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Urogenital (UG) is derived from:

Intermediate mesoderm
From the urogenital sinus from the hindgut
The bladder
urethra
inferior 2/3 of the vagina
Urogenital organs- Kidney development
Only small parts of the frst 2 remain in the defnitive kidney
Proliferation of intermediate mesoderm on each side of the embryo>urogenital
ridge > nephrogenic cord & gonadal ridge
Urogenital ridge
- lies lateral to dorsal mesentery
- covered by urogenital mesentery
- extends from cervical to the sacral region
Three pairs of kidneys develop
1. Pronephros
- Located in cervical region
- rudimentary
- forms nephric duct
- never functionally active
2. Mesonephros
- Located in the upper thoracic to upper lumbar segment
- produces little urine
- Mesonephric (Wolfan) duct formed from elongation of the nephric duct
- Forms most of males reproductive tract
- Glomeruli form as small vessels from the dorsal aorta to the
Mesonephric duct
- Mesonephric/excretory tubules
- bud of of mesonephric duct and are primitive excretory tubules
- Some Mesonephric tubules > eferent ductules connecting rete
testis and epididymis
3. Metanephros (defnitive kidney)
- in sacral region
- Ureteric diverticulum/bud sprouts of Mesonephric duct
- induces the surrounding intermediate mesoderm to form a cluster of
mesenchymal cell > metanephric cap/ blastema
- Metanephric cap induces ureteric bud to branch repeatedly
Defnitive/permanent Kidney
Has collecting and excretory (nephron) parts
Collecting part:- Develops from Ureteric bud
- Uteric bud dilates to form renal pelvis>2-3 major calyces>more times
to form minor calyces>Final division forms collecting ducts>induces
metanephric cap to form nephrons
Excretory part (Nephron):
Metanephric caps>cell clusters>renal vesicle>nephron
Nephron consists of > proximal convoluted tubule
> Bowmans capsule
> distal convoluted tubule
> Loop of Henle
visceral lateral plate mesoderm > Glomeruli- capillaries
Metanephric cap > all epithelial excretory tubules form from intermediate
mesoderm
Excretory tubules and collecting tubules connect the septum then disappears
Ascent of the kidneys
Kidneys ascend from sacral to lumbar region & undergoes 90 medial rotation
When the kidneys contact with the suprarenal glands their ascent stops
Kidney passes between umbilical arteries
If arteries block ascent, kidney may remain in sacral region
Kidney initially supplied by
lateral sacral arteries
common iliac
aortic bifurcation
aorta
Fetal kidney functions-Amniotic fuid is swallowed by fetus>gut> kidney >
bladder > urinated out
~~Mature kidney function of excretion of waste is mainly performed by the
placenta~~
Ureter Development-
Ureter develops from the ureteric bud from mesonephric duct
Intermediate mesoderm >Ureter lumen lining, connective tissue and
smooth muscle
Uteric bud then migrates from mesonepheric duct (intermediate mesoderm) to
urogenital sinus (endoderm)
Urinary Bladder
Urinary bladders epithelium develops from endoderm > urogenital sinus
Visceral Lateral Plate Mesoderm > Muscular and serous walls
Upper part of urogenital sinus is urinary bladder
>continuous with obliterated allantois>urachus > median
umbilical ligament
Middle of urogenital sinus>prostatic and membranous urethra in males /
entire urethra in females (endoderm)
Last part of urogenital sinus>spongy urethra in males and vestibule in
females
Ureters intermediate mesoderm is incorporated into trigone of bladder such that
fnal entire epithelium of bladder is endodermal
Reproductive System: 3 source
1. Intermediate mesoderm
epithelium that lines the gonadal/ genital ridge & parts of the developing
gonads
2. Urogenital sinus-
urethra and the inferior 2/3 of the vagina
3. Primordial germ cell-
Primitive streak > Epiblast>gonadal ridges>Dorsal yolk sac wall
Genital system develops after the urinary system
Primordial germ cells (PGC) in epiblast > dorsal wall yolk sac > dorsal
mesentery > dorsal mesentery>genital ridges
PGC incorporate into the inner cortical or gonadal cords
Before gametogenesis > indiferent gonads
have both sets of genital ducts mesonephric and paramesonephric
Both ducts beginning near the gonads and terminate in urogenital sinus
Mesonephric (Wolfan) ducts form frst as drainage of the transient mesonephric
kidney and enters urogenital sinus
Paramesonephric (Mullerian) ducts form lateral to mesonephric ducts and ducts
fuse in the midline
Development of Testis
Primordial germ cells enter the Seminiferous cords
Testis determining factor (TDF) induces seminiferous cords >seminiferous
tubules>rete testis> eferent ductules > mesonephric/wolfan duct>
ductus deferens>enter prostatic urethra
Mullerian inhibiting substance located in seminiferous tubules with germ cells
prevents the paramesonephric ducts from forming
Cortical cords degenerate>Tunica albuginea(separates the seminiferous
cords from the surface epithelium)
Descent of the testis:
Increased intra-abdominal pressure from organ growth and extra-abdominal
gubernaculum outgrowth pulls it through process vaginalis
Parts of process vaginalis is retained as tunica vaginalis
Proximal portion degenerates but distal portion of gubernaculum remains as
scrotal ligament
Testicular artery is retained and accompanies testis
Paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct : > uterine tubes
> uterus
> cervix
> upper vagina
Development of rest of female reproductive tract
Caudal paramesonephric ducts fuse > epithelial lining of the uterus
and upper vagina
Paramesonephric duct>uterine tubes
VLPM>Muscular walls of the vagina
Urogenital sinus>Lower vagina
Intermediate mesoderm>Connective tissue and smooth muscles of
uterus and upper vagina
Lumen of vagina is separated from urogenital sinus by hymen
Development of Ovaries
Surface epithelium of ovaries continue to divide to form cortical cords
Cortical cords enlarge and PGC (Oogonium) enter
Primitive testis/medullary cords regress and replaced by vascular and connective
tissue
Descent of ovary:
Superior Gubernaculum > the ovarian ligament proper
Inferior Gubernaculum > round ligament of uterus
External genitalia
External genitalia form from mesoderm and ectoderm
Genital swellings > scrotum or labidia majora
Cloacal folds>Urethral folds>urogenital and anal membranes
Male External Genitalia-
Elongation of genital tubercle >phallus
Urethra extends along the elongated phallus but does not reach glans penis
Glans penis
ectodermal cells from glans > form a short epithelial cord > external
urethral meatus
urogenital sinus>Spongy urethra
Penis is ectodermal and endodermal
In the female
urethral folds will form the labia minora
genital swellings become the labia majora
Genital tubercle>the clitoris
Female urethra develops from the vesicourethral canal
CLINICAL CORRELATIONS
Penile abnormalities
Glandular hypospadias: urethral opening on ventral surface of glans
penis) with chordee
Penile hypospadias with chordee- The external urethral orifce is on the
ventral surface
Penoscrotal hypospadias- The external urethral orifce is located at the
penoscrotal junction
Epispadias- External urethral orifce is on the dorsal surface
Uterus didelphys with double vagina: lack of fusion of paramesonephric ducts
throughout the entire length
Uterus arcuatus: lack of fusion at fundus
Uterus bicornis - lack of fusion of paramesonephric ducts but entering common
vagina
Uterus bicornis with 1 rudimentary horn- lack of fusion of paramesonephric
ducts with regression of 1 uterine horn
Atresia of cervix- atresia of both distal ends of paramesonephric ducts leading
to blockage
Atresia of vagina- sinovaginal bulb doesnt develop
Ectopic testis
Cryptorchidism: testis may fail to descend.
Ectopia- abnormal positions of testis under the skin along the lower part of
the abdomen, thigh, in the femoral canal, penis, behind scrotum
Agenisis- non formation of testis
Duplication of testis on one side
Chromosomal Reproductive anomalies
Klinefelter syndrome- 47,XXY
Gonadal dysgenesis- Phenotypically female, but may have XY chromosome
and have malformed gonads
Turner syndrome: 45,XO and also have gonadal dysgenesis
XY female gonadal dysgenesis: (Swyer syndrome) deletion of SRY gene
resulting in no secondary sexual characteristics
Hermaphrodites: Two types
True hermaphrodites both testis and ovary- usually combined as ovotestis,
karyotype is 46,XX, External genitalia are ambiguous
Pseudohermaphrodites: Genotypic sex is masked by the phenotype
appearance of other sex, but females have normal ovarian tissue and males have
normal testicular tissue
Testicular feminization syndrome
X linked recessive disorder
External genitalia are female
46,XY karyotype and testis
Testis and Mullerian Inhibiting substance is present
Uterus and uterine tubes are absent
Vagina is short and blind
Testis shows seminiferous tubules lined by sertoli cells, but there are no germ
cells
Usually raised as females
Ectopia vesicae/ Exstrophy of bladder: Lumen of the urinary bladder may be
exposed on the surface of the body due to the ventral body wall failing to close
from lack of mesodermal migration below umbilicus to form support for the
ectodermal epithelial covering of the lumen of the bladder. Occurs mainly in
males and may be associated with epispadias
Development of Suprarenal glands: Outer cortex develops from intermediate
mesoderm and Inner medulla develops from neural crest cells
Double Ureter: Duplicated unilaterally or bilaterally
Ectopic ureter: Ureter may open into vagina, urethra, or vestibule due to faulty
development of Mesonephric duct
Duplex Ureter: Splitting of ureteric bud duplicating collecting portion of kidney
Horse shoe kidney:lower kidney poles fuse and does not ascend higher than
the inferior mesenteric artery
Pancake kidney:congenital fusion of superior and inferior poles and does not
ascend higher than the inferior mesenteric artery
Renal agenesis- one or both kidneys may be absent
If ureteric buds dont divide, collecting ducts and nephrons dont develop resulting
in kidneys not forming or very small leading to renal failure and anuria
~~Bilateral agenesis is always fatal~~
Oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia - because little or no urine is
excreted into the amniotic cavity lungs fail to develop. Associated with other
severe defects
Hydronephrosis: Dilatation of renal pelvis and calices due to obstruction in the
urinary passages resulting in major kidney damage
Aberrant renal artery: Accessory renal artery often form on inferior kidney pole
crossing anterior to the ureter and obstruct it