=
specific gravity
b fluid submerged
F V g =
buoyant force
F
P
A
=
pressure
MRT =
osmotic pressure
total atm gauge
P P P = +
total pressure on fluid
fluid fluid
P gh =
fluid gauge pressure
1 1 2 2
Av A v =
continuity equation
2
1
const.
2
P v gh + + =
Bernoulli's equation
rate A
rate B
B
A
MM
MM
=
Graham's Law
L L T
V V T
=
=
thermal expansion
1 2
GM M
k k N
F F
sin Fl =
Thermodynamics
Q mc T =
heat energy
Q m =
latent heat
L
U Q W =
first law of
thermodynamics
 G H T S =
Gibbs free energy
ln
eq
G RT K =
equilibrium
Work, Energy, Momentum
2
1
KE
2
mv =
kinetic energy
PE
grav
mgh =
gravitational PE
2
1
2
elastic
kx = PE
spring PE
W
P
t
=
power
W F cos d =
work
p mv =
momentum
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 i i f
mv m v mv m v + = +
conservation of momentum
f
Rev. 2A Rev. Date: 2/7/2003
Rev. 2A Rev. Date: 2/7/2003
Electricity & Magnetism
1 2
2
electrostatic force
e
kq q
F
r
=
0
electric field
F
E
q
=
2
electric field due
to point charge
kq
E
r
=
0
electrical potential
U
V
q
=
electrical potential
of a point charge
kq
V
r
=
capacitance
q VC =
2
1
2
energy stored
by capacitor
U CV =
0
2
magnetic field
around a wire
I
B
r
=
sin
sin
F qvB
F ILB
=
=
magnetic force
0
2
I
B
r
=
magnetic field @
center of wire loop
Electric Power & Circuits
P IV
V IR
=
=
electrical power &
Ohm's Law
current
q
I
t
max max
,
2 2
AC circuits
rms rms
I V
I V = =
1 2
1 2
1 1 1
capacitors in series
and in parallel
S
P
C C C
C C C
= + +
= + +
1 2
1 2
1 1 1
resistors in series
and in parallel
s
P
R R R
R R R
= + +
= + +
Periodic Motion, Waves and Sound
1
f
T
=
wave freq., period
2
k
f
m
= =
spring angular freq
2
g
f
L
= =
pendulum angular freq
v f =
wave speed
'
D
S
v v
f f
v v
 
=

\ .
Doppler effect
Atomic and Nuclear
4
2
A A
Z Z
X Y
+
alpha decay
0
1 1
A A
Z Z
X Y e
+
+
betaminus decay
0
1 1
A A
Z Z
X Y e
+
+
betaplus decay
Light and Optics
c
n
v
=
index of refraction
hc
E hf
= =
photon energy
2 1 1 2
sin sin n n =
Snell's Law
2
2 1
1
sin ,
crit
n
n n
n
= <
total internal reflection
1 1 1
f o i
= +
lensmaker's eq.
Chemistry and Biology
PV nRT =
ideal gas law
1 2
1 2
V V
T T
=
Charles' Law
1 1 2 2
PV PV =
Boyle's Law
1 2
1 2
n n
V V
=
Avogadro's Law
log pH H
+
( =
pH
i i f f
MV M V =
dilution
( )
2
2

n a
P V nb nRT
V
 
+ =

\ .
Van der Waals equation of state
red ox
EMF E E = +
electromotive force

cell cathode anode
E E E =
EMF
2 2
1
2 1
p q
p pq q
+ =
+ + =
HardyWeinberg equations