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# St udyGui de Pr ac t i c e Test

f or t he PSAT/NMSQT

Form 002 Copyright 2006. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board and is not
affiliated with the production of nor endorses the material presented here. All references to PSAT shall mean the PSAT/NMSQT.
TAKING THE PRACTICE TEST FOR THE PSAT

Practice Test Breakdown
The PSAT Diagnostic consists of 5 sections:
Section 1 (Critical Reading) 25 minutes, 24 multiple-choice questions
Section 2 (Math) 25 minutes, 20 multiple-choice questions
Section 3 (Critical Reading) 25 minutes, 24 multiple-choice questions
Section 4 (Math) 25 minutes, 8 multiple-choice questions and
10 student-produced responses
Section 5 (Writing Skills) 30 minutes, 39 multiple-choice questions
Total testing time: 2 hours, 10 minutes

The Critical Reading sections include Sentence Completion and Reading Comprehension questions. The Math sections
include questions on algebra, geometry, and probability. The Writing Skills section includes questions on grammar,
usage, diction, idiom, punctuation, and organization.

We suggest that students take the entire assessment in one sitting with one 5-minute break after the first two sections. The
goal is to create as realistic a testing situation as possible since endurance is an important aspect of this exam.

Be sure to read the directions carefully at the beginning of the five sections. You may move around within a section, but
you may NOT move between sections or return to an earlier section to change an answer. If you finish early, go back and
check your work within that section only.

PSAT Scoring System
+1 point for every correct answer
0 points for every question left blank
0 points for an incorrect student-produced response
-.25 points for every incorrect multiple-choice question

Since you are penalized for incorrect answers on the multiple-choice questions, you should think carefully before
guessing. On the actual test, you should make every effort to eliminate any incorrect answers before making your
selection. If you can narrow your choices to two, you have a 50-50 chance. Note: On this diagnostic, DO NOT GUESS
because you want to get an accurate assessment of your weak areas. Once the program has identified your critical skills
(weak areas), you will be able to increase your score by working on these specific skills.

Do not spend too much time on any one question. Be sure to read each question carefully. After you have marked your
answer choice, go back and reread the question to make sure you have not missed anything. If you are not sure about a
question, put a question mark by it in your test booklet, go on to the next question, and then come back to it later.

Calculators
You may use any four-function, scientific, or graphing calculator on the Math tests only.
.
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Form 002 Copyright 2006 3 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
SECTION 1
Time 25 Minutes
24 Questions
(124)

Directions: For each of the following questions, choose the best answer and mark the corresponding

Product: PSAT

1. Mr. Mislan's primary goal as class advisor was to
_____ students by involving them in a host of
extracurricular projects.
(A) engage
(B) pamper
(C) frustrate
(D) discipline
(E) expatriate

2. Avery was initially _____ to perform, but she acted
out a skit after the audience _____ her with a round of
applause.
(A) averse .. coerced
(B) disinclined .. outwitted
(C) eager .. cajoled
(D) reluctant .. coaxed

3. Pundits suggested that discerning art buyers at a recent
auction were ________ Impressionist paintings
because they preferred to purchase works by more
contemporary avant-garde artists.
(A) enthralled with
(B) vigilant toward
(C) entangled in
(D) disposed toward
(E) indifferent to
4. Caravaggio ______ a number of followers known as
Caravaggistas because they ____ his sharply lit
figures and riveting portrayals of dramatic action.
(A) animated .. spurned
(B) inspired .. emulated
(C) disheartened .. mimicked
(D) provoked .. disdained
(E) suppressed .. imitated

5. Although _____ often warn people to anticipate
problems, an excessive gloominess toward future
outcomes may delay or even _____ progress.
(A) neophytes .. thwart
(B) defeatists .. further
(C) utopians .. retard
(D) fussbudgets .. enhance
(E) pessimists .. impede

6. Zoologists can usually classify newly discovered life
forms, but sometimes a new deep-sea animal is so
______ that it seems to _____ existing knowledge.
(A) puzzling .. confound
(B) microscopic .. authentic
(C) clandestine .. terminate
(D) anomalous .. validate
(E) enigmatic .. verify

7. The visiting professor was truly ______: she
impressed her students with her thoughtful analysis,
perceptive analogies, and wealth of scholarly
examples.
(A) erudite
(B) superficial
(C) diffident
(D) callous
(E) aloof
Each of the sentences below has either one or two blanks
corresponding to one or two words that have been omitted.
From the five answer choices, choose the one that best
completes the meaning of the sentence.

Example:

Contrary to popular belief, bats are not blind; in fact, they
have _____ eyesight.

(A) sensory (B) inferior (C) exceptional (D) steady
(E) excessive

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8. The chief financial officer's ______ was finally
uncovered when whistleblowers proved that he had
bribed other executives and approved fraudulent
practices.
(A) timidity
(B) proficiency
(C) venality
(D) veracity
(E) contrition

The passages below are followed by questions based on
what is stated or implied in the passage or the introduction
to the passage.

5

10
Questions 910 are based on the following passage.

Reality programs have become the cornerstones of
network television schedules. The formula is irresistibly
simple. Select a mix of everyday people and place them
in a competitive situation with a clearly defined prize.
Because they dont require highly paid writers and actors,
reality shows are relatively inexpensive to produce. The
popularity of reality programs should come as no surprise
to those who already believe that Newton Minow was
right when in 1961 he called television a vast
wasteland. Little has changed since.

9. The author's attitude toward reality programs is best
described as
(A) optimistic
(B) circumspect
(C) indifferent
(D) dismissive
(E) forgiving

10. It can be inferred from the passage that
(A) television programs in the early 1960's were trite
(B) the golden age of television occurred in the 1950's
(C) Newton Minow and the author have radically
different views of the role of television
(D) the author thinks the prizes in reality programs are
exorbitant
(E) the author is a well-paid television writer

5

Questions 1112 are based on the following passage.

Janson, Anthony F. History of Art, 6
th
, 2004.
Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson
Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New J ersey.

The most important of the Action Painters proved to be
J ackson Pollock. His huge canvas titled Autumn
Rhythm: Number 30, 1950 was executed by pouring and
splattering the colors, instead of applying them with a
brush. The result is a surface so alive, so sensuously rich,
10

15
that all of earlier American painting looks pale in
comparison. Pollock did not simply let go and leave the
rest to chance when he aimed the paint at the canvas
instead of carrying it on top of his brush. He released
the forces within the paint by giving it a momentum of its
own. He himself was the source of energy for these
forces, and he rode them as a cowboy might ride a wild
horse, in a frenzy of psychological action. He did not
always stay in the saddle; yet the thrill of this contest,
which strained his entire being, was worth the risk.

11. The phrase He did not always stay in the saddle
(lines 13-14) implies that
(A) viewing Pollock's paintings is much like riding an
emotional roller coaster.
(B) Pollock was an inept artist whose paintings fall
well short of the Old Masters'.
(C) Pollock was baffled by the complexity of his own
revolutionary methods.
(D) Even experts do not understand Pollock's complex
imagery.
(E) Pollock took risks and experienced both failures
and successes.

12. The author's attitude toward Pollock's work is best
characterized as
(A) derisive
(B) perplexed
(C) awed
(D) wistful
(E) incensed

5

10

15

Questions 1324 are based on the following passages.

The following passages compare and contrast the
political theories and influence of Thomas Hobbes and
John Locke.

Passage 1

J ohn Dewey once remarked that every thinker puts
some portion of an apparently stable world in peril.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) was such a thinker.
Hobbess method was born of the intellectual revolution
wrought by him in the field of political thought. His life
bridged the turbulent age of transition from faith to
science. The Oxford-educated Hobbes made his living as
a retainer of the feudal Cavendish family and as a
pensioner of the King. His attachments were, therefore,
to monarchybut with a radical difference. He did not
seek the defense of kingship and aristocracy in divine
ordination, as was customary, but in reason and human
nature.
The central idea in Hobbess political thought was that
government was the result of human necessity rather than
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25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

divine ordination. Civil society came into being not
because God willed it but because humans needed it.
Without government, life was intolerable and civilization
impossible. In a state of nature that is, in unorganized
society men knew neither peace nor security but only
brutishness.
Crucial to Hobbess political philosophy was his
conception of human character. His theory of human
nature, shared by such contemporaries as Niccolo
Machiavelli and Samuel Pufendorf, was based on the
assumption that people were naturally wild, selfish,
driven by passionate appetites, pugnacious, and prone to
violence. This leads to constant conflict, each person
being determined to assert his or her own pleasures,
which in the end can only be restrained and controlled by
strong authority.
Given this state of human nature, people associate
together out of sheer necessity in order to protect each
other from their own ravenous appetites. In effect, they
give up their personal liberty, which in a state of nature is
absolute, so as to be able to attain security and order.
Thus, government comes into being to avoid a war of all
against all.
Hobbess unidealized view of human nature found
wide acceptance in both England and America. Whether
one accepted his psychology or not, his formulations
sharpened mens minds. In the critical period of the
eighteenth century, when the American Federal and State
Constitutions were being shaped, one finds Hobbesian
psychology permeating the thinking of many leading
political figures. Thus, Alexander Hamilton, in a letter of
August 27, 1782, stated: Experience is a continual
comment on the worthlessness of the human race. Even
the moderate and cautious J ames Madison assumed as a
matter of fact, the existence of a degree of depravity in
mankind.
Hobbesian thought underlay much of the thinking that
went into the making of the Federal Constitution. His
pessimistic view of human nature, while not shared by
everybody, was nevertheless ever-present.

Passage 2

Hobbess philosophy was not democratic. That of
J ohn Locke (1632-1704), however, had a direct bearing
on democracy, especially as it was established in
America. It was Locke, not Hobbes, who provided the
vital ingredients that gave stimulus to democratic
development.
The two Lockean elements, which in essence underlay
classic democratic theory, were, first, his view of human
nature and second, his conception of natural rights. Each
was a fundamental refutation of Hobbes, and both had a
powerful appeal to those who were sympathetic to the
democratic idea. J ames Madison, for example, a man not
given to superlatives, classed Locke with Sir Isaac
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75

80

85

90

95

100

105
Newton as one who established immortal systems.
Locke rejected the Hobbesian view that humans were
innately brutish or innately rapacious or innately
anything else, saying that they were in reality what
environment, opportunity, and practice he called it
experience made them. The human being did not come
species of clay to be shaped by the experience of life.
People, in short, were what training and education made
Lockes assumptions about human nature were closely
linked to his political theory. In contrast to the Hobbesian
view of human beings rapacious instincts, Locke
stressed goodness and rationality. He rejected the idea
that government was based on force and denied the
assumption that in entering civil society people
surrendered their rights to the state. It made no sense,
Locke argued, for people to organize government so as to
escape the brutish existence of a state of nature, only to
fall into the hands of an arbitrary ruler who would be no
less grim.
In place of arbitrary government, in which one person
had all the power and the rest none, Locke postulated the
theory of natural rights. People, he wrote, were born
with certain basic rights among them life, liberty, and
property which they did not surrender when they
entered civil society. These rights were derived from
what Locke called the law of nature, which existed
before the creation of government.
Lockes optimistic view of human nature and human
political thinkers. Thomas J efferson for example,
proclaimed that Lockes basic theory is perfect as far as
it goes. The Declaration of Independence, which
J efferson wrote at the age of thirty-three, is cherished by
the American people as both a historic landmark and a
proclamation of political faith.

13. The author of Passage 1 quotes J ohn Dewey in line 2
primarily in order to
(A) convey his disapproval of Hobbes's political
views.
(B) subtly insinuate that Dewey was more influential
than Hobbes.
(C) qualify his enthusiasm for Hobbes.
(D) signal the pivotal importance of Hobbes's political
ideas.
(E) discourage anyone from questioning Hobbes's
view of human nature.

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14. In line 4 born of most nearly means
(A) carried by
(B) destined for
(C) native to
(D) part of
(E) pirated from

15. The author of Passage 1 most probably mentions
Hobbes's connections to the King and the Cavendish
family (lines 7-9) in order to
(A) highlight the growing rift between Hobbes and the
King.
(B) imply that Hobbes's support for the monarchy was
linked to his financial relationship with the King
and the Cavendish family.
(C) underscore the originality of thought that led
Hobbes to support monarchy as a form of
government.
(D) demonstrate the inherent flaws in Hobbes's
method of thought.
(E) imply that Hobbes was a secret heretic who
opposed the Church of England.

16. The author of Passage 1 would most likely characterize
Machiavelli and Pufendorf (lines 23-28) as
(A) skeptics who questioned the relationship between
Hobbes and the Cavendish family.
(B) wealthy connoisseurs who dabbled in politics.
(C) sycophants who tried to flatter Hobbes.
(D) prodigies who enjoyed displaying their political
and literary skills
(E) theorists who shared a common political
perspective with Hobbes.

17. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously
undermine Locke's assumptions (lines 70-79) about
human nature?
(A) Crime rates are closely linked to poverty rates.
(B) Voting patterns are closely related to a person's
level of education.
(C) Political views become more conservative as
income rises.
(D) Culture plays a dominant role in shaping marriage
customs.
(E) Intelligence scores of children are closely related
to the intelligence scores of their mother.

18. In line 96, derived most closely means
(A) originated in
(B) descended from
(C) gained by
(D) enjoyed with
(E) disconnected from

19. We can infer from J efferson's statement that Locke's
basic theory is perfect as far as it goes (lines 102-
103) that
(A) J efferson was waiting for an opportunity to refute
Locke.
(B) J efferson wanted to undermine Locke's influence
in America.
(C) J efferson shared Locke's political philosophy but
wanted to extend it.
(D) J efferson was jealous of Locke and secretly
opposed his theory of natural rights.
(E) J efferson wanted to balance Locke's view of nature
with Hobbes's view of government.

20. Which of the following best describes the approach of
Passage 2?
(A) analysis of a political theory
(B) criticism couched in sarcasm
(C) colorful, dramatic description
(D) comparison and contrast
(E) careful presentation of a political anomaly

21. The tone of both passages is best described as
(A) urgent
(B) despairing
(C) apologetic
(D) scholarly
(E) flippant

22. In response to the last paragraph of Passage 1, the
author of Passage 2 would most likely
(A) agree that Hobbes's influence was significant but
stress its limitations.
(B) concur that all leading American political thinkers
shared Hobbes's view of human nature.
(C) suggest that Hobbes should rethink the
assumptions underlying his view of human nature.
(D) contend that Locke was a more brilliant political
theorist than Hobbes.
(E) argue that Hobbes's influence on American
political thought has been exaggerated.

23. Which best conveys how human nature is described
in Passage 1 and Passage 2 respectively?
(A) harshly realistic .. malleable and adaptable
(B) idealized .. obstinate
(C) selfish .. philanthropic
(D) warlike .. peaceful
(E) egotistical .. selfless
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24. With which of the following statements would the
authors of both passages be most likely to agree?
(A) Hobbes was a more original thinker than Locke.
(B) Hobbes was a more pragmatic political thinker
than Locke.
(C) Hobbes and Locke were both overshadowed by the
political theories developed by Hamilton and
(D) Hobbess and Lockes theories were both too
abstract for practical-minded Americans.
(E) Hobbes and Locke were both seminal political
theorists who had a significant influence on
American thought.

STOP
If you finish before the time is up, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not look at any other section of the test.

2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2

Form 002 Copyright 2006 8 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

SECTION 2
Time 25 Minutes
20 Questions
(120)

Directions: For each of the following questions, choose the best answer and mark the corresponding

1.
If 12 = c and 36 = d , what does
2
2 3 d c +
equal?
(A) 18
(B) 36
(C) 54
(D) 72
(E) 90

2.
.

In the figure above, B is the midpoint of AD and C is
the midpoint of BD . If the length of AD is 24, what
is the length of BC ?
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 8
(E) 12
3.
If
25
8 1
=
x
, then = x
(A) 0.250
(B) 0.320
(C) 1.000
(D) 3.125
(E) 4.000

4. If Amanda receives a 6 percent increase on a \$60,000
salary, what is her new salary?
(A) \$60,036
(B) \$60,360
(C) \$60,600
(D) \$63,600
(E) \$66,000

Directions: You may use any available space in this test as scratch paper to work out the problems. Once you have selected your

Notes: You may use a calculator on this section. All numbers in this section are real numbers.

Figures are drawn near to scale EXCEPT in certain questions where it clearly states Figure not drawn to scale.
Reference Information
There are 360 degrees in a circle.
A straight angle measures 180 degrees.
The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180.
2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2

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5. Set A consists of all the odd integers greater than 6. Set
B consists of all the numbers greater than 3 and less
than 8. Which of the following numbers is in the
union, but not the intersection, of sets A and B?
(A) 3
(B) 5
(C) 7
(D) 10
(E) 12

6.
If 0 9 = A , which of the following must be true?
(A) 9 9 = + A
(B) = A -9

(C) 0 9 = + A

(D) 0 9
2
= A
(E) 9 = A

7. If k and x are positive integers and k
2x
=16
x
, what is the
value of k?
(A) 4
(B) 8
(C) 16
(D) 24
(E) 32

8. Points P(-4,6) and Q(3,k) lie on line l in a coordinate
plane. If the slope of l is 0, what is the value of k?
(A) -4
(B) 3
(C) 6
(D) 10
(E) 13

9. If 80 percent of x is equal to y, which of the following
must be true?
(A) x y = 80
(B) y x = 80
(C) y x 80 100 =

(D) x y =
5
4

(E) y x =
5
4

10. J enna would like to purchase a new set of dress clothes.
There are 2 types of shoes, 4 different dresses, and 5
different handbags. How many different combinations
of shoes, dresses, and handbags are possible for J enna?
(A) 11
(B) 20
(C) 22
(D) 40
(E) 60

11. The circumference of a circular plot of ground whose
radius is 90 feet is how much greater, in feet, than the
circumference of a circular plot of ground whose radius
is 60 feet?
(A) 30
(B) 60
(C) 180
(D) 360
(E) 500

12. If x is an integer greater than 4 and less than 9, which
of the following could be the average (arithmetic
mean) of the numbers 3, 5, 6, 8, and x?
(A) 4.9
(B) 5.1
(C) 5.6
(D) 6.3
(E) 7.2

13.
.
If the perimeter of the polygon above is 12, what is the
sum of x, y, and z?
(A) 8
(B) 10
(C) 12
(D) 16
(E) 18

2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2 TWO 2

14.
(0,4)

In the figure above, what is the area of the shaded
square?
(A) 6
(B) 16

(C) 20
(D) 20
(E) 36

15.
If 1
4
5
2
=
+ +
+
a a
a
, what are the possible values of a?
(A) -1 and 0
(B) -1 and 1
(C) 0 and 1
(D) 0 and 2
(E) 1 and 3

16.
If x and y are positive integers, then =
+ ) (
2 4
y x x

(A) 2 8
x

(B)
y x
2 8

(C)
y x+
8

(D)
y x+ 2
8

(E)
) ( 2
4
y x+

17.
.
Note: Figure not drawn to scale
In the xy-plane above, the area of OPQ is 18. What is
the value of a?
(A) 2.5
(B) 6.0
(C) 7.0
(D) 12.0
(E) 14.0

18. The regular price of furniture at a discount furniture
store is 30 percent off the retail price. If the sale price
is 10 percent off the regular price, which of the
following represents the sale price of a sweater having
a retail price of p?
(A) 0.10p
(B) 0.33p
(C) 0.50p
(D) 0.56p
(E) 0.63p

19.
t t 16 8 = and 0 t , what is the value of t?
(A) 16
(B) 8
(C) 4

(D) 4

(E)
4
1

20. Set { } 5 , 3 , 1 = X
Set { } 6 , 4 , 2 = Y
If x and y are to be selected at random from sets X and
Y, respectively, what is the probability that
y
x
2
4
will be
a member of set X?

(A)
6
1

(B)
6
2

(C)
6
3

(D)
9
2

(E)
9
4

STOP
If you finish before the time is up, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not look at any other section of the test.

3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3
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SECTION 3
Time 25 Minutes
24 Questions
(2548)

Directions: For each of the following questions, choose the best answer and mark the corresponding

Product: PSAT
Section: Ver

bal

Quiz Number: 1

25. The Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder has always
been ____ for his unique ability to portray details of
peasant life.
(A) ignored
(B) voided
(C) reprimanded
(D) celebrated
(E) vilified

26. In the movie Shakespeare in Love, Queen Elizabeth
carefully ______ J uliet to determine if the actor is a
man or a woman.

(A) scrutinizes
(B) glances at
(C) overlooks
(D) ignores
(E) disposes of

27. The Olympic games have two goals that are not
always compatible: to ______ competition and at the
same time foster a spirit of _______ among the
athletes.
(A) facilitate .. conspiracy
(B) promote .. avarice
(C) usurp .. hedonism
(D) eliminate .. rivalry

28. Although many artists paint for purely personal
satisfaction, others are ____ by financial rewards
because success in art can be so ______.
(A) enticed .. ruinous
(B) tantalized .. deleterious
(C) deterred .. exhilarating
(D) lured .. lucrative
(E) repelled .. remunerative

29. The incompetent diplomat was recalled after his
inappropriate remarks actually _____ tensions
between the two wary countries.

(A) ameliorated
(B) exacerbated
(C) quelled
(D) assuaged
(E) diminished

5

Questions 3033 are based on the following passages.

The two passages offer contrasting views of Emanuel
Leutzes painting Washington Crossing the
Delaware.

The second passage is taken from Washingtons
Crossing by David Hackett Fischer, copyright 2004
by David Hackett Fischer. Used by permission of
Oxford University Press, Inc.

Passage 1

Many Americans cherish Emanuel Leutzes painting
Washington Crossing the Delaware as an image of
heroic patriotism. But iconoclasts such as Ina J affe
have enthusiastically debunked the painting. J affe
points out that the Leutze painting contains a number
of egregious flaws. For example, the flag the men are
carrying was not adopted until 1777, one year after the
Each of the sentences below has either one or two blanks
corresponding to one or two words that have been omitted.
From the five answer choices, choose the one that best
completes the meaning of the sentence.

Example:

Contrary to popular belief, bats are not blind; in fact, they
have _____ eyesight.

(A) sensory (B) inferior (C) exceptional (D) steady
(E) excessive

The passages below are followed by questions based on
what is stated or implied in the passages or the
introduction to the passages.
3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3
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15

20

25

30

35

crossing. Whats more, J affe added, the boats used
by the Continental army were different, the time of the
day is wrong, and the jagged chunks of ice floating
near the boat would have been smoothed over by the
flow of the river. To J affes critical eye the painting
was both inaccurate and absurd. Theres no way,
J affe declared, Washington could have stood up for
the journey without losing his footing and being tossed
into the freezing water.

Passage 2

The debunkers were right about some of the details in
the painting, but they were wrong about others, and
themes. To do so is to discover that the larger ideas in
Emanuel Leutzes art are true to the history that
inspired it. The artist was right in creating an
atmosphere of high drama around the event and a
feeling of desperation among the soldiers in the boats.
To search the writings of the men and women who
were there is to find that they believed the American
cause was very near collapse on Christmas night in
1776. In five months of heavy fighting after the
Declaration of Independence, George Washingtons
army had suffered many disastrous defeats and gained
no major victories. It had lost 90 percent of its strength.
The small remnant that crossed the Delaware River
were near the end of their resources, and they believed
that another defeat could destroy the Cause, as they
called it. The artist captured very accurately their sense
of urgency in what was truly a pivotal moment for
American history.

30. Ina J affe argues that Leutze's painting is
(A) fallacious and preposterous
(B) simple and nave
(C) authentic and ridiculous
(D) faulty and credible
(E) precise and meticulous

31. Which of the following statements best captures the
relationship between the two passages?
(A) Passage 1 notes problems for which Passage 2
proposes solutions.
(B) Passage 1 presents claims that are debunked by
Passage 2.
(C) Passage 2 furnishes a larger context for the
criticisms described in Passage 1.
(D) Passage 2 uses material presented in Passage 1 to
correct a popular misconception.
(E) Passage 2 uses statistics to refute the errors noted
in Passage 1.

32. The two passages differ in their discussion of Leutze's
painting primarily in that Passage 1
(A) emphasizes trivial details, whereas Passage 2
proposes abstract theories
(B) attacks Washington's leadership, whereas Passage
2 defends Washington's vision
(C) argues that Leutze was an inept judge of
character, whereas Passage 2 defends Leutze's
portrait of Washington
(E) points out specific errors, whereas Passage 2
describes the larger setting

33. How would the author of Passage 2 respond to J affe's
point in lines 13-16 (There's no way water)?
(A) He would dismiss J affe's point as inaccurate and
irrelevant.
(B) He would concede J affe's point but defend the
bigger picture.
(C) He would supplement J affe's point with additional
supporting evidence.
(D) He would attack J affe's point and attempt to
undermine her credibility.
(E) He would ignore J affe's point and focus on other
flaws in the painting.

5

Questions 34-35 are based on the following passage.

Like everyone, I had dreams, bigeven grandiose
dreams. I wanted to be a musician. My music would be
an extension of my persona avant-garde, eccentric,
and deeply personal. But my dreams didnt materialize.
I am now the person I once so defiantly scorned, a
music critic. I dont create my own music. Instead, I
evaluate music created by others.

34. The narrator's tone in the passage indicates that she is
(A) disconsolate
(B) disillusioned
(C) disoriented
(D) disheveled
(E) disinterested

35. The narrator wanted to create music that would be
(A) raucous and pervasive
(B) conventional and pleasing
(C) innovative and pretentious
(D) popular and innocuous
(E) distinctive and subjective

3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3
Form 002 Copyright 2006 13 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Questions 3641 are based on the following passage.

The passage below is "Paradise," from Lost in
Translation by Eva Hoffman, copyright (c) 1989 by Eva
Hoffman. Used by permission of Dutton, a division of
Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

It is April 1959, Im standing at the railing of the
Batorys upper deck, and I feel that my life is ending.
Im looking out at the crowd that has gathered on the
shore to see the ships departure from Gdyniaa crowd
that, all of a sudden, is irrevocably on the other sideand
I want to break out, run back, run toward the familiar
excitement, the waving hands, the exclamations. We
cant be leaving all this behindbut we are. I am thirteen
years old, and we are emigrating. Its a notion of such
crushing, definitive finality that to me it might as well
mean the end of the world.
My sister, four years younger than I, is clutching my
hand, wordlessly, she hardly understands where we are,
or what is happening to us. My parents are highly
agitated; they had just been put through a body search by
the customs police, probably as the farewell gesture of
anti-J ewish harassment. Still, the officials werent clever
enough, or suspicious enough, to check my sister and me
lucky for us, since we are both carrying some
silverware we were not allowed to take out of Poland in
large pockets sewn into our skirts especially for this
purpose, and hidden under capacious sweaters.
When the brass band on the shore strikes up the
jaunty mazurka rhythms of the Polish anthem, I am
pierced by a youthful sorrow so powerful that I suddenly
stop crying and try to hold still against the pain. I
desperately want time to stop, to hold the ship still with
the force of my will. I am suffering my first severe attack
of nostalgia, or tesknota a word that adds to nostalgia
the tonalities of sadness and longing. It is a feeling whose
shades and degrees Im destined to know intimately, but
at this hovering moment, it comes upon me like a
visitation from a whole new geography of emotions, an
annunciation of how much an absence can hurt. Or a
premonition of absence, because at this divide, Im filled
to the brim with what Im about to lose images of
Cracow, which I loved as one loves a person, of the
sunbaked villages where we had taken summer vacations,
of the hours spent poring over passages of music with my
piano teacher, of conversations and escapades with
friends. Looking ahead, I come across an enormous cold
blankness a darkening, an erasure, of the imagination,
as if a camera eye has snapped shut, or as if a heavy
curtain has been pulled over the future. Of the place
where were going Canada I know nothing.

36. As used in line 10, crushing most nearly means
(A) embracing
(B) pulverizing
(C) compressing
(D) overwhelming
(E) extinguishing

37. Which best conveys the difference between how the
author and her sister view leaving Poland (lines 12-
14)?
(A) The author is dismayed while her sister is
skeptical.
(B) The author is unsettled while her sister is annoyed.
(C) The author is exasperated while her sister is
ecstatic.
(D) The author is ambivalent while her sister is
unconcerned.
(E) The author is distraught while her sister is
oblivious.

38. The author's discussion of clothing in lines 18-22
implies that
(A) baggy clothes were fashionable in Poland at that
time
(B) the author's parents forced her to wear
uncomfortable clothes
(C) the author's parents carefully planned the details
of their departure
(D) the author's family is part of a criminal gang
smuggling valuables out of Poland
(E) the Polish authorities want to encourage
emigration

39. The discussion of the word tesknota (line 29)
primarily reflects the author's belief that
(A) her loss will be irreversible
(B) the Polish language is more complex than the
English language
(C) the voyage is not going to be as bad as she had
feared
(D) Polish music is more nuanced than Canadian
music
(E) she should have been more studious in learning

3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3
Form 002 Copyright 2006 14 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

40. The concluding sentence, Of the place where we're
going Canada I know nothing, (lines 44-45) serves
to
(B) convey a sense of high adventure
(C) prove that the author is a poor student of
geography
(D) offer a slim chance that living in Canada will be
more beneficial than the author is willing to admit
(E) underscore the author's despair and the finality of
what is happening

41. The passage as a whole implies that
(A) the author was happier in Poland than her parents
(B) the author's parents are political radicals who are
being forced to emigrate
(C) the author's parents believe that opportunities to
study music will be greater in Canada
if life in Canada doesn't live up to their
expectations
(E) the author will soon get over her feeling for Poland
once she makes new friends in Canada.

5

10

15

20

Questions 4248 are based on the following passage.

The passage is taken from Beautiful Swimmers by
William Warner. By permission of Little, Brown and
Company, (Inc.).

A female crab born in May or J une will produce
eggs and hatchlings at the same time of year two years
later. This statement has a definitive and tidy ring. In
fairness to the reader, however, it must be said that
sponge crabs bearing eggs ready to hatch are not
unknown as late as November. Or that crabs may mate
in the first part of the summer instead of the last, giving
rise to autumn larvae that may not survive the winter.
To think properly about the blue crab, therefore, it is
first necessary to assume that the species can and will
perform anything in its life cycle at any time, dead of
winter excepted. Bearing this in mind, we must then
recognize that there are definite peak periods during
which most crabs go through a given stage in the cycle.
The trouble is that a great many crabs do not observe
them. The timetable of the great migrations between
salty and fresher water, believed to be unique to
Callinectes, can often go way off schedule. Worse,
peak period timetable simply falls apart as one travels
south from the Chesapeake. Blue crabs on the Gulf
Coast typically have one or two spawns in the spring,

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

but some may do it in December, even though cooler
waters in the latter month may make them rather
sluggish. Even the range of the blue crab constantly
shifts, either naturally or by mans intervention.
Dr. Willard Van Engel of the Virginia Institute of
Marine Sciences, a leading authority whose annual
crab forecast is widely respected by Chesapeake
watermen, well sums up the dilemmas of blue crab
research. It is so difficult, he says. We dont even
have any real age standards, like the otoliths of a fishs
skull. Moulting means there are no permanent hard
parts. Its a wonderfully tolerant animal, but also
variable, so enigmatic.
To the very end. As the summer of their spawns
nears its close, old females go out to sea in great
numbers to die. Inexplicably, lesser numbers of these
ocean-journeying crabs may return the next year to eke
out a purposeless existence for a few more summer
days. Those that return can be easily recognized.
Barnacles stud their shells and sea moss dulls their
once bright colors. They are known as sea runs and
appear just inside Cape Henry in late J uly or early
August. Often they travel up into the J ames River,
passing through the waters in which most of them were
born. It is almost as if these crabs cannot decide. Like
other crabs, Callinectes sapidus, probably evolved from
the oceans. But it is now an estuarine organism, having
found its best place in life where river and ocean
waters blend. What primal drive, then impels females
to die in their evolutionary cradle? Why are they not
accompanied by males, who are believed to seek out
the deepest Bay channels when their moment comes?
And what can we say of sea runs who return, befouled
and spent, to sample briefly once more the estuarine
gardens of their youth?
Discussing these questions, a retired Smith Island
waterman once looked hard at me and raised his arms
in supplication. Oh, my blessed, he said very slowly.
That old crab is hard to figure out.
So it is, all along the way.

42. The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) providing a definitive guide to the mating habits of
blue crabs
(B) forecasting the timetable of the great migration
between salty and fresh water
(C) explaining the differences between Chesapeake
crabs and Gulf Coast crabs
(D) describing the varied and often perplexing
behavior of blue crabs
waters to die
3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3 THREE 3

43. It can be inferred that the otoliths of a fish's skull
(line 31) can be used to
(A) determine the age of a fish
(B) predict when blue crabs will mate
(C) pinpoint the blue crabs' migrations between salty
and fresh water
(D) explain why sea runs and males die in different
places
(E) help Dr. Engel make his annual forecasts

44. The author uses the phrase evolutionary cradle (line
51) to refer to
(A) deep Bay channels
(B) the cool waters on the Gulf Coast
(C) the waters just beyond Cape Henry
(D) the months of May and J une when most female
crabs are born
(E) the place where sea runs are born

45. Dr. Van Engel and the retired Smith Island waterman
agree that
(A) blue crabs probably originated in the ocean
(B) sea runs live longer than males
(C) blue crabs follow precise patterns of behavior
(D) otoliths provide useful tools for studying blue
crabs
(E) blue crabs often exhibit puzzling behavior

46. In line 55, spent most nearly means
(A) paid out
(B) occupied
(C) exhausted
(D) wasteful
(E) robust

47. The author's attitude toward blue crabs is best
described as
(A) pleasure in its amusing antics
(B) awe of its great longevity
(C) irritation at its eccentricity
(D) fascination with its great diversity
(E) respect for its strength and cunning

48. The author uses the concluding sentence, So it is, all
along the way (line 61) to
(A) express his exasperation with the retired Smith
Island waterman for failing to answer his questions
(B) signal his intent to conduct further research on the
migratory habits of blue crabs
(C) refine his original statement that female crabs
follow definite and tidy patterns of behavior.
(D) invite the Smith Island waterman to accompany
him on a visit to the Virginia Institute of Marine
Sciences
(E) emphasize his contention that the blue crab is
difficult to predict

STOP
If you finish before the time is up, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not look at any other section of the test.

4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4
Form 002 Copyright 2006 16 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
SECTION 4
Time 25 Minutes
18 Questions
(2138)

Directions: For each of the following questions, choose the best answer and mark the corresponding

21. If 12 4
2 2
+ = + x y x , what is the value of y?
(A) -3
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 8
(E) 12

22.
If
4
3 1
=
x
, then = x 3

(A)
4
1

(B)
2
1

(C)
4
5

(D) 3
(E) 4
23. 1 2 + x , 2 4 + x , 4 8 + x , 8 16 + x , . . .
In the sequence above, each term after the first term,
1 2 + x , is twice the preceding term. What is the 7
th

term in the sequence?
(A) 128 256 + x
(B) 64 256 + x
(C) 64 128 + x
(D) 32 128 + x
(E) 32 64 + x

24. Five years ago, Nitin was x years old. How old will
he be n years from now?
(A) 5 + n x
(B) 5 + n x
(C) n + 5
(D) n x +
(E) 5 + + n x
Directions: You may use any available space in this test as scratch paper to work out the problems. Once you have selected your

Notes: You may use a calculator on this section. All numbers in this section are real numbers.

Figures are drawn near to scale EXCEPT in certain questions where it clearly states Figure not drawn to scale.
Reference Information
There are 360 degrees in a circle.
A straight angle measures 180 degrees.
The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180.
4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4
Form 002 Copyright 2006 17 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
25. On the average, 54 out of 100 adults in a certain
community have had a college education. Given this
ratio, how many out of 350 adults in that community
have NOT had a college education?
(A) 138
(B) 161
(C) 184
(D) 207
(E) 230

26.
= +
14 14
2 2

(A)
15
2

(B)
28
2

(C)
14
4

(D)
15
4

(E)
28
4

27.
A B C
30
o

In the figure above, the center of the circle is O. AC
is tangent to the circle at its midpoint, B. If
3 8 = OC , what is the length of AC ?

(A) 3 4
(B) 8
(C) 12

(D) 3 12
(E) 24

28.

Note: Figure not drawn to scale
In the figure above, the radius of the circle centered at
O and each side of the square has a length of 2 units.
What is the probability that a point selected randomly
from inside the circle will lie outside the square?

(A)

4

(B)

4
4 4

(C)
4

(D) 4

(E) 4
2

29. If 10 10= + n , then = n 10

30.
If
18
2 n
n
= and n > 0, what is the value of n?

31. A certain number n is increased by 20 and this sum is
doubled. If the result is 10 less than 3 times the
original number n, what is the value of n?

32.
X
o
a
o
20
b
o
30
130
B
A C
o o
o

Note: Figure not drawn to scale
Basic Guidelines for Grid-In Questions
If you get a negative answer or a number greater
than 9999 you have done something wrong.
Grid an answer of 0 in columns 2, 3 or 4.
Don't mix decimals and fractions.
You may round up. 2/3, .666 and .667 are
acceptable; .66 and .67 are not.
Fractions may be entered as fractions or decimals;
1/3 is correct, as is .333.
You may leave spaces at the beginning or end.
Grid as much of an answer as you can fit. For
example if you get .1333333... grid .133, not .13

All of these are correct:
4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4 FOUR 4
Form 002 Copyright 2006 18 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
In ABC above, what is the value of x ?
33. For all positive integers n, define n as follows:

= n if the positive square root of n is an integer

=
2
n if the positive square root of n is NOT an
integer

What is the value of x x ?

34. If x is the average (arithmetic mean) of -3 and 35, what
is the average of x and -10?

35. If 10 4 a and 80 30 b , what is the greatest
possible value of
a
b
?

36.
X
4
Y
3
B
A C
D

In the right ABC above,
y x
y
+
=
3
4
. What is the
value of y?

37. The probability of choosing a red marble from a jar
containing only red marbles and blue marbles is
3
2
. If
there are 18 marbles in the jar, how many blue marbles
are in the jar?

38.
If 5 = xy and 3 = y x , then =
2 2
xy y x

STOP
If you finish before the time is up, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not look at any other section of the test.
5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5
Form 002 Copyright 2006 19 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
SECTION 5
Time 30 Minutes
39 Questions

Directions: For each of the following questions, choose the best answer and mark the corresponding

1. Following directions closely, many common home-
improvement projects are easy for homeowners to
undertake.
(A) Following directions closely
(B) Because directions are followed closely
(C) Since they follow directions closely
(D) If directions are followed closely
(E) Having followed directions closely

2. The project was completed by the deadline, Tamra
received a bonus and a promotion.
(A) The project was completed by the deadline,
(B) Because the project was completed by the
(C) By the time the project was completed by the
(D) Since the project was completed by the deadline.
(E) The project was completed by the deadline:

3. Every person in the club know the rules and are
familiar with the secret handshake.
(A) know the rules and are familiar
(B) knew the rules and were familiar
(C) know the rules and becomes familiar
(D) knows the rules and was familiar
(E) knows the rules and is familiar

4. J udy told Kelsey that she would have to be at the
airport by 4:00 that afternoon.

(A) Judy told Kelsey that she would have to be
(B) Judy and Kelsey would have to be
(C) J udy told Kelsey that she would be
(D) Judy would meet Kelsey
(E) J udy told Kelsey to be

5. Hot-air balloons fly most often in the early mornings
and the reason is because winds are calm then.
(A) mornings and the reason is because winds
(B) mornings, the reason being that the winds
(C) mornings because winds
(D) mornings. When the winds
(E) mornings so winds
Directions: The sentences that follow test correctness and effectiveness of expression. Be sure to pay attention to grammar,

The following sentences each contain an underlined portion followed by suggestions for the underlined portion. Answer A is
a repeat of the phrase and contains no change.

Mark the answer that best completes the original meaning of the sentence. If you think the original is best, mark answer
choice A.

EXAMPLE:

Sarah loves to play the trumpet in marching band, but the trombone is played equally well by her.

(A) but the trombone is played equally well by her.
(B) but the trombone is played equally good by her.
(C) but she plays the trombone equally good.
(D) but she plays the trombone equally well.
(E) she playing the trombone is good as well.

5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5
Form 002 Copyright 2006 20 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
6. If a person wants to embark on a career as a
commercial airline pilot, there are many courses of
study one must follow.
(A) If a person wants to embark on a career as a
(B) To become a
(C) For those who wish to become a
(D) If one has wishes to become a
(E) If a person aspires to be a

7. On a tour of the power plant, pollution of the
surrounding region was a serious problem government
workers found.
(A) pollution of the surrounding region was a serious
problem government workers found.
(B) government inspectors found that pollution of the
surrounding region was a serious problem.
(C) pollution of the surrounding region was found to
be a serious problem by government inspectors.
(D) a serious problem that government inspectors
found was pollution of the surrounding region.
(E) pollution of the surrounding region was a serious
problem that government inspectors found.

8. Many art critics are convinced that J oseph Turner's
landscapes are much more powerful than John
Constable.
(A) J ohn Constable
(B) those landscapes that J ohn Constable wrote
(C) that of J ohn Constable
(D) J ohn Constable's
(E) J ohn Constable's landscapes

9. According to no less an authority than Edward Gibbon,
the Roman Empire fell for a number of short-term and
long-term causes.
(A) less an authority than
(B) lesser of an authority than
(C) less an authority as
(D) lesser an authority such as
(E) less of an authority than was

10. As Marilyn Stokestad points out in her acclaimed text,
although Baroque and Romantic paintings are based on
very different artistic traditions, both styles emphasize
the power of passion over reason.
(A) although Baroque and Romantic paintings are
based on
(B) Baroque and Romantic paintings being based on
(C) however, Baroque and Romantic paintings are
based on
(D) Baroque paintings as well as Romantic paintings
based on
(E) both Baroque and Romantic paintings based on

11. David Robinson was honored by the San Antonio
Spurs both for his on-court performance as well as his
commitment to community service.
(A) as well as
(B) and also for
(C) and honored for
(E) and for

12. Neither Ron nor his friend appears to be experts in the
use of animated computer graphics.
(A) to be experts
(B) like they are experts
(C) like an expert
(D) like experts
(E) to be an expert

13. The word processor did not so much complement the
typewriter but replace it.
(A) but replace
(B) and they replaced it
(C) but they replaced it
(D) as they were to replace
(E) as replace

14. Change for the Yanamano Indians of Brazil means
somehow adjusting to visiting anthropologists who
come for study and research but threaten to destroy the
indigenous culture.
(A) but threaten to destroy the indigenous culture
(B) and study threatens both with research
(C) but threatening to destroy the indigenous culture
(D) and both are threatened by the indigenous culture
(E) but threatens to destroy the indigenous culture

15. The patience exercised by the team in training and
preparing young athletes have won them their coveted
reputation among coaches and veteran players.
(A) have won them their
(B) have won it its
(C) have won them a
(D) has won it a
(E) has won it their

16. Because of economic hard times, some young couples
are not rejecting home ownership, but some delaying
it.
(A) some delaying it
(B) some having delayed it
(C) it is being delayed
(D) it is postponed by some of them
(E) some are delaying it
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Form 002 Copyright 2006 21 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

17. A long line of planes, having their engines idling and
the passengers impatient, were waiting for the weather
to clear so they could take off.
(A) having their engines idling and the passengers
impatient, were
(B) engines idling with passengers impatient, was
(C) engines idling and passengers impatient, was
(D) idled their engines because the passengers were
impatient and were
(E) engines idling and their impatient passengers were

18. Although she had not sought the award, Sakeenah was
delighted to be elected most likely to succeed.
(A) Although she had not sought
(B) With not seeking
(D) Despite her having not sought
(E) Despite she has not sought

19. Successful Super Bowl teams have efficient
management, dedicated coaches, and their players are
highly skilled.
(A) and their players are highly skilled
(B) with highly skilled players
(C) and highly skilled players
(D) but their players are highly skilled
(E) while their players are skilled highly

20. After putting in many strenuous hours, Kevin Chen
walked through all of his floor routines; because he
would be prepared for the final competition.
(A) routines; because he would be prepared
(B) routines so that he would be prepared
(C) routines in the preparing
(D) routines, and he would be prepared
(E) routines because he would be prepared

21. In his paintings, J acob Lawrence explored the
A
problems of black sharecroppers which lived in the
B C
South and migrated North during the 1930's.
D
No error.
E

22. The life of the great Spanish artist Velazquez
demonstrates that it is the artist more than the ruler
A B
which bestows lasting fame on a reign. No error.
C D E

23. In the years between 1600 to 1700, Dutch artists
A
created thousands of paintings, many of which are still
B C
admired by art lovers around the world. No error.
D E
sheet.

The sentences that follow test your knowledge of grammar, usage, diction, and idiom. Some of the sentences are correct. No
sentence contains more than one error.

Read each sentence and determine if any of the underlined portions contain an error. If there is an error, choose the letter that
corresponds to the part that must be changed in order to make the sentence correct. Sections that are not underlined do not need
to be changed.

If the sentence does not include an error, mark answer choice E.

EXAMPLE:

Both the coach and the players was excited about playing in the upcoming
A B C
tournament to be held in the newly built stadium. No error.
D E

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Form 002 Copyright 2006 22 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

A B
quick yet sensible by the committee if students are to
C
start their course work on time. No error.
D E

25. Many aspects of style that to you and I seem quite
A B
remarkable might well be unsurprising to people in the
C D
fashion industry. No error.
E

26. The Spirit of St. Louis was the first airplane to cross
A B
the Atlantic; they flew from Long Island, New York to
C D
Paris. No error.
E

27. It took less than a year for the commission and he to
A B
produce a design considered appropriate for the
C D
monument. No error.
E

28.
In order to prosper in a global economy, 21
st
century
A
workers must be highly resilient, focused, and
B C
educated. No error.
D E

29. It seems incredible that a writer who showed such little
A B
potential should now write so proficiently. No error.
C D E

30. The unprincipled board of governors has done
A B
everything it can to ignore the issues raised by their
C D
constituents. No error.
E

31. Even now the special needs of the elderly are often not
A B
taken into account in the design of stairways nor
C D
public parks. No error.
E

32. The social worker's ability to respond openly and
A
empathetically to patient concerns are helping her
B C
develop a positive rapport with the hospital staff.
D
No error.
E

33. Though Professor Garnder searched the historic
records thorough, he could not find any evidence that
A B
would be helpful in proving his theory that Aaron Burr
C D
was part of a conspiracy. No error.
E

34. People who dislike J ackson Pollock's paintings
sometimes criticize them for being abstract and
A B
uncontrolled; people who admire Pollock's work
C
often praise them for the same qualities. No error.
D E

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Form 002 Copyright 2006 23 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

Questions 35-39 are based on the following passage.

(1) Many historians rank J ames K. Polk as one of our
greatest presidents. (2) Some presidents change their
political views after they are elected. (3) For example,
Lyndon J ohnson, a relatively conservative Senator
from Texas, became known for his liberal Great
Society programs. (4) But Polk was always consistent
in his views throughout his career. (5) A lifelong
supporter of westward expansion.

(6) Polk was serving for several years as a
congressman from Tennessee. (7) Polk and his wife
were married for 25 years. (8) Called Young
Hickory, he was accused of being too loyal to
President J ackson who was called Old Hickory. (9)
westward expansion the central issue of his campaign.
(10) Polk won the election and almost immediately
went to work to acquire Oregon and Texas. (11) He
acquired most of Oregon with a treaty but provoked a
war with Mexico over Texas.

(12) Polk served in the White House for four years
when he retired because of poor health. (13) Three
months after the inauguration of President Taylor, he
died in 1849.

35. In context, what is the best way to revise the underlined
portion of sentence 2 (reproduced below)?
Some presidents change their political views
after they are elected.
(A) (As it is now)
(B) They changed their political views
(C) Some presidents had changed their political views
(D) In point of fact, some presidents changed their
political views
(E) However, some presidents changed their political
views

36. In context, which of the following is the best way to
combine sentences 4 and 5 (reproduced below)?
But Polk was always consistent in his views
throughout his career. A lifelong supporter of
westward expansion.
(A) Unlike Johnson, Polk was consistent in his views,
remaining a lifelong supporter of westward
expansion.
(B) Also a conservative, he repeatedly advocated
westward expansion.
(C) Remaining consistent in his views throughout his
career, Polk is a lifelong advocate of westward
expansion.
(D) For Polk, to remain consistent in his views
throughout his career meant being a lifelong
(E) Polk remained consistent in his views throughout
his career; a lifelong advocate of westward
expansion.

37. In context, which of the following is the best way to
revise sentence 6 (reproduced below)?
Polk was serving for several years as a
congressman from Tennessee.
(A) Furthermore, Polk was serving for several years as
a congressman from Tennessee.
(B) However, Polk was serving for several years as a
congressman from Tennessee.
(C) Polk was serving as a congressman from
Tennessee.
(D) Polk served for several years as a congressman
from Tennessee.
(E) As part of his rapid rise to power, Polk was
serving as a congressman from Tennessee.

38. Which of the following sentences could best be
eliminated from the second paragraph without harming
the unity of the paragraph?
(A) Sentence 6
(B) Sentence 7
(C) Sentence 8
(D) Sentence 9
(E) Sentence 10

Directions: The following passage is a rough draft of an essay. Read the draft and then answer the questions about which parts need
to be rewritten. Pay attention to sentence structure, word choice, organization, and development.
5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5 FIVE 5
39. Which of the following is the best version of sentence
10 (reproduced below)?
Polk won the election and almost immediately
went to work to acquire Oregon and Texas.
(A) (As it is now)
(B) Polk emerged victorious and almost immediately
went to work to acquire Oregon and Texas.
(C) Polk won the election and promptly went to work
to acquire Oregon and Texas.
(D) Polk won the election and promptly worked to
acquire Oregon and Texas.
(E) Polk tried to acquire Oregon and Texas right after
he won the election.

STOP
If you finish before the time is up, you may check your work on this section only.
Do not look at any other section of the test.

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