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TRAINING MANUAL PIPING

THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 1
CONTENTS
Page
0.0 Cover Sheet 1
1.0 Introduction 2
2.0 Purpose 2
3.0 Heat Transfer Principle 2 4
4.0 Determination of Insulation Thickness 3 5
5.0 Insulation Type 5 6
6.0 Insulation System 6 9
7.0 Applicable IS Standards 9
Applicable Revision:
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TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 2
1.0 INTRODUCTION:
Heat Transfer is one of the most common unit operations in Process Industry. In an ideal
situation one would want to achieve heat balance between the Source and Sink without any
loss of heat energy to the atmosphere. Unfortunately the above can not be achieved in
absolute terms, even though an attempt can be made to control the Heat Transfer in such a
way so as to limit the heat loss to atmosphere to a minimum by employing Insulating Material
over the metallic surface exposed to atmosphere. Besides, there could be some other factors
(e.g. condensation and subsequent freezing of moisture over the exposed surface) which may
necessitate using Insulating Material depending upon the operating conditions of the System
under question. The cost considerations do however prevail upon, in deciding the appropriate
level of Insulation that would prove to be most effective from an overall angle.
2.0 PURPOSE:
The objectives of providing the Thermal Insulation can be summarized as follows:
To prevent Heat Loss from hot surface.
To prevent Heat Gain by the cold surface.
To prevent condensation (and subsequently ice formation) on cold surface.
To provide Personnel Protection against accidental contact of human body with hot
metallic surface.
3.0 HEAT TRANSFER PRINCIPLE:
The Heat Loss in case of a hot insulated circular pipe takes place due to heat flow through the
following 4 steps refer sketch (Figure-1, Exhibit 39.1) below
Figure-1 (Exhibit 39.1)
TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 3
1. Heat flow Q1 from fluid to inside surface of the metal wall by way of Convection
2. Heat flow Q2 across the metal wall by way of Conduction.
3. Heat flow Q3 across Insulation Layer by way of Conduction
4. Heat flow Q4 from the outer surface of metal wall to the atmosphere, predominantly by
way of Convection.
Under steady state condition the rate of Heat Transfer through the above 4 steps will be
same.
i.e. Q1 =Q2 =Q3 =Q4
In case of Heat Gain, by a cold insulated pipe the direction of heat flow will be opposite to that
of the hot insulated pipe.
Rate of Heat Transfer =K A * t Where K =Thermal Conductivity
By Conduction A =Surface Area
t =Temperature Gradient per Unit length
=t / R
Cond
R
Cond
(Thermal Resistivity due to conduction)
=1/ KA
Rate of Heat Transfer = h A *T Where h =Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient
By Convection
=t / R
Conv
R
Conv
(Thermal Resistivity due toConvection)
=1/ hA
T =Differential temperature
Applying the above basis equations to the Insulated Pipe Cross Section and ignoring the
thermal resistivity R
Conv
and R
Cond
for heat transfer in Step 1 and 2 (i.e. assuming that Step 1
and Step 2 practically offer no resistance to Heat Flow)
The Heat Loss across the Insulation
Q3 = K * 2L * t1 (Eq 39.1)
Ln (D2/ D1)
Where:
D2 =Outer Diameter of Insulation
D1 =Inner Diameter of Insulation
L =Length of Insulated Pipe
t1 =Temperature differential between
inner and outer surface of Insulation.
The Heat Loss from Insulation Outer Surface to the Atmosphere
Q4 = h * D2 L *t2 (Eq 39.2)
Where:
t2 =Temperature Differential t between
the Insulation Outer surface and
the Atmosphere.
TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 4
Under steady state condition
Q3 =Q4
K * 2L * t1 = h * D2 L * t2
Ln (D2/ D1)
Conduction Heat Transfer Coefficient for Insulating Material K is typically 0.02 0.04 W/ m.
O
C
Convection Heat transfer Coefficient for Air (natural convection) is typically 15 20 W/ m
2
.
O
C
4.0 DETERMINATION OF INSULATION THICKNESS:
The selection of Insulation Thickness is done based on 1 of the following cases for the given
fluid and ambient temperature, wet bulb temperature (considered for cold insulation only) and
wind speed (accounted for in the convection heat transfer coefficient for heat flow from
insulation top surface to the atmosphere).
Case 1:
To maintain the temperature of the outer surface of the Insulation to a specified value from
process angle (i.e. for controlling the heat gain) in case of Cold Insulated Piping.
Case 2:
To maintain the temperature of the outer surface of Insulation above wet bulb temperature to
avoid condensation and subsequent freezing of the atmospheric moisture in case of Cold
Insulated Piping.
Case 3:
To maintain the temperature of the outer surface of Insulation from personnel Protection point
of view in case of Hot Insulated Piping. A maximum temperature of 52
O
C is considered to be
acceptable.
Case 4:
To maintain the loss of Heat Energy to a specified value from the point of view of limiting the
plant operating cost in case of Hot Insulated Piping. A value of 100 Kcal/ hr m2 is generally
assumed to be satisfactory from the point of view of rationalizing the Annual Capital
Investment vis--vis Annual Plant Operating Cost.
The calculation of Insulation Thickness for Cases 1 to 3 is done in following steps
Step 1: Assume an arbitrary Insulation Thickness.
Step 2: Determine Q4 based on the predetermined value of t2 (i.e. differential between the
given temperature of outer surface of Insulation and the ambient) and the assumed value of
Insulation Thickness in Step 1, as per equation (EQ 39.2)
Step 3: Equate Q3 =Q4
Step 4: For the value of Q3 arrived above, calculate the value of Insulation Thickness as per
equation (Eq 39.1)
Step 5: Based on the calculated value of Insulation Thickness recalculate Q4
Step 6: Repeat Steps 3 to 5 until the value of Q3 and Q4 becomes practically same.
TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 5
Step 7: Select the Insulation Thickness as calculated in Step 4 corresponding to the steady
state achieved in Step 5.
The calculation of Insulation Thickness for case 1 is done on the similar principle as for case
1 to 3 with a minor variation in the approach, which is as follows
Step 1: same as above
Step 2 and Step 3: Not required since the Heat Loss (i.e. Q3 =Q4) is already specified.
Step 4: For the specified value of Q3 =Q4 calculate the value of t1 (i.e. temperature
differential between the inner and outer surface of Insulation) based on the assumed value of
Insulation Thickness in Step 1.
Step 5: Calculate the temperature of the outer surface of the Insulation based on the inner
surface temperature as fluid temperature and t1 calculated in Step 4 above.
Step 6: Calculate t2 (i.e. differential between the calculated temperature of outer surface of
Insulation in Step 5 above and for the given ambient temperature).
Step 7: Calculate Insulation Thickness based on t2 calculated above and the specified value
of Q4.
Step 8: Repeat Steps 4 for the calculated value of Insulation Thickness in Step 7 above and
specified value of Q3 =Q4 to arrive at a new value of t1
Step 9: Repeat Steps 5 to 7 to arrive at the new value of Insulation Thickness
Step 10: Repeat Steps 8 and 9 until a steady state condition is achieved (i.e. calculated
Insulation thickness in step 7 becomes constant)

5.0 INSULATION TYPE:
Based on the functional requirements, the Insulation Material is classified into 2 types as
below
Hot Insulation:
Insulation used on hot surfaces for the purposes of Heat Conservation or for the purpose of
Personal Protection.
Following material are typically used as Hot Insulating Material
Material Thermal Conductivity Admissible
Temperature
(mW/ Cm
O
C ) Range (
O
C)
Mineral Wool (unbonded) 0.48 (Note 1) 600
Mineral Wool (bonded) 0.43 (Note-1) 750
Glass Wool 0.43 (Note-1) 450
Calcium Silicate 0.55 500
Notes: 1) Thermal Conductivity at 50
O
C
TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 6
Cold Insulation:
Insulation Used on cold surface for the purpose of Cold Conservation or for the purpose of
avoiding Condensation.
Following Materials are typically used as Cold Insulating Materials
Material Thermal Conductivity Admissible
Temperature
(mW/ Cm
O
C) Range (
O
C)
Polyurethane Foam 0.29 (Note-1) -150 to 110
Expanded Polystyrene Foam 0.32 (Note-1) -150 to 80
Expanded Perlite Foam
Notes: 1) Thermal conductivity at 0
O
C.
6.0 INSULATION SYSTEM:
Insulating Material:
Normally the Insulating Materials are available in unbonded mats and bonded or foamed
preformed Pipe Sections/ Slabs to suit various applications. Polyurethane Foam and
Expanded Perlite Foam can also used by in-situ foaming.
Protective Coating:
Normally thermal Insulation is provided with an external covering for protection against entry
of water or process fluid, mechanical damage, exposure to fire and ultraviolet degradation (in
case of foam material). The protective cover could be in the form of
Coating (asphalt, polymer or resin)
Membrane (felt or paper)
Sheet Material (fabric, metal or plastic)
Vapor Barrier:
Cold Insulation Systems operating at subzero (below 2
O
C) are normally provided with Vapor
Barrier and sealed at the joints to prevent condensation and vapor transmission. Metallic Foils
and Mastic embedded Glass Fabric are commonly employed for this purpose.
Insulation Thickness Selection
Uhde Standard provides the recommended thickness for various pipe sizes for the following
Insulation Systems
Cold Insulated Piping System
Hot Insulated Piping System
Personal Protection System
Insulation Material Properties:
Insulation Material in general shall be chemically neutral, rot-proof and free from impurities. In
addition following properties are required to be considered in selecting the Insulating Material
TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 7
Mineral Wool/ Glass Wool
Thermal Conductivity
Density
Fire Resistance (to be rated as incombustible)
Chloride Content
Sulphur Content
Moisture Absorption
Shot Content
Recovery after Compression
Heat Resistance
Foam Insulation/ Thermocole
Thermal conductivity
Density
Compression Strength and Hardness
Water Vapour Permeability
Auto Ignition
Fire Resistance
Heat Resistance
Application:
Following steps are followed while applying Thermal Insulation on Piping/ Equipment Items.
Insulation Supports in the form of Ring, Lugs are welded to the Vertical Vessels and
Tanks as per UN 200006 Part 1 Page 1 (for Hot insulation) and as per UN 2000-06 Part
1 Page 2 (for Cold Insulation).
Horizontal Vessels will not require Insulation Supports
In case of Cold Insulated Vessels the Insulation will extend up to 5 times the insulation
thickness where there are protrusions (e.g. skirts/ leg supports etc.). Supports and
Brackets in case of hot insulated Equipment are normally not insulated.
The materials forming part of Insulation System (e.g. Cement, Coating, Fabric etc.) shall
be free from Asbestos except mill board used for avoiding metal to metal contact.
The Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Steel surface to be insulated shall be painted (for
corrosion protection) with paint system as per Painting Specification recommended for the
service.
The Insulation Work shall commence only after the Hydro Test on Equipment/ Piping is
completed and the items handed over for Insulation.
Generally the Insulation shall be applied over the entire metal surface including flanges
and stiffening rings etc. except over the parts (e.g. Gland Plate for valve gland packing
etc.) which require frequent dismantling for maintenance purpose.
As far as possible and practical the voids due to the profile of the external surface of any
item (e.g. Valve body) will be filled with loose insulating material.
In case of Cold Insulation the cladding shall be done without using self-tapping screws to
avoid rapture of the Vapour Barrier. This however does not apply to in-situ foaming.
TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 8
Wherever applicable the joints between the Vapour Barrier and steel surface/ cladding
are sealed to avoid ingress of moisture.
In case of Insulation Thickness in excess of 75 mm it is recommended that the Insulation
will be applied in multiple plies.
Insulating Material used in the Process Plants in which Nitric Acid or Ammonium Nitrate
are produced, shall not contain organic binding materials (e.g. Phenolic Resins).
In the Process Plants with likely hood of formation of volatile flammable vapours, only
insulation material with a closed surface (e.g. Foam Glass) shall be used.
In case of application of Insulation in multiple plies, the seams shall be staggered.
Insulation material on vertical or nearly vertical surfaces shall be prevented from sliding by
means of suitable supports and tie wires or banding.
Closely spaced lines (small bore)or Tubing may be insulated in a common envelop (up to
6 lines)
In case of insulation of Heat Traced lines it is recommended to place a thermal shield
(metallic foil) between insulation material and the tracing/process pipe for better heat
transfer and for preventing the insulation from penetrating between the tracer and the
process pipe.
Vapour Barrier Foils in case of Cold Insulation shall be overlapped (approximately 50 mm)
at the joints.
Installation of Insulation Material is done in following steps:
Spacers:
The purpose of providing Spacers is to enable the cladding to retain its shape and
concentricity with respect to the surface to be insulated
The spacers are required only for mineral fiber mats or for in-situ foaming
The spacers are fabricated as per the details given in UN 5001-02 (Part-1)
The spacers are positioned (fixed) at the required spacing on metallic/ plastic surface as
per the details given in UN 5001-02 (Part 1)
In case of Vertical equipment the spacers are attached to the vessels by means of
Insulation Clips as per UN 2000-06 (Part-1 and Part-2)
Insulation Material:
The Insulation Material in case of Mineral Fiber Mats, is fixed to the cylindrical surface by
means of metal wire tied in a helical manner around the cylindrical surface.
The Insulation Material in case of Mineral Fiber Preformed Shell or Slabs is glued to the
metal surface or held together with closely butted joints.
Insulation Material in case of preformed foam shells and slabs are held in position by
gluing the end seams. In case of multiple layers the seams shall be staggered with
respect to each other.
In case of in-situ Foaming the foam is generated within the cavity formed between the
metal surface to be insulated and the external cladding.
TRAINING MANUAL PIPING
THERMAL INSULATION

Uhde India Limited
DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0033
Rev. : R0
Page : 9
Packing:
Depending upon the contour of the surface to be insulated, it may be necessary to fill the
cavities and voids by means of loose mineral fibers or with the same type of foam
Cladding:
Standard Sheet Metal (Galvanized) shall be used as Cladding Material. Aluminum Sheet
can be used as alternative material (except Caustic Chlorine Plants)
Metal Banding or self-tapping screws may be used for attaching the Cladding. Suitable
Turn Buckles or Snap Catches may be used connecting the ends of Banding
Cladding J oints shall be sealed by elastomeric sealing tape.
The Cladding J oints are made by crimping or foalding.
7.0 APPLICABLE IS STANDARDS:
Glass Wool IS 3677 / IS 3690
Rock Wool IS 8183/ IS 9842
Polyurethane Foam IS 12436
Expanded Polystyrene IS 4671
Determination of Thermal Conductivity IS 3346
Cladding Sheet IS 737