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UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA


The NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR
MARRIAGE, INC.,
Plaintiff,
v.
The UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,
Defendant.
Civ. No. 13-cv-1225-JCC/IDD
MEMORANDUM IN SUPPORT OF MOTION FOR ATTORNEYS FEES
Plaintiff the National Organization for Marriage, Inc. (NOM), through counsel, hereby
moves this Court for an award of attorneys fees for the work of its attorneys before this Court.
In support of this Motion, NOM states as follow:
1. NOM brought this action pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 7431 to identify the source of and
recover damages for the unauthorized disclosure and inspection of its tax return information in
violation of 26 U.S.C. 6103. (See Verified Compl. (Dkt. 1) at 19-22.)
2. Specifically, NOM alleged that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) had unlawfully
inspected and publicly disclosed its unredacted 2008 IRS Form 990, Schedule B, which contains
the names, home addresses, and contribution amounts of NOMs donors of $5,000 or more.
3. In its Verified Complaint, NOM initially sought $1,000 in statutory damages for each act
of unlawful inspection or disclosure or actual damages stemming from related legal costs and
lost donations in an amount not less than $60,500, plus punitive damages for any intentional or
grossly negligent acts of disclosure or inspection. See 26 U.S.C. 7431(c). NOM later dropped
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its $50,000 claim for lost donations in order to protect the identity of its donor. During discovery,
NOM recalculated its remaining actual damages to be $58,586.37.
4. On December 2, 2013, the Defendant United States of America, Internal Revenue Service
(hereafter, the Government) filed its Answer (Dkt. 33). The Government admitted that it
negligently disclosed NOMs unredacted 2008 IRS Form 990, Schedule B to a third party in
violation of 26 U.S.C. 6103. (Id. 78.)
5. In a letter dated December 17, 2013, the Government offered to settle NOMs claims for
$1,000 plus the cost of the action to date. On December 31, 2013, NOM declined the
Governments offer.
6. Following the close of discovery, the Government moved for summary judgment on all
counts (Dkt. 67), which NOM opposed (Dkt. 73).
7. On June 3, 2014, this Court granted the Governments Motion for Summary Judgment as
to NOMs unlawful inspection claim, and its request for punitive damages. (Dkt. 80.) The
Government motion was denied in all other respects, including the Governments argument that
NOM was not entitled to actual damages. Natl Org. for Marriage, Inc. v. United States, IRS, No.
1:13cv1225 (JCC/IDD), 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 77263, 27-37 (E.D. Va. June 3, 2014) (NOM).
8. On June 18, 2014, the parties filed the Joint Motion for Entry of Consent Judgment (Dkt.
86), pursuant to which the parties agreed that NOM would obtain a judgment against the
Government in the amount of $50,000, inclusive of NOMs claims for actual damages under 26
U.S.C. 7431(c)(1)(B)(i) and its claims for costs of the action under 26 U.S.C. 7431(c)(2) (see
Dkt. 86-1).
9. On June 24, 2014, this Court approved the Consent Judgment and retained jurisdiction
for purposes of resolving the instant motion for attorneys fees. (Dkt. 87.)
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10. Section 7431(c)(3) provides that a plaintiff may recover reasonable attorneys fees
against the United States if the plaintiff is the prevailing party (as determined under section
7430(c)(4)).
11. Under Section 7430(c)(4) a prevailing party is a party that has
a. substantially prevailed with respect to the amount in controversy, 26 U.S.C.
7430(c)(4)(A)(i)(I); or
b. substantially prevailed with respect to the most significant issue or set of issues
presented, 26 U.S.C. 7430(c)(4)(A)(i)(II); and
c. if the plaintiff is a corporation, had fewer than 500 employees and a net worth
which did not exceed $7,000,000 at the time the civil action was filed. 28
U.S.C. 2412(d)(2)(B).
12. A party shall not be treated as the prevailing party . . . if the United States establishes
that the position of the United States in the proceeding was substantially justified. 26 U.S.C.
7430(c)(4)(B)(i).
13. The Governments position in this matter was not substantially justified. Because NOM
satisfies the requirements listed in paragraph 11, NOM is a prevailing party and therefore
entitled to reasonable attorneys fees.
14. Accordingly, and as fully explained below, NOM requests attorneys fees in the amount
of $680,000.05 for the work of its attorneys on the underlying litigation. NOM also requests
$11,025 for the work of its attorneys preparing this Motion. This amount of subject to change for
the continuing work in support of this Motion.
ARGUMENT
I. NOMIs a Prevailing Party.
A prevailing party for purposes of 26 U.S.C. 7431 is one that (1) has substantially
prevailed with respect to the amount in controversy; or (2) has substantially prevailed with
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respect to the most significant issue or set of issues presented. 26 U.S.C. 7430(c)(4)(A)(i)(I)-
(II); see also Christian Coal. Intl v. United States, 133 F. Supp. 2d 437, 438 (E.D. Va. 2001).
The party must also meet the requirements of 28 U.S.C. 2412(d)(2)(B), which, in part, limits
attorneys fees awards to incorporated entities that have fewer than 500 employees and a net
worth of $7 million or less at the time the civil action was filed. NOM satisfies all three of these
requirements.
A. NOM Substantially Prevailed with Respect to the Most Significant Issue or
Set of Issues Presented.
The term substantially prevailed . . . can be reasonably interpreted to refer to the final
outcome of the casewhether by court judgment or settlement. Cassuto v. Commr, 936 F.2d
736, 741 (2d Cir. 1991). This requirement is phrased in terms of issues not claims. Heasley v.
Commr, 967 F.2d 116, 122 (5th Cir. 1992) (quoting Huckaby v. U.S. Dept of Treasury, 804
F.2d 297, 300 (5th Cir. 1986)). Thus, a victory on the primary issue suffices. Heasley, 967
F.2d at 122; see also Wilkerson v. United States, 67 F.3d 112, 120 (5th Cir. 1995) (A victory on
the primary issue will suffice, and neither the amount of damages received nor number of claims
won is determinative.).
The starting point for identifying the issues presented for litigation is the face of the
Complaint. Christian Coal. Intl, 133 F. Supp. 2d at 439. An issue is the most significant if,
despite involving a lesser dollar amount than other issues, the issue objectively represents the
most significant issue for the taxpayer or the IRS. Don Johnson Motors, Inc. v United States,
No. B-06-047, 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 36594, *13 (S.D. Tex. Mar. 14, 2008). Although [i]n
cases raising several issues, courts may consider each phase or issue of the litigation discretely to
determine whether the Plaintiff is entitled to recover expenses incurred in pursuing that issue or
litigating that phase, Christian Coal. Intl, 133 F. Supp. 2d at 438-439 (citing Ragan v.
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Commn, 135 F.3d 329 (5th Cir. 1998)), even time expended on unsuccessful claims may be
recovered if those claims involve a common core of facts or [are] based on related theories,
Hensley v. Eckerhart, 461 U.S. 424, 435 (1983).
As NOMs Verified Complaint makes plainly clear, the primary and most significant
issue in this case was whether the IRS unlawfully disclosed NOMs 2008 IRS Form 990,
Schedule B. (See Dkt. 1 2.) For nearly two years, NOM undertook significant and costly efforts
to determine which agents or employees within the IRS were responsible for that disclosure. (See
id. 45-71.) The Government, however, stood between NOM and the truth by refusing to
provide NOM with any relevant details concerning the Treasury Inspector General for Tax
Administrations (TIGTA)investigation of the disclosure. (See Dkt. 33 55 (The United
States admits that TIGTA responded to Plaintiffs FOIA requests and has not produced records
regarding the underlying conclusions or specifics of its investigation.).) Not until NOM filed
this action did the Government admit that it disclosed one copy of Plaintiffs 2008 Form 990
unredacted Schedule B to a single third party in violation of law. (Dkt. 33 78.) And only in
response to discovery requests did the Government reveal any details concerning the results of
TIGTAs investigation. By virtue of the Governments admission in its Answer (and confirmed
in the motion for consent judgment (Dkt. 86)), NOM substantially prevailed on the issue of
whether the IRS unlawfully disclosed NOMs IRS Form 990, Schedule B.
NOM also substantially prevailed on the issue of whether the IRSs unlawful disclosure
was the cause of its actual damages. See NOM, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 77263 at 26-34.
(explaining that NOMs claimed actual damages were likely both actually and proximately
caused by the unlawful disclosure); (Dkt. 86 3 (explaining that settlement agreement resolves
issue of actual damages caused by unlawful disclosure of 2008 Schedule B).). NOMs victory
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on the primary issue and a significant, related issue, establishes that NOM substantially
prevailed for purposes of attorneys fees. See, e.g., Heasley, 967 F.2d at 122.
1
B. NOM Substantially Prevailed with Respect to the Amount in Controversy.
The amount in controversy is any amount placed at issue by the pleadings increased by
any amount subsequently placed at issue by any party. Don Johnson Motors, Inc., 2008 U.S.
Dist. LEXIS 36594 at 7. Notably, [t]he law does not clearly define what threshold a plaintiff
must meet to substantially prevail on the amount in controversy. Estate of Johnson v. United
States, No. 11-10148-RWZ, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 150120, 3 (D. Mass. Oct. 18, 2013).
However, neither the amount of damages received nor number of claims won is determinative
as to whether a party substantially prevailed. Wilkerson, 67 F.3d at 120.
Some courts have opted to gauge whether [the] Plaintiff substantially prevailed on the
amount in controversy by calculating the percentage of the amount in controversy the Plaintiff
successfully received. Don Johnson Motors, Inc., 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 36594 at 10 n.6. In
practice, courts have often found that the plaintiff did not substantially prevail on the amount in
controversy only where the award is disproportionally low, Mallas v. United States, 876 F.
Supp. 86, 89 (M.D.N.C. 1994). See, e.g., Goettee v. Commr, 192 Fed. Appx. 212, 222 (4th Cir.
2006) (plaintiff did not substantially prevail with regard to amount in controversy where not
quite 5 percent was recovered); Ralston Dev. Corp. v. United States, 937 F.2d 510, 515 (10th
Cir. 1991) (same with regard to a 19 percent recovery); Don Johnson Motors, Inc., 2008 U.S.
1
Although NOM did not prevail on its claim that the Government unlawfully inspected its tax
returns, it does not change the result. See Huckaby, 804 F.2d at 299-300 (party substantially
prevailed on most significant issue even though he collected only $ 1,000 out of a possible
$8,000 statutory award, and failed to collect punitive damages (which could have added another
$20,000 to the award) because the party prevailed on the primary issue: whether the
government was liable for tax return disclosures that were given without written consent.)
(emphasis in original).
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Dist. LEXIS 36594 at 10 (same with regard to a three-percent recovery); Smith v. United
States, 735 F. Supp. 1396, 1400 (C.D. Ill. 1990) (same with regard to $1,000 recovery where $6
million in compensatory and punitive damages were sought). Yet even in such cases, an
insubstantial award is not dispositive. Don Johnson Motors, Inc., 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 36594
at 10 (citing Farrar v. Hobby, 113 S. Ct. 566, 578 (1992) (OConnor, J., concurring)).
NOMs recovery in this case was not disproportionally low, but was substantial in light
of the total amount in controversy. Though NOMs pleading initially sought $60,500 in actual
damages, that amount was reduced to $58,586.37 for reasons unrelated to the merits of NOMs
claims.
2
NOM ultimately recovered $50,000 from the Government (Dkt. 86-1), which constitutes
a recovery of approximately 85 percent of the total amount of actual damages in controversy.
Such a recovery is substantial.
3
Reynoso v. United States, No. 10-00098, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS
87929, 8 (N.D. Cal. Aug. 9, 2011) (Plaintiff thus recovered eighty-one percent of the amount in
controversy in this action and has substantially prevailed under section 7430.).
That NOM also sought punitive damages should not alter this conclusion. Importantly,
the amount of punitive damages sought was never reduced to a dollar amount, meaning that to
include such damages in any percentage calculation would require speculation. Even if punitive
damages were to be included at an amount equal to compensatory damages, see Exxon
Shipping Co. v. Baker, 554 U.S. 471, 515 (2008), NOMs recovery would be nearly 43 percent
of the total amount in controversy, also a substantial amount of the total. See Keeter v. United
2
NOM voluntarily dismissed its claim for $50,000 in lost donations in order to protect the
identity of its donors.
3
NOMs recovery with respect to actual damages would likely have been 100 percent had the
issue proceeded to trial. Indeed, this Court denied the Government summary judgment on the
issue of causation, concluding that NOMs actual damages were likely both actually and
proximately caused by the unlawful disclosure. NOM, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 77263 at 26-34.
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States, No. S-96-1755, 1998 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 12457, 5 (E.D. Cal. Aug. 3, 1998) (fifty-five
percent recover deemed substantial). In comparison, such a recovery dwarfs those that courts
have rejected as being disproportionally low, Mallas, 876 F. Supp. at 89. See supra at 6-7 (3,
5, and 19 percent recoveries not substantial).
C. NOM Had Fewer than 500 employees and a Net Worth of Less than $7
Million When this Case Was Filed.
NOM also satisfies the requirements of 28 U.S.C. 2412(d)(2)(B). As confirmed by
NOM President Brian Brown, NOM employed fewer than 500 employees and had a net worth of
less than $7 million at the time the underlying civil action was filed. (Exhibit 1, Declaration of
Brian Brown 2-3.)
II. The Governments Position Was Not Substantially Justified.
Attorneys fees are mandated to a prevailing party unless the Governments position
was substantially justified. The burden is on the Government to prove that its position was
substantially justified. 26 U.S.C. 7430(c)(4)(B)(i) (A party shall not be treated as the
prevailing party . . . if the United States establishes that the position of the United States in the
proceeding was substantially justified) (emphasis added); see also Pac. Fisheries, Inc. v. United
States, 484 F.3d 1103, 1107 (9th Cir. 2007) (The language of the statute places the burden
squarely on the United States, not on the taxpayer, to demonstrate that the governments position
was substantially justified.).
4
The Government cannot satisfy its burden here.
As used in Section 7430, the phrase substantially justified has essentially the same
meaning as a provision of the Equal Access to Justice Act [(EAJA)] that allows an award of
4
There are some pre-1996 cases that indicate the burden is on the taxpayer, but Congress
amended section 7430 in 1996 to provide specifically that the burden is on the United States.
Dodson v. U.S. Treasury Dept, IRS, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 184657, 26 (M.D. Fla. Dec. 9,
2013) (citing Barford v. Commr, 194 F.3d 782, 786 n.4 (7th Cir. 1999)).
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fees and costs unless a court determines that the position of the government was substantially
justified. Bowles v. United States, 947 F.2d 91, 94 (4th Cir. 1991) (quoting 28 U.S.C.
2412(d)(1)(A)). The Supreme Court explains that the Governments position is substantially
justified if it has a reasonable basis both in law and fact. Pierce v. Underwood, 487 U.S. 552,
565 (1988). The Governments position must be more than merely undeserving of sanctions for
frivolousness, United States v. 515 Granby, LLC, 736 F.3d 309, 315 (4th Cir. 2013) (quoting
Pierce, 487 U.S. at 566); it must be justified in substance or in the mainthat is, justified to a
degree that could satisfy a reasonable person. Pierce, 487 U.S. at 565. In determining whether
the Governments position is substantially justified, the court shall take into account whether
the United States has lost in courts of appeal for other circuits on substantially similar issues. 26
U.S.C. 7430(c)(4)(B)(iii).
Although the relevant position of the Government is the one taken in the proceeding 26
U.S.C. 7430(c)(4)(B)(i), the Court may consider the facts . . . available at the time the IRS
took its position, including pre-litigation actionsthat may have informed [the Governments]
conduct during the litigation. Smith v. United States, No. 3:09cv228 (JBA), 2011 U.S. Dist.
LEXIS 22316, 10 n.1 (D. Conn. Mar. 7, 2011) (quoting Estate of Baird v. Commr, 416 F.3d
442, 447 (5th Cir. 2005)). Ultimately, [w]hether the governments position is not substantially
justified is necessarily a case-by-case, facts and circumstances determination. Kenagy v. United
States, 942 F.2d 459, 464 (8th Cir. 1991).
Prior to this litigation, the Government had refused even to acknowledge that it had
illegally disclosed NOMs tax return information, or to identify the source of the disclosure. In
its Answer, the Government finally admitted that it negligently disclosed NOMs IRS Form 990,
Schedule B to a third party in violation of 26 U.S.C. 6103, (Dkt. 33 78), and NOM learned
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during the course of the litigation by whom the Government claims the disclosure occurred, and
to whom. Despite that admission, the Government took the position that it was not responsible
for any of the actual damages sustained by NOM as a result of the disclosure, including legal
expenses incurred during NOMs investigation into the source of the disclosure. (Id. 123-25.)
That position, in light of the facts . . . available at the time the IRS took it, was substantially
unjustified. Estate of Baird, 416 F.3d at 447.
Nearly 2 years prior to the filing of this action, the Governmentspecifically, TIGTA
conducted an extensive investigation into the circumstances of the unlawful disclosure of NOMs
2008 Schedule B. (See Dkt. 68 at 8, 21; Dkt. 73 at 2.) That investigation informed the
Government of the following facts:
IRS clerk Wendy Peters disclosed an unredacted copy of NOMs Amended 2008
Schedule B to Matthew Meisel around February of 2011. The unlawful disclosure was
made in response to a request by Meisel using IRS Form 4506-A. See NOM, 2014 U.S.
Dist. LEXIS 77263 at 3-5.
When Meisel made the request, he noted on the form that he was a member of the media
and that he intended to use NOMs tax returns for an Internet blog. Id.; Dkt. 68-4 at 1;
In March 2012, Meisel sent a copy of NOMs unredacted Amended 2008 Schedule B to
the Human Rights Campaign (HRC), who posted it on its website and shared it with the
Huffington Post, who also posted it on its website. NOM, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 77263
at 4-5; Dkt. 68 at pp. 7-8, 19-20.
Consequently, when this action was filed, the Government knew that the IRS was the originating
source of the document posted on the Internet by HRC and the Huffington Post.
Further, in June of 2012, NOM informed TIGTA, by letter, that Fred Karger had filed a
complaint (and a supplemental complaint) with Californias Fair Political Practices Commission
(FPPC), which included a copy of NOMs Amended 2008 Schedule B. (Dkt. 76-1 at 48-49.)
NOM explained to TIGTA that the FPPC had refused NOMs request to destroy the 2008
Schedule B. (Id. at 49.) As this Court recognized, Kargers complaints were based, at least in
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part, on information garnered from NOMs Schedule B. Indeed, his original complaint contained
screen shots of NOMs Schedule B, as published by the HRC. NOM, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS
77263 at 6.
In other words, at the time the Government took the position that it was not responsible
for any of NOMs actual damages, it knew that the person who received NOMs unredacted tax
return from the IRS claimed to be a member of the media who intended to publish NOMs tax
information on his Internet blog. The Government also knew that the IRS was the original source
of the document posted by HRC and Huffington Post and the document attached to the complaint
filed by Fred Karger with the FPPC. Moreover, the Government knew that NOMs claimed
actual damages included legal expenses incurred by NOM in order to investigate the disclosure
caused by the IRS and to prevent HRC, Huffington Post, Fred Karger and the FPPC from
possessing and further publicizing NOMs confidential donor information. See id. (NOM hired
legal counsel to protect the confidential donor information disclosed by Karger, and ultimately
NOM was absolved of any wrongdoing.). Despite having this knowledge, the Government
offered NOM only $1,000 in statutory damages, and wholly denied that NOMs claimed actual
damages were sustained . . . as a result of [the] unauthorizeddisclosure, 26 U.S.C.
7431(c)(1)(B)(i), made by IRS clerk Wendy Peters.
The Government maintained its position regarding actual damages throughout discovery
and ultimately moved for summary judgment on the issue, arguing that NOM could not prove
that its damages were caused by the disclosure. (Dkt. 68 at 24.) This Court soundly rejected all
the Governments arguments concerning actual damages, explaining, The Governments
position that it is not responsible, as a matter of law, for the costs associated with the subsequent
misuse of NOMs confidential taxpayer information is untenable on the facts presented. NOM,
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2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 77263 at 35 (emphasis added). In fact, this Court had little trouble
concluding that the unlawful disclosure of NOMs Schedule B was the actual cause of its
claimed damages. Id. at 29 (emphasis added). While the issue of proximate cause was a closer
call, this Court found that the Governments position was legally unsustainable, explaining that
it was certainly foreseeable that releasing NOMs Schedule B to a member of the media could
result in its publication, and that NOM would take legal action to prevent further harm. Id. at 33
(emphasis added). In other words, according to this Courts analysis, the Governments position
with respect to actual damages did not have a reasonable basis both in law and fact. Pierce,
487 U.S. at 565. It was therefore not substantially justified. See Mallas, 876 F. Supp. at 89
(where court rejected all the arguments presented by the Government and it was clear that the
Government disclosed return information in violation of the statute, the Governments position
was not substantially justified.).
The lack of substantial justification for the Governments position is reinforced by
existing precedent in which the Government lost on substantially similar issues. See Jones v.
United States, 9 F. Supp. 2d 1119 (D. Neb. 1998). While the Court is only mandated by statute to
consider losses on substantially similar issues in courts of appeals for other circuits, 26 U.S.C.
7430(c)(4)(B)(iii), Jones v. United States nevertheless demonstrates that the Government
should have known its position was substantially unjustified prior to filing its motion for
summary judgment. Cf. Snider v. United States, 468 F.3d 500, 511 (8th Cir. 2006) (affirming
district court holding that governments position was not substantially justified where, after close
of discovery, the government should have realized[its] position was not substantially
justified).
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As this Court explained, Jones illustrates the general position . . . that misuse of
taxpayer information by third parties is one of the kind of consequences of an unauthorized
disclosure which might reasonably be foreseen. NOM, 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 77263 at 34
(quoting Jones, 9 F. Supp. at 1144). Jones further illustrates that the Governments position in
this casethat is was not responsible for damages sustained as a result of misuse of NOMs
2008 Schedule B by third partieswas not substantially justified.
Only after this Courts decision on the Governments motion for summary judgment did
the Government accept NOMs offer to settle the issue of actual damages for $50,000. [T]he
governments concession of [the] case is one factor to be considered when the trial court decides
whether the governments overall position was substantially justified. Hanson v. Commr, 975
F.2d 1150, 1156 (5th Cir. 1992); see also Envtl. Def. Fund, Inc. v. Watt, 722 F.2d 1081, 1085-86
(2d Cir. 1983) (stating that under the EAJA, the governments ultimate acquiescence in
a settlement is part of the substantial justification inquiry and that [t]he government may lack
substantial justification for its position even though it does not insist upon an unreasonable
stance through to the resolution of a case). Although [t]he unfavorable terms of a settlement
agreement, without inquiry into the reasons for settlement, cannot conclusively establish the
weakness of the Governments position, Pierce, 487 U.S. at 568 (emphasis added), the reasons
for settlement here are plainly obvious: this Court conclusively rejected the Governments
position with respect to causation and actual damages. The Governments willingness to settle on
unfavorable terms after its argument was rejected thus provides further evidence that its position
was not substantially justified.
III. The Requested Attorneys Fees Are Reasonable.
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The standards set forth in [Hensley v. Eckerhart, 461 U.S. 424 (1983)] are generally
applicable in all cases in which Congress has authorized an award of fees to a prevailing
party. Id. at 433 n.7; see also, e.g., Mallas, 876 F. Supp. at 89-90 (applying Hensley to fee
petition under Section 7431); Finney v. Roddy, 617 F. Supp. 997, 1002 (E.D. Va. 1985)
(applying Hensley to fee petition under Section 7430). Under those standards, NOM bears the
burden of proving a reasonable attorneys fee. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 437.
The Supreme Court has adopted the lodestar as the measure of the reasonable fee to
which a prevailing party is entitled. City of Burlington v. Dague, 505 U.S. 557, 560 (1992) (The
lodestar figure has . . . become the guiding light of our fee-shifting jurisprudence.). The lodestar
figure is the number of hours reasonably expended on the litigation multiplied by a reasonable
hourly rate. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 433. [W]hen the applicant for a fee has carried the burden of
showing that the claimed rate and number of hours are reasonable, the resulting product is
presumed to be the reasonable fee . . . . Blum v. Stenson, 465 U.S. 866, 897 (1984) (emphasis
added); see also City of Burlington, 505 U.S. at 562 (We have established a strong
presumption that the lodestar represents the reasonable fee.).
The Fourth Circuit has implemented the Hensley standards using a three-step analysis,
which is meant to ensure the fees awarded are reasonable. Robinson v. Equifax Info. Servs.,
LLC, 560 F.3d 235, 243 (4th Cir. 2009). First, the Court must determine a lodestar figure by
multiplying the number of reasonable hours expended times a reasonable rate. Id. (citing
Grissom v. Mills Corp., 549 F.3d 313, 320 (4th Cir. 2008)). Second, the Court should subtract
fees for hours spent on unsuccessful, unrelated claims. Id. at 244 (citing Grissom, 549 F.3d at
321). Lastly, the Court should award some percentage of the remaining amount, depending on
the degree of success enjoyed by the prevailing party. Id. (citing Grissom, 549 F.3d at 321); see
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also Tech Sys. v. Pyles, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 110636, 6-7 (E.D. Va. Aug. 6, 2013) (explaining
three-step analysis).
A. The First Prong of the Lodestar Calculation Is Determined by Establishing the
Number of Hours Reasonably Expended on the Litigation.
To determine the first prong of the lodestar calculationthe number of hours reasonably
expended on the litigationapplicants should submit evidence supporting the hours worked
. . . . Hensley, 461 U.S. at 433. An applicant, however, is not required to record in great detail
how each minute of his time was expended. Id. at 437 n.12. Rather, he need only identify the
general subject matter of his time expenditure. Id. NOM has satisfied these obligations by
submitting with this motion the Billing Statements of NOMs counsel which show the actual
hours expended in this case. In total, NOMs attorneys and support staff expended 2,924.45
hours in this litigation.
5
Hensley also requires fee applicants to exercise billing judgment. 461 U.S. at 437. In
this regard, hours that are not properly billed to ones client also are not properly billed to ones
adversary pursuant to statutory authority. Id. at 434. Thus, counsel for the prevailing party
should make a good-faith effort to exclude from a fee request hours that are excessive,
redundant, or otherwise unnecessary, and the reviewing court should similarly exclude from the
fee calculation hours that were not reasonably expended. Id.
NOM has complied with these requirements in two ways. First, NOM caused Barnaby
Zall, an experienced tax-exempt organization and litigation attorney, to review the raw billing
5
Attached to this memorandum are declarations from an attorney at each of the firms that
provided legal services to NOM in this litigation. Each affidavit attests to the hours expended in
the litigation by the attorneys and staff at each firm. See Exhibit 3, ActRight Legal Foundation
(Declaration of Kaylan L. Phillips 8); Exhibit 4, Foley & Lardner, LLP (Declaration of William
E. Davis 8); Exhibit 5, Holtzman Vogel Josefiak, PLLC (Declaration of Jason Torchinsky 7);
Exhibit 6, Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence (Declaration of John C. Eastman 11).
15

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statements of NOMs counsel and eliminate or discount billing entries he determined were
excessive, duplicative, untimely or presumptively unreasonable. (See Exhibit 2, Affidavit of
Barnaby Zall 53, 94, 105, 106.) Mr. Zalls initial review included the billings statements of all
thirty-one timekeepers (attorneys and support staff) involved in this litigation. (Id. 84.) Using
the hourly rates proposed by NOM, the starting lodestar for all timekeepers is $1,150,953.75.
(Exhibit D to Phillips Decl.) Upon his initial review, Mr. Zall eliminated $319,154.10 from the
original total billed to NOM. (Zall Affidavit 110-11.) In Mr. Zalls opinion, the resulting
figure of $831,799.65 was reasonable in light of the circumstances of this case. (Id. 111.)
After reviewing Mr. Zalls analysis, NOMs counsel conferred and reduced the number
of timekeepers in the fee analysis from thirty one to only seven (attorneys William Davis, Cleta
Mitchell, John Eastman, Jason Torchinsky, Shawn Sheehy, Kaylan Phillips, and Noel Johnson).
(Id. 4.) Completely eliminating the billing entries of twenty-four timekeepers (including
attorneys and support staff) resulted in an additional reduction of 584.1 hours, totaling
$182,771.25 in fees, for a remaining starting value of $968,182.50. (Exhibit D to Phillips Decl.)
Using the new starting lodestar value, Mr. Zall then conducted a second review of the
billing statements of the remaining seven timekeepers, (Zall Affidavit at 111), again eliminating
or discounting billing entries he determined were excessive duplicative, untimely or
presumptively unreasonable. (Id. 35, 53, 94, 105, 106.) This exercise resulted in a reduction of
approximately 545 hours, totaling $223,999.70, originally billed by the remaining seven
timekeepers, or a discount of approximately 23 percent of the discounted lodestar figure.
6
(Exhibit D to Phillips Decl.) In Mr. Zalls opinion, the seven timekeepers reasonably expended
6
This figure also includes reductions for billing entries that showed some indication of time
unrelated to the successful claims. Zall Affidavit 109.
16

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approximately 1795 hours in this litigation, totaling $744,182.80 in attorneys fees using NOMs
proposed hourly rates. (See Zall Affidavit at 58; Exhibit D to Phillips Decl.)
Second, on top of Mr. Zalls reductions, NOMs seven remaining counsel further
exercised billing judgment in a good-faith review of their own respective billing records to
exclude even potentially excessive, redundant, or otherwise unnecessary hours.
7
This exercise
resulted in an additional total reduction of approximately 159.9 hourstotaling approximately
$64,182.75
8
from the total time expended on the litigation before this Court, a total reduction
of 5.5 percent from the original raw total. (See also, Exhibit D to Phillips Decl.)
After making the aforementioned reductions, NOMs counsel reasonably expended
approximately 1635.1 hours in this litigation.
B. The Second Prong of the Lodestar Calculation Is Established by Determining
the Reasonable Hourly Rate to Which Attorneys Are Entitled for Their Services.
The second prong of the lodestar calculation requires that the court determine the
attorneys reasonable hourly rate. In order to determine the reasonable hourly rate the fee
applicant should utilize the prevailing market rates in the relevant community . . . . Blum, 465
U.S. at 895. An attorneys actual billing rate provides a starting point for establishing a
prevailing market rate. Emplrs Council on Flexible Comp. v. Feltman, No. 1:08cv371 (JCC),
2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2744, 33 (E.D. Va. Jan. 13, 2010) (Cacheris, J.) (citing Rum Creek Coal
Sales v. Caperton, 31 F.3d 169 (4th Cir. 1994)). The fee applicant may carry its burden to
7
Notwithstanding the related nature of NOMs claims, see infra at III.C, in an effort of good
faith, NOMs billing judgments also included reductions for time exclusively related to its
unsuccessful legal theories concerning willfulness and gross negligence. See Andrade, 852 F.
Supp. 2d at 642 (finding successful and unsuccessful claims related, but subtracting hours where
those devoted solely to unsuccessful claims can be identified and separated); see also Certain
v. Potter, 330 F. Supp. 2d 576, 585 (M.D.N.C. 2004) (subtracting hours spent on unsuccessful
claims that did not aid the litigation as a whole).
8
Davis Decl. 18-19; Torchinsky Decl. 17-18; Eastman Decl. 20-21; Phillips Decl. 17-18.
17

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establish the prevailing marketing rate in a number of waysthrough affidavits reciting the
precise fees that counsel with similar qualifications have received in comparable cases;
information concerning recent fee awards by courts in comparable cases; and specific evidence
of counsels actual billing practice or other evidence of the actual rates which counsel can
command in the market.
9
Spell v. McDaniel, 824 F.2d 1380, 1402 (4th Cir. 1987); In re
9
The hourly rate cap provided by 26 U.S.C. 7430(c)(1)(B)(iii) does not apply to requests for
attorneys fees under 26 U.S.C. 7431. Prior to 1998, 26 U.S.C. 7431 did not expressly
provide for recovery of attorneys fees and courts were split on whether Congress intended to
permit recovery of attorneys under the standards provided in 26 U.S.C. 7430, which allowed
recovery of fees in cases concerning the determination, collection, or refund of any tax, interest,
or penalty. See Internal Revenue Service, Disclosure & Privacy Law Reference Guide (2012),
1-31 n.32, available at http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p4639.pdf (hereafter, IRS Disclosure
Guide). In 1998, Congress amended 26 U.S.C. 7431 to explicitly provide for the recovery
attorneys fees. IRS Disclosure Guide at 1-31 n. 32. In doing so, it incorporated the prevailing
party standard as used in Section 7430(c)(4). See 26 U.S.C. 7431(c)(3) (if the defendant is
the United States, reasonable attorneys fees may be awarded only if the plaintiff is the prevailing
party (as determined under section 7430(c)(4))). Congress, however, did not incorporate any of
Section 7430s many other limitations and prerequisites for attorneys fees. See Quijano &
Mock, I.R.C. 7430 Attorneys Fees: Navigating Sections 7430 And a Call For The Final Act,
15 Fordham J. Corp. & Fin. L. 731, 732 (2010) (describing Section 7430 as having numerous
procedural requirements, which determine eligibility for attorneys fees).
Courts presume that Congress is knowledgeable about existing law pertinent to the
legislation it enacts. Goodyear Atomic Corp. v. Miller, 486 U.S. 174, 185 (1988). And where
Congress knows how to say something but chooses not to, its silence is controlling. United
States v. Webb, 655 F.3d 1238, 1257 (11th Cir. 2011); see also Ctr. For Special Needs Trust
Admin., Inc. v. Olson, 676 F.3d 688, 701-02 (8th Cir. 2012) (Where Congress includes
particular language in one section of a statute but omits it in another section of the same Act, it is
generally presumed that Congress acts intentionally and purposely in the disparate inclusion or
exclusion.). Because 26 U.S.C. 7431 is silent on the applicable hourly rate, Hensleys
prevailing market rate standard applies. See Hensley, 461at 433 n.7 (The standards set forth in
this opinion are generally applicable in all cases in which Congress has authorized an award of
fees to a prevailing party.); see also Eastern Associated Coal Corp. v. Dir., OWCP, 724 F.3d
561, 570 (4th Cir. 2013) (Principles construing what constitutes a reasonable fee apply
uniformly to federal fee-shifting statutes.).
Moreover, there is nothing in the statutory language or history of 26 U.S.C. 7431,
including the 1998 amendment, that indicates that Congress contemplated a statutory cap similar
to that in Section 7430. The statute expressly references Section 7430s prevailing party
standard, 26 U.S.C. 7431(c)(3), indicating that Congress could have imposed the statutory cap
if it wanted to, but it did not. See Zall Affidavit 61-62. The few recent cases on 26 U.S.C.
7431 claims confirm this by not applying any statutory cap. Id. 63-65.
18

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Outsidewall Tire Litig., 748 F. Supp. 2d 557, 567 (E.D. Va. 2010) (Typically, a party seeking
attorneys fees would present an affidavit from a local counsel not connected to the present
litigation who would offer testimony concerning prevailing local rates for the relevant type of
work.). However, [i]n circumstances where it is reasonable to retain attorneys from other
communities, however, the rates in those communities may also be considered. Rum Creek Coal
Sales, 31 F.3d at 175. This evidence should be submitted [i]n addition to the [billing]
attorneys own affidavits. Emplrs Council on Flexible Comp., 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2744 at
33 (quoting Plyler v. Evatt, 902 F.2d 273, 277 (4th Cir. 1990)).
NOM has complied with the above standards. First, NOMs counsel has provided
affidavits that establish that each attorneys requested rate is comparable to, and in most
instances lower than, the rate normally charged to fee-paying clients and collected by the
attorney.
10
See Emplrs Council on Flexible Comp., 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2744 at 36 (citing
Rum Creek, 31 F.3d at 176) (In the Fourth Circuit, the rates actually charged by a petitioning
attorney are evidence of reasonableness when it is shown that they have collected those rates in
the past from the client.) With respect to the NOMs most experienced counsel, the requested
rates are below the rates typically charged. (See Exhibit 7, Decl. of Craig C. Reilly 34.)
Second, NOM has submitted the affidavit of an experienced civil litigator and attorneys
fees expert, Craig C. Reilly, who has studied and is familiar with hourly rates charged by
attorneys in Northern Virginia. (Reilly Decl. 7.) Mr. Reilly is the creator of the 2011 Range of
Hourly Rates in Northern Virginia, a matrix of hourly rates for complex civil litigation in
Northern Virginia, which was submitted and adopted by the Eastern District of Virginia in
Vienna Metro LLC v. Pulte Home Corp., No. 1:10cv502 (E.D. Va. Aug. 24, 2011) (the Vienna
10
Davis Decl. 14; Torchinsky Decl. 13; Eastman Decl. 16.
19

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Metro Matrix). (Reilly Decl. 27.) The Vienna Metro Matrix has subsequently been used to
establish reasonable hourly rates in two other cases in this court, Tech Systems, Inc. v. Pyles, No.
1:12cv374 (GBL/JFA), 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 110636, *19-20 & n.4 (E.D. Va. Aug. 6, 2013);
Taylor v. Republic Services, Inc., No. 1:12cv523 (GBL/IDD), 2014 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 11086,
*14-15 (E.D. Va. Jan. 29, 2014). (See Ex. B to Reilly Decl. 3); see also Spell, 824 F.2d at 1402
(reasonableness of rates may be established by information concerning recent fee awards by
courts in comparable case). Using his extensive experience and the Vienna Metro Matrix as the
accepted benchmark, Mr. Reilly concluded that the hourly rates proposed for the NOM
attorneys are reasonable and within the prevailing market rates in Northern Virginia for this sort
of litigation.
11
(Reilly Decl. 35.)
Using the requested hourly rates and accounting for aforementioned reductions to the
hours expended, the resulting lodestar calculation is $680,000.05.
12
11
Mr. Reilly also opined that NOMs proposed rates are reasonable under the unadjusted and
adjusted Laffey matrices. (See Reilly Decl. 30-31.)
12
The Fourth Circuit instructs that district courts may consider the following so-called Johnson
factors to adjust the lodestar calculation:
(1) the time and labor expended; (2) the novelty and difficulty of the questions
raised; (3) the skill required to properly perform the legal services rendered; (4)
the attorneys opportunity costs in pressing the instant litigation; (5) the
customary fee for like work; (6) the attorneys expectations at the out-set of the
litigation; (7) the time limitations imposed by the client or circumstances; (8) the
amount in controversy and the results obtained; (9) the experience, reputation and
ability of the attorney; (10) the undesirability of the case within the legal
community in which the suit arose; (11) the nature and length of the professional
relationship between attorney and client; and (12) attorneys fees awards in
similar cases.
Robinson v. Equifax Info. Servs., LLC, 560 F.3d 235, 243-244 (4th Cir. 2009) (citing Johnson v.
Ga. Highway Express, Inc., 488 F.2d 714 (5th Cir. 1974)). However, many of these factors
usually are subsumed within the initial calculation of hours reasonably expended at a reasonable
hourly rate. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 434 n.9. [T]o the extent that any of [the Johnson factors] has
already been incorporated into the lodestar analysis, [the court] do[es] not consider [those
20

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C. Because NOMs Claims Share a Common Core of Facts, No Additional
Reductions Are Warranted.
After the lodestar figure is calculated, the court then should subtract fees for hours spent
on unsuccessful claims unrelated to successful ones. Grissom, 549 F.3d at 321; see also
Robinson, 560 F.3d at 244 (same). For purposes of attorneys fees, claims are related if they
involve a common core of facts or [are] based on related legal theories.
13
Hensley, 461 U.S. at
43. As stated by the Fourth Circuit, claims are related if their respective facts are inextricably
intertwined, even if the claims are based on different legal theories. Abshire v. Walls, 830
F.2d 1277, 1283 (4th Cir. 1987); see also Andrade v. Aerotek, Inc., 852 F. Supp. 2d 637, 642 (D.
Md. 2012) (Where the plaintiffs hours benefitted or addressed both [successful and
unsuccessful] claims, the court will grant those hours reasonably expended.). Where claims
are related, the Supreme Court recognizes that
[m]uch of counsels time will be devoted generally to the litigation as a whole,
making it difficult to divide the hours expended on a claim-by-claim basis. Such a
lawsuit cannot be viewed as a series of discrete claims. Instead the district court
should focus on the significance of the overall relief obtained by the plaintiff in
relation to the hours reasonably expended on the litigation.
factors] a second time. McAfee v. Boczar, 738 F.3d 81, 89 (4th Cir. Va. 2013) (citing E.
Associated Coal Corp. v. Dir., OWCP, 724 F.3d 561, 570 (4th Cir. 2013)). Moreover, the
strong presumption that the lodestar number represents a reasonable attorneys feecan only
be overcome in those rare circumstances where the lodestar does not adequately take into
account a factor that may properly be considered in determining a reasonable fee. McAfee, 738
F.3d at 88-89 (quoting Perdue v. Kenny A. ex rel. Winn, 559 U.S. 542 (2010)). The voluntary
adjustments to the lodestar made by NOMs counsel are more than reasonable, and thus no
additional adjustments are necessary pursuant to the Johnson factors.
13
Whether or not claims are related, [a] partially prevailing plaintiff should be compensated for
the legal expenses he would have borne if his suit had been confined to the ground on which he
prevailed . . . .) Since the legal expenses of drafting certain portions required of any filings e.g.,
factual and procedural information, would have been borne if this suit had been confined solely
to the successful claims, such expenses are considered with the winning claim denominator in
the calculus.
21

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Id. See also Goos v. National Assn of Realtors, 997 F.2d 1565, 1570 (D.C. Cir. 1993)
(Hensley mandates that distinct legal challenges based on essentially the same factual
allegations be treated as related claims.).
Under these standards, NOMs claims concerning the unauthorized disclosure and
inspection of its tax returnsand the resultant damagesare related because they share a
common core of facts, Hensley, 461 U.S. at 435namely, the circumstances pertaining to the
IRSs processing of a request for NOMs 2008 Schedule B and the subsequent disclosure and
dissemination of that document. (See Zall Affidavit 77(opining that common core of facts in
this case related to the violation of IRC 7431(a)the IRSs disclosure of NOMs unredacted
Schedule B).) NOM prevailed on its claim that the IRS negligently disclosed its 2008 Schedule
B in violation of law and on its claim that the IRS was liable for actual damages sustained as a
result of that disclosure. Though NOM did not prevail on its legal theories that the disclosure
was willful or the result of gross negligence, the facts supporting those theories were
inextricably intertwined with the facts supporting NOMs successful claims. In other words,
NOMs claims are related because NOM could not have presented[its] case [for negligence
and actual damages] without developing and presenting the facts surrounding the entire sequence
of events that transpired. Abshire, 830 F.2d at 1283.
Mallas v. United States, 876 F. Supp. 86, 89 (M.D.N.C. 1994), supports this conclusion.
In Mallas, the plaintiff, along with nine others, raised four causes of action, against eleven
defendants, and sought $25 million in damages for various constitutional violations, Privacy
Act violations, common law libel, and wrongful disclosure under 26 U.S.C. 7431. Id. at 88-
89. After various motions, all Defendants except the United States of America and all Plaintiffs
except Mallas and [another individual] were dismissed. Id. Plaintiff ultimately prevailed only on
22
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his claims under Section 7431. Though he sought $3.4 million in punitive damages, no actual or
punitive damages were awarded. Id. Rather, plaintiff received only $73,000 in damages, which
represent[ed] the statutory amount of $1,000.00 for each unauthorized act of disclosure. Id. at
89. Plaintiff then sought attorneys fees.
After finding the plaintiff was a prevailing party under Section 7430, the court applied
the Hensely analysis to determine what amount of fees should be awarded. Although the plaintiff
pursued different claims based on different legal theories, the court follow[ed] the Court of
Appeals for the Fourth Circuits opinion in Abshire and declined to untangle the successful
claims from the unsuccessful claims. Id. at 90 (citing Abshire, 830 F.2d at 1282-83 (finding that
plaintiffs unsuccessful claims for false arrest, false imprisonment and malicious prosecution
were related to plaintiffs successful strip search claim for purposes of attorneys fees because
all claims arose from a common core of facts and were inextricably intertwined with the
entire sequence of events)); see also Tech Sys., 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 110636 at 21 (finding
reduction in fees for unsuccessful breach of contract claim and misappropriation of trade secrets
claim unwarranted because those claims and the successful claims both arose from larger set of
facts, namely, [defendants] sabotage of [plaintiffs] server and the unauthorized emails that
[defendant] sent once she was terminated from her position); Emplrs Council on Flexible
Comp., 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 2744 at 38-39 (declining to reduce fee award where Plaintiff
pursued to conclusion only two of its original six claims because they concerned the same set
of operative factsnamely, the actions that Defendants took to obtain Plaintiff's trademarks,
business, and profits for themselves). Under the authority of Hensley and its progeny, NOM
should therefore recover those fees expended not just in pursuit of its successful claims, but in
pursuant of its unsuccessful but related claims as well. See Andrade, 852 F. Supp. 2d at 642
23
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(quoting Hensely, 461 U.S. at 440 (Hensley instructed courts to subtract plaintiffs billable
hours attributable to unsuccessful claims when they are distinct in all respects from [the]
successful claims.)) (emphasis in original).
D. NOM Has Eliminated All Expenses from Its Request.
The consent judgment disposed of NOMs actual damages and its claims for costs of the
action under 26 U.S.C. 7431(c)(2). (Dkt. 87.) The costs settled by the consent judgment were
those taxable administrative costs provided by 28 U.S.C. 1920, such as filing fees and printed
transcripts. The consent judgment did not address attorneys fees or out-of-pocket expenses
incurred by NOM that were necessary to the prosecution of the action.
A number of courts, including the Fourth Circuit, have held that where attorneys fees
are authorized expressly by statute, recoverable litigation expenses are not limited to taxable
costs. Laffey v. Nw. Airlines, Inc., 572 F. Supp. 354, 382 (D.D.C. 1983), overrruled on other
grounds by 746 F.2d 4 (D.D.C. 1984) (citing Dowdell v. City of Apopka, 698 F.2d 1181, 1188-89
(11th Cir. 1983); Copper Liquor, Inc. v. Adolph Coors Co., 684 F.2d 1087, 1100 (5th Cir.
1982); Wheeler v. Durham Bd. of Educ., 585 F.2d 618, 623-24 (4th Cir. 1978) [(federal courts
have routinely provided for recovery of out-of-pocket expenses in conjunction with fee
awards)]). Indeed, other fee-shifting statutes, including the Equal Access to Justice Act and the
Civil Rights Attorneys Fees Award Act of 1976 treat out-of-pocket expenses separately from
costs, as a component of attorneys fees. See 28 U.S.C. 2412(b) (a court may award
reasonable fees and expenses of attorneys, in addition to the costs which may be awarded);
Harris v. Marhoefer, 24 F.3d 16, 19 (9th Cir. 1994) (Under 42 U.S.C. 1988, a plaintiff may
recover as part of the award of attorneys fees those out-of-pocket expenses that would normally
be charged to a fee paying client) (citations and quotations omitted); see also New York v.
24
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Microsoft Corp., 297 F. Supp. 2d 15, 47-48 (D.D.C. 2003) (travel, phone calls, attending trial,
and attending a Microsoft Tech Seminar are not costs; such expenses are considered part of
attorneys fees and may be awarded as such if such expenses are routinely billed by the attorney
to his or her client) (construing Clayton Act).
However, in a further effort to be reasonable, NOM has eliminated from its request all of
the expenses incurred in the prosecution of this action.
14
This decision resulted in an additional
reduction of $36,760.61. (Id.)
E. NOMs Request Is Reasonable In Light of Its Substantial Success.
In cases like this, where successful and unsuccessful claims share a common core of
facts[,] a court should simply compute the appropriate fee as a function of degree of
success. Goos v. Natl Assn of Realtors, 997 F.2d 1565, 1569 (D.C. Cir. 1993)
(citing Hensley, 461 U.S. at 434-35). The degree of success obtained by the plaintiff is the most
critical factor in determining the reasonableness of a fee award. Bland v. Fairfax County, No.
1:10cv1030 (JCC/JFA), 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 128522, 10 (E.D. Va. Nov. 7, 2011) (Cacheris,
J.) (citations and quotations omitted). [O]nce the court has subtracted the fees incurred for
unsuccessful, unrelated claims, it then awards some percentage of the remaining amount,
depending on the degree of success enjoyed by the plaintiff. Bland, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS
12852 at 10 (quoting Robinson, 560 F.3d at 244 (internal quotations and citations omitted)).
There is no precise formula for making this reduction to the lodestar amount; however, the
court may either reduce the overall award or identify specific hours that should be
eliminated. Bland, 2011 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 128522 at 10 (quoting Hensley, 461 U.S. at 436-37).
14
Decl. of Torchinsky 19; Decl. of Phillips 19; Decl. of Eastman 22; Decl. of Davis 20.
25

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The court necessarily has discretion in making this equitable judgment. Hensley, 461 U.S. at
424.
In an exercise of billing judgment and to account for its degree of success, NOM has
already voluntarily eliminated 1,289.435 hours, totaling $470,959.95 in attorneys fees. NOM
achieve[d] a level of success that makes the hours reasonably expended a satisfactory basis for
making a fee award, Hensley, 461 U.S. at 434, in the amount of $680,000.05. (See Zall
Affidavit 117.) This amount is reasonable in light of the considerations mandated by Hensely
and no further reductions are necessary.
IV. NOM Is Entitled to Reasonable Attorneys Fees and Expenses for Preparing this
Motion.
This Court has discretion to award attorneys fees and costs incurred in the preparation
of a petition requesting attorneys fees. Emplrs Council on Flexible Comp., 2010 U.S. Dist.
LEXIS 2744, at *18-19 (Cacheris, J.) (citing Daly v. Hill, 790 F.2d 1071, 1080 (4th Cir. 1986)).
However, [a] request for attorneys fees should not result in a second major litigation. Hensley,
461 U.S. at 437. Therefore, [t]he single finding that the Governments position lacks substantial
justification, like the determination that a claimant is a prevailing party, operates as a one-
time threshold for fee eligibility. Commr v. Jean, 496 U.S. 154, 160 (1990) (holding that the
fee applicant is eligible for fees on fees in EAJA cases upon a finding of eligibility for fees in
underlying litigation). In other words, [s]o long as the governments position justifies recovery
of fees, any reasonable fees to recover such fees are recoverable. Huffman v. Commr, 978 F.2d
1139, 1149 (9th Cir. 1992); see also Powell v. Commr, 891 F.2d 1167, 1172 (5th Cir. 1990)
(Where the governments underlying position is not substantially justified, plaintiff is entitled
under the EAJA [and 7430] to recover all attorneys fees and expenses reasonably incurred in
connection with the vindication of his rights, including those related to any litigation over fees,
26
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and any appeal.); Russell v. Heckler, 814 F.2d 148, 155 (3d Cir. 1987) (Where the sole basis for
the governments opposition to the fee petition is the alleged substantial justification of the
governments position in the underlying proceedings . . . the petitioner will almost always, if not
always, be entitled to fees for litigation over an EAJA fee petition if she is entitled to fees for the
underlying litigation[.]).
NOMs counsel, ActRight Legal Foundation, expended 79.8 total hours preparing this
Motion and its supporting documents. (Phillips Decl. 21.) In an exercise of billing judgment,
NOM has excluded 48.3 of those hours from its request. Accordingly, NOM respectfully
requests reasonable attorneys fees in the amount of $11,025 for the 31.5 hours reasonably
expended preparing this Motion. (Id.) This amount is subject to change for work performed on
the memorandum in reply to the Governments opposition.
Conclusion
Because NOM is a prevailing party in this litigation, NOM respectfully requests
reasonable attorneys fees in the amount of $680,000.05 for the work of its counsel on the
underlying litigation. NOM further requests $11,025 in attorneys fees for the work of its counsel
on this Motion. In total, NOM requests $691,025.05 in attorneys fees.
27
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Respectfully submitted this 25th day of July, 2014.
_/s/_______________________
Jason Torchinsky (Va. 47481)
Shawn Toomey Sheehy (Va. 82630)
Holtzman Vogel Josefiak, PLLC
45 North Hill Drive, Suite 100
Warrenton, VA 20186
(540) 341-8808 (telephone)
(540) 341-8809 (fax)
jtorchinsky@hvjlaw.com
ssheehy@hvjlaw.com
Counsel for Plaintiff
John C. Eastman (Cal. 193726)*
Anthony T. Caso (Cal. 88561)*
Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence
c/o Chapman University School of Law
One University Drive
Orange, CA 92866
(877) 855-3330 x2 (telephone)
(714) 844-4817 (fax)
jeastman@chapman.edu
caso@chapman.edu
Counsel for Plaintiff
Cleta Mitchell, of counsel
(D.C. 433386)*
William E. Davis, of counsel
(D.C. 280057)*
Mathew D. Gutierrez, of counsel
(Fla. 0094014)*
Kaylan L. Phillips (Ind. 30405-84)*
Noel H. Johnson (Wisc. 1068004)*
ACTRIGHT LEGAL FOUNDATION
209 West Main Street
Plainfield, IN 46168
(317) 203-5599 (telephone)
(888) 815-5641 (fax)
cmitchell@foley.com
wdavis@foley.com
mgutierrez@foley.com
kphillips@actrightlegal.org
njohnson@actrightlegal.org
Counsel for Plaintiff * Admitted Pro Hac Vice
28
Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91 Filed 07/25/14 Page 28 of 29 PageID# 1681
Certificate of Service
I hereby certify that on July 25, 2014, I filed the foregoing Plaintiff National
Organization for Marriage, Inc.s Motion for Attorneys Fees via ECF which notified the
following counsel of record:
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
Philip M. Schreiber (D.C. 502714)*
Benjamin L. Tompkins (D.C. 474906)*
Christopher D. Belen (Va. 78281)
Trial Attorneys, Tax Division
U.S. Department of Justice
Post Office Box 14198
Ben Franklin Station
Washington, DC 20044
(202) 514-6069 (Mr. Schreiber)
(202) 514-5885 (Mr. Tompkins)
(202) 307-2089 (Mr. Belen)
Fax: 202-514-9868
philip.m.schreiber@usdoj.gov
benjamin.l.tompkins@usdoj.gov
christopher.d.belen@usdoj.gov
Dana J. Boente
Acting United States Attorney
David Moskowitz
Assistant U.S. Attorney
2100 Jamieson Avenue
Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Telephone: (703) 299-3845
Fax: (703) 299-3983
david.moskowitz@usdoj.gov
*Admitted Pro Hac Vice
/s/_______________________
Shawn Toomey Sheehy (Va. 82630)
Holtzman Vogel Josefiak, PLLC
45 North Hill Drive, Suite 100
Warrenton, VA 20186
(540) 341-8808 (telephone)
ssheehy@hvjlaw.com
Counsel for Plaintiff
29
Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91 Filed 07/25/14 Page 29 of 29 PageID# 1682
Exhibit 1
Declaration of Brian Brown
Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91-1 Filed 07/25/14 Page 1 of 2 PageID# 1683
UNITED STATES DISTRJCT COURT
FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA
The NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR
MARRJAGE, INC.,
v.
The UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,
Plaintif
Defendant.
Civ. No. 13-cv-1225-JCC/IDD
DECLARATION OF BRIAN BROWN IN SUPPORT OF
PLAINTIFFS MOTION FOR ATTORNEYS' FEES
Brian Brown declares. pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 1746:
I. I am rhe current President of Plaintiff National Organization for Mariage, Inc. ("NOM").
I served as President of NOM when this action was filed on October 3, 2013.
2. On October 3. 2013. NOM employed fewer than five hundred employees.
3. On October 3. 2013, NOM bad a net worth of less than seven million dollars.
I declare under penalty of pe1jury that the foregoing is true and correct,
Executed July . 2014,
Brian Brown
President, National Organization for Marriage. Inc.
1
Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91-1 Filed 07/25/14 Page 2 of 2 PageID# 1684
Exhibit 2
Affidavit of Barnaby W. Zall
Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91-2 Filed 07/25/14 Page 1 of 140 PageID# 1685


IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF VIRGINIA

National Organization for Marriage, Inc. |
|
v. | No. 1:13CV1225 (JCC/IDD)
|
United States |
___________________________________ |

AFFIDAVIT OF BARNABY W. ZALL
July 24, 2014

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2


TABLE OF CONTENTS
A Note on Terminology ....................................................................................................... 3

Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 3

My Qualifications ................................................................................................................ 6

General Background ......................................................................................................... 11

Applicable Law ................................................................................................................. 12
The Statute .............................................................................................................. 12
The Legislative History .......................................................................................... 13
IRS Interpretations ................................................................................................... 14
This Courts Recognition ........................................................................................ 15

Standards and Assumptions ............................................................................................... 15
Using Supreme Court Standards for Similar Fee-Shifting Statutes ....................... 15
Standards .................................................................................................................. 16
Ethical Standards ..................................................................................................... 17
The IRSs Recent Bunker Mentality Drives Up Legal Costs ............................. 20
Timing Issues .......................................................................................................... 25
Descriptions ............................................................................................................ 28
Lodestar Calculations .......................................................................................... 30
Reasonable Hourly Rates ........................................................................................ 30
Substantially Prevailing and Adjustment for Unsuccessful Claims ................... 35
Special Factors Adjustment .................................................................................... 39

Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 41

The Findings ..................................................................................................................... 49

Analysis ............................................................................................................................. 52

Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 53

Attachment One March 13, 2013, E-Mail from Lois Lerner ......................................... 55

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3

Attachment Two Summary of Findings ......................................................................... 58

Attachment Three Database Printout ............................................................................. 60

A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY
1. Throughout the literature on attorneys fees, the phrase attorneys fees is
rendered in several forms, including attorneys fees, 26 U.S.C. 7431(c)(3),
attorneys fees, Civil Rights Attorneys Fees Awards Act of 1976, 42 U.S.C.
1988, and attorneys fees. Barber v. Kimbrells Inc., 577 F.2d 216, 226 (4
th

Cir. 1978). Except in quotations and the like, I will use the formulation
attorneys fees, because this case involves the application of 26 U.S.C. 7431
and that provision renders the phrase in that form.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2. Background Summary: I am an experienced tax-exempt organization and
litigation lawyer. I was asked to provide an opinion, based on my review of
time records provided to me from the attorneys representing the prevailing
taxpayer in this case, as to the reasonableness of the attorneys requested
amount of legal fees. My agreement provides that my opinion will be
independent of my conclusions and may be adverse to the attorneys interests.
3. Methodology Summary: I reviewed approximately 3,500 timeslips from 31
timekeepers, reporting a total of approximately 3,000 hours of legal services,
which would have yielded a fee award of more than $1.1 million without
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4

adjustments. To review these timeslips, I first used the applicable Fourth Circuit
and Supreme Court precedents to determine the appropriate standards for fee
awards in Internal Revenue Code 7431 cases. Because the Code section does
not give guidance on a reasonable fee (and has no statutory limit on fees or
hourly rates) and because the IRS has not promulgated regulations governing
fee awards in IRC 7431 cases, I used the standards for fee-shifting statutes
(primarily for Section 1988 civil rights attorneys fees awards) that served as the
basis for the 1998 amendment to provide attorneys fee awards under IRC
7431. Under the applicable cases, including Hensley v. Eckerhart, 461 U.S. 424
(1983), I first applied a general ethical billing standard under Virginia ethics
rules, then applied six specific standards (timing, specificity/clarity, unrelated to
successful claims, excessive time, likely or should have been already awarded
as costs, and duplicative efforts). Based on that review, I categorized each
timeslip for certainty as to whether I thought it was reasonable. This review,
though based on standards, was essentially an application of my professional
judgement; for example, I completely discounted time spent on media relations,
travel, and activities prior to a starting date, and applied a varying degree of
discounts to timeslips which appeared to have an issue under one of the
standards. I created a database permitting classifications and sorting by various
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5

factors, and applied simple mathematical and logical algorithms to capture and
analyze my results.
4. My preliminary conclusions were that the total amount that would have been
generated by the raw timeslips was too large, and should have been reduced to
$831,799. I would have found that figure to be reasonable under the
circumstances. After reviewing my standards, assumptions, analysis and
preliminary conclusions, the legal counsels for the taxpayer voluntarily reduced
their requests to only seven timekeepers, and a total request for $744,183 in
fees, even less than I would have found reasonable in my preliminary
conclusions.
5. Conclusions Summary: While a large amount, I believe that the Court could
find this requested amount of $744,183 reasonable under applicable standards,
as it is less than could have been awarded on a comparable basis in a similar
2005 case, and amply justified by the IRSs recent bunker mentality of non-
cooperation and resisting providing required information to practitioners and
litigants. In short, I believe that the IRS itself drove the legal fees up to this
amount, and any significant reduction in fees awarded would serve as an
incentive for the IRS to continue this unfortunate trend. Thus, based on my
review and analysis, I believe the reduced amount, though large, is reasonable
under the circumstances.
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6

MY QUALIFICATIONS
6. I am a public policy attorney in private practice in a small law firm. My
practice centers on representation of, and legal issues involving, tax-exempt
organizations, generally focusing on public policy advocacy and political
organizations. I have more than thirty years experience counseling and
representing clients and contesting matters before courts and the Internal
Revenue Service (IRS) and other government agencies.
7. Other than this affidavit, I have no prior or current relationship to this case
or the Plaintiff National Organization for Marriage, Inc. (NOM). I have
attended discussions of the underlying disclosure of donor information and the
progress of this case at the First Tuesday Lunch Group, a monthly informal
discussion group (which I moderate) of several dozen attorneys across the
political and ideological spectrum who practice in similar areas of law (see 13
below). My Agreement to prepare this report provides that I have, and will
make, no attorney-client relationship with NOM.
8. Currently, I am principally a tax attorney, representing organizations
generally exempt from most federal taxation under Internal Revenue Code
(IRC) sections 501 and 527. In more than thirty years of private practice, I
have provided legal counsel to and represented hundreds of tax-exempt
organizations ranging from tiny start-ups to the largest private foundations,
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7

from religious, educational and charitable organizations exempt under IRC
501(c)(3), to social welfare organizations exempt under IRC 501(c)(4), to
trade and professional associations exempt under IRC 501(c)(6), and political
organizations exempt under IRC 527.
9. Many of my clients have been involved in highly-controversial positions
which have resulted in my providing assistance to them before federal and state
courts, regulators, and legislative bodies. As a result, donor disclosure issues are
important to them. I routinely train and counsel clients on the Form 990 Annual
Information Return, and, in particular, the Schedule B list of donors. I am
familiar with the rules regarding public disclosure and the penalties for
improper disclosure of a Schedule B. For example, I recently provided an
extensive legal analysis of the IRSs internal procedures regarding the
development and use of Schedule B to attorneys representing an organization
suing the State of California for requiring organizations to provide an
unredacted Schedule B to the California Attorney General as part of their
registration for fundraising solicitations in California.
1

10. I have been active in the American Bar Associations Section of Taxation
since 1983. I served as Chairman of the Committee on Attorneys in Small Law
Firms and was Editor of the Tax Sections Small Firm Tax Lawyer newsletter

1
See, e.g., Center for Competitive Politics v. Harris, No. 2:14-cv-00636-MCE-DAD, (E.D. Cal. May 14, 2014)
2014 WL 2002244.
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8

for eight years. I have been an active member of the Tax Sections Committee
on Exempt Organizations since 1983, and a member of the Subcommittee on
Political Organizations for nearly that long. I am also a long-time member of
the Tax Sections Committee on Court Procedures and Practice.
11. For many years, I have been a periodic correspondent for CCHs Exempt
Organization Reports Tax-Exempt Advisor.
2
I am a regular contributor to the
on-line publication Exempt Organization Tax Journal.
3
I am also active on e-
mail and similar discussion lists, including Prof. Rick Hasens Election Law list
from the University of California, Irvine, and the ABA Tax Sections Tax-
Exempt Organization mailing lists.
12. At the September 2013 Tax Section meeting in San Francisco, I presented a
40-page paper on defining permissible election-related activities of 501(c)(4)
social welfare advocacy organizations.
4
I have also presented on several other
topics at various American and state Bar Associations, and at the American and
state Institutes of Certified Public Accountants. I also presented written
comments to both the Office of Management & Budget
5
and the Department of

2
See, e.g., Barnaby Zall, Dont Go There: Who Benefits From IRS Attacks on Tax-Exempt Credit Counseling
Agencies? 361 Tax-Exempt Advisor at 4 (August 2004).
3
See, e.g., Barnaby Zall, The EO Mailbag, EO Tax Journal, 2014-107, May 29, 2014,
http://eotaxjournal.com/eotj/?p=3219 (paywall) (letter analyzing new decision refusing to dismiss First Amendment
challenge to IRS processing of applications for organizations intending to work in the disputed areas of the West
Bank of Israel: Z Street v. Koskinen, Civ. 12-cv-0401 (KBJ), Slip op. 34, https://ecf.dcd.uscourts.gov/cgi-
bin/show_public_doc?2012cv0401-49).
4
http://meetings.abanet.org/meeting/tax/FALL13/media/jt-eo-cpg-helping-zall-paper.pdf.
5
http://www.campaignfreedom.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Comments-on-PRA-and-RFA-Barnaby-Zall.pdf
(Paperwork Reduction and Regulatory Flexibility Acts comments).
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9

Treasury on the IRSs November 29, 2013 proposal of a new regulation
restricting election-related activities of 501(c)(4) organizations.
6

13. I am the founder and convenor of the First Tuesday Lunch Group (FTLG),
a bi-partisan informal monthly discussion meeting of campaign finance and
exempt organization attorneys, mostly from the Washington, D.C. area, but
including participants from across the country. The FTLG meetings provide a
high-level forum for discussions of litigation, government activities and
developments in public policy advocacy, with participation usually evenly-
divided between what one might call liberal or Democratic participants and
conservative/libertarian or Republican participants. Two of the attorneys whose
time is considered in this analysis are participants in the FTLG.
14. Unlike most tax-exempt organization attorneys, I have also been an active
litigator. I am admitted to the bars of the District of Columbia and Maryland, as
well as admitted to practice before the United States Supreme Court, the United
States Courts of Appeal for the D.C., Fourth, Fifth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and
Federal Circuits, the United States District Courts for D.C. and Maryland, and
the United States Tax Court. I have also appeared before numerous other state

6
http://www.campaignfreedom.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/2014-02-23_Barnaby-Zall_IRS-Comment-On-
Litigation-Risk-Of-Proposed-501c4-Rulemaking.pdf (Substantive comments to the Department of Treasury and
IRS).
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10

and federal courts, including this one.
7
I am a graduate of the National Institute
for Trial Advocacys D.C. training program. I have litigated cases from
complaint through appeals to final resolution, including argument before the
Supreme Court in an extremely complex procedural matter,
8
in which, for
example, my client intervened after judgment in the Court of Appeals when a
Governor would not defend a law passed by initiative.
9

15. Unfortunately, since 1996, my active trial practice has been significantly
curtailed by an illness of my inner ears which caused severe and permanent
hearing loss. Since that time, I have mainly practiced appellate advocacy.
16. Nevertheless, I am familiar with current practice in representation and
litigation against government agencies, including the IRS. I routinely cooperate
with, coordinate and review the work of attorneys who perform such services
for my clients and others. In 2011, I founded the Cause of Action Institute,
which specializes in litigation against government secrecy and over-reach.
10

Cause of Action has sued the IRS on a variety of grounds, including proposed
regulations restricting the activities of 501(c)(4) organizations.
11


7
See, ProEnglish v. Bush, CA-02-356-A (unpublished) (E.D. Virginia, Aug. 16, 2002) (Judge Brinkema dismisses
without prejudice, as not ripe, challenge to Executive Order 13166 requiring physicians to make available extensive
free language translation services), affd, ProEnglish v. Bush, 70 Fed. Appx. 84 (4
th
Cir. 2003).
8
Arizonans for Official English v. Arizona, 520 U.S. 43 (1997).
9
Yniguez v. Arizona, 939 F.2d 727 (9
th
Cir. 1991).
10
www.causeofaction.org.
11
http://causeofaction.org/related-documents-irs-targeting-politicization/.
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11

17. Through my own practice, my clients activities, and my interaction with
other active attorneys, I am familiar with challenges similar to this one.
18. In this affidavit, I am applying my own experience to the standards outlined
in similar litigation as I understand those standards. Under my agreement with
NOM, my opinions are not preordained, might be contrary to Clients position,
and are subject to modification as a result of new or additional information.
19. I am being compensated for my participation in this matter. I am charging
approximately $495 per hour for my services, which is a reduction from my top
hourly rate of $800 per hour. Because of the size and nature of this review, I am
also utilizing the services of a skilled and experienced database consultant, who
is billed at approximately $165 per hour. Under my agreement with NOM, my
compensation is not dependent upon the findings or opinions which I render, or
on the outcome of any legal action, mediation, arbitration, or the amount or
terms of any settlement of the underlying legal cause, or on any contractual
arrangement between any other person or party.
GENERAL BACKGROUND
20. This affidavit will present an opinion on the reasonableness of the request to
be submitted for an award of attorneys fees in this case. All decisions on
reasonableness in such cases are always at the discretion of the Court; this
affidavit is simply an informed opinion provided for the benefit of the Courts
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12

review. My opinion is based on my understanding of the current state of the law
regarding Internal Revenue Code (IRC) 7431, governing challenges to
disclosures of confidential taxpayer information and to unjustified positions of
the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
21. My analysis and conclusions are based on my experience of more than thirty
years practicing before the IRS and various courts nationwide, on a review of
the hours and rates provided to me, on clarifications of certain positions of the
taxpayer and its counsels provided to me, and on the standards established by
the U.S. Supreme Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, and
other courts, as well as a review of the published positions of the IRS, including
the Chief Counsel of the IRS. In addition to the general fee-shifting standards
established by Supreme Court and Fourth Circuit cases, I also relied heavily on
the analysis in one of the few recent cases awarding attorneys fees in an IRC
7431 case Snider v. United States, 01-4256-CV-C-SOW, 2005 WL 3150761
(W.D. Mo. Sept. 22, 2005) affd in part, vacated in part, 468 F.3d 500 (8th Cir.
2006) which awarded $463,777.50 in attorneys fees (calculated using much
lower Missouri-based hourly rates than are appropriate here).
APPLICABLE LAW
22. The Statute: Section 3101 of the 1998 IRS Restructuring Act established the
current statutory entitlement to attorneys fee awards for violations of the
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13

prohibitions against improper disclosure of protected taxpayer information. S.
Rep. No. 105-174. For periods after 1998, IRC 7431(c) describes damages,
including the award of attorneys fees:
(c) Damages
In any action brought under subsection (a), upon a finding of liability
on the part of the defendant, the defendant shall be liable to the plaintiff in
an amount equal to the sum of
(1) the greater of
(A) $1,000 for each act of unauthorized inspection or disclosure of a return
or return information with respect to which such defendant is found liable, or
(B) the sum of
(i) the actual damages sustained by the plaintiff as a result of such
unauthorized inspection or disclosure, plus
(ii) in the case of a willful inspection or disclosure or an inspection or
disclosure which is the result of gross negligence, punitive damages, plus
(2) the costs of the action, plus
(3) in the case of a plaintiff which is described in section 7430(c)(4)(A)(ii)
12
,
reasonable attorneys fees, except that if the defendant is the United States,
reasonable attorneys fees may be awarded only if the plaintiff is the
prevailing party (as determined under section 7430 (c)(4)).
13


23. The Legislative History: The Senate Report on the 1998 Restructuring Act
noted that, under prior law, The federal appellate courts are split over whether
a party who substantially prevails over the United States in an action under
Code Section 7431 is eligible for an award of [attorneys] fees and reasonable
costs. S. Rep. No. 105-174, P. 47. The Committee noted that the effect of the
change was, in part, to: permit[] the award of attorneys fees in actions for
civil damages for unauthorized inspection or disclosure of taxpayer returns and

12
Which timely submits its claim within 30 days of entitlement.
13
A nonprofit organization which has substantially prevailed with respect to the most significant issue or set of
issues presented. Id.
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14

return information. Id., at 48. There was no similar House provision, and the
Senate version was accepted and included in the enacted bill.
24. The text of IRC 7431(c) is different from the older language of IRC
7430. For example there is no statutory cap on hourly rates in IRC 7431(c)(3),
as there is in IRC 7430(c). As shown in more detail below, the few courts to
have applied this provision since its amendment in 1998 have not used the older
jurisprudence under IRC 7430. See, e.g., Snider, at *1.
25. I RS I nterpretations: There are no IRS regulations or other guidance on IRC
7431(c) attorneys fees awards. Though the IRS did not acquiesce in the
decision in Snider, it did not object to the use of higher hourly rates. 2007-30
I.R.B. 125, 2007 WL 2074562 (July 23, 2007), n. 1. The IRS Chief Counsels
DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY LAW GUIDE (2012 ed.),
14
Pp. 1-32 1-33, describes
the effect of the 1998 amendment on the award of attorneys fees, but only in
the older terms of costs of their damages: By amending the statute to include
attorneys fees, Congress was sending a clear message that when the IRS
violates taxpayers right to privacy by engaging in unauthorized inspection or
disclosure activities, it is appropriate to reimburse taxpayers for the costs of
their damages.

14
http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p4639.pdf
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15

26. This Courts Recognition: In its decision, this Court similarly recognized
that attorneys fees may be awarded to NOM on the basis of the violation of IRC
7431. Slip op. at *12 n. 4 (citing Jones v. United States, 9 F.Supp. 2d 1119,
1149 (D. Neb. 1998)(attorneys fees may be requested within 14 days of
decision)).
STANDARDS AND ASSUMPTIONS
27. Using Supreme Court Standards for Similar Fee-Shifting Statutes: There
is no statutory definition of what reasonable attorneys fees means in IRC
7431(c)(3). Because there are also no regulations or other rules providing
guidance conditions or restrictions on attorneys fees awards under IRC 7431,
I reviewed the timesheets provided to me against the standards established by
the Supreme Courts decisions for fee shifting statutes similar to IRC 7431,
and on the very minimal standards enunciated by courts that have reviewed or
awarded attorneys fees under IRC 7431.
28. In the absence of more specific guidance on the definition of reasonable
under IRC 7431, I looked to statutes that gave rise to the attorneys fee-shifting
provisions of 7431, such as the Civil Rights Attorneys Fees Awards Act of
1976. 43 U.S.C. 1988. As we understand 1988s provision for allowing a
reasonable attorneys fee, it contemplates reasonable compensation, in light of
all of the circumstances, for the time and effort expended by the attorney for the
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16

prevailing plaintiff, no more and no less. Blanchard v. Bergeron, 489 U.S. 87,
93 (1989). Similarly, the Fourth Circuit has held that IRC 7431 is a
compensatory statute. Scrimgeour v. IRS, 149 F.3d 318, 327-328 (4
th
Cir.
1998).
29. Nevertheless, a request for attorneys fees should not result in a second
major litigation. Hensley v. Eckerhart, 461 U.S. 424, 437 (1983) (interpreting
Civil Rights Attorneys Fees Awards Act of 1976 as to whether a partially-
successful litigant was entitled to a full award of fees). Thus, in IRC 7431
cases, as in other such fee-shifting cases, the question of reasonableness is
within the discretion of the trial court, which generally applies certain
standards.
30. Standards: Those fee shifting standards generally require:
Preparation of the listing under prevailing ethical standards for billing to a
private client;
A starting date for providing services that reflects the commencement of this
particular litigation (as opposed to services already awarded as costs);
A description of the number of hours, the particular timekeeper, and the
specific tasks for which the time was performed;
A description of the rate charged the client, if any;
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17

A lodestar calculation of the reasonable hours multiplied by a
reasonable rate per hour;
An adjustment to remove hours spent on unsuccessful claims that were not
related to the successful claims by a common core of facts or legal theory for
recovery; and,
Any proposed adjustment to the hourly rate to reflect special factors
present in the litigation, generally beyond excellence in legal services
generally and encompassing only specific expertise or knowledge in the
subject matter of the suit.
31. Ethical Standards: The threshold standard for whether a particular amount
of time should be billed at all is an ethical one: if an attorney should or could
not bill certain time, she should not seek an award for the time. Virginia Rules
of Professional Conduct, Rule 1.5(a) (A lawyers fee shall be reasonable.).
Counsel for the prevailing party should make a good faith effort to exclude
from a fee request hours that are excessive, redundant, or otherwise
unnecessary, just as a lawyer in private practice ethically is obligated to exclude
such hours from his fee submission. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 434.
32. This question arose most specifically in these claims in charging for travel
time when there was no distinction between time spent working on a case and
not working. Many organizations, including most large for-profit organizations,
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18

do not accept pure travel time as billable. So I generally downrated time listed
as travel time.
33. I also downrated or completely discounted as unreasonable time spent on
media projects. I understand that modern legal practice, particularly for
organizations involved in controversial areas, requires interaction with the
media, and that in many cases this media interaction is essential to the progress
of a particular case and to the success of an organization in meeting its tax-
exempt goals. Indeed, I often teach a training module on media relations to
staffs of tax-exempt organizations as part of a curriculum involving speech
regulation and careful communications best practices. This case, as much as
any, involves damage to the organization from the IRC 7431 violation
because of the media coverage, which would seem to require a media response,
which logically should include attorneys participation. Nevertheless, my
responsibility in this matter, guided by my reading of Snider, is to determine the
reasonableness of legal billings to the presentation to the Court, not to the
media or the public.
34. In addition, there were several indications of time spent on tasks that were
likely inappropriate for the level of the timekeeper. For example, having an
attorney billing $350 per hour drive filings to FedEx may have been expedient,
but I doubt that most private practice clients would accede to the claim. Thus, I
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19

struck certain time listed for such activities, and downrated some other time if
there was an indication that professional expertise was required but perhaps not
at the level of the particular timekeeper.
35. I also reviewed time for being excessive, in the sense that either there
seemed to be too much time spent on a particular task, or the overall amount of
time billed for a particular day seemed more than reasonable. Many large for-
profit organizations, for example, do not permit billing more than eight hours in
any single day, on the theory that time spent after eight hours is likely to be
inefficient and relatively non-productive. Given scheduling requirements for
depositions, hearings and the like, however, I sometimes relaxed this standard
where there was an indication of undue time pressure. See, e.g., Virginia Rules
of Prof. Conduct, Rule 1.5(a)(5). There were only a few of these large time
blocks in the billing records provided to me, and virtually all of those were in
conjunction with hearings, depositions and the like.
36. There was also the question of whether excessive included the overall
amount of time spent on particular projects, especially given the nature of the
ultimate claim. In the original records presented to me, there were time records
from four different firms or organizations, with thirty-one timekeepers. There
were approximately 3,500 time entries, with a total of approximately 3,000
hours. Many of the timekeepers spent their time on this case in review or
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20

meetings, which may or may not have been essential to the presentation of
this case to the Court. Others spent months working together on filings such as
the Complaint, which, for example, several timekeepers claimed to have drafted
and many others reviewed or edited. I am familiar with a number of these
lawyers, and believe them to be quite capable and effective attorneys; the
question, however, was whether their participation in this case was similar to
that approved by the trial court judge in Snider as necessary to the case, or
whether they were similar to the Snider participants who merely sat at the
table and were useful, but not essential. See, e.g., Snider, at *1 (The
Government should not be required to pay for plaintiffs to have three attorneys
present during the trial when one did the bulk of the presentation.). The
question is most acute during pre-trial activities, when the judge is not present
to determine the added value of a particular counsel who seeks compensation.
37. The IRSs Recent Bunker Mentality Drives Up Legal Costs:
Nevertheless, there is also a countervailing concern, abundantly present in this
case. Litigation against the IRS is always extraordinarily difficult in terms of
obtaining useful information, and there was every appearance from both the
pleadings and other filings and the time records themselves, that this was, at
least in part, a battle against the traditional IRS reticence, multiplied by the
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21

heavy media interest, potential criminal penalties, and consequent IRS bunker
mentality.
38. Not many years ago, the vast majority of controversies against the IRSs
Exempt Organization Division were resolved informally or administratively;
only a few were resolved by litigation. There was a general sense of collegiality
and familiarity between practitioners and the regulators, which included such
activities as socializing at conferences, widely-attended retirement celebrations,
and more to the point, resolving matters by calling high-level Exempt
Organization Division officials on the phone. For example, when I was helping
lead a coalition of organizations which were the subject of allegedly politically-
motivated audits during the Clinton Administration, the then-Director of the
Exempt Organizations Division, Marcus Owens, then and now a friend and
professional colleague, called me on the phone to berate me for claiming there
was political bias in the IRS. The Exempt Organizations Division undertook
great efforts to provide the bar with informal guidance (since getting formal
guidance through the larger IRS and Treasury bureaucracies was very difficult),
such as the publication of internal training and professional education guides.
15

39. In recent years, however, especially under the stewardship of Lois Lerner,
then-Director of the Exempt Organization Division of the IRS, the IRS has

15
Some of these dated materials are still available on-line. See, e.g., http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-
tege/cpeindexbytopic.pdf.
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22

actively rejected what would previously have been routine interactions and
presentations of required information to taxpayers and litigants.
16
It is often
necessary to expend an inordinate amount of attorney time obtaining
information required by statute to be provided to taxpayers, as by Freedom of
Information Act litigation.
40. For example, recently the Cause of Action Institute, which I founded, waged
a year-long effort to obtain, via FOIA, certain records related to the Presidents
requests for confidential taxpayer records.
17
The records sought were not the
confidential taxpayer records, just records of any Presidential requests for
confidential files. The IRS refused to provide any information until it was sued.
The irony is that, when forced to do so, the IRS ultimately reported that there
werent any such requests. The President had never asked for any such
confidential taxpayer records. The IRSs approach turned what should have
been a quick and simple way to show that the President was not using
confidential taxpayer information into a debacle showing the IRS as a confused,
stone-walling agency.
41. More to the point of this dispute, as concrete evidence of the new IRS
hardball approach to providing statutorily-required disclosures of

16
See, e.g., Associated Press, Second Federal Judge Wants Info On Lost IRS E-Mails, THE WASHINGTON POST,
July 11, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/courts_law/second-federal-judge-wants-info-on-lost-irs-
emails/2014/07/11/402bf54a-0929-11e4-ba5b-b9d8a4daba13_story.html.
17
http://causeofaction.org/foia-freak-out-irs-wrongly-denies-foia-request-comes-unglued-over-media-response/.
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23

information, Cause of Action obtained a chain of IRS e-mails showing that the
agency refused its FOIA request without obtaining legal counsel, had not even
searched its records, and then, after discovering its errors, engaged in an
extended effort to avoid media inquiries about its mistakes.
18
This was
unjustified stonewalling that multiplied the legal burden on the requestor for
no purpose or benefit to anyone. In the words of the Cause of Action report on
this incident: Because two FOIA analysts failed to undertake a simple search
and instead relied on their own inadequate legal analysis, Cause of Action and
the IRS were both forced to spend time and money on needless litigation. Even
after it became clear no records existed, the IRS continued to obsessively
protect its reputation rather than admit its error and move forward.
Unfortunately, it appears that one must sue to ensure that IRS analysts conduct
searches with the diligence and oversight that FOIA demands.
19

42. A similar e-mail chain exists in this case, which has similar elements to the
Cause of Action search for information, demonstrating that the bunker
mentality requiring litigation rather than informal resolution reached the top of
the IRS Exempt Organization Division. A March 13, 2013 e-mail from then-
Exempt Organization Division Director Lois Lerner calls a proposed letter
asking the IRS about reports of disclosures of confidential taxpayer information

18
The IRS emails showing a Keystone Kops-type response by the IRS are available here:
http://causeofaction.org/foia-freak-out-irs-wrongly-denies-foia-request-comes-unglued-over-media-response/.
19
Id.
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silly. That letter was sponsored by the First Tuesday Lunch Group, described
in 13 above. The e-mail, Bates-stamped US0002502, and
DOJCAP00058291, was apparently released in discovery in another case on
July 1, 2014, and is attached to the end of this affidavit; it was provided to me
by a counsel for NOM as part of my role in the First Tuesday Lunch Group.
43. On March 12, 2013, as the e-mail chain shows, John Pomeranz, a noted
liberal exempt organization lawyer, and Jeff Altman, who represents
conservative exempt organizations, sent a message to the American Bar
Associations Tax Section Exempt Organizations Committees Tax-Nonprofit
e-mailing list, asking for co-signers to a letter to the IRS Exempt Organizations
Committee. Our hope [is] that if attorneys representing a diverse group of tax-
exempt organizations take this public stand, it will help ensure that the IRS
acknowledges that these improper disclosures are a serious problem and that the
agency will take concrete steps to address the problem.
44. After several levels of forwarding, EO Division Director Lois Lerner says:
Saw it how silly they are to think that if they send us a letter, well say
anything more than we have already. This is a concrete example of how the
IRS Exempt Organizations Division has moved from considering practitioners
to be partners and colleagues to considering them silly. And it is related to
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25

this case because it references the specific improper disclosures at issue in
this case.
45. Thus, except in a very few instances, I did not automatically downrate time
records indicating a great deal of work simply obtaining information. Rather
than assuming that the IRS was right and the taxpayer wrong, as I would have
only a few years ago, now the presumption is that, in any controversial area
involving IRS disclosures and the media, the IRS will both cover up and play
hardball to avoid providing even litigants the information they are entitled to,
much less taxpayers seeking evidence of their own treatment.
46. Timing Issues: The Supreme Court, citing Hensley, 461 U.S. at 433, has
noted that fees must be expended on the litigation involved in the claim for
fees. Webb v. Board of Educ. of Dyer County, Tenn., 471 U.S. 234, 242-43
(1985). Of course, some of the services performed before a lawsuit is formally
commenced by the filing of a complaint are performed on the litigation. Most
obvious examples are the drafting of the initial pleadings and the work
associated with the development of the theory of the case. Id., 471 U.S. at 243.
The standard is whether what is being claimed is work that was both useful
and of a type ordinarily necessary to advance the litigation to the stage it
reached before settlement. Id.
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47. Prior to the 1998 IRS Restructuring Act, this question often foreclosed the
possibility of an attorneys fees award for disclosure violations. The starting date
for particular costs, including attorneys fees where allowed, was generally set in
the statute or regulations based on the issuance of certain tax-related documents
or some similar action.
20

48. A disclosure violation under IRC 7431(a), on the other hand, was not
deemed to be related to a determination of tax owed, which was the triggering
event for attorneys fees awards under IRC 7430(c).
21
That was expressly
reversed in the 1998 Restructuring Act, in what is now IRC 7431(c)(3). There
is, however, no specific guidance on when billing could start under IRC
7431(c)(3).
49. In this case, the Court did not identify the starting date for the claims sought
here (as opposed to those fees already awarded as damages). One court has held
that the statute of limitations on IRC 7431 violations begins when the
taxpayer knows or should reasonably have known about the disclosure. Aloe
Vera of America, Inc. v. United States, 699 F.3d 1153, 1159 (9th Cir. 2012).

20
See, e.g., Internal Revenue Manual 35.10.1.1.1(3), http://www.irs.gov/irm/part35/irm_35-010-001.html (For
litigation costs, the position of the United States is taken by the Service as of the answer to the petition. With respect
to administrative costs, the position of the United States is taken as of the earlier of the date of the statutory notice of
deficiency or the receipt by the taxpayer of notice of the decision of the Appeals office.).
21
Although all tax forms are stored as the result of tax computation activities, not all releases occur in connection
with the determination, collection, or refund of any tax, interest, or penalty. Scrimgeour, 149 F.3d at 329.
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50. It appears that NOM became aware of the release of the documents on
March 30, 2012, Cmplt. 14, when recipients of the illegally-disclosed
Schedule B posted them online. Then NOM undertook significant and costly
efforts to determine which agents or employees within the IRS [we]re
responsible for the unauthorized inspection and disclosure of the Confidential
Return Information. Cmplt. 45. As part of those efforts, NOM attempted to
obtain information from the IRS. Cmplt. 46-50. These efforts were
unsuccessful. Cmplt. 52. In May 2012, a private individual, relying on the
disclosed Schedule B, filed a complaint with the California Fair Political
Practices Commission, and NOM hired lawyers to defend itself. Cmplt. 35.
51. It was only a few months after that hiring, in September 2012, that NOMs
time records indicate that it began to investigate seriously the filing of this
lawsuit. I believe that this timing for the initiation of legal action was at least
reasonable. So September 2012 was the date I chose as the beginning of
reasonable timekeeping.
52. I, however, undoubtedly would have counseled the organization to file much
sooner, probably as soon as the disclosure was revealed in March 2012 and the
IRS proved unresponsive. My view is colored by many years of dealing, on a
personal basis, with IRS officials, who were often quite accessible by
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28

telephone; when they dont talk to you,
22
thats an indication of a problem. I
would have used the potential filing of this suit as a lever to influence the
reaction of IRS officials. I believe that most experienced public policy lawyers
would have had similar reactions. Nevertheless, I accepted NOMs initial
starting date of September 2012 as an appropriate starting point for recording
billings.
53. This starting date did cut off as presumptively unreasonable some time
proposed for an award. One attorney began billing time prior to this point,
possibly justifiably, but I disregarded that time as untimely.
54. Descriptions: The descriptions in the timeslips provided to me varied in
quality and utility. For example, one description was Correspondence re:
discovery; I disregarded that entry. In addition, because there were a variety of
timekeeping systems reporting the data, the formatting and the explanations
were inconsistent. In most cases, however, the descriptions were sufficient to
provide an understanding of the nature of the work, the timekeeper, and the
number of hours claimed.
55. There was a significant bolus of corrupted timeslips originally provided
from two firms, however, which required a revision of the information provided

22
For example, as during the recent Advocacy Project involving selective treatment for applications for
exemption by certain organizations. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Affairs, Inappropriate Criteria Were Used
To Identify Tax-Exempt Organizations for Review, Reference Number: 2013-10-053 (May 14, 2013).
http://www.treasury.gov/tigta/auditreports/2013reports/201310053fr.pdf.
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to me to clear up. This corruption was relatively subtle, given the nature of
presentation, and only appeared during multiple correlation analysis. On the
whole, however, once that data was replaced, most of the descriptions were
sufficient to identify the relationship to the case.
56. What the descriptions did not do was provide sufficient information for me
to determine whether a particular activity should have been conducted by as
many timekeepers as were indicated by the slips. While my analysis was
sophisticated enough to identify when multiple timekeepers would meet or
review the same material on the same day or nearly that day, if the descriptions
were different, the correlations were much more difficult to pick out. Thus, in
some cases, I could easily downrate time spent on matters that did not appear
reasonable either directly as a result of the descriptions or as a result of virtually
placing the descriptions next to each other, but in others, the descriptions would
have made a determination of excessive time spent on one or more projects
much more difficult. Thus, the descriptions (as they generally are in such cases)
are a volatile indicator, in the sense of varying widely in their utility to
determine whether the overall number of hours spent on a particular task was
excessive or reasonable. Thus, in my analysis, I simply had to review the
descriptions in light of my own experience and general impressions of the
situation.
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57. Lodestar Calculation: The Supreme Court has suggested an appropriate
method to calculate a reasonable attorneys fee: The most useful starting
point for determining the amount of a reasonable fee is the number of hours
reasonably expended on the litigation multiplied by a reasonable hourly rate.
This calculation provides an objective basis on which to make an initial
estimate of the value of a lawyer's services. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 433.
58. Hensleys lodestar approach is still the leading way to define reasonable
in fee-shifting statutes. A strong presumption that the lodestar figure the
product of reasonable hours times a reasonable rate represents a reasonable
fee is wholly consistent with the rationale behind the usual fee-shifting
statute.... Pennsylvania v. Delaware Valley Citizens' Council for Clean Air,
478 U.S. 546, 565 (1986); Blanchard, 489 U.S. at 95.
59. Reasonable Hourly Rates: Virtually all of the legal services provided to
NOM in this case were provided without charge (pro bono). This does not
affect the eligibility for attorneys fees. The Committee believes that the pro
bono publicum representation of taxpayers should be encouraged and the value
of the legal services rendered in these situations should be recognized. S. Rep.
No. 105-174, P. 47. After the 1998 Restructuring Act amendments, attorneys
fees are available for time that was provided free or at nominal cost, thus, I
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31

assume that time provided on this claim is eligible for an award, based on
reasonable hourly rates, even if provided without cost or at nominal cost.
60. Hensley requires a reasonable hourly rate. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 433. For
IRS attorneys fee awards under IRC 7430(c), this is a relatively minor issue:
the IRS strenuously tries to limit hourly rates to the statutorily-set maximum
(indexed to inflation) of approximately $190 per hour for claims brought under
IRC 7430. IRC 7430(c)(1)(B)(iii). But this is not an administrative case
under IRC 7430, and the applicable regulations expressly exclude litigation
costs from those awards. 26 CFR 301.7430-4(c)(3).
61. There is nothing in the statutory language or history of IRC 7431,
including the 1998 amendment, that indicates that Congress contemplated a
statutory cap similar to that in IRC 7430. The statute expressly references IRC
7430s prevailing party standard, IRC 7431(c)(3), indicating that
Congress could have imposed the statutory cap if it wanted to. But it didnt.
62. It would be odd if the statutory cap for attorneys fees treated as
administrative costs which the regulations for IRC 7430 expressly
include, 26 C.F.R. 301.7430-4(b)(1)(iv), and which are subject to the cap in
26 C.F.R. 301.7430-4(b)(3) should also apply to litigation costs sought
under IRC 7431, which are expressly excluded from coverage under IRC
7430. 26 C.F.R. 301.7430-4(c)(3).
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63. The few recent cases on IRC 7431 claims do not apply the statutory cap.
23

To the extent possible, I tended to rely on Snider, where the district court made
its attorneys fees calculation, and was upheld on appeal, but without applying
the statutory cap issue. The district court in Snider knew about the cap: Unless
the Court determines that a higher rate is justified by one or more of these
factors, the maximum hourly rate allowed by Section 7430(c)(1)(B)(iii) is
$150.00. Nevertheless, the Snider court approved hourly rates far in excess of
the statutory cap; for example, one attorneys rate of $236 per hour was
approved as reasonable, Id., at *1, although the overall fee award was
reduced as excessive because of the hours sought. Id., at *2. Another
attorneys hourly rate of $228.66 was reasonable, though the overall fee was
also reduced. Id.
64. The Snider attorneys fee award was upheld on appeal. 468 F.3d at 511 (we
affirm the district courts award of attorneys fees.). There was no mention of
statutory caps.
65. Perhaps more importantly, Scrimgeour and other pre-1998 amendment cases
all held that litigation fees as fees, as opposed to costs or damages were not
available in IRC 7431 cases. See, e.g., 149 F.3d at 329. Although Scrimgeour
may have been made obsolete by the 1998 amendment creating the entitlement

23
See, e.g., Callies v. United States, 269 F.Supp.2d 1189 (D.Ariz. 2003)(attorneys fees awarded as percentage of
recovery based on contract with clients; no mention of statutory cap).
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to attorneys fees, it still shows that litigation fees are not available under IRC
7430 and hence the statutory cap on IRC 7430 fees should also not be
available. Thus, I assume that the Court will consider hourly rates in excess of
the statutory cap that applies only to administrative costs under IRC 7430.
66. I was provided with two sets of hourly billing rates: an incomplete list of
actual billing rates, and a blended rate proposed to be used for all timekeepers
across the country. The blended rate was that used in Northern Virginia, and
denominated the Vienna Metro Matrix hourly rate. The Vienna Metro
Matrix has been used at least three times in this Court.
24
Neither the Vienna
Metro Matrix nor the Washington, D.C.-based Laffey Matrix are binding
upon the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia.
Robinson v. Equifax Info. Servs., 560 F.3d 235, 245 (4th Cir. 2009). Courts
must make an individualized review of the actual hourly rates charged by the
requesting timekeeper, but matrices are used in appropriate circumstances.
67. Of the seven timekeepers in the final request I analyzed, four requested
hourly rates of more than $500, two requested rates of $350 per hour, and one
requested a rate of $250 an hour. Of the four top requestors, one is a law
professor and former Supreme Court clerk with a long history as an active

24
See, e.g., Judge Lees analysis and history in Taylor v. Republic Servs., Inc., 1:12-CV-00523-GBL, 2014 WL
325169, *5 (E.D. Va. Jan. 29, 2014)(For this reason, and despite Defendants contentions to the contrary, the Court
finds that the Vienna Metro Matrix, not the Laffey Matrices, applies in this action.).
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litigator,
25
and the other three are experienced litigators.
26
All seven are active
litigators, experienced in controversial cases.
27
None, however, seem to have
significant experience as both tax-exempt organization lawyers and litigators,
which is not surprising, since there are very few lawyers who combine both
fields.
68. The Vienna Metro Matrix rates are designed for just such situations,
trading off expertise in general litigation against lower rates than lawyers with

25
http://www.chapman.edu/our-faculty/john-eastman.
26
http://www.foley.com/william-e-davis/; http://www.hvjlaw.com/?professional=torchinsky;
http://www.foley.com/cleta-mitchell/.
27
As presented to me, the other three, lower-level attorneys backgrounds are:
Sheehy: http://www.hvjlaw.com/?professional=sheehy;
Phillips: Kaylan L. Phillips, the [ActRight Legal] Foundations chief litigation counsel, joined ActRight
Legal Foundation in 2012. She has significant experience in litigating constitutional cases, with particular
experience in civil rights and religious liberties. Kaylan has extensive experience in every level of litigation,
including case initiation, discovery, dispositive and non-dispositive motion practice, oral argument, emergency stays
and appeals, petitions for rehearing en banc, petitions for certiorari, appellate (including Supreme Court) briefing,
certified questions, and amicus briefing. She also has experience representing clients before federal and state
administrative agencies. Before joining ActRight Legal Foundation, Kaylan was an associate at The Bopp Law Firm
from 2008 until 2012. There, she was involved in a federal practice with an emphasis on constitutional and
campaign finance law. Kaylan co-authored a law review article entitled The Limits of Citizens United (2012)
with James Bopp, Jr. She also authored a law review article on energy law entitled Driving the Market: The
Effects on the U.S. Ethanol Industry if the Foreign Ethanol Tariff is Lifted (2007). Kaylan received her B.A. (with
honors, 2005) from the University of Oklahoma and J.D. (2008) from the University of Tulsa. She is admitted to
practice law in the State of Oklahoma, State of Indiana, the District of Columbia, and federal district and appellate
courts.
Johnson: Noel Johnson joined ActRight Legal Foundation in 2012 and specializes in litigation related to
free speech and religious liberty. Noel has protected the Constitutional rights of individuals, associations,
corporations and political groups in federal and state courts throughout the country, as well as before state
administrative bodies. Prior to joining ActRight Legal Foundation, Noel practiced campaign finance and election
law at The Bopp Law Firm in Terre Haute, Indiana. Noel graduated cum laude from Marquette University Law
School in 2010, where he was a two-year member of the Sports Law Review and an active member of the law
schools chapter of the Federalist Society. Noel received his undergraduate degree from Michigan State University
in 2006. Noel is a member of the State Bar of Wisconsin, and also licensed to practice in the U.S. District Court for
the Eastern District of Wisconsin, and U.S. Courts of Appeal for the Eighth, Ninth and Tenth Circuits.






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specialized knowledge. Thus, although I could form an opinion as to some of
the timekeepers as to whether they were worth the higher hourly rates they
originally requested, I generally accepted the Vienna Metro Matrix rates,
since they, quite simply, were generally lower than the requested rates, and the
requesting lawyers offered to accept the lower rates.
69. Substantially Prevailing and Adjustment for Unsuccessful Claims: As
noted above, I considered the reasonableness of the number of hours claimed
under a variety of standards, but principally under the ethical standards
applicable to any billing. See 27-31 above. But this hours x rate calculation
is only the initial estimate and not the final appropriate figure. The product
of reasonable hours times a reasonable rate does not end the inquiry. Hensley,
461 U.S. at 434.
70. There is also a separate calculation, including the important factor of the
results obtained. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 434.
In this situation two questions must be addressed. First, did the plaintiff fail
to prevail on claims that were unrelated to the claims on which he
succeeded? Second, did the plaintiff achieve a level of success that makes
the hours reasonably expended a satisfactory basis for making a fee award?

Id.
71. To obtain an award at all, the taxpayer must be a prevailing party, as defined
in IRC 7430(c)(4). IRC 7431(c)(3). To be a prevailing party, the taxpayer
must ha[ve] substantially prevailed with respect to the most significant issue or
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36

set of issues presented. IRC 7340(c)(4). In an IRC 7431 violation case, the
standard for substantially prevailed is clear and simple:
The Taxpayers substantially prevailed because they established that Jackson
made numerous disclosures of return information. The conduct of Jackson
certainly was the most significant issue ... presented because the entire case
turned upon his conduct, i.e., whether he made unauthorized disclosures of
return information. By prevailing on this point, the Taxpayers substantially
prevailed within the meaning of 7430(c)(4)(A).

Snider, 468 F.3d at 511. The governments argument that the amount in
controversy was controlling was rejected by the Eighth Circuit in Snider. Id., at
n. 6 (the plain language of the statute says that a prevailing party is one that
has substantially prevailed with respect to the amount in controversy or with
respect to the most significant issue. Emphasis added.) Here NOM prevailed
on establishing that its confidential taxpayer information was wrongly
disclosed, with resultant damages. That is sufficient.
72. NOM did advance some legal theories on damages that were not successful.
As the statutory definition indicates, however, the Supreme Court also does not
require that the plaintiff prevail on every claim. Litigants in good faith may
raise alternative legal grounds for a desired outcome, and the courts rejection
of or failure to reach certain grounds is not a sufficient reason for reducing a
fee. The result is what matters. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 435. On a particular set of
facts, did the taxpayer prevail on the most significant issue presented? In other
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37

words, in terms of this case, did the Court find that NOMs privacy rights were
violated and it was entitled to damages.
73. In addition, the Hensley Court rejected a mathematical approach comparing
the total number of issues in the case with those actually prevailed upon. Id.,
461 U.S. at 435 n. 11. Nor is it necessarily significant that a prevailing
plaintiff did not receive all the relief requested. For example, a plaintiff who
failed to recover damages but obtained injunctive relief, or vice versa, may
recover a fee award based on all hours reasonably expended if the relief
obtained justified that expenditure of attorney time. Id.
74. The key question where not all claims were successful is whether the
unsuccessful claims were distinct in all respects or related to the successful
claims.
28
In other words, where the claims were based on different facts and
legal theories, they can be separated and the award reduced.
29
Related claims
can be identified, for example, by determining whether they would result in a
finding of liability for unlawful disclosure on the same facts. Id., 461 U.S. at
439 n. 15.

28
Where the plaintiff has failed to prevail on a claim that is distinct in all respects from his successful claims, the
hours spent on the unsuccessful claim should be excluded in considering the amount of a reasonable fee. Where a
lawsuit consists of related claims, a plaintiff who has won substantial relief should not have his attorney's fee
reduced simply because the district court did not adopt each contention raised. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 440.
29
In some cases a plaintiff may present in one lawsuit distinctly different claims for relief that are based on
different facts and legal theories. In such a suit, even where the claims are brought against the same defendants
often an institution and its officers, as in this casecounsels work on one claim will be unrelated to his work on
another claim. The congressional intent to limit awards to prevailing parties requires that these unrelated claims
be treated as if they had been raised in separate lawsuits, and therefore no fee may be awarded for services on the
unsuccessful claim. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 434-35.
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75. In Hensley, the Supreme Court noted that:
In other cases the plaintiff's claims for relief will involve a common
core of facts or will be based on related legal theories. Much of counsels
time will be devoted generally to the litigation as a whole, making it difficult
to divide the hours expended on a claim-by-claim basis. Such a lawsuit
cannot be viewed as a series of discrete claims. Instead the district court
should focus on the significance of the overall relief obtained by the plaintiff
in relation to the hours reasonably expended on the litigation.

Id., 461 U.S. at 435 (emphasis added). The Fourth Circuit has long used this
common core of facts standard,
30
as have other courts.
31

76. In this case, I am adopting the set of facts used by the Court in determining
the Motions for Summary Judgment. NOM instituted the instant action,
seeking damages pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 7431 for unlawful inspection and
disclosure of confidential tax information ... in violation of 26 U.S.C. 6103.
Slip op. at 2. The Government admits that an IRS staff member improperly
disclosed an unredacted copy of NOMs Schedule B in violation of 7431.
Slip op. at 3.
77. There was only one common core of facts in this case: that related to the
violation under IRC 7431(a) the IRSs disclosure of NOMs unredacted
Schedule B. There were discussions of claims based on interpretations of those

30
Goodwin v. Metts, 973 F.2d 378, 382 (4
th
Cir. 1992); Abshire v. Walls, 830 F.2d 1277, 128283 (4th Cir.1987).
31
See, e.g., Info. Sciences Corp. v. United States, 88 Fed. Cl. 626, 630 (Fed. Cl. 2009) (The court also followed the
United States Supreme Court's holding that if a plaintiff fails on a claim that is distinct in all respects from his
successful claims, the hours spent on the unsuccessful claim should be excluded in considering the amount of a
reasonable fee. Id. at 7 (quoting Hensley v. Eckerhart, 461 U.S. 424, 440 (1983)) (emphasis added). In this case,
however, Plaintiffs' claims presented a common core of facts, so the court was not required to parse the arguments
raised in a bid protest into separate and distinct claims. Id. at 8. Emphasis in original.).

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facts, but in each case the legal theories were based on the cause of action
established by IRC 7431(a). There were differing theories of damages, under
IRC 7431(c), but not differing legal theories about the violation; that was
admitted by the IRS, and accepted by the Court. And the relief sought, which
was a declaration of violation and damages for that violation, was obtained. Slip
op. at *12 (The Governments position that it is not responsible, as a matter of
law, for the costs associated with the subsequent misuse of NOMs confidential
taxpayer information is untenable on the facts presented. Accordingly, the
Court will deny the Governments motion as to this issue.)
78. With this finding of both violation and liability and the Courts award of
damages, NOM substantially prevailed with respect to the most significant
issue or set of issues presented, which was violation and liability. IRC
7430(c)(4); 7431(a); Snider, 468 F.3d at 511, and n. 6.
79. Thus, I am assuming that, absent some particular reason to exclude a
particular time entry, the time sought for compensation was all related to the
common core of facts and the single legal theory of liability. Thus, at least for
the purpose of including only successful claims, I could calculate a fee award
based on all hours reasonably expended. Hensley, 461 U.S. at 435 n. 11.
80. Special Factors Adjustments: Often claims are added to adjust the
lodestar calculation upwards to reflect some special factor involved in the
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calculation of hourly rates. Pierce v. Underwood, 487 U.S. 552, 573 (1988)
(rejecting, for purposes of considering attorneys fees, standard twelve factors
considered in other fee-shifting hourly rate analyses).
81. Even under the statutorily-capped (but not applicable here) availability of
attorneys fees for administrative claims under IRC 7430(c), there is the
possibility of increasing that hourly rate in cases where the attorneys possess
special expertise or in other circumstances. Id. (... a special factor, such as the
limited availability of qualified attorneys for such proceeding, the difficulty of
the issues presented in the case, or the local availability of tax expertise,
justifies a higher rate.). It is, however, difficult to persuade a reviewing court
to add one of these special factors to the lodestar calculation. [W]e think the
other special factors envisioned by the exception must be such as are not of
broad and general application. Pierce, 487 U.S. at 573.
82. The Fourth Circuit seems to follow Pierce on interpreting the special
factors as meaning something other than outstanding legal skill. Hyatt v.
Barnhart, 315 F.3d 239, 249-253 (4
th
Cir. 2002). But Hyatt involved Social
Security Administration practice, and might not translate to tax law.
83. Nevertheless, given the proposed use of the lower Vienna Metro Matrix
rates, I did not include any special factor in the analysis of hourly rates.

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METHODOLOGY
84. At the outset of this analysis, I was provided with time records from four
different firms or organizations, with thirty-one timekeepers. There were
approximately 3,500 time entries, with a total of approximately 3,000 hours.
Using the Vienna Metro Matrix rates provided to me for those timekeepers
whose listings did not otherwise provide rates and the rates claimed for those
who did, the dollar amounts claimed totaled more than $1.1 million.
85. I was provided with electronic compilations of time slips, generally in the
format ordinarily produced by the four firms timekeeping systems. This format
was generally a chronological listing of data contained in various time slips,
without any organization or sub-totaling. This type of data is not easy to work
with, because the presentation often obscures valuable information, such as
duplication of effort on particular days or projects, that can be seen if there is a
uniform and flexible presentation.
86. So I converted the data into a more accessible format: I either imported or
converted the data from its native format into Microsoft Excel spreadsheet
format, and then, with the aid of a skilled database analyst, created a database
from that information. The database consisted of the major elements of
information with which I was provided, such as date, timekeeper, hours, and
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description. The database information could be manipulated by placing
elements against other elements, showing correlations and trends.
87. I defined seven specific important categories based on the assumptions
described above:
unknown (not sufficient information to judge);
unrelated (not related to the case or to the core facts or theory in the case);
excessive (on its face, and with limited reference to other information,
seeming to be larger than reasonable);
costs (relating to case costs already awarded rather than the current case or
some cost factor other than attorney time);
duplication of efforts (a factor which was important because of the many
timekeepers);
certainty (a purely subjective measure indicating how comfortable I was
with the reasonableness of the hours requested in this slip); and
reasonableness (an overall decision gate that is, a yes or no opinion that
could be used as a logical selector in the algorithms to rapidly eliminate
facially-unreasonable slips).
88. Using this database, I reviewed each timeslip individually, and in various
relationships to other timekeepers, timeslips and projects. For example, I would
review by date to see who was working on particular projects on that date,
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which could show duplication. As I read the slips on each review, I would put
an entry in at least the certainty and reasonableness categories, plus indicate
with a ? symbol any concern, major or minor, about the issues presented in
that category. I put a ? in one of the categories to remind myself on later
reviews why I had a concern about that timeslip; the ? reflected only a doubt,
not the intensity of that doubt, on that category of concern. The intensity of the
doubt would be indicated in the certainty category.
89. Thus, a timeslip that I firmly believed reasonable would get a 10 rating for
certainty and a Y rating for reasonable. The vast majority of timeslips, based
on my review, got this 10Y rating.
90. Other timeslips about which I had less certainty received a lower rating,
from 0 to 9 for certainty, and perhaps an N rating for not reasonable. For
example, if a factor seemed duplicative, I would indicate that in the category
cell of the database with a ? symbol, plus I would usually include some
number lower than 10 in the certainty category, depending on how great my
concern was. If the certainty were low enough, however, it would trigger an
automatic N response in the reasonableness category, meaning that in the
future calculations, that slip would be wholly eliminated as unreasonable.
91. Both the certainty and reasonableness ratings were used in calculations of
what I believed to be reasonable billings for particular timeslips. Thus, for
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example, if a timeslip received an N rating for reasonableness or a 0 rating
for certainty, it would be disregarded and the calculated amount would be set to
zero. For each timeslip that received a Y rating for reasonableness, a 10
rating on certainty would result in accepting the full requested amount as
reasonable. Each timeslip that received a Y rating for reasonableness, but a
certainty rating of between 1 and 9 would have its requested amount
decreased by an inverse percentage; thus, a 9 rating would have 90% of its
requested amount included as reasonable and 10% excluded as unreasonable,
where a 5 rating would have only 50% included as reasonable, and so on.
92. My review consisted of at least four separate reviews of each timeslip,
including a base review, where I simply read each slip as presented, a sorted
presentation with sub-totals showing slips by each timekeeper chronologically,
then further sorts on the variety of categories. Where I had concerns about the
certainty or reasonableness of particular slips, I would add at least one more
review of those problematic slips until I was comfortable with both my
certainty and reasonableness ratings (which were used in the computation
algorithms).
93. One subtle error that was shown by the database reviews, for example, was a
consistent pattern of duplicative information in the slips provided by one firm.
This form of duplication was subtle enough that it did not show up on an initial
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45

review, since the formatting was such that duplication was difficult to show. In
the database, however, by sorting on four or more factors, the corruption was
readily apparent. I inquired of the firm about the corruption, was told that this
was a mistake, and was provided with a clean version with the duplicative
time removed from the database. The original information was preserved as a
form of audit trail so I could review it to see if the clean version had
introduced a different or similar form of duplicative corruption, but was
removed in the later processing of reasonableness calculations. Similarly, the
date information provided by some timekeeping systems had to be adjusted to
fit standard time reporting formats. This re-formatting added significantly to the
burden of reviewing the slips, but I believe is generally cleaned in the final
database.
94. After formatting and correlating the slips, I created some algorithms to
evaluate the claims. The algorithms are not sophisticated, in that they are
largely simple logic gates, and then multiplication of various factors by my
subjective certainty (subtracting out any slips for which my opinion on
reasonableness was already N that is, that the time was presumptively
unreasonable). But by multiplying the scores for the various categories, I could
determine a mathematical profile for each slip.
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46

95. In other words, as noted above, some slips were rated very high a 10 on
my scale and those were presumptively reasonable. The vast majority of slips
I reviewed were 10Ys.
96. Other slips were simply not reasonable a 0N on my scale. A few of the
slips were zeros, which tended to be for media work, attorneys doing clerical
tasks, travel without work being performed, and work that didnt seem relevant
to the case. Pure duplication usually generated a zero (as opposed to duplication
of effort which generally rated a varying degree of downrating). It was a higher
than normal prevalence of zeros that helped me uncover the duplication that
made up most of the corruption in one firms records. The non-standard date
problem was uncovered when the database reported timeslips purportedly from
December 2014, for example.
97. A few of the timekeepers including lawyers I consider fine practitioners
who always perform far above the rest were also rated 0Ns on my scale in
this case. For example, I believe that Barry Bostrom is an excellent lawyer,
perhaps one of the best at what he does, and one of the few other attorneys who
is both an expert on tax-exempt organizations and complicated litigation. But he
came into the case nine months after his firm began working intensively on this
case, and I couldnt see how he added much of value to the presentation to the
Court. The same with Jill Holtzman-Vogel a prominent and effective
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practitioner whose firm represents a huge percentage of active conservative
advocacy organizations who seemed to appear in the middle of her firms
representation of the taxpayer, reviewed some correspondence and held some
conferences with a low-level attorney from her firm; I didnt see how that added
much value to the presentation to the Court. In both cases, the attorneys role
seemed to be to counsel lower-level attorneys, which is likely a factor already
built into the hourly rates of the lower-level attorneys.
98. There were also a significant number of slips in the middle. Slips whose
certainty was rated 1 or 2 were generally going to produce quite low scores.
Those tended to be slips that indicated some significant question or concern. An
example would be the participation of an attorney who dipped into the case
once or twice with only one timeslip. Or an attorney who included both travel
and work time on the same timeslip. If I couldnt tell how to divide the time
between a valid and a questionable purpose, I downgraded the entire amount of
the slip. Timekeepers who did not break their slips into discrete units (and thus
presented large chunks of requested time) generally received lower profile
scores than those whose slips indicated a variety of topics but with time for
each separately identified.
99. Other slips received a higher score, such as a 7, which was generally what
appeared to be a valid slip, but with a question that I couldnt answer from the
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available description. Many of the slips that indicated a possible duplicative or
excessive amount of time as from too many participants in a meeting or
review tended to get downgraded from 10 to 7, even if it appeared the activity
itself was reasonable.
100. And there were slips that were just scored as a 5. There wouldnt necessarily
be anything wrong with a 5 score; it just didnt have the hallmarks needed for a
higher score. Perhaps there was a question about relevance or duplication, and
the slip didnt have the hallmarks of a valid project with just a question or two.
101. Admittedly, these were purely subjective evaluations, based solely on a
review of very limited information. But they did produce a distribution of slips,
weeding out the presumptively-unreasonable ones quickly, and protecting the
vast majority of the slips which seemed reasonable.
102. The coding on the timeslips, from 0N to 10Y then was used to calculate
an adjusted figure for the requested fee award on each timeslip. Thus, using the
Vienna Metro Matrix rates, the score was adjusted in an algorithm that
removed the lowest scoring figures, then multipled the requested number of
hours by the hourly rate, less any discounting. The resulting adjusted time was
totaled to calculate an overall reasonableness figure.
103. Once I had a preliminary review of the reasonableness of the requested time,
I presented those preliminary findings and a locked, reviewable but non-
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editable copy of the database, to the relevant timekeepers on July 15. Without
any prompting from me, the counsels independently discussed those findings
and decided to reduce their requested fees by eliminating most of the
timekeepers requests. Instead they decided to concentrate on the seven
timekeepers they felt were most important to the presentation to the Court.
104. I again reviewed the timeslips, but only those of the seven remaining
timekeepers. The reduction in requested time did alter some of the analyses of
the requests as judged by the standards I was using. In particular, the number of
timeslips which indicated some concerns about duplicative and excessive
billing was significantly reduced. As a result of this final analysis pass, five of
the remaining timekeepers sets of requests were downrated further, and two
were increased.
THE FINDINGS
105. In general, for the timeslips where I had sufficient information to judge the
requested time both absolutely and in relation to other slips, the vast majority of
the time requested seemed reasonable. In other words, in light of the difficulty
of litigating a case like this against the bunker mentality of todays IRS, I
could see how, in the abstract, each of those slips showed a reasonable amount
of time on a necessary task for an effective presentation to the Court.
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106. The remaining seven timekeepers submitted a total of 2,684 timeslips for my
review, down from 3,500 original slips. I further reduced the number of
timeslips by eliminating approximately 52 timeslips as either duplicative,
untimely, or presumptively unreasonable; in short, those with a 0N rating,
and the remainder being corrupted timeslips that I was unable to review.
107. Of the remaining 2,632 timeslips, 2,158 got a 10Y rating, the highest
available, and the requested time on those timeslips was recognized as fully
reasonable. In order to be considered 10Y reasonable, the timeslip had to: a)
be within the correct time period, b) have an adequate description to permit
review and analysis under general Virginia ethical standards, c) be related to a
common core of facts or legal theory that was successful, d) not be duplicative
or e) excessive, and f) not appear to be related to the attorneys fees already
awarded as costs in the Courts earlier decision. It also had to appear, in my sole
professional opinion, to be reasonable in amount and type, even outside the six
review standards categories.
108. I applied varying degrees of discounts, from 10% to 90%, to another
approximately 474 timeslips. 274 timeslips were rated between 7Y and 9Y.
The remaining 200 timeslips were rated between 1Y the lowest rating for
which any time would be found reasonable and 5Y, which meant reductions
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51

of 50-90% in the requested time. In this set of reviews, there were no 6Y
ratings.
109. Of the grounds for downrating requested time (that is, based on the standards
I identified in my earlier research), 40 of the remaining 2, 632 timeslips showed
some indication of time unrelated to the successful claims; these slips were
generally rejected or substantially downrated. 345 timeslips showed some
evidence that the time requested was excessive for the particular project; the
downrating for these slips varied depending on the nature of the perceived
excess. 22 timeslips involved some question about whether the requested
activity and time had already been requested as damages or costs, or should
have been; this time was substantially downrated. 165 timeslips showed some
evidence of duplication of effort, ranging from complete duplication (which
was rejected) to questions of how many timekeepers were needed to work on a
particular project. Some slips showed more than one concern.
110. The original, unadjusted dollar amount of the raw timeslips totaled more
than $1.1 million. The review of the raw, unadjusted timeslips indicated to me
that the unadjusted total would likely be considered unreasonable by the Court.
111. My original preliminary conclusions, using the analysis and review
standards described above, reduced that amount to $831,799.65. I believed that
the Court could find that request to be reasonable in light of the circumstances
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of this case. Factors tending to show reasonableness of that figure included the
Snider analysis, described in more detail above and below, and the IRSs
bunker mentality of refusing to provide required information and prolonging
and making more difficult resulting litigation.
112. After the taxpayers legal counsels conferred and further reduced the amount
of requested fees, I again reviewed the now-reduced number of timeslips, as
described above. The seven remaining timekeepers request amount as adjusted
by the process described above produced a more reasonable figure of $744,183,
a reduction of $399,220 in requested billings from the original unadjusted
totals.
ANALYSIS
113. The calculated and adjusted figure of $744,183 is quite large, but that this is
a large number does not automatically make it unreasonable.
114. In Snider, the District Court found that an award to four timekeepers totaling
$463,777.50 was reasonable. Snider, at *1-*2. There were multiple parties,
multiple disclosures, multiple claims and multiple witnesses in Snider, and the
original damages awards totaled $260,384. A portion of those awards were of
punitive damages. And the $228 and $236 hourly rates requested in Snider were
less than half that proposed by the Vienna Metro Matrix. Utilizing
comparable Vienna Metro Matrix hourly rates (as best as could be determined
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53

from the judges limited notations), the Snider award could have been higher
than the requested award here, perhaps as much as $928,000.
115. In addition, this case had a degree of non-cooperation by the IRS and
various other entities and persons that multiplied the difficulty of the case and
required even more legal activity than would have been required only a few
years ago. Though the Court found the violation to be a simple negligent act by
the IRS, to get to that point, the taxpayer and the Court had to obtain a
substantial amount of information that was not available at the commencement
of the case and would not have become available absent the legal efforts on
behalf of the taxpayer. Thus, the size of the requested fees does not appear to be
unreasonable, given all these factors.
116. As noted above, upon examination of these records, the vast majority of the
time claimed appears to be for an appropriate time period, appropriately
described, on successful or related claims, on appropriate rates, and otherwise
justifiable.
CONCLUSION
117. It is my opinion, based on my experience, knowledge, familiarity with the
IRS, and the analysis above, that the overall adjusted amount of $744,183 is
reasonable.

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I hereby swear, under penalty of perjury, that the foregoing is based on my
own personal knowledge, the information presented to me, or information and
belief, and is, to the best of my ability, my professional opinion as expressed.

____________________________
Barnaby W. Zall
Affiant

Of Counsel
Weinberg, Jacobs & Tolani, LLP
10411 Motor City Drive, Suite 500
Bethesda, MD 20852
301-231-6943 (direct dial)
bzall@bzall.com

July 24, 2014

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Exhibit 2
Attachment 1
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55

ATTACHMENT ONE
MARCH 13, 2013, E-MAIL FROM LOIS LERNER

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56
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57
Exhibit 2
Attachment 2
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ATTACHMENT TWO
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Original Requests:
Timeslips: 3,500 approx.
Hours Recorded: 3,000 hours approx.
Amount Requested: More than $1.1 using the Vienna Metro Matrix rates
provided to me for those timekeepers whose listings did not otherwise provide
rates and the rates claimed for those who did.

Preliminary Analysis:
Timeslips: 3,217 approx. (net reduction of 300 duplicate or
presumptively unreasonable timeslips)
Hours Recorded: 2,873 hours approx. (net of 0N time removed)
Amount Requested: $972,759.50 unadjusted.
Adjusted: $878,645.55
Adjusted: $831,991.70 (Vienna Metro Matrix rates)

Final Analysis:
Timeslips: 2,682 approx.
Hours Recorded: 2,340 approx.
Amount Requested: $744,183 adjusted (Vienna Metro Matrix rates)
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By Timekeeper (Final analysis; some rounding for clarity):
Timekeeper Hours Vienna Metro Rate Requested Amount
William Davis 388 $550 $172,865
John C. Eastman 266.5 $520 $ 91,488
Noel Johnson 532 $350 $149,947
Cleta Mitchell 90.7 $550 $ 38,390
Kaylan Phillips 713.2 $350 $206,468
Shawn Sheehy 190.75 $250 $ 25,587
Jason Torchinsky 159.25 $520 $ 59,436

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Exhibit 2
Attachment 3
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ATTACHMENT THREE
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Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91-2 Filed 07/25/14 Page 69 of 140 PageID# 1753
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Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91-2 Filed 07/25/14 Page 82 of 140 PageID# 1766
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Case 1:13-cv-01225-JCC-IDD Document 91-2 Filed 07/25/14 Page 84 of 140 PageID# 1768
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