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Technical English Booklet Second Edition



Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Engineering School

For more information visit us at T4 building, 2nd. Floor.

Engineering School, USAC.



Technical English 3


lnformation contained in this work has been obtained by gathering information from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither the sites nor the authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any ínformation published herein and neither the Technical Language Area not its

assistants sha11be responsible for any errors, ornissions, or

damages arlsing 'out of use of this information.

is gathered with the understanding that the topies are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professíonal services. Ir such services are required, the asaistance of an appropriate professional should be sought.

This work


lng. Carlos Leonel Muñoz


Inga. Tatiana Vallejo


María André Cruz


Octavío Ciraiz Azurdia


Otto Enrique García


Special thanks to:

Gustavo Adolfo López López


Otto Leonel Cuellar Líque



The second edition of the Technical English Book1et was collected as a guíde to fulfill the objectives proposed in the restructuring of the currículum of the course and the continuous improvement. This new currículum was designed by Soraya Martínez, coordinator of the English Section of tbe Engineering School, and developed with the help of the different contributors that have worked as assístants at the area during the years of 2007 and 2008; thís second edition has been updated by the group that has worked from 2009 till today. Each of the assistants has a different specialization in the field of engineering, so it helped to work in a multidisciplinary environment.

After the currículum was finished, it was reviewed and authorized by the Board of Directora of the Engineering School who decided to implement the new currículum since the first semester 2008.

It is advice to make a revision every two years, and thanks to the flexibility of the program, it will allow to make different changes m the themes studied as it is done in this second edition.

It has been ínteresting to iook at the real applications this new currículum can lead, 1t wakes up the creativity, reasoning, and awareness of development in different areas of engineering. It is done through problem solving proposed in classes and developed in their field of work, enhancing engineering techniques. Most oí the projects of the course can be seen at You'Tubeby just searching under Technical English USAC.


The technical English booklet uses high interest themes to integrate speaking, grarnrnar, vocabulary, pronunciation, listening, reading, and writing. There is a strong focus on both accuracy and fluency. It includes real life situation that leads to a meaningfullearning.


The themes were selected based in the analysis oí the currículum of each career, and selecting the courses in common. The Booklet No. 1 covers the basic sciences or the common area. The Booklets No. II and III cover the courses oí the mid term currículum, it means the courses of the fourth, fifth and sixth semester. The Booklet IV covers courses of the professional areas specially {he ones focused on the development of managerial skills, needed by the different careers in the school.


Every theme is organized around grammatícal topics. It is tried to present grarnmar in con texto


This section inc1udes new technical words that the students have to learn for each reading,


It includes lectures, technical language from various contexts. Listening strategies that include summarizing main ideas, making inferences, and give opinions.


Listening for specific information.


lt emphaslzes reading strategies such as skírnming, scanning, guessing meaning from context, understanding the structure and organization of a text, increasing reading speed,


lt helps to use correct form and rnechanics, use coherent structure, edition, and revision to create a final draft.


It is important for teachers to adapt the course materíaIs to the needs, interest, and learning styles of their students.

Assessment must be dcne through oral quizzes, written quizzes and development of projects.




Lean manufacturing or lean

production, which is often known simply as Lean, is a production practice that considers

the expenditure of resourcesfor any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for

elimination. Working from the perspective of the customer who consumes a product or


service, value is defined as any action

processthat a customer would be willing to payforo

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Basically, lean is centered around

creating more value with less work. Lean

manufacturing is a generic proces.s management philo.sophy derived mostly

from the Toyota Production System (TPS) (hence the terrn Toyotism is also prevalent) and identified as Lean only in the 1990s. It is

renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes in order to

improve overall customer value, but there a r e varying p e r s p ectives on h ow t hi s 5S b est achieved.

Leanmanufacturing is a variatíon on the theme of efficiency based on optimizing flow; it is a

present-day instance of the recurring theme in human history toward increasing efflciencv, decreasingwaste, and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically acceptingpre-existing ideas.


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The elimination of waste is the goal of lean, and Toyota defined three broad types of waste:

• Muda

• Mura

• Muri

Muda: is a traditional general Japaneseterm for an activity that is wasteful and doesn't add value or is unproductive and it is also a key concept in the Toyota Production System (TPS).

The original seven muda are:

• Transportatíon (moving products that is not actually required to perform the processing)

• Inventory (al! components, work in process and finished product not

• Motíon (people or equipment moving or walking more than is required to perform the

being processed)


• Waitíng (waiting for the next production step)

• Overproduction (production aheadof demand)

• Over Processing(due to poor tool or product design creating activity)

• Defects (the effort involved in inspecting for and fixing defects)

Mura: is traditional general Japaneseterm for unevenness, inconsistency in physical matter or human spiritual condition.

Murl: is a Japanese term for overburden, unreasonableness or absurdity, which has become popularized in the West by its use as a key concept in the Toyota Production System.

Lean Manufacturing Goals

The four goals of

lean manufacturing systemsare to:

• Improve quality: In order to stay competitive in today's marketplace, a

company must understand its customers'

wants and needs and design processesto






• Eliminate waste: Waste is any activity that consumes time, resources, or space but

does not add any value to the product or



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service. There are seventypes of waste.

• Reduce time: Reducingthe time it takes to finish an activity from start to finish is one of the most effective ways to eliminate waste and lower costs.

• Reduce total costs: To minimize cost, a company must produce only to customer demando Overproduction increasesa company's inventory costs due to storage needs.

1.3 Steps to achieve lean systems

The following

steps should be implemented


1. Deslgna simple manufacturing system




create the

ideal lean

2. Recognizethat there is always room for improvement

3. Continuously improve the lean manufacturing system design

4. Measure

1.3.1 Design a simple manufacturing system

A fundamental principie of lean manufacturing is demand-basedflow manufacturing. In this type of production setting, inventory is only pulled througheach production center when it is needed to meet a customer's order. The benefits of this goalinelude:

• Decreasedcyeletime

• Lessinventory

• Increasedproductlvlty

• Increasedcapital equipment utilization

1.3.2 There is always room for Improvement

Theeore of lean is founded on the concept of continuous product and process improvement and theeliminationof non-value added activities. IITheValue adding activities are simply only those things the customer is willing to pay for, everything else is waste, and should be eliminated, simplified, reduced,or integrated"(Rizzardo, 2003). Improving the ñow of material through new ideal system

layoutsatthe customer's required rate would reduce waste in material movement and inventory.

~ 1.3.3 Continuously improve



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A continuous improvement mindset is essential to reach a company's goals. The term "continuou improvement" means incremental improvement of products, processes, or services over time, witl the goal of reducing waste to improve workplace functionality, customer service, or produd performance (Suzaki,1987).

( 1.3.4, Measure

A set of performance metrics which is considered to fit well in a Lean environment is overal

equipment effectiveness, or OEE,which is a hierarchy of metrics which focus on how effectively a manufacturing operation is utilized.

To keep things really simple, lean manufacturing has a base premise and overall goal lito get more done with less" and this is effectively done, by:

• Minimizing inventory at and through al! stagesof production

• Eliminating waste

• Reducingwait times, queues

• Shortening product cyeletimes from raw materials to finished goods

Leanmanufacturing involves some real positive, productive changes in businessesthat will havea measurable impact in the bottom line. Benefits of lean production could ínclude:

• Reduced lead time, wait time and cycle time

• Liberated capital

• Increased profit margins

• Increased productivity

• Improved product quality

• Just in time, affordable, streamlined, cost-efficient prccesses, products and services

• Improved on-time shipments

• Customer satisfaction and loyalty

• Employee retention


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( 1.2 ) Homework:

Investigatethe following terms related to lean manufacturing and give their definition:

• Just in time

• Kaizen

Poka Yoke



- Andon

- Jidoka







• http://www.youtube.com/watch




• http://www.youtube.com/watch



• http://www.youtube.com/watch



• http://www.youtube.com/watch


• http://www.youtube.com/watch



Complete the next chart with the next definitions:

Lean manufacturing

Reduce Time

Continuously Improve


Improve quality


G Introduction



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The process diagrams are very important in the manufacturing industry because they give U clear pe r spective of t h e p rocessesw i th e very step, i n clud in g materia l s, t i me , distance and others. Th helps the engineers to interpret and analyze the manufacturing process and make decisions that w improve the process without beingthere to watch how everything works.

The diagrams are composed by three parts:




In the header you will indude all the relevant information sueh as: company name, analy

date, process, area, page number, type

of diagram, etc.

In the body, you will draw the diagram that is required according the specifications of ea type and of the process.

And in the summary you will write al! the steps that the process has, including time. Time

the most important factor becausewe use it to calculate the process efficiency





and productivity.

e Operations Diagram


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Thisdiagramis a graphic representation of the operations and inspections in a production process. In thisdiagramwe'lI inelude the following symbols:


• Operation: is when the process has materials transformation, or involvesany action or activity for the creation of products.

• Inspection: is when we check how the process is going and also the quality of the product during the manufacturing process.

• Comblned: this Is an operation-inspection step and is used when in the processyou haveto check the products during An operation.

Comptlnn.my e: John's house Pl'Ocessm:aklngof hot chocolate

Analyst: John Hamilton Area: kitchen


Get some marshmallows





Date: Nov. 20"', 2010 Type of dlalram: operatlons Pall 1 of 1

In a pot put lllter of water, in a stove With hlgh flre, let It bol!

Take the 0.30 pounds of chocolate out of the bag and put It Into the pot

Stlr frequently and let the chocolate melt and get the desired conslstency

CheckIf the chocolate is ready

Get a cup and serve

Add the marshmallows

CheckIf It's not too hot, Enjoyl


























e Important conslderatlons

• Note that the time is given in minutes; thls is a standard for all the diagrams.

• The diagram always is going to be drawn from right to left, even if it has símultaneous processesor no

• The time is placed in the upper-Ieft corner of the svmbol,

• A brief description of every step of the process is written at the right side of the symboJ.

• When numbering the processremember that you haveto do it according to its function in the diagra and when you have a simultaneous process you have to write the number on the left flrst and then the right, as shown in the example.


Process Flow Dlagrem

The process flow diagram is a graphic representation of the steps that follows a chronologic sequen of activities in a process or procedure, identifying them with symbols according to its nature, and also inelud all the considered important information that is needed for analysis.This information could be distance, tim quantity, etc. This helps us discover and eliminate waste and delays, making the process more efficient an increase the productivity in the manufacturing industry.

In this diagram we indude the storage, operation, inspection, combined, delays and transportatio symbols.


• Operatíon: is when the process has materials transformation, or involves any action or activity for the creation of products.

• Inspection: is when we check how the prccess is going and also the quality of the product during the manufacturing process.

• Combined: this is an operation-inspection step and is used when in the processyou have to check the products during An operation.

• De/ay: this is used when nothing is being done in the process, It could be the wait for other paralell processto finish before Adding the product to the asembly line.







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• Transportation: is when the product is moved more than 1.5meters to the next step. This is because the human body Canmove something from one side to other between Oand 1.5m and its irrelevant according to standars.

• Storage: this

is used at the beginning of the process when the

Materials are taken from the raw materials storage and at the end Of it in the finished product storage.


As the operations diagram, it has the same

parts: header, body and summary, and it's

importantto inelude in the summary the time and distance that you have in the diagram.

8 Important considerations

• Time is given in minutes; this is a standard for all the diagrams.

• The diagram always is going to be drawn processesor noto

• Thetime is placed in the upper-Ieft comer of the symbol.

• The distance is written meters and

• A brief description of every step of the process is written at the right side of the symbol.

• When numbering the process remember that you have to do it according to its function in the diagram, and when you have a simultaneous process you have to write the number on the left first and then in the right, as shown in the example.


right to left, even if it has simultaneous

in the lower-Ieft corner of the symbol.


Process Trave! Dlagram

This diagram uses the same symbolism as the process flow and also the same structure, the only differenceisthat we draw the diagram in a plan view of the manufacturing plant.

Rememberto always draw the symbols in a 1 cm2 area. This is a standard for all the diagrams that you'regoingto draw.

8 Impcrtant considerations

• Timeisgivenin minutes; this is a standard for al! the diagrams.

• Thediagramis drawn in a plan view of the

• Thetime is placedin the upper-Ieft corner of the svrnbol.

• Thedistanceis wrltten in meters and the lower-Ieft corner of the symbol.

• Abrief description of every step of the processis written at the right side of the svmbol,

• Whennumberingthe process remember that you have to do it according to its function in the diagram andthe sequencein the process.

manufacturing plant.

Example: (For space reasons, this diagram doesn't inelude the time and distance)

Company name: Industry S.A. Process: production of ketchup



Area: manufacturing plant

John Hamilton


Date: Nov 20111, 2010 Type of dlagram: process travel

Page 10fl




































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With the given videos, draw the operations diagram, the processflow diagram and the operations travel diagram.

• lo makethe operations diagram, use the following link http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=gneZc_hafOE

• lo makethe processflow diagram and the processtravel diagram, usethe following link http://www.youtube.com/watch '?v=OkHFNnOK3Bg

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=TI-dSckvwOQ

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=aSsNltVp9cA&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=9YSAuwfOnXE

• http://www.youtube.com/watch7v=3K3-stVKOIM


Accordingto the pieture below, determine what symbol eaeh operation needs:





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Complete the summary table for the diagram below:


Tables storage

Sawing and Comprobation


Waiting to be processed

Transfer to the pendulum (forklift)

Walting to be processed

Cut and Comprobatlon

Sawdust 0.32%

Walting to be transported

Transfer to the assembly area (forklift)

Waiting to be processed


Transfer to the pendulum (forklift)

Waiting to be processed

Devastation and Comprobatlon

Sawdust 0.38%

Cut and Comprobation


Waiting to be transported

Transfer to the assembly area (forklift)

Waiting to be processed

Assembly and Comprobation

Sawdust and Tables.

Waiting to be transported

Transfer to the Store (forklift)



No. of steps


Desc.ription2 Symbol

No. of steps2


@ Introduction

1 EO",N\Cl\l ENGl\S\-\ '3 ~

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Quality control is a critical concept in every industry and profession.

t\obaUzation continues and the world become smaller, making it possible forconsumers to pick and choosefrom the best products worldwide, the survivalof your job and of your company depends on your ability to produce a quality product or service. In this chapter, we define the term "quality", andwe introduce some important quality control concepts and methods.



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For most people, quality is associated with the idea of a product or servicethat is well done, looks good and does its job well. We think of a quality product as one that

lasts,holdsup well under use, and doesn't require constant repair. A quality product or service should meeta high standard in many areas, such asform, features, fit and finish, reliability and usability.

G Quality control concepts

• Costumer based: Quality is meet customer expectations.

• Statistical based: The less variation you have, the higher the quality of your product or service.

After an organization decides on a definition of quality, you need standardsagainst which to measure your quality. The reason is because manystandardsare driven by the desire to safeguard and well-being of thepeoplewho use the products or servicescompanies provide. Quality standardsare also critical in support of international trade.

e Quality Assurance

Qualityassurancefocuses on the ability of a processto produce or deliver a quality product or service.Thismethod differs from quality contrel in that it looks at the entire process, not just the final

product.Quality control ls designed to detect problems with a product or service; quality assurance attemptsto head off problems at the pass by tweaking a production process until it can produce a qualityproducto

@ Measuring the quality


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The old manager saving: "You can't manage wha

you can measure" rings especially true in quality contro

A good measurement system helps you to know wher

you've been and where you are going. Costume

typically require that you measure certain attributes e

your pr o du ct o r se rvi ce agai n st th ei r speci f icat i o n s . Se

working in quality control means that you have a

d e t e rmin e wh at t o m easu r e, h o w to meas ur e i t a nd wher

to measure it.

Employee training is critical to ensure that everyone involved in your process measures tht

same specifications in the same way. You also need to collect data in a usable format so that you cal

analyze it to determine the effectiveness of your quallty process. The effectiveness of your qualiq

process is directly related to the quality of your data collection and analysisprocess. If you don't hav

a good data, you can't make good decisions.

G Evaluatlng the qualtty

The most common way to analyze the data you collect ís to use

statistics. Statistics serve many purposes within quality control:

• Statistics helps you to determine which processes or parts of

processes are causing your company the most problems (by using

the 80/20 rule - 80 percent of your problems are caused by 20

percent of what you do).

• You can use statistics for sampling so that you don't have to test

100 percent of the items you make.

• Statistics can help you spot relationships between the values you

measure - even if the relationships aren't obvious. -1hey also allow

you to identify small variations in your process that can lead to big

problems if you don't correct them.

Aithough, much.of statisticsallowsyou to look backonly et was happenedin the pastoStatisticalP

Control (SPC)allows you to identify problemsbefore they

service.The basicidea behind SPCis that if you can spot a changein a processbefore it getsto the point

makingbadproducts,you canfix the processbeforebadproductshitst~e shelves.

cannegativelyimpact the quality of your product

® Introducing Lean Processes



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lean processesare the latest diet craze in the world of quality control. Lean is a qualit y control

techniqueyou canuseto identify and eliminate the flab in your company's processes.The "flab" is all

thedeadweightcarried by a process without adding any value.

Most companyprocessesare wasteful in terms of time and materials, which often results in

poorer quality to the costumer - a coneern of all businesses. lean focuses in customer satisfaction

andcostreduction.Proponents of the technique beHevethat every step in a process ls an opportunitv

to makea mistake - to create a quality problem, in other words. The fewer steps you have in a

process,the fewer chancesfor error you create and the better the quality in your final product or


Youcan apply the lean techniques in the following sections to all types of processes and

environmentsranging from offices, to hospitals, to factories. In most cases applvíng lean concepts

doesn'trequire an increase in capital costs - it simply reassignspeople to more productive purposes andof course,lean processesare cheaperto operate.


@ Lean Techniques

e Value Stream Mapping

Peoplethink in images, not in words, so givlngthem a picture of how something is done

is often better than telling them about a

process.After all, the quote is "Show me the money!"not "Tell me about the moneyl"

ValueStream Mapping visually describes a

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I foil

V A l lJ t


Unll.'.'Allllllnt flow «JI''''

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flllln".lIo"l fo, '"a flllll"




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"" prlllCllpl

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productionprocess in order to help workers

locatewastewithin it. Waste is any activity that

doesn'tadd value for the customer. Typically,

eliminatingwasteinvolves reducing the amount of inventory sitting around and shortening the time it takesto delivera product or service to the customer upon its order.

.-- Tito 99" o' """"""


2011 US;

, e lhe SSmethod

Work areas evolve along with the processesthey support. As an organization

implements ne

actions and tools, you must find a place for them "somewhere". Over time, clutter can slowly build al piles of excessmaterials or tools grow and gradually gum up the smooth flow of work.

The SSmethod is an essential tool for any quality initiative that seeksto clear up the flow o

work. The SSdescribe five Japaneseattributes

required for a clean work place:

• Seiri (organization)

• Seiton (neatness)

• Seiso(cleaning)

• Seiketsu(standardization)

• Shitsuke (discipline)

Removing the clutter from a process eliminates hidden Inventoríes, frees f100r space for productive use, improves the flow of materials through the

and shakes out

workplace, reduces walk time,

unnecessary items for reuse elsewhere or landfill


e Rapidimprovement events

No one knows a process like the workers who touch it every day. They know how the wor

should flow, they can identify obstacles that slow everyone down, and they deal with problems tha

never seemto go away.

A Rapid Improvement Event (RIE)is an intensive process-activity improvement, where over é

. few days a company's workers bone up on lean techniques and rebuild their processesto incorporan

its principies. The workers take apart their work areas, rearrange items and reassemble spaces fOI

more effícient work. The improvements are immediate, and the workers have ownership of thl

process and fine motivated to further refine it.



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e Leanmaterial. and Kanban


A company's materials are essential for the organization to work well, but they also tied up a largepart of a company's capital. And while the company does its business year in and year out, its materialsare, stolen, damaged, rotting, corroding, and losing value in many other ways. A key part of the lean approach is to minimize the amount of materials (both incoming and finished goods) you have sitting around in your facility. Excess materials hide problems with purchasing,work scheduling, scrap rates, and so on. Eliminating this excess materials provides an immediatefinancial benefit to your company - if you eliminate correctly.

You don't want to eliminate so thoroughly that you cause shortages. One method

you can use

to fix the problem of excess materials without causing shortages is Kanban. Kanban ís a materials

systemcontrolled by the customer. When the customer buys an item, action cascades back up the productionline to make one more of that item.

® Homework

Investigateand make a summary of the following topies:

• Total Quality Management (TQM)

• SixSigma

• Toyota Production System (TPS)


• http://www .youtube.comfwatch ?v=U7Z33tljMTQ

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=ldhC4ziAhgY


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Write in each screw a different description about Quality Control:

Complete with the description of each lean technique:


Value stream Mapping



~ _-


Lean material and Kanban .








Completethe chart with the 5s technique:

@ Introcluction



2011 L


You need energy to start your day. Your breakfast is the fuel your body needsto work. What would y

do if you ran out of your favorite cereal? You could buy another box. But what if the sto re was all out, too?

What if it wasn't getting any more deliveries? What would you do then? The answer seems simple; you'd ha

to find another food for breakfast. The world faces a similar problem; our fuel resources are running low and

could run out in your lifetime.

Most everything in the world needs energy to work. Think about the energy you use each day: the

lights you turn on, the bus or car you take to school, the computer

you use for homework, the television you

watch before bed. Evenwhile you sleep, energy runs your furnace heating your house and the refrigerator

keeping food from spoiling. It even runs the alarm dock that wakes you up in the morning. Now think about

how many people live on the Earth. With a population of more than 6 billion, the world usesa lot of energy.

e Today's energy sources = fossil fuels

e Coal People mine for coal, a hard, black, rock, throughout the

world. Power plants use coal to generate electricity by grinding it

into a powder that is burned. The burned powder heats water to

create steam. The power of the steam turns turbines. The splnning

motion of the turbines generates electricity. A network of wires

called power grid, bring this electricity to houses and other




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~.v( (_"_

Companies drill for oil on land or in the ocean and store it

in large barreis or underground tanks. People turn oil into many

products, induding plastics. Your ballpoint pen, your nylon

backpack, and even your fleece jacket are all made from oll, Sorne

homes burn oil for heat and sorne power plants burn otl too. In

many countries, however, oll's main use is for transportation. OiJis





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~. tlr




2011 USAC

madeinto gasolinefor cars,diesel fuel for trucks, and jet fuel for airplanes.

e Natural gas

Companies dril! for natural gas the same way they do

for oil. Natural gas is highly f1ammable. Gas

stovescook food with a lower flame. In the United States, and probably other eountries, the house's heating systemand water heater may use natural gas. Natural gas is also used in power plants to create electrieity.

G The problems 01the use of the fossll fuels

Fossilfuels have been a useful source of energy, but we need to rethink how mueh we depend on

them. We need to consider three maln facts.

somedaywe'lI use up all of Earth's fossll fuels. At the rate we use now fossil fuels, scientists' estimate that the

world's reserve willlast 40 to 70 more years. What will happen after all of the oil, coal, and natural gas have runout? How will we traveJfrom place to place? How will welight our homes? How Y!ÜIIwe communicate with eaeh other?

First, fossil fuel supplies are low. We use so much energy that

The second faet is that the fossil fuels cost a lot of money. Countries buy fossil fuels from eaeh other.

Becausethe supply is low, they can raise their prices. If

they may nct

wantto buy fuel from each other. No one will get what


countriesgo to war or have a disagreement,

Finally, burning fossil fuels harms Earth. Coal, oíl, and natural gas create a lot of air pollution. The

burningof fossil fuels releases harmful emissions that cause asthma and other health problems. This pollution alsoleadsto acid rain and snow. Many scientist and citizens are eoneerned about the carbon dloxlde released byburningfossil fuels. Carbon dioxide belongs to a group of gases known as greenhouse gases. As these gases colleetin the atmosphere, they aet like the glass walls of a greenhouse, trap~ing warm air close to Earth's

surfaee.This warming is natural, and long ago it made the

However,when human activitíes pump larger-than-normal amounts of earbon dioxide into the atmosphere, moreheat is trapped, and temperatures can grow unnaturally hígh. As a result, there can be major effeets on weatherthat may be devastatíng to the environment and all the people on Earth.

planet's environment mild enough to support life.


2011 u


The solutions


can we do about our energy problems? Instead of relying on fossil fuels, we need to examine

"green" alternatives. Green energy is renewable - it is constantly being replaced and won't run out.

forces, such as wind, water, and sunlight are green energy sources. It's not easy to switch to green e however, we rely on fossil fuels every day. People would need to spend huge amounts of money to

from one kind of fuel to another. We need to take action, but

alternatives, then we can make the best energy choices to preserve our planet.

first, we need to understand our

G Sola, energy

Put on sunglasses,rub in sunscreen, and hit the beach. It's time to soak up some rays! The sun can give you a great tan or make you sweat playing Frisbee. The sun's light and heat can also help us solve our energy problems. You have probably noticed wires running from your home to poles on the street. These wires connect you to the power grid of your community. Home's that use solar power, don't need as much energy from the grid. There are two types of solar power: solar cell energy and solar thermal energy.

e Hcw sola, ceUenergy wo,lcs

Years ago scientists developed solar cells, also called photovoltaic cells or PV cells, which can turn light directly into electricity. These srnall, flat devices made of silicon come in a variety of sizes.You may seen PVcells in a calculator. Sornebillboards and streetlights use PV cells to operate. Most cells are 4 4 inches (10 centimeters by 10 centimeters) and grouped together in panels on the roofs buildlngs. The panel absorbs the sun's light and transforms it into electric current. The electricity can then run machines, and appliances ;n the buildings. The more ?V cells, the more electricity panels can create.

The cells generate electrical power when the sun is shining. But what happens at night or when the sun is covered by clouds? Batteries store the electrlcity: because solar panels absorb light, not heat, they still create electricity during a cold winter. As long as the sun is shining, PV cells are at work.

Covbll .~


• -



2011 USAC



• Investigate at least 15 technical words from this chapter that you previously did not know and write the translation and definition of each

• Investigate about the following topies: magma, and mantle

• Watch the suggested videos. Then, answer this question: What could you do help to introduce people to living a "green" life? What are some ways to change their way ofthinking and living?

Suggested videos:

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=oIUSfFmOeSc

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=q_fvb02VXjc&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=T1HmY_lmHAg&feature=channel

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=KIGOxk93J-E&featrue=channel

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=oJAbATJCugs&feature=fvw


Write in each square and explain some energy sources: .


2011 USAC


(5.1 Introduction

Heat transfer is the sciencethat deals with the study of rates of exchange of heat between hot and cold bodies. The hot and cold bodies are called the souro: and the recelver respectively. Processheat transfer deals

with the rates of exchange of heat as they occur in the heat transfer equipment of engineering and chemica processes. In all such cases,the temperature difference between a source and a receiver acts as a driving force for heat transfer.

The major difference between thermodynamics and heat transfer is that the former is concerned with the relation between heat and other forms of energy, whereas the later deals with the analysis of the rate 0 heat transfer. Thermodynamics deals with systems In equilibrlum, so it can't be used to predict how fast a change will take place since the system is not in equillbrium in a process but it may be used to predlct the

amount of energy required to change the system from one equilibrium state to another. Consider the coollng of a hot steel bar that is placed in ajar of water. Thermodynamics may be used to predict the final equllibrlum

temperature of the steel bar-water system but will not tell us how long it will take to reach the equilibrium condition or what the temperature of the bar will be after a certain time period befo re the attalnment 0 equilibrium condition whereas heat transfer may be used to predict the temperature of both bar and water as a function of time.

5.2 Modes of heat transfer

There are three distinct modes of heat transfer from a source to a receíver: conduction, convection and


• Conduction: it is the flow of heat that occurs, either due to the exchange energy from one molecule to another without appreciable motion of the molecules or due to the motion of free

electrons if they are presento Conduction occurs on the molecular scale, molecules with a

relative higher energy imparting energy to adjacent molecules at lower energy levels. Fo example, the heat flow through the brlck wall of a furnace or the metal wall of a hea exchanger tu be occurs by conduction.

• Convectlon: it is the transfer of heat between relatively hot and cold portions of a fluid by

mixing (convection occurs through actual physical movement of warmer portions of fluid towards cooler portions of the same material). Convection is thus restricted to the flow of hea in fluids. If the fluid motion is caused by differences in density resulting from temperatur

difference in a fluid, the heat transfer is said to be free or natural convection. If the fluid motio

is artificially created by means of an external agency like pump, blower or agita~or, the hea


2011 USAC

transfer is termed asforced convection. The heating of water in a cooking pan is an example of heat transfer mainly by convection.

• Radiatlon: it refers to the transport of energy through space by electromagnetic waves. The transfer of heat from the sun to the earth is the most important example of heat transfer by radiation.

In many of the applications of heat transfer in chemical engineering, heat will be transferred

by combination of two or three of the basic mechanisms/modes of heat transfer. Consider a double

pipe heat exchanger in which a hot fluid flows through the inside pipe and a cold fluid flows through

the annular space. In this case, heat will flow by combination of convection and conduction from the

hot fluid to the cold fluid. Here heat flows by conduction through the metal wall of the inner pipe and

depositson both sides of the inner pipe, and by convection through the fluid films.

In the case of an insulated steam pipe, heat flows by convection through the steam film on the

through the layer of scale and the metal wall of the pipe, and the

layer of the insulation, and finally by convection and radiation from the outside insulation to the

ambient/surrounding airo Hence, in this case, heat transfer involves all the three modes of transfer.

This is also true with almost all heat transfer applications in the process industries. In a large of

practical cases, one of

the modes could be dominant, whereas in severa I cases it is required to deal

with more than one mode of heat transfer, owing to significant impact of these modes on the overall

heattransfer rates.

insideof the pipe, by conduction

5.3 , The laws of heat transfer

The foundation of heat transfer rest on a number of the fundamental and subsidiary laws. A

fundamentallaw is the one which validity rests on the fact that it has not been proved to be wrong or

false in the broad area of appfication of the subject under consideration. Therefore, these laws must

be satisfied in so\ving any prob\em. On tne other hand, a subsid\af'i \aw may be emp\f\ca\ in nature,


used in heat transfer are:

1. Law of conservation of


2. Newton's law of motion

3. Laws of thermodynamics

Thesubsidiary laws generally used are:

1. Fourier's law of heat conduction

2. Newton's law of cooling/Newton's law of heat flow between a solid surface and a fluid.


2011 US

3. Lawsof thermal radiation.

4. Equationof state

® Fundamentallaws

e Law of conservation of mass


It states that the total mass o/ various components involving during o unit operatíon or unit prOC remains constant or simply the total mass o/ the moterials toking part in any process ls constant. Conservati

of mass requires that the materials entering any process must either accumulate and/or leave the preces There can be neither loss nor gain.

Thus for any unit operation or unit process:

Input = output + accumulation or disappearonce


Consider a water tank containing some water initially as shown in fig. 1.1 Water enters the tank at

rate of mi kg/h and leaves the tank at arate of m2 kg/h and accumulates at arate of dm/dt. Then according j the law of conservation of mass,

Rate at which water enters the tank = rate at which water leaves the tank + rate ot occumuiauon o/ water the tank

I·~"·~- ~1·· = ~ 2 + ~ ~ /dt


: 6 t:::.:_+ dh/dt ~ ;

If mi > m2water gets accumulated in the tank and if mi < m2water gets depleted. for steady state operation


when accumulation is constant or nil, the equation reduces to:


2011 USAC

Your family can install solar panels on your home, even though you are connected to the power grid. At times, the panels may even generate more power than your home needs. The power company then buys any extra power you create and puts It back Into the grid for someone else to use. So by uslng solar panels you could help your whole community rely more on a green energy source.

e How sola, thermal energy wo,ks

Solar thermal energy uses heat instead of light. People can place

thermal panels on their roofs to absorb the sun's heat. Tublng

water runs under the panels. The sun warms the water. Thls water can thenbe usedto make a cup of cocea, fill a swimming pool, or run through ahome'sheating system.

filled with


.~,' '




NIy pi ~ -.

1". """',.,,


Thermal energy can also create electricity. In a solar power plant, the sun heats a IIquid until it boils. Thenthe steam created from this boiling liquid runs a turbine to generate electricity. In order for the llquids to boil,these power plants use mlrror to tocus the sun's heat and increase its strength. Some mirrors are curved andshaped like a saucer. Others are shaped like a trough or placed in a line. Some new solar energy plants havea power tower. Thousands of mirrors surround the tower and focus the sun's heat to the topo

8 Wlnd Ene,BY

Wind ls moving airoThe motion is caused by changes In air temperature. Warm air Is IIght, and cold air isheavy.When the land beats up during the day, it warms the air aboye it. This warm air rlses higher in the sky; whilecold air moves down to fill the space left by the warm alr. Thls movement of air creates wind.

Wind can be powerfui, as with a destructive hurricane, but its power can

also be used for good. Sailors

Throughouthistory people have used windmills to harnessthe wind's energy for grindinggrain or pumping well water. Today people use wlnd turblnes to


use the wind to keep their sailboats moving.













e How wind powerworks

A wind turbine has what looks like an airplane propeller mounted very

high in a tower. The bJadesof the turbine catch the wind and spin. The blades spin a shaft that is connected to an electrical generator. Wires connect the generator to the power grid to bring electricity to buildings in the area.

To increase the amount of power, turbines are often grouped in wind farms. Most wind farms aren't owned by electric power companies. They are

' ,.II1ooj_c






,, ,,,,,,,,,


"'" ,




I,,: '"I ~

(: ("11' .,.,.1"" ~

b (,:1"1"\ WIffl'IJ

iI' ~ n.c.A."""

e Geothermal ene'l'l

owned by "wind farrners" who sell the electricity to power companies. Willl

turbines work best where wind blows strongest. Wind is usually stronge the higher you go. That's why turbines are often mounted on tall towers o placed on the top of hills. Sorne towers stand between 100 and 250 feet (3

and 76 meters) high. Shorelines and wide-open prairies are also good place for towers. Turbines don't work well in location of too many rnountains

forests, or buildings, which block the wind's flow. Sorne people place sma turbines on their roofs and position them in a way to catch the rnost wind.

Old faithful, Yellowstone National Park's most farnous geyser,

erupts with thousands of gallons of water and steam every hour to hour and a half. This popular Wyoming tourist spot is the horne to more than

60 percent of the world's geysers. In just one square rnile (2.6 square kilometers), you can see more than a 150 of them.

Sorne people think of Earth as a solid ball of rock, but ít has many

layers. At the center, Earth has a solid coreoAround this eore is an area of hot, tiquid rock ealled magma. AboV

the magma is a layer of solid rock and magma called the mantle. The temperature of the rnantle can be ve

high - frorn 2,520 to 5,400 degrees Fahrenheit (1,382 to 2,982 degree

Celsius)depending on how deep you go. The surfaee of Earth, the crus sits on the mantle.









"'~'K " r





C 'IV '!o-


Water so m et i rnes eollects in the rocks u ndergro un d and heats up

If there is a vent leading from this deep rock to the suñace, superheata

'15W' I.t. """')1 ,.,.,,l'1<li4


!IN,~.a "''''




water shoots upward. Earth's crust is thicker in sorne areas than others.


2011 USAC

Considera stream tube (control volume) as shown in the figure 1.2. Assume that a fluid enters at a pointwherethe area of cross-section of the tube is Al and leaves where the area of cross-section is A2•




let ul and u2 be the velocities of the fluid at entrance and exit. Let p1 and p2 be the densities of the fluidat entrance and exit. Assume density in a single cross-section is constant and u1 is constant across area Al andu2 is constant across area A2. For steady-state conditions, the rate of mass entering the control volume equalsthat leaving.

Thisisthe equation of continuity.

Plu1A1 =PZU¡A~~

puA = constant


5.4.2 Newton's secondlaw of mation

It states that the resultant 01 all forces acting on a bady 01 mass NmNis praportional to the time tate 01 momentum change 01the body in the direction 01resultant force.

F = k d/dt (mu)

Where F is the resultant of all forces acting on the body,

m ls massand u is velocity.

Forthe volume control show in Fig. 1.2 assuming flow to be steady and unidirectional in the X-direction, accordingto Newton's second law of motion, the sum of all forces acting on the fluid in the x-direction is equal to the increase in the time rate of change of momentum of the tlowing fluid. For example, sum of all torces actingin the x-direction equals the difference between the momentums leaving with the fluid per unit time andthat brought in per unit time by the fluid.




WhereM = mu; m is the massflow rate of fluid and u is the linear velocity of the fluid.

Fora one-dimensional flow in tne x-direction, we have:


Where Pl and P2 are pressures at entrance and exit; Al and A2 are cross-section area at entrance and exit, the net force of wall channel on fluid and Fgis the component of force of gravity (for flow in upward dlrectlort


Flrst law of thermodynamics

It states that energy can neither be creoted nor destroyed during a process, although the conversion

energy from one form into another is possible. The law can also be stated in the alternative way as - the energy of an Isoloted system remains constant. When system gains or lossesenergy, It must be exactly equal the loss or galn of energy by the surroundlngs. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics is concerned with conservation of energy.

Let the Initial state of a system be A. let the quantlty of heat Q be absorbed by the system. The result absorptlon of heat is both to increasethe internal energy and alsoto produce some mechanical work.

Heat absorbed by system = increase in internal energy + work done by the system







This is the mathematical expression/statement of the flrst law of thermodynamics. In words, the

equation states that the total energy change of a system is equal to the heat added to the systems minus the work done by the system.

The equatlon applles to the processesinvolving finite changes in the thls equation is written as:



Taking derivatlves from respect to time,

. 'dU _ dQ


[ dt - Tt- dt



system. For dlfferentlal changes,

From the last equation we can say that the rate of increase of energy of the system is equal to tbe difference between the rate at which heat enters the system and the rate at which the system does work on surroundings.


2011 USAC



Investigate about the subsidiary laws of heat transfer.

Watch the following videos

Suggested videos:

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=77R4arwD8G8&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=SpG-tkbQgMo&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=SOTurHQp_AE&feature=related

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=8jeHd3ZbsFg

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=wz6wzOtv6rs

• http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=OSSlxXFGpKk&feature=related .•)



Answerthe following questions:

1.- What is radiation?





2.-Explain Newton's second law of motion:






~. P





3.- Explain First Law of Thermodynamics:





e Introduction




93 mili ion miles from Earth, our Sun is 333,000 times the size of our planet. It has a diameter of 865 miles, a surface temperature of 5,600°Cand, a core temperature of 15,OOO,OOO°ItCis. a huge mass of con

nuclear activity.

Oirect\'i or \ndirect\'i, OUT sun provides a\\ tne power we need to exist and support alllife forms. The drives our climate and our weather. Without it, our world would be a frozen wasteland of ice-covered rock

Solar electricity is a wonderful concept - taklng power from the sun and using it to power elec equipment is a terrific idea. No ongoing electricity bilis, no reliance on an electrical socket - "free" energv

doesn't harm the planetl


The principies of solar electriclty

A solar panel generates electricity using the photovolto;c effect, a phenomenon discovered in the early Century, when it was observed that certain materials produced an electric current when exposed to light.

To create this effect, two layers of a semí-conductíng material have to be combíned. One layer hasto a depleted number of electrons. When exposed to sunlíght, sorne of the photons are absorbed by the ma which excites, causing some of them to jump trom one layer to the other. As the electrons move from

layer to another, a small electrical current is generated. The semi-conducting material used to build a sola is sílicon. Very thin wafers of silicon are cut and polished. Some of these wafers are doped to contamí them, thereby creating an electron imbalance in these wafers. The wafers are then aligned together to m solar cell, Conductive metal strips are attached to the cells to take the electrical current.

When a photon hit the solar cell, it can do one of three things: it can be absorbed by the cell, be refle

of the cell, or pass straight through the cell. If a photon is absorbed by the slllcon, this causes some o electrons to jump from one layer to another. An electrical circuit is made as the electrons move frorn one to another, creating an electrical current. The more photons (the more intensity of Iight) that are absorb

the solar cell, the greater the current generated.

Solar cells generate most of their electricity from direct sunlight. They can also generate electricit cloudv days - and some systems can even generate very small amount of electricity on bright moonlíght ní


2011 USAC

Individual solar cells typically only generate tiny amounts of electrical energy. To make useful amounts of

electricity,these cells are connected together to make a solar module, otherwise known as a solar panel or, to

~mQt~",t~dse, a photovoltaic module.


(reallycalled"photovoltaic", "Pv" or "photoelectric" cells)that convert light directly lnto electricity.

In a sunny c1imate,you can get enough power to run a lOOW light bulb from just one square meter of solar panel. Thiswasoriginally developed in order to provide electricity for satellites, but these days many of us own calculators poweredby solar cells. Peopleare increasingly installing PV panelson their roofs. This coststhousands of pounds, but jf youhavea south-facing roof it can help with your electricity bilisquite a bit, and the govemment paysyou for any extra energyyou produce and feed back into the National Grid (ealledthe "feed-in tariff").

Solar Water Heating:

Wnercheat from the Sunis usedto heat water in glasspanelson your roof. This meansyou don't need to use so

muehgasor electricity to heat your water at home. Water is pumped through pipes in the panel. The pipes are paintedblack, so they get hatter when the Sun shines on them. The water is pumped in at the bottom so that

convectionhelps the flow of hot water out of the topo


This helps out your central heating system, and

cutsyaur fuel bilis. However, with the basic type of panesl hown in the diagram you must drain the water out to stop the panels freezing in the winter. Sorne manufacturers llave systems tnat do this automatically. Solar water heating is easily worthwhile in places like California and Australia, where you get lots of sunshine. Mind you, as technologyimproves it's becomingworthwhile in the UK.



To water




Energy' \


From water


Solar BOllers:

Themain way that a conventional gas"comblnation boíler" waterassoonasthe volume or temperature decreases.

continually wastes energy is by replenishingstored

Withsolar powered bollers, thls is insteadfuel!ed bythe solar power collected through panelson the roof of your home.



2011 US

The power collected through the solar tiles is used to fuel and therefore heat a sepárate water cylinder, thus saving energy throughout the course of every day. Another smaller tank, still powered by gas, is provided with most solar boiler installations as a backup.

Solar Furnaces:

Use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate the Sun's energy into a small space and produce very high temperatures. There's one at Odeillo, in France, used for scientific experiments. It can achieve temperatures up to 3,000 degrees Celsius.

Solar fumaces are basically huge "solar cookers". A solar cooker can be used in hot countries to cook food. This one is in the UK, making tea and coffee, although it does take a long time!



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Bioethanol production

In recent years, largely in response to uncertain fuel supply and efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions,

promising biofuels today and is considered as

bioethanol(along with biodiesel) has become one of the most

the only feasible short to medium alternative to fossil transport fuels in Europe and in the wider world.

Bioethanolls seen asa good fuel alternative becausethe source crops can be grown renewably and in most cJirnatesaround the world. In addition the use of bioethanol is generally C02 neutral. This is achieved becausein the growing phase of the source crop, C02 is absorbed by the plant and oxygen is released in thesamevolume that C02 is produced in the combustion of the fuel. This creates an obvious advantage over fossllfuels which only emit C02 as well as other poisonous emissions. In the 1970s, Brazil and the USA startedmassproduction of bioethanol-grown from sugarcane and corn respectively. Smaller scale production startedmore recently in Spain, Franceand Sweden mostly from wheat and sugar beet.

has emerged, whereby one integrates blomass

conversionprocesses and technology to produce a variety of products including fuels, power, chemicals andfeed for cattle. In this manner one can take advantage of the natural differences in the chemical and structural composition of the biomass feed stocks.

In recent years the concept

of the bio-refinery

Bloethanol Productlon:

The production of bioethanol from traditional means, or 1st Generation Biofuels is based upon starch crops like corn and wheat andfrom sugar crops like sugar cane and sugar beet. However, the cultivation of alternative sugar crops like sweet sorghum opens up

new possibilities in Europe, especíallv in

suchas Southern and Eastern Europe. Sweet sorghum requires less water or nutrients and has a higher fermentable sugar content than sugarcane as well as a shorter growing period which means that in sorneregions like in Africa vou can get 2 harvests ayear from the same

crop. In addition to thls, the development of lingo-cellulosic technologyhas meant that not only high energy content starch and sugarcrops can be used but also woodv biomass or waste residues frorn forestry. This development is seen as the 2nd Generation of

hotter and drier regions,




2011 US

_Dependingon the biomass source the steps generally inelude:

1. Storage

2. Canecrushing and juice extraction


4. Hydrolysis for starch and woody biomass

S. Fermentation with yeast and enzymes

6. C02 starage and ethanol recapture

7. Evaparation

8. Distillation

9. Waste water treatment

10. FuelStorage

What is Bioethanol?

The principie fuel used as a petral substitute for road transport vehieles is bioethanol. Bioethanol fuel mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it can also be manufactured by the chemica

process of reacting e.thylene with steam.

The main sources of sugar required to produce ethanol come from fuel or energy crops. These crops a

grown specifically for energy use and inelude corn, maize and wheat crops, waste straw, willow and popula

trees, sawdust, reed canary

grass, cord grasses, jerusalem artichoke, myscanthus and sorghum plants. The

is also ongoing research and development into the use of municipal salid wastes to produce ethanol fuel.

Ethanol or ethyl alcohol (C2HsOH) is a clear colourless liquid, it is biodegradable, low in toxicity

and caus

little environmental pollution jf spilt. Ethanol burns to produce carbon dioxide and water, is a high octane fu and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petral. By blending ethanol with gasoline we can als oxygenate the fuel mixture so it burns more completely and reduces polluting emissions. Ethanol fuel blend are widely sold in the United States. The most common blend is 10% ethanol and 90% petral (El0). Vehie engines require no modifications to run on fl0 and vehicJewarranties are unaffected also. Only flexible fu

vehieles can run on up to 85% ethanol and 15% petral blends (E8s;.


Bioethanol has a number of advantages over conventional fuels. It comes from a renewable resource i.

crops and not from a finite resource and the crops it derives from can grow well (Iike cereals, sugar beet an

maize). Another benefit over fossil fuels is the

for 22% of all greenhouse gas emissions and through the use of bioethanol, sorne of these ernisslons will b reduced asthe fuel crops absorb the C02 they emit through growing. Also, blending bicethanol with petral wi

help extend the life of the diminishing oll supplies and ensure greater fuel security, avoíding heavy reliance o oíl producing nations.

greenhouse gas emissions. The road transport network accoun


2011 USAC

By encouraging bioethanol's use, the rural economy would also receive a boo st from growing the necessary cropsB. ioethanol is also biodegradable and far less toxic that fossil fuels. In addition, by using bioethanol in olderenginescan help reduce the amount of carbon monoxide produced by the vehicle thus improving air quality.

Another advantage of bioethanol is the ease with which it can be easily integrated into the existing road transportfuel system. In quantities up to 5%, bioethanol can be blended with conventional fuel without the needof engine modifications. Bioethanol is produced using familiar methods, such as fermentation, and it can be distributed using the same petrol forecourts and transportation systems as before.











I".~ ¡~.









Ha! TtICt






. 11.-





Ethanocanl be produced from biomass by the hydrolysis and sugar fermentation processes, Biomasswastes containa complex mixture of carbohyárate polvmers from the plant cell walls known as cellulose. hemi

celluloseand lignin. In order to produce sugars from the blornass, the

enzymesin order to reduce the size of the feedstock and to open up the plant structure. The cellulose and the

hemicelluloseportions are broken down (hydrolysed) by enzymes or dilute acids into sucrose sugar that is

thenfermented into ethanol. The IIgnin which is also present in the biomass is normally used as a fuel for the

bíomass is pre-treated with acids or

ethanolproduction plants boilers. There are three principie methods

areconcentratedacid hydrolysis, dilute acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis.

of extracting sugars from biomass. Tnese


Production Process:

1. Grinding Grain

First, starch should be exposed from the peel of corn t

contact with water. Also, grinding makes corn sma

pieces, which can increase its surface area. Then, th

increase in its surface area can enhance the conta

between starch and water. Two types of milis, a rolle

mili and a harnrner mili, are usually employed. For a

industrial use, a harnmer mili is mostly used because

its accuracy and its appHcationfor large amount.

~ Elv)ns~~InIo~ A roller mili has sorne roll pairs consisting of two roller


MIsIl iScooIedlIId

mt.e6 lIIi!I'I)aSt,

~~ Fttmented_ is




AIedlIlI isdistiled .1Id

fuej.,.tthanoI .






ptrbitI bctrIfdlo!

/)(JIIIfI gfM(lllotL

Corn is pressed by two rollers and crushed into sma pieces. Around the rolls there are some trenches t

improve the effectiveness of the crush. Also, th

rotating speeds of two rollers are different in order t

generate more stress on the corno Finally, screening

implemented at the bottom of the mlíl. Then, the fin

particles can pass the screen, and the big particle

which cannot match the required size, become th

subject of the grinding again.

2. Fermentation:

Yeast is a facultative anaerobe. In an aerob

environment, lt converts sugars into carbon dioxide an

water. In an anaerobic environment, it converts suga

into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Thus, for an ethan

industry, it is important to exclude significant oxyge

from its system. This fermentation process is relativel

slow process, so it is important for an industrial use t

make it faster. Usually, a propagation tank is employe

In this tank, mash, water, enzymes, nutrients, and vea

are mixed to re-hydrate the yeast.

3. Distillation: After fermentation, we have to make the purity of ethanol higher. Distillation is one of th

steps of the purifications. Distillation is the method to separate two liquid utílizing their differen

boiling points.


2011 USAC

However, to achieve high purification, several distillations are required. This is because all materials have íntermolecular interactions with each other, and two materíals will co-distill during distillation. This means that proportion between two materials, in this case ethanol and water, can be changed, still, there are two materials in both layers, the liquid and the vapor layers.

4. Dehydration

As stated aboye, after traditional distillation, about 5% of water remains in ethanol. Especially, this water is a big problem for fuel ethanol because the presence of this amount of water enhances the molecular polarity of ethanol for example ethanol and gasoline are mixed, they separate into two phases, ethanol phase and gasoline phase. It is easy to imagine that this inhomogeneous fuel is not acceptable. Thus, dehydration can be another issue.

Bioethanol Use



de vice

ROII pa1f


ron pau

A number of chemicals are produced in the ethanol industry and potentially even more in the 2nd•

generation bioethanol industry, serving a wide range of uses in the pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, beverages

andmedical sectors as well

limited to transport fuel or energy production but has potential to supply the existing chemicals industry.

as for industrial uses. The market potential for bioethanol is therefore not just

Transport Fuet:

Bioethanol has mostly been used as a biofuel for transport, especially in Brazil. Indeed it was in Brazil where the first bioethanol fuelled cars emerged on a large-scale. Although generally unknown to the average consumer, a large volume of bioethanol is already used in Europe as it is blended with petrol at 5%. It is used as a substitute for lead as an oxygenating additive and has a high octane rating, which improves performance. Although the eventual target is the prívate consumer, few are aware of bioethanol's potenial to, at least, partly replace petrol as a transport fuel in Europe.

Stakeholdersin the Bioethanol FuelMarket:

• bioethanol producers

• fuel suppliers

• car manufacturers

• the government

Fuel Cells:

Fuel cells are another potential area for ethanol use to produce


function by combining the fuel hydrogen with oxygen from the air to produce electrical energy, with

water vapour and heat as by-







typical electrical efficiency of


overall efficiency, if using the heat by-product, of 70-90 %. The units

30 and 60 % and an


Cells have

run with




emissions and



emissions are




' ","",.





2011 USAC

considerably. It's disadvantages are its relatlvely high cost and their short life span (regular replacement of components). They are, however, regarded as very reliable for the duration of thelr lifespan and are often used for emergency power.

Negatlve sides of Bloethanol

Bloethanol has some deficit. Next figure shows some environmental impacts of ethanol in gasoline. Although, some of them may be exaggerated, but thls approach is very important when we are considering bioethanol from overall environmental aspects. Corn production causes more soil erosion and uses more herblcides and insecticides. Also, wastewater from ethanol plant is also another big problem.

ln addition, an lncrease in the demand of bloethanol may burden on our money. This is because, currently, ethanol production ls supported by huge subsidies coming from our tax. Besides, an increase in the ethanol production means an increase in the demand of corn . This may cause an lncrease in the corn price. Today, corn

is everywhere In our


Therefore, there are still so many concernsto say bioethnaol is a real ideal energy source.





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1.- Usethe box beJowto describe the picture of the BioethanoJ production where you can see the different steps of the process:


2011 uSAC


2. Write True or Falseaccording to the sentence:

Ethanol can be produced from biomass by the hydrolysis and sugar fermentation processes.

By encouraging bioethanol's use,the rural economy would never receive a boost from growing the necessary crops:

Fuel Cells have a typical electrical efficiency of between 30 and 60 %

An increase in the ethanol production the corn price.

means an inrease in the demand of cornoThis may cause a decrease in

After fermentation comes Grinding in Bioethanol production:

The most common blend is 10%ethanol and 90% petrol (E10):



2011 USAC

Write a comment about the importance of Bioethanol in the economy of a country:


2011 USAC

3. With the next picture do a "Proecess diagram" to reeognizethe activity in eaeh part of the Bioethanol production writing eaeh speeification in the square below.