Chl ori de i on i s known t o accel erate corrosi on. Hydrogen sul -
f i de accelerates corrosi on and can cause sul f i de stress cracki ng.
Carbon di oxi de pressures over 30 psi i n wet oi l and gas cause
corrosi on. Cal ci um i on and low carbonate concentrati ons are
of ten benef i ci al i n that CaC03 protecti ve scal es can be formed.
The spl ash and ti dal zones i n seawater are the most corrosi ve
mari ne envi ronment. Furthermore, cathodi c protecti on i s i nef f ec-
ti ve there. For pi pe i n seawater, however, no coati ngs are nec-
essary wi th cathodi c protecti on because the current caused heavy
protecti ve deposi ts t o form. The best coati ngs have been found
to be formed at l ower current densi ti es ( <150 mA/ sq ft) and to
consi st pri mari l y of cal ci um carbonate. One can cause s i mi l a r
deposi ts t o form on buri ed pi pe by addi ng cal ci um bi carbonate
t o the backf i l l and zipplying cathodi c protecti on.
c I t i s known that products of mi crobi ol ogi cal metabol i sm can
accel erate corrosi srl .
mati on under anaerobi c condi ti ons and accel erate corrosi on. The
extent to which mi cro-organi sms contri bute t o pi pel i ne corrosi on
Sul f ate reduci ng bacteri a cause H2S f or-
165
__-. I -
i s uncertai n. Very l i ttl e good f i el d data are avai l abl e. There
tends to be a si gni f i cant pol ari zati on of opi ni on on thi s subj ect.
The use of bi oci des has been l i mi ted.
I n the atmosphere, corrosi on i s accel erated by moi sture,
wind-blown sea sal t, sul f ur di oxi de, and to some extent, ozone.
The combined effect of di l ute sul f uri c aci d and ozone i s worse
than the sum of thei r i ndi vi dual ef f ects.
Al though no f errous met al i s untouched by corrosi on, the
extent of corrosi on i s si gni f i cantl y i nf l uenced by the exact
composi ti on of the metal and by thermal and mechani cal treatments.
Unfortunatel y, most of the addi ti ves which markedl y improve corro-
si on resi stance are probabl y too expensi ve f or use i n l arge pi pe-
l i ne systems.
Welds are noted t o be parti cul arl y suscepti bl e t o corrosi on.
Greater understandi ng of the ef f ect of wel di ng condi ti ons on cor-
rosi on i s needed. The i nf l uence of met al i nhomogenei ti es i s
scarcel y understood, but i s probabl y seri ous. Methods of pro-
duci ng pi pes coul d probabl y be devel oped t o avoi d such probl ems.
Al though most corrosi on occurs external l y, i nternal corrosi on
i s al so a probl em when moi sture and chl ori de i on, hydrogen su!--
f i de, or carbon di oxi de are present. T hi s has been control l ed
by removing moi sture, addi ng i nhi bi tors, or coati ng. Proper i n-
hi bi tors are sel ected empi ri cal l y. The mechanism of i nhi bi tor
acti on i s poorl y understszd. I n parti cul ar, it i s not yet pos-
si bl e t o conf i dentl y speci f y an i nhi bi tor f or any gi aen appl i -
cati on. Quanti tati ve i nvesti gati ons of i nhi bi tor ef f ecti veness
and appl i cati on procedures are needed and shoul d be publ i shed i n
*
the open l i terature. I t i s i mportant to note that many i nhi bi tors
accelerate corrosi on i f thei r concentrati on i s too l ow.
The corrosi on f ai l ure rate of unprotected pi pel i nes tends to
i ncrease wi th t i me. A wi del y used method of corrosi on control i s
the appl i cati on of coati ngs. Al though metal coati ngs are ef f ec-
P i ti ve under some condi ti ons, thi ck organi c coati ngs are general l y
favored f or underground use where protecti on i s requi red f or l ong
L peri ods. These coati ngs are i deal l y wat er i mpervi ous, el ectri c-
al l y i nsul ati ng and tough. General l y, ti ght adhesi on to the pi pe
i s al so requi red, al though good resul ts have been reported wi th
loose f i tti ng pl asti c sheaths. The requi rement f or water perm-
eabi l i ty i s probabl y even more severe when the coati ng i s not
bonded to the pi pe. I t shoul d be noted that no perf ect coati ng
materi al exi sts, and so conti nued search f or improved materi al s
i s j us ti f i ed .
The most common ci rcumstance f or l eaks devel oped i n coated
pi pe was physi cal damage of the coati ng. The second most common
ci rcumstance was corrosi on at i mproperl y appl i ed coati ngs. Micro-
organi sms attack most , if not al l , organi c coati ngs. Theref ore,
one cannot assume that once a pi pe i s coated, i t remai ns ef f ec-
ti vel y coated f orever. I nspecti on and repai r are necessary not
ml y when l ayi ng pi pe, but al so peri odi cal l y thereaf ter. The
mai ntenance requi rements are probabl y parti cul arl y severe when
cathodi c pz.=tecti on i s not eriployed si mui taneousl y.
*
Al though seldom used for. pi pps carryi ng gas and oi l , concrete
coati ngs car, provi de ef f ecti ve cearrosion conLrol . Concrete's
ef f ecti veness i s l argel y due to i ts hi gh pH. Agair., proper
I 67
appl i cati on i s requi red i ncl udi ng choosi ng the proper concrete
mix.
I n cathodi c protecti on, corrosi on i s reduced by making the
pi pe negati ve wi th respect t o the adj acent soi l . Cathodi c pro-
tecti on i s not a panacea f or al l corrosi on probl ems. Nei ther is
the proper appl i cati on of cathodi c protecti on a tr i vi al matter.
I ncreased corrosi on due to cathodi c protecti on has actual l y been
1
observed when steel was conti nuousl y or i ntermi ttentl y heated I
and i ntermi ttentl y wetted. Such condi ti ons would be expected on
pi pes j ust downstream from compressor stati ons i n areas where the
soi l i s i ntermi ttentl y dry and wet . Cathodi c protecti on can i n-
crease the l eak rate at f i r st when appl i ed to ol d pi pe by l oosen-
i ng adherent r ust scale which previ ousl y covered small hol es.
Cathodi c protecti on may ei ther be accompl i shed by external l y
appl i ed DC power or by attachment of sacri f i ci al anodes, such as
Mg, Zn, or A l , which are sl owl y consumed. Ei ther method works
when properl y i nstal l ed and mai ntai ned.
Theoreti cal consi derati ons gi ve reason to suspect that hi gher
than normal cathodi c protecti on vol tages may be requi red t o sup-
press acti ve sul f i de corrosi on i f , i ndeed, it i s possi bl e at al l .
Thi s apparent necessi ty i n turn i fi duces excessi ve appl i ed vol tages
that tend to destory and to l oosen the coati ng, thus starvi ng
both the disbonded. and remote areas cf current, f urther requi ri ng
added current. Thi s cycl i c process l eads ul ti matel y t o l oss i n
control of cathodi c protecti on, and l eaks may devel op both i n
proxi mi ty to the poi nt of current dr3i nage and at remote areas.
The di f f i cul ty i n achi evi ng acceptabl e protecti on wi th
coati ngs al one has caused many companies to suppl ement coat-
i ngs wi th cathodi c protecti on. On the other hand, cathodi c
protecti on used al one can general l y provi de adequate protecti on,
except that l arge currents are requi red and i nterf erence wi th
structures that may be nearby i s l i kel y. When used w i t h coat-
i ngs, onl y enough current i s requi red to protect areas where
hol es have devel oped i n the coati ngs. Thus, coati ngs and
cathodi c protecti on are of ten used i n conj uncti on.
the data from the surveyed companies i ndi cated a l ower corro-
si on l eak rate wi th coated and cathodi cal l y protected pi pe
than wi th unprotected pi pe, some l eaks di d devel op on pro-
tected pi pes. Thus the control measures do not appear to be
total l y ef f ecti ve. I n many cases, thi s may ref l ect i mproper
use of ei ther coati ngs or cathodi c protecti on, or both.
U s e of cathodi c protecti on and coati ngs together i s not
wi thout probl ems. Cathodi c protecti on may cause di sbondi ng
of the coati ng. Cavi ti es under di sbonded coati nc; are i deal
f or crevi ce corrosi on and mi crobi ol ogi cal corrosi on. To a
l arge extent, cathodi c protecti on i s i nef f ecti ve i n di sbonded
areas. Cathodi c protecti on i ncreases pH i n the surroundi ng
el ectrol yte, which can cause saponi f i cati on and destructi on
of bi tmi nous and si l i cone coati ng materi al s. The extent t o
which cathodi c protecti on w i l l damage ol d coati ngs i s un-
known.
ti on of cathodi c protecti or to 016 pi pi ng not previ ousl y
Even though
Thi s i s i mportant when one i s consi deri ng appl i ca-
169
protected. A test on a secti on of the ol d pi pe would probabl y
be necessary i n each case.
The present methods of veri f yi ng cathodi c protecti on are i m-
perf ect. Thi s i s proven by the f act that corrosi on l eaks occur
even wi th cathodi c protecti on. There appears to be no enti rel y
sati sf actory cri teri on f or veri f yi ng that cathodi c protecti on has
been achi eved. Potenti al s cannot be made too negati ve or coat-
i ngs are di sbonded. M o s t of the surveyed companies used a pi pe
potenti al of 0.85 vol t rel ati ve t o the copper sul f ate el ectrode
as thei r cri teri on f or cathodi c protecti on. Al though sati sf ac-
.
tory i n many i nstances, the use of a f i xed pi pe potenti al i s
known to be del eteri ous under certai n condi ti ons. The second
mo s t common cri teri on used by the surveyed companies was a 300
mV di f f erence between the energi zed and the ori gi nal open
ci rcui t potenti al s, which i s si mi l ar t o the f i xed pi pe potenti al
cri teri on i n advantages and di sadvantages.
The i nstantaneous open ci rcui t potenti al (the pol ari zati on
potenti al ) and other possi bl e protecti on cri teri a have been poorl y
expl oi ted. There i s a need f or a cri ti cal revi ew of possi bl e
protecti on cri teri a, stati sti cal methods f or anal yses and of
correl ati ons wi th bs.sic el ectrochem:-cal concepts.
I mproved methods are badl y needed both f or detecti r.g s mal l
leaks and f or detecti ng areas which w i l l soon f ai l . A standard
record system shoul d be devel oped that w i l l al l ow correl ati ons
between l eak frequency and such va:r,abJ .es as soi l properti es,
coati ng properti es, cathodi c protecti on condi ti ons, l ocati on,
etc. Accurate l eak records are val uabl e ai d may serve a number
of purposes i ncl udi ng predi cti ng f uture l eaks, l ocati ng areas
f or recondi ti oni ng or cathodi c protecti on and i ndi cati ng pre-
cauti ons to take when l ayi ng new pi pe. The records, however,
shoul d cl earl y i ndi cate causes so that damage by others may not
be confused wi th l eaks caused by corrosi on al one.
(.
Casi ngs around pi pes under roadbeds and rai l road tracks have
been shown to be not onl y unnecessary i n most cases, but del ete-
ri ous from a corrosi on standpoi nt as wel l . When the met al cas-
i ngs are shorted to the pi pe, cathodi c protecti on i s i nef f ecti ve.
Much money i s bei ng needl essl y wasted on unnecessary casi ngs.
One of the greatest needs i s f or more data on the economics
of corrosi on control . Thi s i s parti cul arl y noti ceabl e i n di s-
cussi ons of coati ngs, where one wi shes t o maximize the r ati o of
savi ngs t o cost. I deal l y, the optimum coati ng thi ckness f or
each type of coati ng shoul d be known on thi s basi s. E st i mat es
f or i nstal l ati on of cathodi c protecti on range from l ess than 0.5
percent t o over 10 percent of the total proj ect cost, and yet
actual costs are almost never reported.
Short courses and semi nars wer e f el t t o be the most i mportant
i nf ormati on source f or the surveyed compani es' corrosi on control
programs. Thi s ref l ects the f act that cerrosi on engi neeri ng i s
. not treated as a separate academi c di sci pl i ne i n the uni versi ti es.
Thus, the art and sci ence of ccrrosi on control i s l earned "on the
j ob" by experi ence, sel f - study, i tl eeti ngs, shQrt courses, and
eveni ng courses. There seems to be a geed f or more short courses
which go i nto 6.etai l on speci f i c aspecf s of corrosi on control ,
e.g., a cathodi c proteeti oi l course, a basi c el ectrochemi stry
1 7 1.
course, a coati ngs course, etc. However, corrosi on courses al one
do not consti tute adequate background f or a conpetent corrosi on
eng-neer. Experi ence, good judgment, and a sol i d fundamental
techni cal educati on are al so needed.
Because degrees are not granted i n corrosi on engi neeri ng,
there i s need f or an adequate method of j udgi ng the qual i f i cati ons
of corrosi on engi neers and techni ci ans. The present methods are
not adequate. Competence of practi ci ng engi neers, consul tants,
.
and techni ci ans vari es wi del y and i s di f f i cul t to eval uate.
Nati onwi de expansi on of corrosi on control programs i n the near
f uture would be hi ndered by the
l ack of suf f i ci ent numbers of
trai ned and competent personnel .
Much of the research l i terature avai l abl e on corrosi on i s
too sophi sti cated and compl i cated f or use by the operati ng com-
pani es. More research di rected toward the speci f i c corrosi on
probl ems of the pi pel i ne i ndustry i s needed.
172
APPENDIX I
EXAMPLE ABSTRACT RETRIEVAL RUN
173
*
ABSTRACT RETRI EVAL RUN
COLUMN CODE KEYWORDS
11- 1 2 1 UXDERGROUND
13- 14 30 ANAEROBI C BACTERI AL CORROSI ON
7- 8 10 CARBON STEEL S
SOURCE STATEMENT - THE FOLLOWI NG I N AN ABSTRACT (*** COMMENT - )
I NDI CATES THAT WHAT FCLLOWS I S A COMMENT WRI TTI I iJ E3Y MRI . NACE
I S THE SOURCE OF THE OTHER ABSTRACTS.
REPORT NO CL ASSI FI CATI ON CODE
538 538101010 130 0 02010 I VERSON,W. 1968
MI CROBI AL CORROSI ON, W.P.I VERSON, NBS A D- 670501 ( 1968) APR.
***COMMENT- STUDI ES OF EFFECT OF MI CROORGANI SMS, PARTI CULARLY
SULFATE REDUCERS (DESUL FOBI VRI O) , ON MARI NE CORROSI ON WERE
I NI TI ATED. THE I NABI L I TY OF SULFATE REDUCERS TO GROW ON THE
AGAR SURFACE T F MEDI A APPEARS TO BE DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF THE
FERROUS SAL T USED AS AN I NDI CATOR FOR HYDROGEN SUL FI DE. EVI DENCE
I NDI CATES THAT PHOSPHATE MAY BE AN ELECTRON ACCEPTOR I N THE
CATHODI C DEPOLARI ZATI ON OF STEEL . I RON PHOSPHI DE AND DI V I V I A NI TE
WERE PRODUCED BY DESUL FOBI VRI O GROWING I N CONTACT WI TH MI LD STEEL .
THE ORGANI SM REDUCES PHOSPHATE I N THE PRESENCE OF HYDROGEN TO
FORM A VOL ATI L E PHOSPHOROUS CONTAI NI NG COMPOUND WHI CH I S NOT
PHOSPHI NE. L I GHT I NCREASES THE CORROSI ON RATE OF STEEL AS
I NDI CATED BY POL ARI ZATI ON MEASUREMENTS. THE CATHODI C PROTECTI ON
C3RRI 3NTS REQUI RED TO MAI NTAI N A POTENTI AL OF 0.8 VOLTS ON A STEEL
SPECI MEN I N I NDI RECT SUNLI GHT WAS FOUND TO BE 1. 5 TI MES THAT
REQUI RED I N THE DARK.
%
549 549301010 130 0 020 0 I VERSON,W. 1969
ANAEROBI C CORROSI ON OF MI LD STEEL BY DESULFOV;'r,ltI i), W. P . I VERSON,
NBS, NACE CONF. HOUSTON, (1969).***COMMENT EXPCRI MENTS WI TH
BACTERI A PRODUCE CATHODI C DEPOLARI ZATI ON. PHOSPHATE I S ALSO
REDUCED TO PRODUCE FE2P AND A GASEOUS PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUND, NOT
PHOSPHI NE. HOWEVER, THE CORROSI ON RATES ATTRI BUTABLE TO CATHODI C
DEPOLARI ZATI ON DO NOT ACCOUNT FOR HI GH CORROSI ON RATES SOMETI MES
OBSERVED I N THE FI EL D. THESE MAY BE DUE TO FORMATI ON OF
DI FFERENTI AL OXYGEN CEL L S, THE ACTI ON OF H2S, OR ALTERNATE
ANAEROBI C AND AEROBI C CONDI TI ONS TO PRODUCE SUL FURI C ACI D.
BENZY L VIOLOGEN IN PLACE OF so4 HAVE PROVER THAT ANAEROBIC
5015 50156010 0 130 060101G GANSER,P. 1964
CATHODI C PROTECTI OK FOR AN UNCOATED GAS DI STRI BUTI ON SY STEM,
P. GANSER, A COLLECTI ON OF PAPERS ON '3YDERGROUND PI PEL I NE
CORROSI ON, V. 8, P. 241- 253, (1964). * * * I NVESTI GATI CN OF AN
PRI NI CPAL CAUSE TO BE ANAEROBI C BACTERI A. CATHODZC PROTECTI ON
WAS I NSTAL L ED TO K I L L MI CROBES. TO MAKE L I NE CONDUCTI VE A NEW
I NCREASI NG L3AK RATE OF UNDERGROUND MAI NS I NDI CATED THE S
*
T h i s i s an example of a very sel ecti ve A b s t r ac t R et r i ev al Run.
The run i s not c ompl et e. A typi cal run may sel ect several hund-
red perti nent abstracts.
174
TECHNI QUE WAS DEVI SED FOR SPOT WELDI NG CONDUCTORS ACROSS P I P E
CONNECTI ONS USI NG ONLY A VERY SMALL ( 4 I NCHES BY 18 I NCHES)
OPENI NG. OPERATI NG COST I NCLUDI NG EL ECTRI CI TY , MAI NTENANCE
AND ENGI NEERI NG COST I S 4. 6 CENTS/FT. OF P I P E .
5102 51021070 0 130 0 020 0 3UTL I N,K .R. VERNON,W.H. 1952
I NVESTI GATI ONS ON UNDERGROUND CORROSI ON. K.R. BUTL I N, W.H.J .
VERNON AND L . C. WHI SK I N. I RON STEEL I NST. SPECI AL REPT. NO.
45, 29-38 ( 1952) , WATER + WATER ENG., 56, NO. 671, 15-18 ( 1952)
J AN.***FUNDAMENTAL STUDI ES ON SULFATE-REDUCI NG qACTERI A, AND
ANAEROBI C CONDI TI ONS ARE DESCRI BED. DETAI L S OF F I EL D TESTS
ON BARE AND PROTECTED BURI ED I RON P I P E S ARE GI VEN. SPECI MENS
OF COPPER, LEAD, AND GALVANI ZED STEEL P I P E ARE I NCLUDED I N
TESTS NOW I N PROGRESS.***
II
' I NVESTI GATI ONS OF THE EFFECTS OF THESE BACTERI A ONI RON I N
.
5598 55983070 0 13030 020 0 MI NCHI N,L . 1954
CORROSI ON OF P I P E S BY BACTERI A. L .T. MI NCHI N. GAS AGE,
114, 8, 45- 47, 101- 102, 104 ( 1954) OCT. 7.***EUROPEAN SURVEY
OF MI CROGI OLOGI CAL ANAEROBI C CORROSI ON WI TH SPECI A L REFERENCE
TO EXPERI ENCE I N LOW COUNTRI ES. TABL E, PHOTOGRAPHS. 7
REFERENCES.
6123 61233070 0 130302020 0 STARKEY ,R. WRI GHT,K.M. 1947
ANAEROBI C CORROSI ON OF I RON I N SOI L WI TH PARTI CULAR CONSI DERA-
TI ON OF THE SOI L REDOX POTENTI AL AS AN I NDI CATOR OF CORROSI VE-
NESS. R.L . STARKEY AND K .M. WRI GHT AGA. CONDENSATI ON CORROSI ON
3, 227-232 ( 1947) MAY .***DI SCUSSI ON I S PRESENTED ON THE
ANAEROBI C CORROSI ON OF I RON I N SOI L , DATA PRESENTED ON THE
CHARACTERI STI CS OF CORRODED I RON AND STEEL SURFACES, ORI GI N
OF SUL FI DE I N SOI L , CHARACTERI STI CS OF BACTERI A CAUSI NG
ANAEROBI C CORROSI ON, I MPORTANCE OF SULFATE REDUCT.I ON,
MECHANI SM OF THE PROCESS OF MI CRO-BI OLOGI CAL ANAEI iOBI C I RON
CORROSI ON, EVI DENCE FOR ELECTRO-CHEMI CAL THEORY OF ANAEROBI C
CORROSI ON, UTI L I ZATI ON OF HYDROGEN AND THE REDUCTI ON OF
I RON CORROSI ON I N SOI L S, OXI DATI ON-REDUCTI ON POTENTI AL , F I EL D
TESTS OF DEGREES OF CORRELATI ON BETWEEN SEVERI TY OF CORROSI ON
AND THE SOI L REDOX POTENTI AL AND OTHER SOI L CHARACTERI STI CS,
AND RESI STANCE OF SOME P I P E WRAPPI NG WATERI ALS TO DECOMPOSI -
TI ON I N SOI L . 203 REF.***
SULFATE BY BACTERI A, DETECTI ON OF MI CRO-BI OLOGI CAL ANAEROBI C
175
APPSNDIX I1
QUESTIONNAIRE
.
176
FormApproved: Budget Bureau No. 04- S69052
OF
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20590
M WHOM I T MAY CONCERN
The Department of Transportation i s currently conducting research
on the subj ect of the corrosion processes, thei r detection, control
and repai r, as it applies to ferrous pipelines. This research is
to develop background information from a wide range of source
materials and personal experiences. Hopefully thi s can be aahieved
by asking those persons exposed to the problems of corrosion to
answer speci fi c questions regarding corrosion problems. Answering
of these questions i s enti rel y voluntary, and there i s no l egal or
statutory obligation to do so.
I t i s our hope that the resul ts obtained from thi s questionnaire
w i l l consolidate knowledge and understanding of corrosion and
corrosion rel ated problems, and concurrently increase everyones
abi l i ty to combat it.
W e have sel ected the firm of Mechanics Research, I nc., an engineering
firm headquartered i n Los Angeles, California, to carry out thi s
research.
I t would be appreciated i f you could provide themwith al l possible
cooperation regarding thi s matter when they contact you. I f you or
your organization feel s that information of a confidential or
proprietary nature i s involved and you wish to have it kept confi-
denti al , please i denti fy it and it w i l l be kept i n confidence and
not made public.
W e plan to make the general resul ts obtained from thi s study avail -
able to the operating industry and other i nterested parti es i n order
to further knowledge i n the corrosion control area.
A l l information and questionnaires furnished by parti ci pati ng
organizatiors are the property of the U.S. Government and w i l l be
returned to the Office of Pipeline Safety immediately upon completion
of the contract,
I f fu.rt!!er cl ari fi cati on or information regarding any aspect of this
proj ect i s required, please contact me (phone A.C. 202, 96-26000).
Sincerely yours ,
eputp Director
of Pipeline Safety
177
Forn Approved: Budget Bureau No. 04- S69052
TJO .
Q IJ E S T I O N N A I R E
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _
CORROSION PROCESSES, DETECTI ON AND CONTROL OF FERROUS PI PI NG
The purpose of the questi onnai re i s t o devel op background i nforma-
ti on on corrosi on. Thi s i nf ormati on i s sol i ci ted on a st r i ct l y
vol untary basi s and i s i ntended onl y to devel op general research
type i nf ormati on regardi ng corrosi on and i ts control . Unpubl i shed
i nf ormati on beari ng on any corrosi on or corrosi on control process
i s par ti cul ar l y sought and may be returned wi th the questi onnai re.
The questi onnai re al so seeks t o devel op state- of - the- art i nforma-
ti on on corrosi on and corrosi on control processes par ti cul ar l y
where perti nent i nvesti gati ve and research r esul ts l ay dormant.
The exi stence of standards di rected to the general subj ect of
corrosi on of pi pe i nter nal l y and external l y when buri ed or sub-
merged i s recogni zed. Do not ci te exi sti ng codes or standards.
I f respondent i s other than an owner or operator of gatheri ng,
transmi ssi on or di str i buti on pi pi ng operati ons, answer onl y those
questi ons whi ch respondent has knowl edge of and whi ch w i l l con-
tr i bute to the purpose of the questi onnai re.
Many si tuati ons i n the f i el d of corrosi on are uni que and i f the
respondent wi shes t o qual i f y hi s answers i n any way, he shoul d
f eel free t o do so.
GENERAL COMPANY DATA
1. Name and address of com.pany
2. Name of person who may be contacted f or fol l ow-up on the
questi onnai re
-
Phone No.
RETURN COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE TO:
-
Mechani cs Research , I nc.
Al buquerque , N. M. 87106
1200 Uni versi ty Bi vd. , N. E.
' at hodi cal l y
Pr ot ect ed
For mAppr oved: Budget Bur eau 'No. 04- S 69052
No.
Not
' Cat hodi cal l y
Pr ot ect ed
Q U E S T I O N N A I R E
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _
Cat hodi cal l y
Pr ot ect ed 3/
( a) St eel Pi pe
( b) Wr ought I r on
Pi pe
( c) Cast I r on
Pi pe
PART A: GENERAL PI PELI NE SYSTEM DATA
1. I ndi cat e i f r espondent i s an: Oper at i ng Company ,
Consul t i ng Company 0 , Resear ch Company or Or gani zat i on ,
Ot her ( Speci f y)
2. Submi t a separ at e quest i onnai r e r esponse f or each of t he
f ol l owi ng as appl i cabl e, and check bel ow t he si ngl e ar ea t hat
t hi s r epor t cover s.
( a) Gas Gat her i ng 17 ( 9) Oi l Di st r i but i on
Transrcl i ss i on
( e) Oi l Gat her i nq ( j ) Wat er n
( b) Gas St or age Gat her i ng c] ( h) Pet r ol eumPr oduct
( i ) Pet r ol eumPr oduct
( c ) Gas Tr ansmi ssi on
Q
( f ) Oi l Tr ansmi ssi on 0 ( k ) Ot her ( Speci Fy)
( d) Gas Di st r i but i on Di st r i but i on
Not
Cat hDdi cal l y
Pr ot ect ed
3. Est i mat ed t ot al mi l es of f er r ous pi pe cover ed. by t hi s
r epor t
4. For t he syst emi ndi cat ed i n Quest i on 2, est i n- at e t he mi l es
17 9
5. E st i mat e the number of corrosi on leaksL per l i near mi l e occur-
ri ng i n cal endar year 1969 f or each of the above materi al s, ( a) ,
( b) , ( c) , and (d) from Questi on 4, i n the f ol l owi ng age groups:
Cathodi cal l y
BARE PI PE 1/
1 I N o t 1
N o t
Cathodi cal l y I Cathodi cal l y I Cathodi cal l y I
Over 30 years
21-30 years
11- 20 years
6-10 years
0-5 years
.
- 1/
Rare pi pe i s def i ned as pi pe whi ch has never been coeted.
Pi pe coated wi th mi l l pri mer shal l be consi dered as bare pi pe.
- 2/ A corrosi on l eak, as used herei n, means uni ntended escape of
gas or l i qui d. caused by corrosi on.
Cathodi cal l y protected means under protecti on f or at l east
t wo years.
- 3/
PART B: CAUSE AND CONTROL OF CORROSI 9N
Secti on I - I nspecti on and Cause of Corrosi on Leaks
1. Does your company have a corrosi on control program? Y es 0 NO
2. I f yes, br i ef l y descri be the program i ndi cati ng but- no% l i mi ted
to ttl e f ol l owi ng i nf ormati on: years i n ef f ect, type and fre-
quency of surveys, reports and record procedures, l ength of
t i me records are kept, and anal ysi s of r esul ts, etc. (Answer
on 2 separate sheet or on the back of t hi s sheet. )
180
I
- 3 -
3. I f you do not have a corrosi on control program, state why not.
4. With reqard t o corrosi on l eaks, i s the probabl e type of corro-
si on determi ned:
I f no expl ai n:
57 Yes NO
5. For your system i ndi cate the most preval ent cause f or corrosi on
l eaks. U s e the numeral 1 f or most f requent, then 2, 3, etc.
(as appl i cabl e), f or l ess f requent causes:
(a) Gal vani c cel l
(b) Stray current (i ncl udi ng
cathodi c i nterf erence)
(c) Stress corrosi on cracki ng
(d) Corrosi on f ati gue
(e) Hyd.rogen embri ttl ement
( f ) Causti c embri ttl ement -
(9) Mi crobi ol ogi cal corrosi on
( 1 1 ) Other (speci f y)
181
- 4-
6. I ndi cate the mo s t preval ent ci rcumstance under which corrosi on
l eaks of coated pi pe have been found duri ng the l ast 5 years.
U se the numeral 1 f or mo s t f requent, then 2, 3 , etc., i n less
f requent order.
Order of Frequency
N o t
Cathodi cal l y Cathodi cal l y
Protected 3/ Protected
(a) Corrosi on at i mproperl y
appl i ed coati ng
(b) Corrosi on where coati ng has
cl earl y been damaged duri ng
constructi on or subsequentl y
abraded by others
( c ) Corrosi on where coati ng i s
ruptured by soi l stress or
root growth
(d) Corrosi on beneath unbonded
coati ng
(e) Fai l ure of the coati ng materi al
( f ) Other (speci f y)
road crossi ngs, etc. ?
I f yes, how many? (Give best esti mate)
7. Have corrosi on l eaks occurred i nsi de your pi pel i ne casi ngs at
Y es /-J NO
D c Not
8. Do you ha.ve casi ng shorted to carri er pi pe? Y es 17 N o Iz] Know
I f yes, esti mate number shorted
9. E st i mat e total number of cased crossi ngs
10. E st i mat e the number of corrosi on l eaks duri ng 1369 that have
occurred at
(a) Longi tu.di na1 f actory wel ds
(b) Spi ral f actory wel ds
.
(c) Fi el d wel ds
182
- -
-5-
.
11. I ndi cate the total number of corrosi on l eaks that have been
caused by:
(a) Hydrogen bl i ster s
(b) Cracks
(Expl ai n the exi sti ng exposure condi ti ons f or each case such as
temperature of pi pe, vi brati on, pressure, pi pe potenti al , pres-
ence of ni cks or scratches, hard spots, anal ysi s of cause of
crack such as hydrogen stress cracki ng or stress corrosi on crack-
i ng, etc.)
12, I s the i nspecti on of corrosi on l eaks suppl emented by any of the
fol l owi ng observati ons:
NO
-
Y es
-
(a) General condi ti on of coati ng
i ncl udi ng bond t o pi pe
(b) Soi l type and/or texture
(c) Soi l moi sture
0 c3
(d) Proxi mi ty of other pi pel i nes of
structures. (Possi bi l i ty of
cathodi c i nterf erence.) G
(e) Others (Expl ai n f ul l y)
-6-
(f) Have any of these observati ons been
correl ated wi th l eak frequency?
No
- -
Y es
(9) If so, expl ai n the system establ i shed
and the resul ts.
.
13. Check which of the f ol l owi ng measurements you have usual l y
heretof or used as suppl ement i denti f i cati on of causes of
corrosi on l eaks.
Coati ng thi ckness
Chemical anal yses of soi l
Pi pe potenti al
Maximum pi t depths at adj acent
corroded areas wi thi n the
excavati on
Metal l urgi cal anal ysi s
Redox potenti al
Soi l pH
Soi l r esi sti vi ty
Qual i tati ve f i el d test f or
sul f i de i on
Potenti al or current wi th
respect to f orei gn structure
Others (speci f y)
-7-
14. H as the company experi enced corrosi on of pi pe by bacteri al
acti vi ty?
Y es Very Rarel y N o D o Not Know
-
-
(a) Anaerobi c
(b) Aerobic
0
D
15. Do you know of any i nstance where bacteri al corrosi on has
caused a l eak or rupture on your system?
expl ai n f ul l y.
I f so, pl ease
16- I f the corrosi on l eak occurs at a j oi nt i n a pi pi ng system,
i ndi cate the number occurri ng i n 1969 f or each of the fol l ow-
i ng categori es:
(a) Compression coupl i ngs
(b) Threaded coupl i ngs and
f l anged j oi nts
(c) Other (Expl ai n)
185
-8-
17. I ndi cat e t he pr i nci pal equi pment you use i n conduct i ng pi pe- t o-
soi l pot ent i al sur veys.
Hi gh- r esi st ance vol t met er
100, 000 ohms/ vol t or mor e tl
Pot ent i omet er vol t met er
Vacuumt ube vol t met er
IJ
Low- r esi st ance vol t met er
20 , 000 ohms/ vol t or l ess
Ot her ( speci f y)
18. Met hods t o r epai r and cont r ol cor r osi on l eaks:
( a) Li st t he cur r ent met hods used t o r epai r cor r osi on l eaks.
( b) Ar e i nt er nal seal ant s used t o r epai r cor r osi on l eaks?
Yes NO
( c) I f (b) i s yes, whi ch t ype/ s have pr oven most ef f ect i ve?
*
19. Li st t he f act or s you t ake i nt o consi der at i on ir, t he r epl acement
or abandonment of cor r oded pi pe.
.
186
-9-
20. Does your Company transport gas or oi l contai ni ng materi al s
which i n the presence of f ree moi sture may be the cause of
i nternal corrosi on?
0 Y e s NO
I f so, l i st these materi al s.
21. I f yes, which of the f ol l owi ng procedures are uti l i zed to
control i nternal corrosi on?
(a) Dehydrati on
(b) I nhi bi ti on cl
(c) I nternal coati ng 0
(d) Other (speci f y)
22. What publ i cati ons and i nf ormati on sources (such as conf erences,
semi nars, etc.) has the company found to be mo s t i nf ormati ve
and contri bute mo s t to your corrosi on control program. Pl ease
l i st 3 or 4 i n order of i mportance.
187
-10-
Secti on 11 - Protecti ve Coati ngs
1.
2.
I denti f y the major types of protecti ve coati ngs used by your
company duri ng the l ast 5 years by order of use.
L i s t Types i n Order of U s e
Asphal t
Coal-Tar
Masti c
Prefabri cated f i l m
Wax
Others (speci f y)
What f actors and properti es do you consi der i n sel ecti ng parti c-
ul ar coati ng materi al s and wrappi ng f or speci f i c appl i cati ons,
such as bondi ng, resi stance to deteri orati on from soi l contami -
nents, economi cs, resi stance to soi l stress, past experi ence,
permeabi l i ty, el ectri cal properti es, hi gh temperature deteri ora-
ti on, etc.
3 . Appl i cati on of pi pe coati ng materi al to pi pe:
.I
(a) Under what condi ti ons do you pref er pl ant appl i ed coati ngs?
-11-
(b) Under what condi ti ons do you pref er over-the-di tch
appl i ed coati ng?
(c) Check the f ol l owi ng f i el d practi ces which your company
uses to i nsure good coati ngs?
(1) Fi el d i nspecti ng
cl
( 2 ) Hol i day detecti ng El
( 3 ) Rock shi el di ng
.
( 4 ) Sand Backf i l l i ng i n rock
areas U
(5) Other (speci f y)
n
4. Appl i cati on of coati ng materi al s to pi pe at j oi nts and
appurtenances :
(a) L i s t the materi al s currentl y used to coat f i el d j oi nts
and appurtenances:
(b) Do you use a hol i day detector t o check the ef f ecti veness
of coati ngs appl i ed to f i el d j oi nts, main l i ne val ves,
f l anges, taps, etc.
189
- --
--I
-12-
Secti on I11 - Cathodi c Protecti on
1. Check the types of rectifiers used by your company:
(a) Sel eni um
(b) Si l i con
(e) Copper oxi de
(d) Other (speci f y) 0
2. Give the number of generators used by the company:
(a) Fuel powered
(b) Pul se
(c) Sol ar
(d) Thermoel ectri c
(e) Wind
( f ) Other (speci f y)
your company wi th the numeral s 1, 2, 3 , ... i n order of decreasi ng
use:
3. I ndi cate the rel ati ve quanti ty of gal vani c anodes i nstal l ed by
(a) Aluminum
(b) Magnesium
(c) Zi nc
(d) Ot her (speci f y)
fol l owi ng nongal vani c anodes accordi ng to performance:
4. I denti f y by number 1 (best), 2 , 3, ... or (E) experi mental , the
-
Anode Material
(a) Graphi te i n coke breeze
(b) Graphi te
Earth Marine
Exposure Exposure
(c) Lead
190
4. (conti nued)
Anode Material
(d) Lead-Si l ver al l oy
(e) High si l i con cast i ron i n
coke breeze
( f ) High si l i con cast i ron
(9) Scrap i ron i n coke breeze
(h) Scrap i ron
(i) Pl ati ni zed ti tani um
( j ) Pl ati ni zed tantal um
(k) Other (speci f y)
Marine
Earth
Exposure Exposure
5. Cathodi c Protecti on Conductors:
(a) L i s t types of cathodi c protecti on conductors used by
your company :
(b) Check method currentl y used by your company f or attachi ng
conductor t o pi pe:
(1) Thermi t process
( 2) Sol der
( 3 ) Conductor brazed t o steel
coupon welded t o pi pe
(4) Bol ted connecti on
(5) Other (speci f y)
-14-
(c) What procedure i s used to attach conductor to hi gh-strength
(X52 or above) steel pi pe?
(d) Do you post-heat conductor connecti ons t o hi gh-strength
steel pi pe?
Y es NO
I f so, at what temperature?
6. I denti f y by number 1, 2 , 3, ..., the fol l owi ng gal vani c anodes
accordi ng t o decreasi ng performance?
Anode Material
Earth Marine
Exposure Exposure
(a) Aluminum
(b) Magnesium
(c) Zi nc
(d) Other (speci f y)
7. Protecti on Cri teri a:
(a) For the purpose of thi s questi onnai re, the fol l owi ng def i ni -
ti ons w i l l appl y:
Pi pe-to-soi l (el ectrol yte) potenti al : The vol tage di f f er-
ence between a buri ed pi pe surf ace and the el ectrol yte as
measured wi t h a saturated copper-copper sul f ate hal f cel l
-
i n contact wi t h the el ectrol yte. .
Open-ci rcui t Potenti al : The di f f erence i n vol tage between
a pi pe surf ace and a saturated copper-copper sul f ate hal f
cel l i n contact wi th the el ectrol yte under a condi ti on of
no current f l cw.
-
192
-15-
Vol tage Shi f t: The negati ve vol tage shi f t as measured
between the pi pe surf ace and a saturated copper-copper
sul f ate hal f cel l i n contact wi th the el ectrode. Thi s
i s the di f f erence i n pi pe-to-soi l potenti al bef ore and
af ter the appl i cati on of protecti ve current, (the l atter
bei ng made wi th the current appl i ed).
Pol ari zati on Vol tage Shi f t: The negati ve vol tage shi f t
measured between the pi pe surf ace and a saturated copper-
copper sul f ate hal f cel l contacti ng the el ectrol yte.
T hi s pol ari zati on vol tage shi f t i s determi ned by i nterrup-
ti ng the protecti ve current and measuri ng the pol ari za-
ti on decay.
Taf el segment, Taf el l i ne, Taf el sl ope, Taf el di agram:
When a pi pe surf ace i s pol ari zed, it f requentl y w i l l
yi el d a current potenti al rel ati onshi p over a regi on
which can be approxi mated by:
i
n =+B l o g -
i
-
0
where n = change from open-ci rcui t potenti al , i =the
current densi ty, B and i = constants. The constant
(B) i s al so known as theOTafe1 sl ope. I f thi s behavi or
i s observed, a pl ot on semi l ogari thmi c coordi nates i s
known as the Taf el l i ne and the over- al l di agram i s
termed a Taf el di agram.
(b) I n the two columns of the tabl e below, show vol tage val ues
at which your company consi ders protecti on has been achi eved.
Cri teri on (i a)
Used
Protected Vol tage or A V shi f t
Bare Coated
(VO 1 ts )
Pi pe-to-soi l potenti al
Vol tage shi f t
Pol ari zati on vol tage shi f t
Vol tage based on Taf el segment
of E-log-I curve (Check i f used)
193
-16-
Describe any other method your company may use i n deter-
mi ni ng when pi pe i s protected such as measurement of
current l oss and gai n on the structure or current trac-
i ng i n the el ectrol yte perpendi cul ar to the pi pel i ne, or
pol ari zati on potenti al , etc.
(c) With ref erence t o protected pi pe, where does your company
normal l y pl ace i ts ref erence el ectrode?
Bare Coated
On surf ace over pi pe
Remote from pi pe
I f remote, perpendi cul ar
di stance from pi pe
I mmedi atel y adj acent to pi pe
Other (speci f y)
Ft. F t.
t
194
-17-
(d) What i.s your maximum pi pe- to- soi l potenti al (numeri cal l y)
or i nstantaneous open ci rcui ted potenti al at the r ecti f i er
l ocati on? Check the potenti al that best descri bes the
company practi ce.
Pi pe-to-Soi l Potenti al
( V ol t s)
up to 1.5
i.6 to 2. 5
2. 6 to 3.5
3.6 to 5.0 0
I nst. Open Ci rcui t
Potenti al ( V ol t s)
up to 1.00
1. 01 to 1.05 0
1. 06 to 1. 20
a
Other (speci f y
and expl ai n)
Other (speci f y
and expl ai n) 0
(e) Does your company desi gn i ts cathodi c protecti on i nstal l ati ons
or are consul tants employed to do thi s work?
( f j Do corrosi on ori ented techni cal personnel check the adequacy
of the i nstal l ed cathodi c protecti on? (I f yes, descri be
the procedure.)
.
c
195
. .
-18-
Secti on I V - Survei l l ance, Control and Maintenance
1. I f your company uses the fol l owi ng survei l l ance methods, w r i t e
the l etters or numeral s "VJ " (weekl y), "P?" (monthl y), 1 (annual l y),
2 (bi annual l y), . . . 5 (qui nquenni al l y) I . . . "U" (unschedul ed),
. . .I tR" (on occasi ons when opportuni ty presents i tsel f ) I . . .
or I 'X" (i nf requentl y) i n the appropri ate column to i ndi cate
the f requenci es of such surveys.
Type of Survei l l ance or T est s
(a) Aerobi c bacteri a
(b) Anaerobi c bacteri a
(c) B el l hol e i nspecti on (coati ng and
pi pe condi ti on)
(d) Coati ny conductance survey (l ocal )
.
(e) Coati ng conductance survey (l ongl i ne)
( f ) Coati ng di sconti nui ty survey (Pearson)
( 4 ) Earth current test (pi pe vi ci ni ty)
(h) L i ne current measurement
( i ) Surf ace potenti al survey
cl ose i nterval
conti nuous
( j ) Pi pe-to-soi l potenti al survey ( at
test stat i ons 1
( k) Redox potenti al
(1) Soi l r esi sti vi ty survey*
( m) Chemical anal yses
(n) Current i nterf erence
.)
( 0 ) Other (expl ai n i n detai l )
.
* Cl ar i f y by addi nq the appropri ate l etter ( s ) " P" (probe) , " T E "
(Wenner method), or " S " (Soi l Box).
196
- 19-
PART C : I NTERFERENCE, RESEARCH AND CASE HI STORI ES
Secti on I - Current I nterf erence
1. L i s t al l el ectrol ysi s or corrosi on i nterf erence committees i n
which your company parti ci pates.
2. U s e the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc., to i ndi cate the major sources of
i nf ormati on about the presence of i nterf erence currents:
(a) El ectrol ysi s or corrosi on i nterf erence committees
(h) D i r e c t communication from other companies
(c) Current and Vol tage measurements
(d) Other (speci f y)
3. How many drai naqe bonds between the company's pi pi ng and other
structures are exi sti ng? Descri be major bonds.
4. What cri teri on( a) i s (are) used t o determi ne when i nterf erence
has been mi ti gated?
197
-20-
Secti on I1 - Research
1. Is your cormany currentl y or has
(a) Engaged i n corrosi on research? n Y es N o
(b) Sponsored or contri buted to corrosi on research?
it, i n the past:
Y es
No
c
2. If yes, state the maj or areas covered.
.
3. Is your research work pri mari l y: Fi el d a Laboratory 0
4. What i nformati on or research do you feel i s needed i n the f uture
f or corrosi on control of underground and underwater pi pi ng?
198
-21-
5, Do you know of any out st andi ng unpubl i shed wor ks on cor r osi on
whi ch ar e not gener al l y avai l abl e to t he cor r osi on engi neer i ng
pr of essi on? Obt ai n cl ear ance f r omaut hor ( s) and/ or company of
such unpubl i shed wor ks bef or e r espondi ng af f i r mat i vel y.
[73 Y e s
No
+
6 , I f yes, pl ease l i st t i t l e, aut hor , and how t hey can be secur ed.
c
-. PART D: ADDI TI ONAL INFORMATION
Pl ease di scuss under gr ound or under wat er pi pi ng cor r osi on pr obl ems
not speci f i cal l y ment i oned i n t he quest i onnai r e or expand on any
quest i on.
.
PART E: PI PELI NE CASE HISTORIES
At your company' s opt i on, suppl y case hi st or y i nf or mat i on f or
pi pi f i g i nst al l at i ons whi ch you f eel woul d be of benef i t .
199
APPENDIX 111
ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF
ELECTROLYSIS OR CORROSION INTERFERENCE
COMMITTEES
200
TABLE 49
r
ELECTROLYSI S OR CORROSI ON I NTERFERENCE COMMI TTEES
AGA Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
Ar i zona Cor r osi on Cor r el at i ng Counci l
AWWA Nat i onal Under gr ound Cor r osi on
Commi t t ee
Bal t i mor e- Washi ngt on El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Bi r mi nghamEl ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Canadi an Gas Associ at i on Cor r osi on Cont r ol .
Commi t t ee
,
Cent r al Cal i f or ni a Cat hodi c Pr ot ect i on
commi t t ee
Cent r al Ohi o Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng Commi t t ee
Chi cago Ar ea J oi nt El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Chi cago Regi on Commi t t ee on Under gr ound
Cor r osi on
Cl evel and Commi t t ee on Cor r osi on
Col umbus and Cent r al Ohi o Commi t t ee on
Cor r osi on
Connect i cut Commi t t ee on Cor r osi on
Cor pus Chr i st i Coor di nat i ng Commi t t ee
Cor r osi on Subcommi t t ee of Kent ucky Gas
Associ at i on
Dade Count y Ut i l i t i es ( Fl or i da)
Dayt on, Ohio, Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
Denver Xet r opol i t an Commi t t ee on Cor r osi on
( not act i ve)
Des Moi nes El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Det r oi t and Mi chi gan Commi t t ee on El ect r ol ysi s
East Bay El ect r ol ysi s Coor di nat i ng Commi t t ee
( Oakl and, Cal i f or ni a)
201
East er n Mont r eal El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
East er n New Yor k Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng
Commi t t ee
East er n Ohi o Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng Commi t t ee
East er n Pennsyl vani a Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
El Paso Ar ea Cor r osi on Cor r el at i ng Commi t t ee
Fl agst af f , Ar i zona, Under gr ound Cor r osi on
Cor r el at i ng Commi t t ee
Gr eat er Bost on El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Gr eat er I ndi ana Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
Gr eat er New Yor k Commi t t ee on Cor r osi on
I l l i noi s- St . Loui s Commi t t ee on Under gr ound
Cor r osi on
I ndi ana Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
I nd- i ana Gas Associ at i on Subcommi t t ee
I ndi anapol i s Commi t t ee on Cor r osi on
I nt er - Associ at i on St eer i ng Commi t t ee
on HVDC
J oi nt Commi t t ee f or t he Pr ot ect i on of
under gr ound St r uct ur es i n Al ameda and
Cont r a Cost a Count i es ( Cal i f or ni a)
Kent ucky Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng Commi t t ee
( Kent ucky Gas Associ at i on)
Laf ayet t e, Loui si ana, Under gr ound Cor r osi on
Cor r el at i ng Commi t t ee
Los Angel es, Cal i f or ni a, Under gr ound Cor r osi on
Cor r el at i ng Commi t t ee
Loui si ana Coor di nat i ng commi t t ee
Loui svi l l e El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Mar yl and St at e Publ i c Ser vi ce Commi ssi on
Massachuset t s Commi t t ee on Cor r osi on
202
Mi dwest Gas Associ at i on ( Wi sconsi n)
Mi l waukee Ar ea Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
Mi nnesot a Cor r osi on Commi t t ee ( i nact i ve)
Nat i onal Associ at i on of Cor r osi on Engi neer s ( NACE)
Nat i onal Task For ce on HVDC
New J er sey Commi t t ee on Cor r osi on
Nor t heast er n Ohi o Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng
Commi t t ee
Nor t hwest El ect r ol ysi s Coor di nat i ng Commi t t ee
( San Fr anci sco)
Nor t hwest El ect r ol ysi s Coor di nat i ng Counci l
( Or egon/ Washi ng t on)
Nor t hwest Paci f i c El ect r ol ysi s Coor di nat i ng
Counci l ( Vancouver , B. C. )
Nor t hwest Pi pe Li ne Oper at or s ( Or egon/ Washi ngt on)
Ohi o Ar ea Commi t t ee on Under gr ound Cor r osi on
Ok- Ar k- La- Tex Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
Omaha and Counci l Bl uf f s El ect r ol ysi s
Commi t t ee
Or egon Cor r osi on Commi t t ee, Dal l es
Paci f i c Coast Gas Associ at i on Cor r osi on
Mi t i gat i on Commi t t ee ( San Fr anci sco)
Phi l adel phi a El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Pi t t sbur gh Publ i c Ser vi ce Coor di nat i on
Commi t t ee
Publ i c Ut i l i t i es Commi ssi on Cor r osi on
Commi t t ee ( Ont ar i o, Canada)
San Di ego Count y Under gr ound Cor r osi on
Commi t t ee ( Cal i f or ni a)
San Fr anci sco El ect r ol ysi s Commi t t ee
Sout her n Cal i f or ni a Cat hodi c Pr ot ect i on
Commi t t ee
, 2 0 3
Sout her n I daho- East er n Or egon Under gr ound
Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
Sout her n Ont ar i o Counci l on El ect r ol ysi s
Nor t her n Techni cal Commi t t ee
West er n & Cent r al Commi t t ee
Sout her n West Vi r gi ni a Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng
Commi t t ee
Sout h Fl or i da Cor r osi on Counci l
Sout hwest Br i t i sh Col umbi a El ect r ol ysi s
Coor di nat i ng Counci l
St . Loui s, Mi ssour i , Under gr ound Cor r osi on
Cor r el at i ng Commi t t ee
Ti dewat er Cor r osi on Cont r ol Commi t t ee ( i nact i ve)
Tol edo and Nor t hwest er n Ohi o Commi t t ee on
Cor r osi on
West er n I nt er - Ut i l i t y HVDC Commi t t ee f or
Ear t h Cur r ent and I nduct i ve Coor di nat i on
St udi es
West er n New Yor k St at e Cor r osi on Commi t t ee
West er n Ohi o Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng Commi t t ee
West er n Pennsyl vani a Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng
Commi t t ee
Wi sconsi n Ut i l i t i es Associ at i on
Wyomi ng Under gr ound Cor r osi on Coor di nat i ng
Commi t t ee
204
APPENDIX IV
ALPHABETICAL LISTING OF
ORGANIZATIONS AND SOCIETIES WITH INTERESTS IN CORROSION
AND CORROSION CONTROL
205
ORGANI ZATI ONS AND SOCI ETI ES
Tabl e 50 l i sts many organi zati ons concerned i n one way or
another wi t h corrosi on and corrosi on control . A cti vi ti es i n-
cl ude research, meeti ngs, short courses, publ i cati on of mono-
graphs and j ournal s, advi ce and problem sol vi ng, promoti on of
commerci al i nterest, promul gati on of standards and speci f i ca-
ti ons, l obbyi ng, l egal representati on for some parti cul ar i n-
dustry, etc.
206
TABLE 5 0
ORGANI ZATI ONS AND SOCIETIES WI TH INTERESTS I N CORROSION
AND CORROSION CONTROL
American Academy of Mi crobi ol ogy (RAM)
V er o Beach, Fl ori da 32960
P. 0 . Box 897
American Chemi cal Soci ety (ACS)
115 5 Si xteenth Street, NW.
Washi ngton, D.C. 25036
American Concrete I nsti tute (A CI )
P. 0. Box 4754
Redford Stati on
Detroi t, Mi chi gan 48219
American Concrete I nsti tute
Dept. of the Army, J ackson I nstal l ati on
Concrete Di vi si on, P. 0. Dr awer 2131
J ackson, Mi ssi ssi ppi 39205
American Concrete Pi pe Associ ati on
1815 North Fort Myer Dri ve
Arl i ngton, Vi rgi ni a 22209
American Concrete Pressure Pi pe Associ ati on
1815 North Fort Myer Dri ve
Arl i ngton, Vi rgi ni a 22209
American G as Associ ati on
655 Thi rd Avenue
New Y ork, New York 10016
American I nsti tute of Bi ol ogi cal Sci ences (AI BS)
2000 P Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
American l nsti tute of Chemical Engi neers (AIChE)
345 E ast 47th Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
American I nsti tute of Chemi sts
79 Madison. Avenue
New Y ork, New York 10016
-American I nsti tute of Consul ti ng Engi neers (AI CE)
345 East 47th Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
207
American I nsti tute of I ndustri al Engi neers ( A I I E)
345 E ast 47th Street
New York, New York 10017
American I nsti tute of Mi ni ng, Metal l urgi cal ,
345 E ast 47th Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
and Petrol eum Engi neers
American I nsti tute of Pl anners
917 Fi f teenth Street, N.W.
Room 800
Washi ngton, D.C. 20005
American I nsti tute of Pl ant Engi neers (AI PE)
1347 Meier Street
Ci nci nnati , Ohio 45208
American Material Handl i ng Soci ety
815 Superi or Avenue, N.E.
Cl evel and, Ohi o 44114
American Meteorol ogi cal Soci ety
45 Eeacon Street
Boston, Massachusetts 02108
American Muni ci pal Associ ati on (AMA)
1612 K Street, N.W.
Nashi ngton, D.C. 20006
American Petrol eum I nsti tute (API )
1271 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New Y ork 10020
American Petroleum I nsti tute
Pi pel i ne Di vi si on
1101 Seventeenth Street, N.W.
Washi ngton, D.C. 20005
American Pi pe ti Constructi on Company
400 South A tl anti c Avenue
Monterey Park, Cal i f orni a 91754
American Publ i c Works Associ ati on [APWA)
1313 E ast 60th Street
Chi cago, I l l i noi s 60637
American Railway Engi neeri ng Associ ati on
59 East Van Buren Street
Chi cago, I l l i noi s 60605
American Soci ety of Bi ol ogi cal Chemi st s (ASBC)
9650 Wi sconsi n Avenue
Washi ngton, D.C. 20014
208
American Soci ety of Ci vi l Engi neers (ASCE)
Pi pel i ne Di vi si on
345 E ast 47th Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
American Soci ety of Mechani cal Engi neers
345 East 47th Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
American Soci ety of Mi crobi ol ogy (ASM)
115 I I uronview Boul evard
Ann Arbor, Mi chi gan 48103
American Soci ety of Saf ety Engi neers (ASSE) '
5 North Wabash Avenue
Chi cago, I l l i noi s 60602
American Soci ety f or Metals
Metals Park, Ohio 44073
American Soci ety f or Testi nq and Materials
1916 Race Street
Phi l adel phi a, Pennsyl vani a 19103
American Water Works Associ ati on
2 Park Avenue
New Y ork, ?Jew York 10016
American lirelding Soci ety
345 E ast 47th Street
New Yor k, New York 10017
Asphal t I nsti tute, The
Uni versi ty of Maryland
Col l ege Park, Maryland 20742
Associ ati on of American Rai l roads
59 E ast Van Buren Street
Chi cago, I l l i noi s 60605
Associ ati on of Consul ti ng Chemi sts and Chemical
501 Fi f th Avenue
New Y ork, New York 10017
Ens i- ne e r s
Associ ati on of O i l Pi pel i nes
Sui te 1208, RCA Bui l di ng
1725 X Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Battel l e Memorial I nsti tute (BMI )
505 King Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43201
20s
Br i t i sh Associ at i on of Cor r osi on Engi neer s
London, Engl and
Br i t i sh Cast I r on Resear ch Associ at i on ( BCI PA)
London, Engl and
Br i t i sh El ect r i cal and Appl i ed I ndust r i es
London, Engl and
Resear ch Associ at i on
Br i t i sh I r on & St eel Resear ch Associ at i on ( BI SRA)
London , Engl and
Cast I r on Pi pe Resear ch Associ at i on ( CI PRA)
Sui t e 3440, Pr udent i al Pl aza
Chi caqo, I l l i noi s 60601
Cast I r on Soi l Pi pe Foundat i on
6723 Sout h West er n Avenue
Los Angel es, Cal i f or ni a 90047
Cent r al El ect r ochemi cal
Resear ch I nst i t ut e
Kar ai kudi , I ndi a
Cent r o Sper i ment al e Met al l ur gi c0
Rome, I t al y
Cl ay Pi pe I nst i t ut e
2600 Wi l shi r e Boul evar d
Los Angel es, Cal i f or ni a 90057
Copper Devel opment Associ at i on, I nc.
405 Lexi ngt on Avenue
New Yor k, New Yor k 10017
Cor r osi on Cent er
Ohi o St at e Uni ver si t y
Nor t h Hi gh St r eet
Col umbus, Ohi o 43210
Cor r osi on Engi neer i ng & Resear ch Co.
130 Nor t h San Mi guel Road
Concor d, Cal i f or ni a 94520
Counci l of St at e Gover nment s ( CSG)
1313 East 60t h St r eet
Chi cago, I l l i noi s 60637
Depar t ment of Wat er: Resour ces
St at e of Cal i f or ni a
P. 0. Box 388
Sacr ament o, Cal i f or ni a 95814
210
El ectrochemi cal Soci ety (Corrosi on Di vi si on)
30 East 42nd Street
New York, New York 10017
European Corrosi on Federati on
Brussel s, Belgium
European Federati on of Corrosi on
BuZapest, Sunqary
Federati on of Societies f or Pai nt Technology
121 South Broad Street
Phi l adel phi a, Pennsyl vani a 19107
Fl ui d Power Soci ety
P. 0. Box 49
Thi ensvi l l e, Wi sconsi n 53092
(FSPT)
Hiqhway Research Board
Di vi si on of Engi neeri ng and I ndustri al Research
Nati onal Academy of Sci ences-Nati onal Research
2101 Consti tuti on Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20418
Counci l
Homer Research Laboratory
Bethlehem Steel Company
Bethl ehem, Pennsyl vani a 19016
Hydraul i c I nsti tute
122 East 42nd Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
I ndependent O i l Producers Agency
714 West Olympic Boul evard
Los Ancel es, Cal i f orni a 90015
I nsti tuti on of Corrosi on Technology
London, England
I nsti tute of El ectri cal and El ectroni cs Engi neers
Box A, Lenox H i l l Stati on
New Y ork, New York 10021
I nsti tute of Materi al s Research
Nati onal Bureau of Standards
Gai thersburg, Maryland 20760
I nsti tute of Physi cal Chemi stry
Bucharest, Rumania
I ns ti tu te of P hy s i c a 1 C hemi Y tr y
Academy of Sci ences
U.S.S.R.
211
I nternati onal Ni ckel Company, I nc.
67 Wall Street
New Y ork, New York 10005
Lead I ndustri es Associ ati on, I nc.
292 Madison Avenue
New Y ork, New York 10017
Manufacturers Standardi zati on Soci ety of the Val ve
420 Lexi ngton Avenue
New Y ork, New York 10017
and Fi tti ng I ndustry
Massachusetts I nsti tute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
K etal l urgi cal Soci ety of AIME
345 E ast 47th Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
Y idwest O i l Regi ster, I nc.
Drawer 7248, Southsi de Stati on
Tul sa, Oklahoma 74105
?<ontgomery Research, I nc.
5 5 5 Walnut Street
Pasadena, Cal i f orni a 91101
Nati onal Associ ati on of Corrosi on Engi neers
2400 West Loop South
Houston, Texas 77027
Nati onal Associ ati on of Pi pe Coati ng Appl i cators
2504 Fl ournoy-Lucas Road
Shreveport, L oui si ana 71106
Nati onal Board of Boi l er and Pressure Vessel I nspectors
1155 North High Street
Columbus, Ohio 43210
Nati onal Bureau of Standards
Washi ngton, D.C. 20234
Y ati onal Certi f i ed Pi pe Welding Bureau
666 Thi rd Avenue, Sui te 1464
New Y ork, New York 10017
Nati onal Petroleum Counci l (NPC)
1625 K Street, N.W.
Sui te 601
Washi ngton, D.C. 20006
.
Nati onal Research Center
Dokk i -Cai ro
Uni ted Arab Republ i c
212
Natural Gas Processors Associ ati on
429 Kennedy Bui l di ng
Tul sa, Oklahoma 74103
New England Water Works Associ ati on
73 Tremont Street
Boston, Massachusetts 02108
Of f i ce of Pi pel i ne Saf ety
U.S. Department of Transportati on
400 Si xth Street, S.W.
Washi ngton, D.C. 20024
Ohio State Uni versi ty
Department of Metal l urgi cal Engi neeri ng
116 West 19th Avenue
Columbus, Ohio 43210
Petrol eum I ndustry Research Foundati on
60 E ast 42nd Street
New York, New York 10017
Pi pe L i ne Contractors Associ ati on
Nati onal Bank.ers L i f e Bui l di ng
202 South Ervay
Dal l as, Texas 75201
Portl and Cement Associ ati on
5420 O l d Orchard Road
Skoki e, I l l i noi s 60076
Societ: Pgtrol i gre de G&anee
37 Avenge Pierre ler De-Serbi e
Pari s 8 , France
Soci ety of Consul ti ng Corrosi on Engi neers
205-627 Ei ghth Avenue
Cal gary 2, Canada
Soci ety f or Experi mental Stress Analysis
21 Bri dge Square
Westport, Connecti cut 06880
Soci ety f or General Systems Research (SGSR)
787 Uni ted Nati ons Pl aza
New Y ork, New York 10017
Soci ety of Materials Sci ence
Tokyo, J apan
Soci ety f or Non-Destructi ve Testi ng (SNT)
914 Chi cago Avenue
Evanston, I l l i noi s 60202
Soci ety of Petrol eum Engi neers of AIME
6300 North Central Expressway
Dal l as, Texas 75206
Soci ety of Pl asti cs Engi neers, I nc.
65 Prospect Street
Stamford, Connecti cut 06902
Southern Cal i f orni a Meter Associ ati on
1333 Sombrero Dri ve
Monterey Park, Cal i f orni a 91754
Stanf ord Research I nsti tute
Transportati on of L ogi sti cs Department
Menlo Park, Cal i f orni a 94025
State of Cal i f orni a Transportati on Agency
Department of Publ i c Works
Di vi si on of Highways
Materials and Research Department
Route 1, Box 1900
West Sacramento, Cal i f orni a 95691
State Research I nsti tute f or the Protecti on
Prague, Czechosl avaki a
of Materials
Steel Di Te Fabri cators Associ ati on
19 South L aSal l e Street
Chi cago, I l l i noi s 60606
Ti tani um Metals Corporati on of America
2 3 3 Broadway
New Y ork, New York 10007
Uni ted States of America Standards I nsti tute
(Formerl y American Standards Associ ati on)
10 E ast 40th Street
New York, New York 10016
Uni ted States Committee on Large Dams of the I nternati onal
345 E ast 47th Street
New Y ork, New York 10017
Uni versi ty of Cal i f orni a at Berkel ey
111 Mechanics Bui l di ng
Berkel ey, Cal i f orni a 94720
Commission of Large Dams
Uni versi ty of Cal i f orni a at ? A s Angel es
Depratment of Engi neeri ng
Los Angel es, Cal i f orni a 90024
Uni versi ty of Texas
Austi n, Texas 78712
214
U r a l Sci enti f i c Research I nsti tute
U.S.S.R.
of Ferrous Metals
U.S. Bureau of Recl amati on
Engi neeri ng Laboratories
Denver Federal Center
Denver, Colorado 80225
U.S. Naval C i v i l Engi neeri ng L aboratory
Port Hueneme, Cal i f orni a 93041
U.S. Department of I nteri or
Washington, D.C. 20024
Valve Manufacturers Associ ati on
60 E ast 42nd Street
New York, New York 10017
Washington State Uni versi ty
Di vi si on of I ndustri al Research
Pul l man, Washington 99163
Welding Research Counci l
345 E ast 47th Street
New York, New Y ork 10317
215

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