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G.R. No. *+*,-.





M15 ,, 677.

G.R. No. *+*87-


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G.R. No. *+*89:


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# $e!"%" #


G.R. No. *+*89,

G.R. No. *+*877


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# $e!"%" #


G.R. No. *+*89-

G.R. No. *+*868





A33 'oAe!" ee( "o2e !e"t!1it@ '!1BtiB13 1(C%"t2et" !1tDe! tD1 !i4i(
Eo!2%31 1!e eBe""1!5.
S%'e!io! "t!e4tD < tDe %"e oE Eo!Be < B1ot 21He
A!o4" ito !i4Dt". I tDi" !e41!(, tDe Bo%!t" "Do%3( Ie $i4i31t i "1Ee4%1!(i4 tDe
Bo"tit%tio13 !i4Dt" oE tDe BitiJe", "'eBiEiB1335 tDei! 3iIe!t5.
CDieE J%"tiBe A!te2io V. P141iI1K" 'Di3o"o'D5 oE 3iIe!t5 i" tD%" 2o"t
!e3e$1t. He "1i(/ LIn cases involving liberty, the scales of justice should weigh
heavily against government and in favor of the poor, the oppressed, the
marginalized, the dispossessed and the weak.M L1A" 1( 1Btio" tD1t !e"t!iBt
E%(12et13 !i4Dt" Bo2e to tDe Bo%!t" LAitD 1 De1$5 '!e"%2'tio 141i"t tDei!
Bo"tit%tio13 $13i(it5.M
TDe"e "e$e =+> Bo"o3i(1te( 'etitio" Eo! certiorari 1( '!oDiIitio 133e4e
tD1t i i""%i4 P!e"i(eti13 P!oB3121tio No. *7*+ =PP *7*+> 1( Gee!13 O!(e!
No. : =G.O. No. :>, P!e"i(et G3o!i1 M1B1'1413#A!!o5o Bo22itte( 4!1$e 1I%"e oE
(i"B!etio. Petitioe!" Bote( tD1t !e"'o(et oEEiBi13" oE tDe Go$e!2et, i
tDei! '!oEe""e( eEEo!t" to (eEe( 1( '!e"e!$e (e2oB!1tiB i"tit%tio", 1!e 1Bt%1335
t!12'3i4 %'o tDe $e!5 E!ee(o2 4%1!1tee( 1( '!oteBte( I5 tDe
Co"tit%tio. HeBe, "%BD i""%1Be" 1!e $oi( Eo! Iei4 %Bo"tit%tio13.

OBe 141i, tDe Co%!t i" E1Be( AitD 1 14e#o3( I%t 'e!"i"tet35 2o(e!
'!oI3e2. How does the Constitution of a free people combine the degree
of liberty, without which, law becomes tyranny, with the degree of law, without
which, liberty becomes licenseN
O FeI!%1!5 68, 677., 1" tDe 1tio Be3eI!1te( tDe 67
Ai$e!"1!5 oE
tDe Edsa People Power , P!e"i(et A!!o5o i""%e( PP *7*+ (eB31!i4 1 "t1te oE
1tio13 e2e!4eB5, tD%"/

NO, !"#$#%O$#, I, G3o!i1 M1B1'1413#A!!o5o, P!e"i(et oE tDe
Re'%I3iB oE tDe PDi3i''ie" 1( Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE tDe A!2e( Fo!Be" oE tDe
PDi3i''ie", I5 $i!t%e oE tDe 'oAe!" $e"te( %'o 2e I5 SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e + oE
tDe PDi3i''ie Co"tit%tio ADiBD "t1te" tD1t/ LTDe P!e"i(et. . . ADee$e! it
IeBo2e" eBe""1!5, . . . 215 B133 o%t =tDe> 1!2e( Eo!Be" to '!e$et o! "%''!e"". .
.!eIe33io. . .,M 1( i 25 B1'1Bit5 1" tDei! Co221(e!#i#CDieE, do hereby
command the &rmed %orces of the 'hilippines, to maintain law and order
throughout the 'hilippines, prevent or suppress all forms of lawless violence
as well as any act of insurrection or rebellion and to enforce obedience to all
the laws and to all decrees, orders and regulations promulgated by me
personally or upon my direction@ 1( as provided in (ection )*, &rticle )+ of
the ,onstitution do hereby declare a (tate of National #mergency-

SDe Bite( tDe Eo33oAi4 E1Bt" 1" I1"e"/

"#$#&(, o$e! tDe"e '1"t 2otD", e3e2et" i tDe political opposition
have conspired with authoritarians of the extreme .eft represented by the
N/%-,''-N'& and the extreme $ight, represented by military adventurists
0 the historical enemies of the democratic 'hilippine (tate < ADo 1!e oA i 1
t1BtiB13 133i1Be 1( e414e( i 1 BoBe!te( 1( "5"te21tiB Bo"'i!1B5, o$e! 1
I!o1( E!ot, to I!i4 (oA tDe (%35 Bo"tit%te( Go$e!2et e3eBte( i M15 6778@

"#$#&(, tDe"e Bo"'i!1to!" D1$e !e'e1te(35 t!ie( to I!i4 (oA tDe

"#$#&(, the claims of these elements have been recklessly
magnified by certain segments of the national media1

"#$#&(, tDi" "e!ie" oE 1Btio" i" D%!ti4 tDe PDi3i''ie St1te < I5
oI"t!%Bti4 4o$e!1Be iB3%(i4 hindering the growth of the economy and
sabotaging the people2s confidence in government and their faith in the
future of this country@

"#$#&(, tDe"e actions are adversely affecting the economy1

"#$#&(, these activities give totalitarian forces of both the
extreme .eft and extreme $ight the opening to intensify their avowed aims to
bring down the democratic 'hilippine (tate@

"#$#&(, A!tiB3e 6, SeBtio 8 oE tDe o%! Co"tit%tio 21He" tDe
(eEe"e 1( '!e"e!$1tio oE tDe (e2oB!1tiB i"tit%tio" 1( tDe St1te tDe '!i21!5
(%t5 oE Go$e!2et@

"#$#&(, tDe 1Bti$itie" 1Io$e#(e"B!iIe(, tDei! Bo"eO%eBe",
!12iEiB1tio" 1( Bo331te!13 eEEeBt" Bo"tit%te 1 clear and present danger to tDe
"1Eet5 1( tDe ite4!it5 oE tDe PDi3i''ie St1te 1( oE tDe Fi3i'io 'eo'3e@

O tDe "12e (15, tDe P!e"i(et i""%e( G. O. No. : i2'3e2eti4 PP *7*+,

"#$#&(, o$e! tDe"e '1"t 2otD", e3e2et" i tDe 'o3itiB13 o''o"itio
D1$e Bo"'i!e( AitD 1%tDo!it1!i1" oE tDe e)t!e2e LeEt, !e'!e"ete( I5 tDe NDF#
CPP#NPA 1( tDe e)t!e2e Ri4Dt, !e'!e"ete( I5 2i3it1!5 1($et%!i"t" # tDe
Di"to!iB13 ee2ie" oE tDe (e2oB!1tiB PDi3i''ie St1te < 1( ADo 1!e oA i 1
t1BtiB13 133i1Be 1( e414e( i 1 BoBe!te( 1( "5"te21tiB Bo"'i!1B5, o$e! 1
I!o1( E!ot, to I!i4 (oA tDe (%35#Bo"tit%te( Go$e!2et e3eBte( i M15 6778@
"#$#&(, tDe"e Bo"'i!1to!" D1$e !e'e1te(35 t!ie( to I!i4 (oA o%!
!e'%I3iB1 4o$e!2et@

"#$#&(, tDe B31i2" oE tDe"e e3e2et" D1$e Iee !eBH3e""35 214iEie(
I5 Be!t1i "e42et" oE tDe 1tio13 2e(i1@

"#$#&(, tDe"e "e!ie" oE 1Btio" i" D%!ti4 tDe PDi3i''ie St1te I5
oI"t!%Bti4 4o$e!1Be, iB3%(i4 Di(e!i4 tDe 4!oAtD oE tDe eBoo25 1(
"1Iot14i4 tDe 'eo'3eK" BoEi(eBe i tDe 4o$e!2et 1( tDei! E1itD i tDe E%t%!e
oE tDi" Bo%t!5@

"#$#&(, tDe"e 1Btio" 1!e 1($e!"e35 1EEeBti4 tDe eBoo25@

"#$#&(, tDe"e 1Bti$itie" 4i$e tot13it1!i1 Eo!Be"@ oE IotD tDe e)t!e2e
LeEt 1( e)t!e2e Ri4Dt tDe o'ei4 to ite"iE5 tDei! 1$oAe( 1i2" to I!i4 (oA
tDe (e2oB!1tiB PDi3i''ie St1te@

"#$#&(, A!tiB3e 6, SeBtio 8 oE o%! Co"tit%tio 21He" tDe (eEe"e
1( '!e"e!$1tio oE tDe (e2oB!1tiB i"tit%tio" 1( tDe St1te tDe '!i21!5 (%t5 oE

"#$#&(, tDe 1Bti$itie" 1Io$e#(e"B!iIe(, tDei! Bo"eO%eBe",
!12iEiB1tio" 1( Bo331te!13 eEEeBt" Bo"tit%te 1 B3e1! 1( '!e"et (14e! to tDe
"1Eet5 1( tDe ite4!it5 oE tDe PDi3i''ie St1te 1( oE tDe Fi3i'io 'eo'3e@

"#$#&(, P!oB3121tio *7*+ (1te FeI!%1!5 68, 677. D1" Iee i""%e(
(eB31!i4 1 St1te oE N1tio13 E2e!4eB5@

NO, !"#$#%O$#, I 3.O$I& 4&,&'&3&.-&$$O5O, I5 $i!t%e
oE tDe 'oAe!" $e"te( i 2e %(e! tDe Co"tit%tio 1" P!e"i(et oE tDe Re'%I3iB oE
tDe PDi3i''ie", 1( Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE tDe Re'%I3iB oE tDe PDi3i''ie", 1(
'%!"%1t to P!oB3121tio No. *7*+ (1te( FeI!%1!5 68, 677., (o De!eI5 B133 %'o
tDe A!2e( Fo!Be" oE tDe PDi3i''ie" =AFP> 1( tDe PDi3i''ie N1tio13 Po3iBe
=PNP>, to '!e$et 1( "%''!e"" 1Bt" oE te!!o!i"2 1( 31A3e"" $io3eBe i tDe

I De!eI5 (i!eBt tDe CDieE oE St1EE oE tDe AFP 1( tDe CDieE oE tDe PNP, 1"
Ae33 1" tDe oEEiBe!" 1( 2e oE tDe AFP 1( PNP, to immediately carry out the
necessary and appropriate actions and measures to suppress and prevent acts
of terrorism and lawless violence.

O M1!BD ,, 677., e)1Bt35 oe AeeH 1Ete! tDe (eB31!1tio oE 1 "t1te oE
1tio13 e2e!4eB5 1( 1Ete! 133 tDe"e 'etitio" D1( Iee Ei3e(, tDe P!e"i(et 3iEte(
PP *7*+. SDe i""%e( P!oB3121tio No. *76* ADiBD !e1("/
"#$#&(, '%!"%1t to SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e VII 1( SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e
&II oE tDe Co"tit%tio, P!oB3121tio No. *7*+ (1te( FeI!%1!5 68, 677., A1"
i""%e( (eB31!i4 1 "t1te oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5@

"#$#&(, I5 $i!t%e oE Gee!13 O!(e! No.: 1( No.. (1te( FeI!%1!5
68, 677., ADiBD Ae!e i""%e( o tDe I1"i" oE P!oB3121tio No. *7*+, tDe A!2e(
Fo!Be" oE tDe PDi3i''ie" =AFP> 1( tDe PDi3i''ie N1tio13 Po3iBe =PNP>, Ae!e
(i!eBte( to 21it1i 31A 1( o!(e! tD!o%4Do%t tDe PDi3i''ie", '!e$et 1(
"%''!e"" 133 Eo!2 oE 31A3e"" $io3eBe 1" Ae33 1" 15 1Bt oE !eIe33io 1( to
%(e!t1He "%BD 1Btio 1" 215 Ie eBe""1!5@

"#$#&(, tDe AFP 1( PNP D1$e eEEeBti$e35 '!e$ete(, "%''!e""e(
1( O%e33e( tDe 1Bt" 31A3e"" $io3eBe 1( !eIe33io@

NO, !"#$#%O$#, I, 3.O$I& 4&,&'&3&.-
&$$O5O, P!e"i(et oE tDe Re'%I3iB oE tDe PDi3i''ie", I5 $i!t%e oE tDe 'oAe!"
$e"te( i 2e I5 31A, De!eI5 declare that the state of national emergency has
ceased to exist-

I tDei! '!e"et1tio oE tDe E1Bt%13 I1"e" oE PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. :,
!e"'o(et" "t1te( tD1t tDe '!o)i21te B1%"e IeDi( tDe e)eB%ti$e i""%1Be" A1" tDe
Bo"'i!1B5 12o4 "o2e 2i3it1!5 oEEiBe!", 3eEti"t i"%!4et" oE tDe NeA Peo'3eK"
A!25 =NPA>, 1( "o2e 2e2Ie!" oE tDe 'o3itiB13 o''o"itio i 1 '3ot to %"e1t o!
1""1""i1te P!e"i(et A!!o5o.
TDe5 Bo"i(e!e( tDe 1i2 to o%"t o! 1""1""i1te tDe
P!e"i(et 1( t1He#o$e! tDe !ei4" oE 4o$e!2et 1" 1 B3e1! 1( '!e"et (14e!.
D%!i4 tDe o!13 1!4%2et" De3( o M1!BD +, 677., tDe So3iBito! Gee!13
"'eBiEie( tDe E1Bt" 3e1(i4 to tDe i""%1Be oE PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No.
:. (ignificantly, there was no refutation from petitioners2 counsels-
TDe So3iBito! Gee!13 1!4%e( tD1t tDe itet oE tDe Co"tit%tio i" to 4i$e
E%33 discretionary powers to tDe P!e"i(et i (ete!2ii4 tDe eBe""it5 oE B133i4
o%t tDe 1!2e( Eo!Be". He e2'D1"iJe( tD1t oe oE tDe 'etitioe!" D1" "DoA tD1t
PP *7*+ A1" AitDo%t E1Bt%13 I1"e". ?Di3e De e)'31ie( tD1t it i" ot !e"'o(et"K
t1"H to "t1te tDe E1Bt" IeDi( tDe O%e"tioe( P!oB3121tio, DoAe$e!, tDe5 1!e
'!e"eti4 tDe "12e, 1!!1te( De!e%(e!, Eo! tDe e3%Bi(1tio oE tDe i""%e".
O J1%1!5 *+, 677., C1't1i N1tD1ie3 R1IoJ1 1( Fi!"t
Lie%te1t" So5 S1!2ieto, L1A!eBe S1 J%1 1( P1t!iBio B%2i(14,
2e2Ie!" oE tDe M14(13o G!o%' i(iBte( i tDe O1HAoo( 2%ti5, e"B1'e( tDei!
(etetio Be33 i Fo!t BoiE1Bio, T14%i4 Cit5. I 1 '%I3iB "t1te2et, tDe5 $oAe( to
!e21i (eEi1t 1( to e3%(e 1!!e"t 1t 133 Bo"t". TDe5 B133e( %'o tDe 'eo'3e to
Lshow and proclaim our displeasure at the sham regime. !et us demonstrate our
disgust, not only by going to the streets in protest, but also by wearing red bands
on our left arms.M

O FeI!%1!5 *+, 677., tDe 1%tDo!itie" 4ot Do3( oE 1 (oB%2et etit3e(
L"plan Hac#le M ADiBD (et1i3e( '31" Eo! Io2Ii4" 1( 1tt1BH" (%!i4 tDe
PDi3i''ie Mi3it1!5 AB1(e25 A3%2i Ho2eBo2i4 i B14%io Cit5. TDe '3ot A1"
to 1""1""i1te "e3eBte( t1!4et" iB3%(i4 "o2e B1Iiet 2e2Ie!" 1( P!e"i(et
A!!o5o De!"e3E.
U'o tDe 1($iBe oE De! "eB%!it5, P!e"i(et A!!o5o (eBi(e( ot to
1tte( tDe A3%2i Ho2eBo2i4. TDe e)t (15, 1t tDe Dei4Dt oE tDe Be3eI!1tio, 1
Io2I A1" Eo%( 1( (eto1te( 1t tDe PMA '1!1(e 4!o%(.
O FeI!%1!5 6*, 677., Lt. S1 J%1 A1" !eB1't%!e( i 1 Bo22%i"t
"1EeDo%"e i B1t141" '!o$iBe. Fo%( i Di" 'o""e""io Ae!e tAo =6> E31"D (i"H"
Bot1ii4 2i%te" oE tDe 2eeti4" IetAee 2e2Ie!" oE tDe M14(13o G!o%' 1(
tDe N1tio13 Peo'3eK" A!25 =NPA>, 1 t1'e !eBo!(e!, 1%(io B1""ette B1!t!i(4e",
(i"Hette", 1( Bo'ie" oE "%I$e!"i$e (oB%2et".
P!io! to Di" 1!!e"t, Lt. S1 J%1
1o%Be( tD!o%4D DZRH tD1t tDe L$agdalo%s &'&ay would be on (ebruary )*,
)++,, the )+
Anni-ersary of Edsa ..
O FeI!%1!5 6,, 677., PNP CDieE A!t%!o Lo2iI1o ite!Be'te( iEo!21tio
tD1t 2e2Ie!" oE tDe PNP# S'eBi13 ABtio Fo!Be Ae!e '31i4 to (eEeBt. TD%", De
i22e(i1te35 o!(e!e( SAF Co221(i4 Gee!13 M1!Be3io F!1Bo, J!.
to /disa-ow. 15 (eEeBtio. TDe 31tte! '!o2't35 oIe5e( 1( i""%e( 1 '%I3iB
"t1te2et/ LAll 0A( units are under the effecti-e control of responsible and
trustworthy officers with pro-en integrity and un1uestionable loyalty.M
O tDe "12e (15, 1t tDe Do%"e oE Eo!2e! Co4!e""21 Pe'i4 CoC%14Bo,
P!e"i(et Co!5 AO%ioK" I!otDe!, I%"ie""2e 1( 2i(#3e$e3 4o$e!2et oEEiBi13"
'3otte( 2o$e" to I!i4 (oA tDe A!!o5o 1(2ii"t!1tio. Ne335 Si(15e oE TIME
M141Jie !e'o!te( tD1t P1"to! S15Bo, 3o4ti2e A!!o5o B!itiB, B133e( 1 U.S.
4o$e!2et oEEiBi13 1Io%t Di" 4!o%'K" '31" iE P!e"i(et A!!o5o i" o%"te(. S15Bo
13"o 'Doe( 1 21 Bo(e#12e( De3t1. S15Bo i(etiEie( Di2 1" BPGe. D1i3o
Li2, Co221(e! oE tDe A!25K" e3ite SBo%t R14e!. Li2 "1i( Lit was all systems
go for the planned mo-ement against Arroyo.M
BPGe. D1i3o Li2 1( B!i41(e Co221(e! Co3. A!ie3 Q%e!%Ii BoEi(e(
to Ge. Gee!o"o Se41, CDieE oE St1EE oE tDe A!2e( Fo!Be" oE tDe PDi3i''ie"
=AFP>, tD1t 1 D%4e %2Ie! oE "o3(ie!" Ao%3( Coi tDe !133ie" to '!o$i(e 1 B!itiB13
21"" 1( 1!2e( Bo2'oet to tDe Ati#A!!o5o '!ote"t" to Ie De3( o FeI!%1!5 68,
677:. ABBo!(i4 to tDe"e tAo =6> oEEiBe!", tDe!e A1" o A15 tDe5 Bo%3( 'o""iI35
"to' tDe "o3(ie!" IeB1%"e tDe5 too, Ae!e I!e1Hi4 tDe BD1i oE Bo221( to Coi tDe
Eo!Be" Eoi"t to %"e1t tDe P!e"i(et. HoAe$e!, Ge. Se41 D1" !e21ie( E1itDE%3 to
Di" Co221(e!#i#CDieE 1( to tDe BD1i oE Bo221(. He i22e(i1te35 tooH
B%"to(5 oE BPGe. Li2 1( (i!eBte( Co3. Q%e!%Ii to !et%! to tDe PDi3i''ie
M1!ie" He1(O%1!te!" i Fo!t BoiE1Bio.
E1!3ie!, tDe CPP#NPA B133e( Eo! ite"iEiB1tio oE 'o3itiB13 1( !e$o3%tio1!5
Ao!H AitDi tDe 2i3it1!5 1( tDe 'o3iBe e"t1I3i"D2et" i o!(e! to Eo!4e 133i1Be"
AitD it" 2e2Ie!" 1( He5 oEEiBi13". NPA "'oHe"21 G!e4o!io L;1 Ro4e!M Ro"13
(eB31!e(/ L2he Communist Party and re-olutionary mo-ement and the entire
people loo# forward to the possibility in the coming year of accomplishing its
immediate tas# of bringing down the Arroyo regime3 of rendering it to wea#en and
unable to rule that it will not ta#e much longer to end it.M
O tDe otDe! D1(, Ce"1! Ree!io, "'oHe"21 Eo! tDe N1tio13 De2oB!1tiB
F!ot =NDF> 1t No!tD Cet!13 Mi(11o, '%I3iB35 1o%Be(/ LAnti'Arroyo groups
within the military and police are growing rapidly, hastened by the economic
difficulties suffered by the families of A(P officers and enlisted personnel who
underta#e counter'insurgency operations in the field.M He B31i2e( tD1t AitD tDe
Eo!Be" oE tDe 1tio13 (e2oB!1tiB 2o$e2et, tDe 1ti#A!!o5o Bo"e!$1ti$e 'o3itiB13
'1!tie", Bo13itio", '3%" tDe 4!o%'" tD1t D1$e Iee !eiEo!Bi4 "iBe J%e 677:, it i"
'!oI1I3e tD1t tDe P!e"i(etK" o%"te! i" e1!i4 it" BoB3%(i4 "t14e i tDe Ei!"t D13E
oE 677..
Re"'o(et" E%!tDe! B31i2e( tD1t tDe Io2Ii4 oE te3eBo22%iB1tio toAe!"
1( Be33 "ite" i B%31B1 1( B1t11 A1" 13"o Bo"i(e!e( 1" 1((itio13 E1Bt%13 I1"i"
Eo! tDe i""%1Be oE PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. :. So i" tDe !1i( oE 1 1!25 o%t'o"t i
Be4%et !e"%3ti4 i tDe (e1tD oE tD!ee =,> "o3(ie!". A( 13"o tDe (i!eBti$e oE tDe
Co22%i"t P1!t5 oE tDe PDi3i''ie" o!(e!i4 it" E!ot o!41iJ1tio" to Coi :,777
Met!o M1i31 !1(iB13" 1( 6:,777 2o!e E!o2 tDe '!o$iBe" i 21"" '!ote"t".
B5 2i(i4Dt oE FeI!%1!5 6,, 677., tDe P!e"i(et Bo$ee( De! "eB%!it5
1($i"e!" 1( "e$e!13 B1Iiet 2e2Ie!" to 1""e"" tDe 4!1$it5 oE tDe Ee!2eti4 'e1Be
1( o!(e! "it%1tio. SDe (i!eBte( IotD tDe AFP 1( tDe PNP to 1BBo%t Eo! 133 tDei!
2e 1( e"%!e tD1t tDe BD1i oE Bo221( !e21i" "o3i( 1( %(i$i(e(. To
'!oteBt tDe 5o%4 "t%(et" E!o2 15 'o""iI3e t!o%I3e tD1t 2i4Dt I!e1H 3oo"e o tDe
"t!eet", tDe P!e"i(et "%"'e(e( B31""e" i 133 3e$e3" i tDe eti!e N1tio13 C1'it13
%or their part, petitioners cited the events that followed after the
issuance of '' )6)* and 3-O- No- 7.
I22e(i1te35, tDe OEEiBe oE tDe P!e"i(et 1o%Be( tDe B1Be331tio oE 133
'!o4!12" 1( 1Bti$itie" !e31te( to tDe 67
1i$e!"1!5 Be3eI!1tio oE Edsa People
Power @ 1( !e$oHe( tDe 'e!2it" to Do3( !133ie" i""%e( e1!3ie! I5 tDe 3oB13
4o$e!2et". J%"tiBe SeB!et1!5 R1%3 GoJ13e" "t1te( tD1t 'o3itiB13 !133ie", ADiBD to
tDe P!e"i(etK" 2i( Ae!e o!41iJe( Eo! '%!'o"e" oE (e"t1Ii3iJ1tio, 1!e
B1Be33e(. P!e"i(eti13 CDieE oE St1EE MiBD1e3 DeEe"o! 1o%Be( tD1t
Lwarrantless arrests and ta#e'o-er of facilities, including media, can already be

U(ete!!e( I5 tDe 1o%Be2et" tD1t !133ie" 1( '%I3iB 1""e2I3ie" Ao%3(
ot Ie 133oAe(, 4!o%'" oE '!ote"te!" =2e2Ie!" oE 4ilusang $ayo 5no F;MUG 1(
N1tio13 Fe(e!1tio oE L1Io! Uio"#4ilusang $ayo 5no FNAFLU#;MUG>,
21!BDe( E!o2 $1!io%" '1!t" oE Met!o M1i31 AitD tDe itetio oE Bo$e!4i4 1t
tDe EDSA "D!ie. TDo"e ADo Ae!e 13!e1(5 e1! tDe EDSA "ite Ae!e $io3et35
(i"'e!"e( I5 D%4e B3%"te!" oE 1ti#!iot 'o3iBe. TDe Ae33#t!1ie( 'o3iBe2e %"e(
t!%BDeo", Ii4 EiIe! 431"" "Die3(", A1te! B1o", 1( te1! 41" to "to' 1( I!e1H
%' tDe 21!BDi4 4!o%'", 1( "B1tte! tDe 21""e( '1!tiBi'1t". TDe "12e 'o3iBe
1Btio A1" %"e( 141i"t tDe '!ote"te!" 21!BDi4 Eo!A1!( to C%I1o, Q%eJo Cit5
1( to tDe Bo!e! oE S1to31 St!eet 1( EDSA. TD1t "12e e$ei4, D%(!e(" oE
!iot 'o3iBe2e I!oHe %' 1 EDSA Be3eI!1tio !1335 De3( 13o4 A5131 A$e%e 1(
P1"eo (e Ro)1" St!eet i M1H1ti Cit5.

ABBo!(i4 to 'etitioe! 4ilusang $ayo 5no, tDe 'o3iBe Bite( PP *7*+ 1" tDe
4!o%( Eo! tDe (i"'e!"13 oE tDei! 1""e2I3ie".
D%!i4 tDe (i"'e!"13 oE tDe !1335i"t" 13o4 EDSA, 'o3iBe 1!!e"te( =AitDo%t
A1!!1t> 'etitioe! R1(o3E S. D1$i(, 1 '!oEe""o! 1t tDe Ui$e!"it5 oE tDe
PDi3i''ie" 1( eA"'1'e! Bo3%2i"t. A3"o 1!!e"te( A1" Di" Bo2'1io, Ro13(
L3121", '!e"i(et oE '1!t5#3i"t A#bayan.
At 1!o%( *6/67 i tDe e1!35 2o!i4 oE FeI!%1!5 6:, 677., o'e!1ti$e" oE tDe
C!i2i13 I$e"ti41tio 1( DeteBtio G!o%' =CIDG> oE tDe PNP, o tDe I1"i" oE PP
*7*+ 1( G.O. No. :, !1i(e( tDe &aily 2ribune oEEiBe" i M1i31. TDe !1i(i4
te12 BoEi"B1te( eA" "to!ie" I5 !e'o!te!", (oB%2et", 'iBt%!e", 1( 2oBH#%'" oE
tDe S1t%!(15 i""%e. Po3iBe2e E!o2 C12' C!12e i Q%eJo Cit5 Ae!e "t1tioe(
i"i(e tDe e(ito!i13 1( I%"ie"" oEEiBe" oE tDe eA"'1'e!@ ADi3e 'o3iBe2e E!o2
tDe M1i31 Po3iBe Di"t!iBt Ae!e "t1tioe( o%t"i(e tDe I%i3(i4.

A EeA 2i%te" 1Ete! tDe "e1!BD 1( "eiJ%!e 1t tDe &aily 2ribune oEEiBe", tDe
'o3iBe "%!!o%(e( tDe '!e2i"e" oE 1otDe! '!o#o''o"itio '1'e!, M13151, 1( it"
"i"te! '%I3iB1tio, tDe t1I3oi( AI1te.
TDe !1i(, 1BBo!(i4 to P!e"i(eti13 CDieE oE St1EE MiBD1e3
DeEe"o!, i" /meant to show a 6strong presence,% to tell media outlets not to
conni-e or do anything that would help the rebels in bringing down this
go-ernment.. TDe PNP A1!e( tD1t it Ao%3( t1He o$e! 15 2e(i1 o!41iJ1tio
tD1t Ao%3( ot Eo33oA /standards set by the go-ernment during the state of
national emergency.. Di!eBto! Gee!13 Lo2iI1o "t1te( tD1t /if they do not follow
the standards 7 and the standards are ' if they would contribute to instability in the
go-ernment, or if they do not subscribe to what is in 8eneral "rder No. 9 and
Proc. No. :+:; 7 we will recommend a 6ta#eo-er.%. N1tio13 Te3eBo22%iB1tio"K
Co22i""ioe! Ro13( So3i" %!4e( te3e$i"io 1( !1(io etAo!H"
to /cooperate. AitD tDe 4o$e!2et Eo! tDe (%!1tio oE tDe "t1te oE 1tio13
e2e!4eB5. He 1"He( Eo! /balanced reporting. E!o2 I!o1(B1"te!" ADe Bo$e!i4
tDe e$et" "%!!o%(i4 tDe Bo%' 1tte2't Eoi3e( I5 tDe 4o$e!2et. He A1!e(
tD1t Di" 14eB5 Ai33 ot De"it1te to !eBo22e( tDe B3o"%!e oE 15 I!o1(B1"t o%tEit
tD1t $io31te" !%3e" "et o%t Eo! 2e(i1 Bo$e!14e ADe tDe 1tio13 "eB%!it5 i"
A3"o, o FeI!%1!5 6:, 677., tDe 'o3iBe 1!!e"te( Co4!e""21 C!i"'i
Be3t!1, !e'!e"eti4 tDe Ana#pawis P1!t5 1( CD1i!21 oE 4ilusang $ayo
5no =;MU>, ADi3e 3e1$i4 Di" E1!2Do%"e i B%31B1. TDe 'o3iBe "DoAe( 1
A1!!1t Eo! Di" 1!!e"t (1te( *-9:. Be3t!1K" 31A5e! e)'31ie( tD1t tDe A1!!1t,
ADiBD "te22e( E!o2 1 B1"e oE iBiti4 to !eIe33io Ei3e( (%!i4 tDe M1!Bo" !e4i2e,
D1( 3o4 Iee O%1"De(. Be3t!1, DoAe$e!, i" ot 1 '1!t5 i 15 oE tDe"e 'etitio".
?De 2e2Ie!" oE 'etitioe! ;MU Aet to C12' C!12e to $i"it Be3t!1,
tDe5 Ae!e to3( tDe5 Bo%3( ot Ie 1(2itte( IeB1%"e oE PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No.
:. TAo 2e2Ie!" Ae!e 1!!e"te( 1( (et1ie(, ADi3e tDe !e"t Ae!e (i"'e!"e( I5 tDe
Bayan $una Re'!e"et1ti$e S1t%! OB12'o e3%(e( 1!!e"t ADe tDe 'o3iBe
Aet 1Ete! Di2 (%!i4 1 '%I3iB Eo!%2 1t tDe S%3o Hote3 i Q%eJo Cit5. B%t Di"
tAo (!i$e!", i(etiEie( 1" Roe3 1( A!t, Ae!e t1He ito B%"to(5.
Reti!e( M1Co! Gee!13 R12o Mot1Qo, Eo!2e! De1( oE tDe PDi3i''ie
Co"t1I%31!5, A1" 1!!e"te( ADi3e AitD Di" AiEe 1( 4o3E21te" 1t tDe O!BD1!( Go3E
1( Co%t!5 C3%I i D1"21!iQ1", C1$ite.
Atte2't" Ae!e 21(e to 1!!e"t Ana#pawis Re'!e"et1ti$e S1t%! OB12'o,
Re'!e"et1ti$e R1E1e3 M1!i1o, Bayan $una Re'!e"et1ti$e Teo(o!o C1"iQo 1(
G1I!ie31 Re'!e"et1ti$e LiJ1 M1J1. Bayan $una Re'!e"et1ti$e Jo"e3 Vi!1(o!
A1" 1!!e"te( 1t tDe PAL TiBHet OEEiBe i D1$1o Cit5. L1te!, De A1" t%!e( o$e! to
tDe B%"to(5 oE tDe Ho%"e oE Re'!e"et1ti$e" ADe!e tDe LB1t1"1 :M (eBi(e( to "t15
Let it Ie "t!e""e( 1t tDi" 'oit tD1t tDe 133e4e( $io31tio" oE tDe !i4Dt" oE
Re'!e"et1ti$e" Be3t!1, S1t%! OB12'o, et al., 1!e ot Iei4 !1i"e( i tDe"e
O M1!BD ,, 677., P!e"i(et A!!o5o i""%e( PP *76* (eB31!i4 tD1t tDe "t1te
oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5 D1" Be1"e( to e)i"t.
I tDe ite!i2, tDe"e "e$e =+> 'etitio" BD133e4i4 tDe Bo"tit%tio13it5 oE
PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : Ae!e Ei3e( AitD tDi" Co%!t 141i"t tDe 1Io$e#12e(
!e"'o(et". TD!ee =,> oE tDe"e 'etitio" i2'3e1(e( P!e"i(et A!!o5o 1"
I 3-$- No- )*)89:, 'etitioe!" R1(o3E S. D1$i(, et al. 1""1i3e( PP *7*+ o
tDe 4!o%(" tD1t ;)< it eB!o1BDe" o tDe e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" oE Co4!e""@ ;+< it i" 1
"%Ite!E%4e to 1$oi( tDe Bo"tit%tio13 !eO%i!e2et" Eo! tDe i2'o"itio oE 21!ti13
31A@ 1( ;8< it $io31te" tDe Bo"tit%tio13 4%1!1tee" oE E!ee(o2 oE tDe '!e"", oE
"'eeBD 1( oE 1""e2I35.
I 3-$- No- )*)=69, 'etitioe!" NieJ C1BDo#O3i$1!e"
1( 2ribune P%I3i"Di4 Co., IB. BD133e4e( tDe CIDGK" 1Bt oE !1i(i4 tDe &aily
2ribune oEEiBe" 1" 1 B3e1! B1"e oE LBe"o!"Di'M o! L'!io! !e"t!1it.M TDe5 13"o
B31i2e( tD1t tDe te!2 Le2e!4eB5M !eEe!" o35 to t"%12i, t5'Doo, D%!!iB1e 1(
"i2i31! oBB%!!eBe", DeBe, tDe!e i" Labsolutely no emergencyM tD1t A1!!1t" tDe
i""%1Be oE PP *7*+.
I 3-$- No- )*)=>7, 'etitioe!" De!ei 1!e Re'!e"et1ti$e F!1Bi" Jo"e'D G.
E"B%(e!o, 1( tAet5 oe =6*> otDe! 2e2Ie!" oE tDe Ho%"e oE Re'!e"et1ti$e",
iB3%(i4 Re'!e"et1ti$e" S1t%! OB12'o, R1E1e3 M1!i1o, Teo(o!o C1"iQo, LiJ1
M1J1, 1( Jo"e3 Vi!1(o!. TDe5 1""e!te( tD1t PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : Bo"tit%te
Lusurpation of legislati-e powersM@ L-iolation of freedom of e<pressionM 1( La
declaration of martial law.M TDe5 133e4e( tD1t P!e"i(et A!!o5o L4ra-ely abused
her discretion in calling out the armed forces without clear and -erifiable factual
basis of the possibility of lawless -iolence and a showing that there is necessity to
do so.M
I 3-$- No- )*)=>8, 'etitioe!" ;MU, NAFLU#;MU, 1( tDei! 2e2Ie!"
1$e!!e( tD1t PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : 1!e %Bo"tit%tio13 IeB1%"e ;)< tDe5 1!!o41te
%to P!e"i(et A!!o5o tDe 'oAe! to e1Bt 31A" 1( (eB!ee"@ ;+< tDei! i""%1Be A1"
AitDo%t E1Bt%13 I1"i"@ 1( ;8< tDe5 $io31te E!ee(o2 oE e)'!e""io 1( tDe !i4Dt oE
tDe 'eo'3e to 'e1Be1I35 1""e2I3e to !e(!e"" tDei! 4!ie$1Be".
I 3-$- No- )*)=66, 'etitioe! A3te!1ti$e L1A G!o%'", IB. =ALGI> 133e4e(
tD1t PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : 1!e %Bo"tit%tio13 IeB1%"e tDe5 $io31te ;a< SeBtio
oE A!tiB3e II, ;b< SeBtio" *,
1( 8
oE A!tiB3e III,

;c< SeBtio 6,
A!tiB3e VI, 1( ;d< SeBtio *+
oE A!tiB3e &II oE tDe Co"tit%tio.
I 3-$- No- )*)=>9, 'etitioe!" Jo"e A"e32o I. C1(iJ et al., 133e4e( tD1t PP
*7*+ i" 1 Larbitrary and unlawful e<ercise by the President of her $artial !aw
powers.M A( 1""%2i4 tD1t PP *7*+ i" ot !e1335 1 (eB31!1tio oE M1!ti13 L1A,
'etitioe!" 1!4%e( tD1t Lit amounts to an e<ercise by the President of emergency
powers without congressional appro-al.M I 1((itio, 'etitioe!" 1""e!te( tD1t PP
*7*+ Lgoes beyond the nature and function of a proclamation as defined under the
=e-ised Administrati-e Code..
A( 31"t35, i 3-$- No- )*)=+=, 'etitioe! Lo!e B. Le41!(1 21it1ie( tD1t
PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : 1!e Lunconstitutional for being -iolati-e of the freedom of
e<pression, including its cognate rights such as freedom of the press and the right
to access to information on matters of public concern, all guaranteed under Article
, 0ection * of the :>?; Constitution.M I tDi" !e41!(, "De "t1te( tD1t tDe"e
i""%1Be" '!e$ete( De! E!o2 E%335 '!o"eB%ti4 De! e3eBtio '!ote"t 'e(i4 IeEo!e
tDe P!e"i(eti13 E3eBto!13 T!iI%13.
I !e"'o(et"K Co"o3i(1te( Co22et, tDe So3iBito! Gee!13 Bo%te!e(
tD1t/ first, tDe 'etitio" "Do%3( Ie (i"2i""e( Eo!
Iei4 2oot@ second, 'etitioe!" i G.R. No". *+*877 =ALGI>, *+*868
=Le41!(1>, *+*89, =;MU et al.>, *+*89: =E"B%(e!o et al.> 1( *+*89- =C1(iJ et
al.> D1$e o 3e413 "t1(i4@ third, it i" ot eBe""1!5 Eo! 'etitioe!" to i2'3e1(
P!e"i(et A!!o5o 1" !e"'o(et@ fourth, PP *7*+ D1" Bo"tit%tio13 1( 3e413
I1"i"@ 1( fifth, PP *7*+ (oe" ot $io31te tDe 'eo'3eK" !i4Dt to E!ee e)'!e""io 1(
!e(!e"" oE 4!ie$1Be".
O M1!BD +, 677., tDe Co%!t Bo(%Bte( o!13 1!4%2et" 1( De1!( tDe '1!tie"
o tDe 1Io$e ite!3oBHi4 i""%e" ADiBD 215 Ie "%221!iJe( 1" Eo33oA"/
&- '$O,#/?$&.@
)< ?DetDe! tDe i""%1Be oE PP *76* !e(e!" tDe 'etitio" 2oot
1( 1B1(e2iB.
+< ?DetDe! 'etitioe!" i )*)=>7 =E"B%(e!o et al.>, 3-$- Nos-
)*)=66 =ALGI>, )*)=>8 =;MU et al.>, )*)=>9 =C1(iJ et al.>,
1( )*)=+==Le41!(1> D1$e 3e413 "t1(i4.
A- (?A(!&N!IB#@
)< ?DetDe! tDe S%'!e2e Co%!t B1 !e$ieA tDe E1Bt%13 I1"e" oE
PP *7*+.
+< ?DetDe! PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : 1!e %Bo"tit%tio13.
a- F1Bi13 CD133e4e
b- Co"tit%tio13 B1"i"
c- A" A''3ie( CD133e4e

&- '$O,#/?$&.

Fi!"t, Ae 2%"t !e"o3$e tDe '!oBe(%!13 !o1(I3oBH".
I- Moot and Academic Principle
Oe oE tDe 4!e1te"t Bot!iI%tio" oE tDe A2e!iB1 "5"te2 to tDi" Bo%t!5 i"
tDe BoBe't oE C%(iBi13 !e$ieA e%Bi1te( i $arbury -. $adison.
TDi" BoBe't
!e"t" o tDe e)t!1o!(i1!5 "i2'3e Eo%(1tio ##
TDe Co"tit%tio i" tDe "%'!e2e 31A. It A1" o!(1ie( I5 tDe 'eo'3e, tDe
%3ti21te "o%!Be oE 133 'o3itiB13 1%tDo!it5. It BoEe!" 3i2ite( 'oAe!" o tDe 1tio13
4o$e!2et. ) ) ) If the government consciously or unconsciously oversteps
these limitations there must be some authority competent to hold it in
control, to thwart its unconstitutional attempt, and thus to vindicate and
preserve inviolate the will of the people as expressed in the ,onstitution- !his
power the courts exercise- !his is the beginning and the end of the theory of
judicial review.

B%t tDe 'oAe! oE C%(iBi13 !e$ieA (oe" ot !e'o"e %'o tDe Bo%!t" 1 L"e3E#
"t1!ti4 B1'1Bit5.M
Co%!t" 215 e)e!Bi"e "%BD 'oAe! o35 ADe tDe Eo33oAi4
!eO%i"ite" 1!e '!e"et/ first, tDe!e 2%"t Ie 1 1Bt%13 B1"e o!
Bot!o$e!"5@ second, 'etitioe!" D1$e to !1i"e 1 O%e"tio oE
Bo"tit%tio13it5@ third, tDe Bo"tit%tio13 O%e"tio 2%"t Ie !1i"e( 1t tDe e1!3ie"t
o''o!t%it5@ 1( fourth, tDe (eBi"io oE tDe Bo"tit%tio13 O%e"tio 2%"t Ie
eBe""1!5 to tDe (ete!2i1tio oE tDe B1"e it"e3E.

Re"'o(et" 21it1i tD1t tDe Ei!"t 1( "eBo( !eO%i"ite" 1!e 1I"et, DeBe,
Ae "D133 3i2it o%! (i"B%""io tDe!eo.
A 1Bt%13 B1"e o! Bot!o$e!"5 i$o3$e" 1 BoE3iBt oE 3e413 !i4Dt, 1 o''o"ite
3e413 B31i2" "%"Be'tiI3e oE C%(iBi13 !e"o3%tio. It i" L(eEiite 1( BoB!ete,
to%BDi4 tDe 3e413 !e31tio" oE '1!tie" D1$i4 1($e!"e 3e413 ite!e"t@M 1 !e13 1(
"%I"t1ti13 Bot!o$e!"5 1(2itti4 oE "'eBiEiB !e3ieE.
TDe So3iBito! Gee!13
!eE%te" tDe e)i"teBe oE "%BD 1Bt%13 B1"e o! Bot!o$e!"5, Bote(i4 tD1t tDe '!e"et
'etitio" Ae!e !e(e!e( L2oot 1( 1B1(e2iBM I5 P!e"i(et A!!o5oK" i""%1Be oE PP
S%BD Botetio 31BH" 2e!it.
A 2oot 1( 1B1(e2iB B1"e i" oe tD1t Be1"e" to '!e"et 1 C%"tiBi1I3e
Bot!o$e!"5 I5 $i!t%e oE "%'e!$ei4 e$et",
"o tD1t 1 (eB31!1tio tDe!eo Ao%3(
Ie oE o '!1BtiB13 %"e o! $13%e.
Gee!1335, Bo%!t" (eB3ie C%!i"(iBtio o$e! "%BD
o! (i"2i"" it o 4!o%( oE 2oote"".

TDe Co%!t Do3(" tD1t P!e"i(et A!!o5oK" i""%1Be oE PP *76* (i( ot !e(e!
tDe '!e"et 'etitio" 2oot 1( 1B1(e2iB. D%!i4 tDe ei4Dt =9> (15" tD1t PP *7*+
A1" o'e!1ti$e, tDe 'o3iBe oEEiBe!", 1BBo!(i4 to 'etitioe!", Bo22itte( i33e413 1Bt"
i i2'3e2eti4 it. &re '' )6)* and 3-O- No- 7 constitutional or validC /o
they justify these alleged illegal actsC TDe"e 1!e tDe $it13 i""%e" tD1t 2%"t Ie
!e"o3$e( i tDe '!e"et 'etitio". It 2%"t Ie "t!e""e( tD1t Lan unconstitutional act
is not a law, it confers no rights, it imposes no duties, it affords no protection1
it is in legal contemplation, inoperative.M
TDe L2oot 1( 1B1(e2iBM '!iBi'3e i" ot 1 214iB13 Eo!2%31 tD1t B1
1%to21tiB1335 (i""%1(e tDe Bo%!t" i !e"o3$i4 1 B1"e. Co%!t" Ai33 (eBi(e B1"e",
otDe!Ai"e 2oot 1( 1B1(e2iB, iE/ first, tDe!e i" 1 4!1$e $io31tio oE tDe
second, tDe e)Be'tio13 BD1!1Bte! oE tDe "it%1tio 1( tDe
'1!12o%t '%I3iB ite!e"t i" i$o3$e(@
third, ADe Bo"tit%tio13 i""%e !1i"e(
!eO%i!e" Eo!2%31tio oE Bot!o33i4 '!iBi'3e" to 4%i(e tDe IeBD, tDe I1!, 1( tDe
1( fourth, tDe B1"e i" B1'1I3e oE !e'etitio 5et e$1(i4 !e$ieA.
A33 tDe Eo!e4oi4 e)Be'tio" 1!e '!e"et De!e 1( C%"tiE5 tDi" Co%!tK"
1""%2'tio oE C%!i"(iBtio o$e! tDe i"t1t 'etitio". Petitioe!" 133e4e( tD1t tDe
i""%1Be oE PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : $io31te" tDe Co"tit%tio. TDe!e i" o O%e"tio
tD1t tDe i""%e" Iei4 !1i"e( 1EEeBt tDe '%I3iBK" ite!e"t, i$o3$i4 1" tDe5 (o tDe
'eo'3eK" I1"iB !i4Dt" to E!ee(o2 oE e)'!e""io, oE 1""e2I35 1( oE tDe
'!e"". Mo!eo$e!, tDe Co%!t D1" tDe (%t5 to Eo!2%31te 4%i(i4 1( Bot!o33i4
Bo"tit%tio13 '!eBe't", (oBt!ie" o! !%3e". It D1" tDe "52Io3iB E%Btio oE
e(%B1ti4 tDe IeBD 1( tDe I1!, 1( i tDe '!e"et 'etitio", the military and the
police, o tDe e)tet oE tDe '!oteBtio 4i$e I5 Bo"tit%tio13 4%1!1tee".
31"t35, !e"'o(et"K Bote"te( 1Btio" 1!e B1'1I3e oE !e'etitio. Ce!t1i35, tDe
'etitio" 1!e "%ICeBt to C%(iBi13 !e$ieA.
I tDei! 1tte2't to '!o$e tDe 133e4e( 2oote"" oE tDi" B1"e, !e"'o(et" Bite(
CDieE J%"tiBe A!te2io V. P141iI1K" Se'1!1te O'iio i 0anla#as -. E<ecuti-e
HoAe$e!, tDe5 E1i3e( to t1He ito 1BBo%t tDe CDieE J%"tiBeK" $e!5
"t1te2et tD1t 1 otDe!Ai"e L2ootM B1"e 215 "ti33 Ie (eBi(e( Lpro-ided the party
raising it in a proper case has been and@or continues to be preAudiced or damaged
as a direct result of its issuance.M TDe '!e"et B1"e E133" !i4Dt AitDi tDi"
e)Be'tio to tDe 2oote"" !%3e 'oite( o%t I5 tDe CDieE J%"tiBe.
II- Legal Standing
I $ieA oE tDe %2Ie! oE 'etitioe!" "%i4 i $1!io%" 'e!"o13itie", tDe Co%!t
(ee2" it i2'e!1ti$e to D1$e 1 2o!e tD1 '1""i4 (i"B%""io o 3e413 "t1(i4
o!locus standi.

!ocus standi i" (eEie( 1" L1 !i4Dt oE 1''e1!1Be i 1 Bo%!t oE C%"tiBe o 1
4i$e O%e"tio.M
I '!i$1te "%it", "t1(i4 i" 4o$e!e( I5 tDe L!e13#'1!tie"#i
ite!e"tM !%3e 1" Bot1ie( i SeBtio 6, R%3e , oE tDe *--+ R%3e" oE Ci$i3
P!oBe(%!e, 1" 12e(e(. It '!o$i(e" tD1t Levery action must be prosecuted or
defended in the name of the real party in interest.M ABBo!(i435, tDe L!e13#
'1!t5#i ite!e"tM i" Lthe party who stands to be benefited or injured by the
judgment in the suit or the party entitled to the avails of the suit-M
'%t, tDe '31itiEEK" "t1(i4 i" I1"e( o Di" oA !i4Dt to tDe !e3ieE "o%4Dt.

TDe (iEEiB%3t5 oE (ete!2ii4 locus standi 1!i"e" i public suits. He!e,
tDe '31itiEE ADo 1""e!t" 1 L'%I3iB !i4DtM i 1""1i3i4 1 133e4e(35 i33e413 oEEiBi13
1Btio, (oe" "o 1" 1 !e'!e"et1ti$e oE tDe 4ee!13 '%I3iB. He 215 Ie 1 'e!"o ADo
i" 1EEeBte( o (iEEe!et35 E!o2 15 otDe! 'e!"o. He Bo%3( Ie "%i4 1" 1 L"t!14e!,M
o! i tDe B1te4o!5 oE 1 LBitiJe,M o! Rt1)'15e!.M I eitDe! B1"e, De D1" to 1(eO%1te35
"DoA tD1t De i" etit3e( to "eeH C%(iBi13 '!oteBtio. I otDe! Ao!(", De D1" to 21He
o%t 1 "%EEiBiet ite!e"t i tDe $i(iB1tio oE tDe '%I3iB o!(e! 1( tDe "eB%!i4 oE
!e3ieE 1" 1 LBitiJeM o! Lt1)'15e!.
C1"e 31A i 2o"t C%!i"(iBtio" oA 133oA" IotD LBitiJeM 1( Lt1)'15e!M
"t1(i4 i '%I3iB 1Btio". TDe (i"tiBtio A1" Ei!"t 31i( (oA i Beauchamp -.
ADe!e it A1" De3( tD1t tDe '31itiEE i 1 t1)'15e!K" "%it i" i 1 (iEEe!et
B1te4o!5 E!o2 tDe '31itiEE i 1 BitiJeK" "%it. In the former, the plaintiff is
affected by the expenditure of public funds, while in the latter, he is but the
mere instrument of the public concern- A" De3( I5 tDe NeA Yo!H S%'!e2e
Co%!t i People e< rel Case -. Collins/
LIn matter of mere public right,
howeverDthe people are the real partiesDIt is at least the right, if not the
duty, of every citizen to interfere and see that a public offence be properly
pursued and punished, and that a public grievance be remedied.M ?itD
!e"'eBt to t1)'15e!K" "%it", 2err -. Jordan
De3( tD1t Lthe right of a citizen and a
taxpayer to maintain an action in courts to restrain the unlawful use of public
funds to his injury cannot be denied-M
HoAe$e!, to '!e$et C%"t 1Io%t 15 'e!"o E!o2 "eeHi4 C%(iBi13 ite!Ee!eBe
i 15 oEEiBi13 'o3iB5 o! 1Bt AitD ADiBD De (i"14!ee( AitD, 1( tD%" Di(e!" tDe
1Bti$itie" oE 4o$e!2et13 14eBie" e414e( i '%I3iB "e!$iBe, tDe Uite( St1te
S%'!e2e Co%!t 31i( (oA tDe 2o!e "t!i4et Ldirect injuryM test i E< Parte
31te! !e1EEi!2e( i 2ileston -. 5llman.
TDe "12e Co%!t !%3e( tD1t Eo! 1
'!i$1te i(i$i(%13 to i$oHe tDe C%(iBi13 'oAe! to (ete!2ie tDe $13i(it5 oE 1
e)eB%ti$e o! 3e4i"31ti$e 1Btio, he must show that he has sustained a direct
injury as a result of that action, and it is not sufficient that he has a general
interest common to all members of the public-
TDi" Co%!t 1(o'te( tDe Edirect injuryF test i o%! C%!i"(iBtio. I People -.
it De3( tD1t tDe 'e!"o ADo i2'%4" tDe $13i(it5 oE 1 "t1t%te 2%"t D1$e La
personal and substantial interest in the case such that he has sustained, or will
sustain direct injury as a result.M TDe Bera (oBt!ie A1" %'De3( i 1 3it15 oE
B1"e", "%BD 1", Custodio -. President of the 0enate,
$anila =ace Horse 2rainers%
Association -. &e la (uente,
Pascual -. 0ecretary of Public Cor#s
1( Anti'
Chinese !eague of the Philippines -. (eli<.
HoAe$e!, Iei4 1 2e!e '!oBe(%!13 teBDiB13it5, tDe !eO%i!e2et oE locus
standi 215 Ie A1i$e( I5 tDe Co%!t i tDe e)e!Bi"e oE it" (i"B!etio. TDi" A1" (oe
i tDe)9=9 #mergency 'owers ,ases, Araneta -. &inglasan,
ADe!e tDe
Ltranscendental importanceM oE tDe B1"e" '!o2'te( tDe Co%!t to 1Bt
3iIe!1335. S%BD 3iIe!13it5 A1" eitDe! 1 !1!it5 o! 1BBi(et13. I A1uino -.
tDi" Co%!t !e"o3$e( to '1"" %'o tDe i""%e" !1i"e( (%e to tDe Lfar-
reaching implicationsM oE tDe 'etitio otAitD"t1(i4 it" B1te4o!iB13 "t1te2et
tD1t 'etitioe! tDe!ei D1( o 'e!"o13it5 to Ei3e tDe "%it. I(ee(, tDe!e i" 1 BD1i oE
B1"e" ADe!e tDi" 3iIe!13 'o3iB5 D1" Iee oI"e!$e(, 133oAi4 o!(i1!5 BitiJe",
2e2Ie!" oE Co4!e"", 1( Bi$iB o!41iJ1tio" to '!o"eB%te 1Btio" i$o3$i4 tDe
Bo"tit%tio13it5 o! $13i(it5 oE 31A", !e4%31tio" 1( !%3i4".

TD%", tDe Co%!t D1" 1(o'te( 1 !%3e tD1t e$e ADe!e tDe 'etitioe!" D1$e E1i3e(
to "DoA (i!eBt iC%!5, tDe5 D1$e Iee 133oAe( to "%e %(e! tDe '!iBi'3e oE
Ltranscendental importance.M Pe!tiet 1!e tDe Eo33oAi4 B1"e"/
;)< Cha-eD -. Public Estates Authority,
ADe!e tDe Co%!t !%3e(
tD1t the enforcement of the constitutional right to information and
the eGuitable diffusion of natural resources are matters of
transcendental importance which clothe the petitioner with locus

(2< Bagong Alyansang $a#abayan -. Eamora,
ADe!ei tDe
Co%!t De3( tD1t Egiven the transcendental importance of the issues
involved, the ,ourt may relax the standing reGuirements and
allow the suit to prosper despite the lack of direct injury to the
parties seeking judicial reviewF oE tDe Vi"iti4 Fo!Be" A4!ee2et@

;8< !im -. E<ecuti-e 0ecretary,
ADi3e tDe Co%!t ote( tD1t tDe
'etitioe!" 215 ot Ei3e "%it i tDei! B1'1Bit5 1" t1)'15e!" 1I"et 1
"DoAi4 tD1t LB13iH1t1 76#7*M i$o3$e" tDe e)e!Bi"e oE Co4!e""K
t1)i4 o! "'e(i4 'oAe!", it !eite!1te( it" !%3i4 i Bagong
Alyansang $a#abayan -. Eamora,
that in cases of transcendental
importance, the cases must be settled promptly and definitely and
standing reGuirements may be relaxed.

B5 A15 oE "%221!5, tDe Eo33oAi4 !%3e" 215 Ie B%33e( E!o2 tDe B1"e"
(eBi(e( I5 tDi" Co%!t. T1)'15e!", $ote!", BoBe!e( BitiJe", 1( 3e4i"31to!" 215
Ie 1BBo!(e( "t1(i4 to "%e, '!o$i(e( tD1t tDe Eo33oAi4 !eO%i!e2et" 1!e 2et/
;)< tDe B1"e" i$o3$e Bo"tit%tio13 i""%e"@
;+< Eo! taxpayers, tDe!e 2%"t Ie 1 B31i2 oE i33e413 (i"I%!"e2et oE
'%I3iB E%(" o! tD1t tDe t1) 2e1"%!e i" %Bo"tit%tio13@
;8< Eo! voters, tDe!e 2%"t Ie 1 "DoAi4 oE oI$io%" ite!e"t i tDe
$13i(it5 oE tDe e3eBtio 31A i O%e"tio@
;=< Eo! concerned citizens, tDe!e 2%"t Ie 1 "DoAi4 tD1t tDe i""%e"
!1i"e( 1!e oE t!1"Be(et13 i2'o!t1Be ADiBD 2%"t Ie "ett3e( e1!35@ 1(
;7< Eo! legislators, tDe!e 2%"t Ie 1 B31i2 tD1t tDe oEEiBi13 1Btio
Bo2'31ie( oE iE!i4e" %'o tDei! '!e!o41ti$e" 1" 3e4i"31to!".
Si4iEiB1t35, !eBet (eBi"io" "DoA 1 Be!t1i to%4Dei4 i tDe Co%!tK"
1ttit%(e toA1!( 3e413 "t1(i4.
I 4ilosbayan, nc. -. $orato,
tDe Co%!t !%3e( tD1t tDe "t1t%"
oE 4ilosbayan 1" 1 'eo'3eK" o!41iJ1tio (oe" ot 4i$e it tDe !eO%i"ite 'e!"o13it5
to O%e"tio tDe $13i(it5 oE tDe o#3ie 3otte!5 Bot!1Bt, 2o!e "o ADe!e it (oe" ot
!1i"e 15 i""%e oE Bo"tit%tio13it5. Mo!eo$e!, it B1ot "%e 1" 1 t1)'15e! 1I"et
15 133e41tio tD1t '%I3iB E%(" 1!e Iei4 2i"%"e(. No! B1 it "%e 1" 1 BoBe!e(
BitiJe 1" it (oe" ot 133e4e 15 "'eBiEiB iC%!5 it D1" "%EEe!e(.
I 2elecommunications and Broadcast Attorneys of the Philippines, nc. -.
tDe Co%!t !eite!1te( tDe L(i!eBt iC%!5M te"t AitD !e"'eBt to BoBe!e(
BitiJe"K B1"e" i$o3$i4 Bo"tit%tio13 i""%e". It De3( tD1t LtDe!e 2%"t Ie 1
"DoAi4 tD1t tDe BitiJe 'e!"o1335 "%EEe!e( "o2e 1Bt%13 o! tD!e1tee( iC%!5
1!i"i4 E!o2 tDe 133e4e( i33e413 oEEiBi13 1Bt.M
I !acson -. PereD,
tDe Co%!t !%3e( tD1t oe oE tDe 'etitioe!", !aban ng
&emo#rati#ong Pilipino =LDP>, i" ot 1 !e13 '1!t5#i#ite!e"t 1" it D1( ot
(e2o"t!1te( 15 iC%!5 to it"e3E o! to it" 3e1(e!", 2e2Ie!" o! "%''o!te!".
I 0anla#as -. E<ecuti-e 0ecretary,
tDe Co%!t !%3e( tD1t o35 tDe
'etitioe!" ADo 1!e 2e2Ie!" oE Co4!e"" D1$e "t1(i4 to "%e, 1" tDe5 B31i2 tD1t
tDe P!e"i(etK" (eB31!1tio oE 1 "t1te oE !eIe33io is a usurpation of the emergency
powers of ,ongress, thus impairing their legislative powers. A" to
'etitioe!"0anla#as, Partido $anggagawa, and 0ocial Justice 0ociety, tDe Co%!t
(eB31!e( tDe2 to Ie (e$oi( oE "t1(i4, eO%1ti4 tDe2 AitD tDe LDP i !acson.
NoA, tDe 1''3iB1tio oE tDe 1Io$e '!iBi'3e" to tDe '!e"et 'etitio".
TDe locus standi oE 'etitioe!" i 3-$- No- )*)89:, '1!tiB%31!35 D1$i( 1(
L3121", i" Ie5o( (o%It. TDe "12e Do3(" t!%e AitD 'etitioe!" i 3-$- No-
)*)=69, C1BDo#O3i$1!e" 1( 2ribune P%I3i"Di4 Co. IB. TDe5 133e4e( L(i!eBt
iC%!5M !e"%3ti4 E!o2 Li33e413 1!!e"tM 1( L%31AE%3 "e1!BDM Bo22itte( I5 'o3iBe
o'e!1ti$e" '%!"%1t to PP *7*+. Ri4Dt35 "o, tDe So3iBito! Gee!13 (oe" ot O%e"tio
tDei! 3e413 "t1(i4.
I 3-$- No- )*)=>7, tDe o''o"itio Co4!e""2e 133e4e( tDe!e A1"
%"%!'1tio oE 3e4i"31ti$e 'oAe!". TDe5 13"o !1i"e( tDe i""%e oE ADetDe! o! ot tDe
BoB%!!eBe oE Co4!e"" i" eBe""1!5 ADee$e! tDe 131!2i4 'oAe!" iBi(et to
M1!ti13 L1A 1!e %"e(. Mo!eo$e!, it i" i tDe ite!e"t oE C%"tiBe tD1t tDo"e 1EEeBte(
I5 PP *7*+ B1 Ie !e'!e"ete( I5 tDei! Co4!e""2e i I!i4i4 to tDe 1ttetio oE
tDe Co%!t tDe 133e4e( $io31tio" oE tDei! I1"iB !i4Dt".
I 3-$- No- )*)=66, =ALGI>, tDi" Co%!t 1''3ie( tDe 3iIe!13it5 !%3e
i Philconsa -. Enri1ueD,
4apatiran Ng $ga Nagliling#od sa Pamahalaan ng
Pilipinas, nc. -. 2an,
Association of 0mall !andowners in the Philippines, nc. -.
0ecretary of Agrarian =eform,
Basco -. Philippine Amusement and 8aming
1( 2aFada -. 2u-era,
tD1t ADe tDe i""%e BoBe!" 1 '%I3iB
!i4Dt, it i" "%EEiBiet tD1t tDe 'etitioe! i" 1 BitiJe 1( D1" 1 ite!e"t i tDe
e)eB%tio oE tDe 31A".
I 3-$- No- )*)=>8, ;MUK" 1""e!tio tD1t PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : $io31te(
it" !i4Dt to 'e1BeE%3 1""e2I35 215 Ie (ee2e( "%EEiBiet to 4i$e it 3e413
"t1(i4. Organizations may be granted standing to assert the rights of their
?e t1He C%(iBi13 otiBe oE tDe 1o%Be2et I5 tDe OEEiBe oE tDe
P!e"i(et I1i4 133 !133ie" 1( B1Be3i4 133 'e!2it" Eo! '%I3iB 1""e2I3ie"
Eo33oAi4 tDe i""%1Be oE PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. :.
I 3-$- No- )*)=>9, 'etitioe!", CadiD et al., ADo 1!e 1tio13 oEEiBe!" oE
tDe Ite4!1te( B1! oE tDe PDi3i''ie" =IBP> D1$e o 3e413 "t1(i4, D1$i4 E1i3e( to
133e4e 15 (i!eBt o! 'oteti13 iC%!5 ADiBD tDe IBP 1" 1 i"tit%tio o! it" 2e2Ie!"
215 "%EEe! 1" 1 Bo"eO%eBe oE tDe i""%1Be oE PP No. *7*+ 1( G.O. No.
:. Integrated Bar of the Philippines -. Eamora,
tDe Co%!t De3( tD1t tDe 2e!e
i$oB1tio I5 tDe IBP oE it" (%t5 to '!e"e!$e tDe !%3e oE 31A 1( otDi4 2o!e,
ADi3e %(o%Ite(35 t!%e, i" ot "%EEiBiet to B3otDe it AitD "t1(i4 i tDi"
B1"e. TDi" i" too 4ee!13 1 ite!e"t ADiBD i" "D1!e( I5 otDe! 4!o%'" 1( tDe ADo3e
BitiJe!5. HoAe$e!, i $ieA oE tDe t!1"Be(et13 i2'o!t1Be oE tDe i""%e, tDi"
Co%!t (eB31!e" tD1t 'etitioe! D1$e locus standi.
I 3-$- No- )*)=+=, Lo!e Le41!(1 D1" o 'e!"o13it5 1" 1 t1)'15e! to Ei3e
tDe i"t1t 'etitio 1" tDe!e 1!e o 133e41tio" oE i33e413 (i"I%!"e2et oE '%I3iB
E%(". TDe E1Bt tD1t "De i" 1 Eo!2e! Se1to! i" oE o Bo"eO%eBe. SDe B1 o
3o4e! "%e 1" 1 3e4i"31to! o tDe 133e41tio tD1t De! '!e!o41ti$e" 1" 1 31A21He! D1$e
Iee i2'1i!e( I5 PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. :. He! B31i2 tD1t "De i" 1 2e(i1
'e!"o13it5 Ai33 ot 3iHeAi"e 1i( De! IeB1%"e tDe!e A1" o "DoAi4 tD1t tDe
eEo!Be2et oE tDe"e i""%1Be" '!e$ete( De! E!o2 '%!"%i4 De! oBB%'1tio. He!
"%I2i""io tD1t "De D1" 'e(i4 e3eBto!13 '!ote"t IeEo!e tDe P!e"i(eti13 E3eBto!13
T!iI%13 i" 3iHeAi"e oE o !e3e$1Be. SDe D1" ot "%EEiBiet35 "DoA tD1t PP *7*+
Ai33 1EEeBt tDe '!oBee(i4" o! !e"%3t oE De! B1"e. B%t Bo"i(e!i4 oBe 2o!e tDe
t!1"Be(et13 i2'o!t1Be oE tDe i""%e i$o3$e(, tDi" Co%!t 215 !e31) tDe "t1(i4
It 2%"t 13A15" Ie Io!e i 2i( tD1t tDe O%e"tio oE locus standi i" I%t
Bo!o331!5 to tDe Ii44e! O%e"tio oE '!o'e! e)e!Bi"e oE C%(iBi13 'oAe!. TDi" i" tDe
%(e!35i4 3e413 teet oE tDe L3iIe!13it5 (oBt!ieM o 3e413 "t1(i4. It B1ot Ie
(o%Ite( tD1t tDe $13i(it5 oE PP No. *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : i" 1 C%(iBi13 O%e"tio
ADiBD i" oE '1!12o%t i2'o!t1Be to tDe Fi3i'io 'eo'3e. To '1!1'D!1"e J%"tiBe
L1%!e3, tDe ADo3e oE PDi3i''ie "oBiet5 oA A1it" AitD I1te( I!e1tD tDe !%3i4 oE
tDi" Co%!t o tDi" $e!5 B!itiB13 21tte!. TDe 'etitio" tD%" B133 Eo! tDe 1''3iB1tio oE
tDe Ltranscendental importanceM (oBt!ie, 1 !e31)1tio oE tDe "t1(i4
!eO%i!e2et" Eo! tDe 'etitioe!" i tDe LPP *7*+ B1"e".M

TDi" Co%!t Do3(" tD1t 133 tDe 'etitioe!" De!ei D1$e locus standi.

IBi(et1335, it i" ot '!o'e! to i2'3e1( P!e"i(et A!!o5o 1"
!e"'o(et. Sett3e( i" tDe (oBt!ie tD1t tDe P!e"i(et, (%!i4 Di" te%!e oE oEEiBe o!
1Bt%13 iB%2IeB5,
215 ot Ie "%e( i any Bi$i3 o! B!i2i13 B1"e, 1( tDe!e i" o
ee( to '!o$i(e Eo! it i tDe Co"tit%tio o! 31A. It Ai33 (e4!1(e tDe (i4it5 oE tDe
Di4D oEEiBe oE tDe P!e"i(et, tDe He1( oE St1te, iE De B1 Ie (!144e( ito Bo%!t
3iti41tio" ADi3e "e!$i4 1" "%BD. F%!tDe!2o!e, it i" i2'o!t1t tD1t De Ie E!ee(
E!o2 15 Eo!2 oE D1!1""2et, Di(!1Be o! (i"t!1Btio to e1I3e Di2 to E%335 1tte(
to tDe 'e!Eo!21Be oE Di" oEEiBi13 (%tie" 1( E%Btio". U3iHe tDe 3e4i"31ti$e 1(
C%(iBi13 I!1BD, o35 oe Bo"tit%te" tDe e)eB%ti$e I!1BD 1( 15tDi4 ADiBD
i2'1i!" Di" %"eE%3e"" i tDe (i"BD1!4e oE tDe 215 4!e1t 1( i2'o!t1t (%tie"
i2'o"e( %'o Di2 I5 tDe Co"tit%tio eBe""1!i35 i2'1i!" tDe o'e!1tio oE tDe
Go$e!2et. HoAe$e!, tDi" (oe" ot 2e1 tD1t tDe P!e"i(et i" ot 1BBo%t1I3e to
15oe. LiHe 15 otDe! oEEiBi13, De !e21i" 1BBo%t1I3e to tDe 'eo'3e
I%t De
215 Ie !e2o$e( E!o2 oEEiBe o35 i tDe 2o(e '!o$i(e( I5 31A 1( tD1t i" I5

A- (?A(!&N!IB#
I. Review o !actual "ases

Petitioe!" 21it1i tD1t PP *7*+ D1" o E1Bt%13 I1"i". HeBe, it A1" ot
LeBe""1!5M Eo! P!e"i(et A!!o5o to i""%e "%BD P!oB3121tio.
TDe i""%e oE ADetDe! tDe Co%!t 215 !e$ieA tDe E1Bt%13 I1"e" oE tDe
P!e"i(etK" e)e!Bi"e oE Di" Co221(e!#i#CDieE 'oAe! D1" !e1BDe( it" (i"ti33e(
'oit # E!o2 tDe i(%34et (15" oE Barcelon -.
1( $ontenegro -. Castaneda
to tDe $o31ti3e e!1
oE !ansang -. 8arcia,
A1uino, Jr. -. Enrile,
and 8arcia'Padilla -.
TDe t%4#oE#A1! 13A15" B%t" 1B!o"" tDe 3ie (eEii4 L'o3itiB13
O%e"tio",M '1!tiB%31!35 tDo"e O%e"tio" Li !e41!( to ADiBD E%33 (i"B!etio1!5
1%tDo!it5 D1" Iee (e3e41te( to tDe 3e4i"31ti$e o! e)eB%ti$e I!1BD oE tDe
Barcelon and $ontenegro Ae!e i %i"o i (eB31!i4 tD1t
tDe authority to decide whether an exigency has arisen belongs to the
'resident 1( his decision is final and conclusive on the courts. !ansang tooH
tDe o''o"ite $ieA. TDe!e, tDe 2e2Ie!" oE tDe Co%!t Ae!e %1i2o%" i tDe
Bo$iBtio tD1t tDe Co%!t D1" tDe 1%tDo!it5 to iO%i!e ito tDe e)i"teBe oE E1Bt%13
I1"e" i o!(e! to (ete!2ie tDei! Bo"tit%tio13 "%EEiBieB5. %rom the principle of
separation of powers, it shifted the focus to the system of checks and balances,
Eunder which the 'resident is supreme, x x x only i and w#en he acts within
the sphere allotted to him by the Aasic .aw, and the authority to
determine whether or not he has so acted is vested in the Hudicial
/epartment, w#ic# in t#is respect, is, in turn,
constitutionally supreme.M
I *-+,, tDe %1i2o%" Co%!t oE !ansang A1"
(i$i(e( i A1uino -. Enrile.
TDe!e, tDe Co%!t A1" 132o"t e$e35
(i$i(e( o tDe i""%e oE ADetDe! tDe $13i(it5 oE tDe i2'o"itio oE
M1!ti13 L1A i" 1 'o3itiB13 o! C%"tiBi1I3e O%e"tio.
TDe B12e 8arcia'Padilla -.
Enrile ADiBD 4!e1t35 (i3%te( !ansang. It (eB31!e( tD1t tDe!e i" 1 ee( to !e#
e)12ie tDe 31tte! B1"e, !1tioBi1ti4 tD1t Lin times of war or national
emergency, the 'resident must be given absolute control for the very life of the
nation and the government is in great peril- !he 'resident, it intoned, is
answerable only to his conscience, the 'eople, and 3od.M

TDe ntegrated Bar of the Philippines -. Eamora
'' 1 !eBet B1"e 2o"t
'e!tiet to tDe"e B1"e" 1t I1! -- eBDoe( 1 '!iBi'3e "i2i31! to !ansang. ?Di3e tDe
Co%!t Bo"i(e!e( tDe P!e"i(etK" LB133i4#o%tM 'oAe! 1" 1 (i"B!etio1!5 'oAe!
"o3e35 $e"te( i Di" Ai"(o2, it "t!e""e( tD1t Lthis does not prevent an
examination of whether such power was exercised within permissible
constitutional limits or whether it was exercised in a manner constituting
grave abuse of discretion.M TDi" !%3i4 i" 21i35 1 !e"%3t oE tDe Co%!tK" !e3i1Be
o SeBtio *, A!tiB3e VIII oE *-9+ Co"tit%tio ADiBD Eo!tiEie" tDe 1%tDo!it5 oE tDe
Bo%!t" to (ete!2ie i 1 1''!o'!i1te 1Btio tDe $13i(it5 oE tDe 1Bt" oE tDe 'o3itiB13
(e'1!t2et". U(e! tDe eA (eEiitio oE C%(iBi13 'oAe!, tDe Bo%!t" 1!e 1%tDo!iJe(
ot o35 Lto "ett3e 1Bt%13 Bot!o$e!"ie" i$o3$i4 !i4Dt" ADiBD 1!e 3e41335
(e21(1I3e 1( eEo!Be1I3e,M I%t 13"o Lto determine whether or not there has
been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on
the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government.M TDe 31tte! '1!t
oE tDe 1%tDo!it5 !e'!e"et" 1 I!o1(ei4 oE C%(iBi13 'oAe! to e1I3e tDe Bo%!t" oE
C%"tiBe to !e$ieA AD1t A1" IeEo!e 1 Eo!Ii((e te!!ito!5, to Ait, tDe (i"B!etio oE
tDe 'o3itiB13 (e'1!t2et" oE tDe 4o$e!2et.
It "'e1H" oE C%(iBi13 '!e!o41ti$e
ot o35 i te!2" oE power I%t 13"o oE duty.

A" to DoA tDe Co%!t 215 iO%i!e ito tDe P!e"i(etK" e)e!Bi"e oE
'oAe!, !ansang 1(o'te( tDe te"t tD1t LC%(iBi13 iO%i!5 B1 go no further tD1 to
"1ti"E5 tDe Co%!t not tD1t tDe P!e"i(etK" (eBi"io i" correct,M I%t tD1t LtDe
P!e"i(et (i( ot 1Bt arbitrarily.M TD%", tDe "t1(1!( 31i( (oA i" ot Bo!!eBte"",
I%t 1!Iit!1!ie"".
I ntegrated Bar of the Philippines, tDi" Co%!t E%!tDe! !%3e(
tD1t Lit is incumbent upon the petitioner to show that the 'resident2s decision
is totally bereft of factual basisM 1( tD1t iE De E1i3", I5 A15 oE '!ooE, to "%''o!t
Di" 1""e!tio, tDe Lthis ,ourt cannot undertake an independent investigation
beyond the pleadings.M

Petitioe!" E1i3e( to "DoA tD1t P!e"i(et A!!o5oK" e)e!Bi"e oE tDe B133i4#o%t
'oAe!, I5 i""%i4 PP *7*+, i" tot1335 Ie!eEt oE E1Bt%13 I1"i". A !e1(i4 oE tDe
So3iBito! Gee!13K" Co"o3i(1te( Co22et 1( Me2o!1(%2 "DoA" 1 (et1i3e(
1!!1tio oE tDe e$et" 3e1(i4 to tDe i""%1Be oE PP *7*+, AitD "%''o!ti4 !e'o!t"
Eo!2i4 '1!t oE tDe !eBo!(". Metioe( 1!e tDe e"B1'e oE tDe M14(13o G!o%', tDei!
1%(1Bio%" tD!e1t oE tDe $agdalo &'&ay, tDe (eEeBtio" i tDe 2i3it1!5, '1!tiB%31!35
i tDe PDi3i''ie M1!ie", 1( tDe !e'!o$i4 "t1te2et" E!o2 tDe Bo22%i"t
3e1(e!". TDe!e A1" 13"o tDe Mi%te" oE tDe Ite33i4eBe Re'o!t 1( SeB%!it5 G!o%'
oE tDe PDi3i''ie A!25 "DoAi4 tDe 4!oAi4 133i1Be IetAee tDe NPA 1( tDe
2i3it1!5. Petitioe!" '!e"ete( otDi4 to !eE%te "%BD e$et". TD%", 1I"et 15
Bot!1!5 133e41tio", tDe Co%!t i" Bo$iBe( tD1t tDe P!e"i(et A1" C%"tiEie( i
i""%i4 PP *7*+ B133i4 Eo! 2i3it1!5 1i(.

I(ee(, C%(4i4 tDe "e!io%"e"" oE tDe iBi(et", P!e"i(et A!!o5o A1" ot
e)'eBte( to "i2'35 Eo3( De! 1!2" 1( (o otDi4 to '!e$et o! "%''!e"" AD1t "De
Ie3ie$e( A1" 31A3e"" $io3eBe, i$1"io o! !eIe33io. HoAe$e!, tDe e)e!Bi"e oE
"%BD 'oAe! o! (%t5 2%"t ot "tiE3e 3iIe!t5.

II. $onstitutionality o PP %&%' and (.). *o. +

/octrines of (everal 'olitical !heorists
on the 'ower of the 'resident
in !imes of #mergency

TDi" B1"e I!i4" to Eo!e 1 Botetio%" "%ICeBt ## tDe 'oAe! oE tDe P!e"i(et i
ti2e" oE e2e!4eB5. A 43i2'"e 1t tDe $1!io%" 'o3itiB13 tDeo!ie" !e31ti4 to tDi"
"%ICeBt '!o$i(e" 1 1(eO%1te I1BH(!o' Eo! o%! e"%i4 (i"B%""io.

JoD LoBHe, (e"B!iIi4 tDe 1!BDiteBt%!e oE Bi$i3 4o$e!2et, B133e( %'o tDe
E43i"D (oBt!ie oE '!e!o41ti$e to Bo'e AitD tDe '!oI3e2 oE e2e!4eB5. I ti2e"
oE (14e! to tDe 1tio, 'o"iti$e 31A e1Bte( I5 tDe 3e4i"31t%!e 2i4Dt Ie i1(eO%1te
o! e$e 1 E1t13 oI"t1B3e to tDe '!o2'te"" oE 1Btio eBe""1!5 to 1$e!t
B1t1"t!o'De. I tDe"e "it%1tio", tDe C!oA !et1ie( 1 '!e!o41ti$e Lpower to act
according to discretion for the public good, without the proscription of the law
and sometimes even against it.M
B%t LoBHe !eBo4iJe( tD1t tDi" 2o!13 !e"t!1it
2i4Dt ot "%EEiBe to 1$oi( 1I%"e oE '!e!o41ti$e 'oAe!". ho shall judge the
need for resorting to the prerogative and how may its abuse be avoidedC He!e,
LoBHe !e1(i35 1(2itte( (eEe1t, "%44e"ti4 tD1t Ethe people have no other remedy
in this, as in all other cases where they have no judge on earth, but to appeal
to "eaven.M

Je1#J1BO%e" Ro%""e1% 13"o 1""%2e( tDe ee( Eo! te2'o!1!5 "%"'e"io oE
(e2oB!1tiB '!oBe""e" oE 4o$e!2et i ti2e oE e2e!4eB5. ABBo!(i4 to Di2/
TDe iE3e)iIi3it5 oE tDe 31A", ADiBD '!e$et" tDe2 E!o2 1(o'ti4
tDe2"e3$e" to Bi!B%2"t1Be", 215, i Be!t1i B1"e", !e(e! tDe2 (i"1"t!o%" 1(
21He tDe2 I!i4 1Io%t, 1t 1 ti2e oE B!i"i", tDe !%i oE tDe St1teS

It i" A!o4 tDe!eEo!e to Ai"D to 21He 'o3itiB13 i"tit%tio" 1" "t!o4 1" to
!e(e! it i2'o""iI3e to "%"'e( tDei! o'e!1tio. E$e S'1!t1 133oAe( it" 31A to

IE tDe 'e!i3 i" oE "%BD 1 Hi( tD1t tDe '1!1'De!13i1 oE tDe 31A" 1!e 1
oI"t1B3e to tDei! '!e"e!$1tio, tDe 2etDo( i" to o2i1te 1 "%'!e2e 31A5e!, ADo
"D133 "i3eBe 133 tDe 31A" 1( "%"'e( Eo! 1 2o2et tDe "o$e!ei4 1%tDo!it5. I
"%BD 1 B1"e, tDe!e i" o (o%It 1Io%t tDe 4ee!13 Ai33, 1( it B3e1! tD1t tDe 'eo'3eK"
Ei!"t itetio i" tD1t tDe St1te "D133 ot 'e!i"D.

Ro""e1% (i( ot Ee1! tDe 1I%"e oE tDe e2e!4eB5 (iBt1to!"Di' o! Lsupreme
magistracyM 1" De te!2e( it. Fo! Di2, it Ao%3( 2o!e 3iHe35 Ie BDe1'ee( I5
Li(i"B!eet %"e.M He A1" %Ai33i4 to !e35 %'o 1 Lappeal to heaven.M I"te1(,
De !e3ie( %'o 1 te%!e oE oEEiBe oE '!e"B!iIe( (%!1tio to 1$oi( 'e!'et%1tio oE tDe

JoD St%1!t Mi33 BoB3%(e( Di" 1!(et (eEe"e oE !e'!e"et1ti$e 4o$e!2et/
LI am far from condemning, in cases of extreme necessity, the assumption of
absolute power in the form of a temporary dictatorship.M

NiBo33o M1BDi1$e33iK" $ieA oE e2e!4eB5 'oAe!", 1" oe e3e2et i tDe
ADo3e "BDe2e oE 3i2ite( 4o$e!2et, E%!i"De( 1 i!oiB Bot!1"t to tDe LoBHe1
tDeo!5 oE '!e!o41ti$e. He !eBo4iJe( 1( 1tte2'te( to I!i(4e tDi" BD1"2 i
(e2oB!1tiB 'o3itiB13 tDeo!5, tD%"/
NoA, i 1 Ae33#o!(e!e( "oBiet5, it "Do%3( e$e! Ie eBe""1!5 to !e"o!t to
e)t!1 <Bo"tit%tio13 2e1"%!e"@ Eo! 13tDo%4D tDe5 215 Eo! 1 ti2e Ie IeeEiBi13, 5et
tDe '!eBe(et i" 'e!iBio%", Eo! iE tDe '!1BtiBe i" oBe e"t1I3i"De( Eo! 4oo( oICeBt",
tDe5 Ai33 i 1 3itt3e ADi3e Ie (i"!e41!(e( %(e! tD1t '!ete)t I%t Eo! e$i3 '%!'o"e".
TD%", o !e'%I3iB Ai33 e$e! Ie 'e!EeBt iE "De D1" ot I5 31A '!o$i(e( Eo!
e$e!5tDi4, D1$i4 1 !e2e(5 Eo! e$e!5 e2e!4eB5 1( Ei)e( !%3e" Eo! 1''35i4 it.

M1BDi1$e33i < i Bot!1"t to LoBHe, Ro""e1% 1( Mi33 < "o%4Dt to iBo!'o!1te
ito tDe Bo"tit%tio 1 !e4%31!iJe( "5"te2 oE "t1(I5 e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" to Ie
i$oHe( AitD "%it1I3e BDeBH" 1( Bot!o3" i ti2e oE 1tio13 (14e!. He 1tte2'te(
Eo!tD!i4Dt35 to 2eet tDe '!oI3e2 oE Bo2Iii4 1 B1'1Bio%" !e"e!$e oE 'oAe! 1(
"'ee( 1( $i4o! i it" 1''3iB1tio i ti2e oE e2e!4eB5, AitD eEEeBti$e
Bo"tit%tio13 !e"t!1it".

Cote2'o!1!5 'o3itiB13 tDeo!i"t", 1((!e""i4 tDe2"e3$e" to tDe '!oI3e2 oE
!e"'o"e to e2e!4eB5 I5 Bo"tit%tio13 (e2oB!1Bie", D1$e e2'3o5e( tDe (oBt!ie
oE Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di'.
F!e(e!iBH M. ?1tHi" "1A Lno reason why
absolutism should not be used as a means for the defense of liberal
institutions,M '!o$i(e( it Lserves to protect established institutions from the
danger of permanent injury in a period of temporary emergency and is
followed by a prompt return to the previous forms of political life.M
!eBo4iJe( tDe tAo =6> He5 e3e2et" oE tDe '!oI3e2 oE e2e!4eB5 4o$e!1Be, 1"
Ae33 1" 133 Bo"tit%tio13 4o$e!1Be/ increasing administrative powers of the
executive, while at the same time Eimposing limitation upon that
?1tHi" '31Be( Di" !e13 E1itD i 1 "BDe2e oE Bo"tit%tio13
(iBt1to!"Di'. TDe"e 1!e tDe Bo(itio" oE "%BBe"" oE "%BD 1 (iBt1to!"Di'/ E!he
period of dictatorship must be relatively shortD/ictatorship should always be
strictly legitimate in characterD%inal authority to determine the need for
dictatorship in any given case must never rest with the dictator
1( tDe oICeBti$e oE "%BD 1 e2e!4eB5 (iBt1to!"Di' "Do%3( Ie
Lstrict political conservatism.M

C1!3 J. F!ie(!iBD B1"t Di" 1135"i" i te!2" "i2i31! to tDo"e oE ?1tHi".
i" 1 '!oI3e2 oE BoBet!1ti4 'oAe! < i 1 4o$e!2et ADe!e 'oAe! D1"
Bo"Bio%"35 Iee (i$i(e( < to Bo'e AitDS "it%1tio" oE %'!eBe(ete( 214it%(e
1( 4!1$it5. TDe!e 2%"t Ie 1 I!o1( 4!1t oE 'oAe!", "%ICeBt to eO%1335 "t!o4
3i2it1tio" 1" to ADo "D133 e)e!Bi"e "%BD 'oAe!", ADe, Eo! DoA 3o4, 1( to AD1t
F!ie(!iBD, too, oEEe!e( B!ite!i1 Eo! C%(4i4 tDe 1(eO%1B5 oE 15 oE "BDe2e
oE e2e!4eB5 'oAe!", to Ait/ E!he emergency executive must be appointed by
constitutional means 0 i-e-, he must be legitimate1 he should not enjoy power
to determine the existence of an emergency1 emergency powers should be
exercised under a strict time limitation1 and last, the objective of emergency
action must be the defense of the constitutional order.M

C3ito L. Ro""ite!, 1Ete! "%!$e5i4 tDe Di"to!5 oE tDe e2'3o52et oE
e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" i G!e1t B!it1i, F!1Be, ?ei21!, Ge!215 1( tDe Uite(
St1te", !e$e!te( to 1 (e"B!i'tio oE 1 "BDe2e oE LBo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di'M 1"
"o3%tio to tDe $e)i4 '!oI3e2" '!e"ete( I5 e2e!4eB5.
LiHe ?1tHi" 1(
F!ie(!iBD, De "t1te( a priori tDe Bo(itio" oE "%BBe"" oE tDe LBo"tit%tio13
(iBt1to!"Di',M tD%"/
)< No 4ee!13 !e4i2e o! '1!tiB%31! i"tit%tio oE Bo"tit%tio13
(iBt1to!"Di' "Do%3( Ie iiti1te( %3e"" it i" eBe""1!5 o! e$e i(i"'e"1I3e
to tDe '!e"e!$1tio oE tDe St1te 1( it" Bo"tit%tio13 o!(e!S

+< StDe (eBi"io to i"tit%te 1 Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di' "Do%3(
e$e! Ie i tDe D1(" oE tDe 21 o! 2e ADo Ai33 Bo"tit%te tDe (iBt1to!S

8< No 4o$e!2et "Do%3( iiti1te 1 Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di'
AitDo%t 21Hi4 "'eBiEiB '!o$i"io" Eo! it" te!2i1tioS

=< S133 %"e" oE e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" 1( 133 !e1(C%"t2et" i tDe
o!41iJ1tio oE tDe 4o$e!2et "Do%3( Ie eEEeBte( i '%!"%it oE
Bo"tit%tio13 o! 3e413 !eO%i!e2et"S

7< S o (iBt1to!i13 i"tit%tio "Do%3( Ie 1(o'te(, o !i4Dt
i$1(e(, o !e4%31! '!oBe(%!e 13te!e( 15 2o!e tD1 i" 1I"o3%te35
eBe""1!5 Eo! tDe BoO%e"t oE tDe '1!tiB%31! B!i"i" . . .

:< TDe 2e1"%!e" 1(o'te( i tDe '!o"eB%tio oE tDe 1 Bo"tit%tio13
(iBt1to!"Di' "Do%3( e$e! Ie 'e!21et i BD1!1Bte! o! eEEeBtS

*< TDe (iBt1to!"Di' "Do%3( Ie B1!!ie( o I5 'e!"o" !e'!e"et1ti$e
oE e$e!5 '1!t oE tDe BitiJe!5 ite!e"te( i tDe (eEe"e oE tDe e)i"ti4
Bo"tit%tio13 o!(e!. . .

>< U3ti21te !e"'o"iIi3it5 "Do%3( Ie 21it1ie( Eo! e$e!5 1Btio
t1He %(e! 1 Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di'. . .

9< TDe (eBi"io to te!2i1te 1 Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di', 3iHe tDe
(eBi"io to i"tit%te oe "Do%3( e$e! Ie i tDe D1(" oE tDe 21 o! 2e
ADo Bo"tit%te tDe (iBt1to!. . .

)6< No Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di' "Do%3( e)te( Ie5o( tDe
te!2i1tio oE tDe B!i"i" Eo! ADiBD it A1" i"tit%te(S

))< StDe te!2i1tio oE tDe B!i"i" 2%"t Ie Eo33oAe( I5 1 Bo2'3ete
!et%! 1" 'o""iI3e to tDe 'o3itiB13 1( 4o$e!2et13 Bo(itio" e)i"ti4
'!io! to tDe iiti1tio oE tDe Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di'S

Ro""ite! 1BBo!(e( to 3e4i"31t%!e 1 E1! 4!e1te! !o3e i tDe o$e!"i4Dt e)e!Bi"e oE
e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" tD1 (i( ?1tHi". He Ao%3( "eB%!e to Co4!e"" Ei13
!e"'o"iIi3it5 Eo! (eB31!i4 tDe e)i"teBe o! te!2i1tio oE 1 e2e!4eB5, 1( De
'31Be" 4!e1t E1itD i tDe eEEeBti$ee"" oE Bo4!e""io13 i$e"ti41ti4 Bo22ittee".
0cott 1( Cotter, i 1135Ji4 tDe 1Io$e Bote2'o!1!5 tDeo!ie" i 3i4Dt oE
!eBet e)'e!ieBe, Ae!e oe i "15i4 tD1t, Lthe suggestion that democracies
surrender the control of government to an authoritarian ruler in time of grave
danger to the nation is not based upon sound constitutional theory.M To
1''!1i"e e2e!4eB5 'oAe! i te!2" oE Bo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di' "e!$e" 2e!e35 to
(i"to!t tDe '!oI3e2 1( Di(e! !e13i"tiB 1135"i". It 21tte!" ot ADetDe! tDe te!2
L(iBt1to!M i" %"e( i it" o!213 "e"e =1" 1''3ie( to 1%tDo!it1!i1 !%3e!"> o! i"
e2'3o5e( to e2I!1Be 133 BDieE e)eB%ti$e" 1(2ii"te!i4 e2e!4eB5 'oAe!".
HoAe$e! %"e(, LBo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di'M B1ot Ie (i$o!Be( E!o2 tDe
i2'3iB1tio oE "%"'e"io oE tDe '!oBe""e" oE Bo"tit%tio13i"2. TD%", tDe5
E1$o!e( i"te1( tDe LBoBe't oE Bo"tit%tio13i"2M 1!tiB%31te( I5 CD1!3e" H.

A BoBe't oE Bo"tit%tio13i"2 ADiBD i" 3e"" 2i"3e1(i4 i tDe 1135"i" oE
'!oI3e2" oE e2e!4eB5 'oAe!", 1( ADiBD i" Bo"i"tet AitD tDe Ei(i4" oE tDi"
"t%(5, i" tD1t Eo!2%31te( I5 CD1!3e" H. MBI3A1i. ?Di3e it (oe" ot I5 15 2e1"
eBe""1!i35 e)B3%(e "o2e i(ete!2i1te 3i2it1tio" %'o tDe "%I"t1ti$e 'oAe!"
oE 4o$e!2et, E%33 e2'D1"i" i" '31Be( %'o procedural limitations,
1( political responsibility. MBI3A1i B3e1!35 !eBo4iJe( tDe ee( to !e'o"e
1(eO%1te 'oAe! i 4o$e!2et. A( i (i"B%""i4 tDe 2e1i4 oE
Bo"tit%tio13i"2, De i"i"te( tD1t tDe historical and proper test of
constitutionalism was the existence of adeGuate processes for keeping
government responsible. He !eE%"e( to eO%1te Bo"tit%tio13i"2 AitD tDe
eEeeI3i4 oE 4o$e!2et I5 1 e)144e!1te( e2'D1"i" %'o "e'1!1tio oE 'oAe!"
1( "%I"t1ti$e 3i2it1tio" o 4o$e!2et13 'oAe!. He Eo%( tD1t tDe !e1335
eEEeBti$e BDeBH" o (e"'oti"2 D1$e Bo"i"te( ot i tDe Ae1Hei4 oE 4o$e!2et
I%t, I%t !1tDe! i tDe limiting of it@ IetAee ADiBD tDe!e i" 1 4!e1t 1( $e!5
"i4iEiB1t (iEEe!eBe. In associating constitutionalism with ElimitedF as
distinguished from EweakF government, 4cIlwain meant government
limited to the orderly procedure of law as opposed to the processes of force-
!he two fundamental correlative elements of constitutionalism for which all
lovers of liberty must yet fight are the legal limits to arbitrary power and a
complete political responsibility of government to the governed.

I tDe Ei13 1135"i", tDe $1!io%" 1''!o1BDe" to e2e!4eB5 oE tDe 1Io$e
'o3itiB13 tDeo!i"t" <# E!o2 LoBHK" LtDeo!5 oE '!e!o41ti$e,M to ?1tHi"K (oBt!ie oE
LBo"tit%tio13 (iBt1to!"Di'M 1(, e$et%1335, to MBI3A1iK" L'!iBi'3e oE
Bo"tit%tio13i"2M ### %3ti21te35 1i2 to "o3$e oe !e13 '!oI3e2 i e2e!4eB5
4o$e!1Be, i.e.,that of allotting increasing areas of discretionary power to the
,hief #xecutive, while insuring that such powers will be exercised with a sense
of political responsibility and under effective limitations and checks-

O%! Co"tit%tio D1" E1i!35 Bo'e( AitD tDi" '!oI3e2. F!e"D E!o2 tDe Eette!"
oE 1 !e'!e""i$e !e4i2e, tDe *-9. Co"tit%tio13 Co22i""io, i (!1Eti4 tDe *-9+
Co"tit%tio, e(e1$o!e( to B!e1te 1 4o$e!2et i tDe BoBe't oE J%"tiBe
J1BH"oK" LI131Be( 'oAe! "t!%Bt%!e.M
E)eB%ti$e, 3e4i"31ti$e, 1( C%(iBi13
'oAe!" 1!e (i"'e!"e( to tDe P!e"i(et, tDe Co4!e"", 1( tDe S%'!e2e Co%!t,
!e"'eBti$e35. E1BD i" "%'!e2e AitDi it" oA "'De!e. Aut none has the monopoly
of power in times of emergency- #ach branch is given a role to serve as
limitation or check upon the other- TDi" "5"te2 (oe" ot weaken tDe
P!e"i(et, it C%"t limits Di" 'oAe!, %"i4 tDe 314%14e oE MBI3A1i. I otDe!
Ao!(", i ti2e" oE e2e!4eB5, o%! Co"tit%tio !e1"o1I35 (e21(" tD1t Ae !e'o"e
1 Be!t1i 12o%t oE E1itD i tDe I1"iB ite4!it5 1( Ai"(o2 oE tDe CDieE E)eB%ti$e
I%t, 1t tDe "12e ti2e, it obliges him to operate within carefully prescribed
procedural limitations.

a- E%acial ,hallengeF

Petitioe!" Bote( tD1t PP *7*+ i" $oi( o it" E1Be IeB1%"e oE it"
Lo$e!I!e1(tD.M TDe5 B31i2 tD1t it" eEo!Be2et eB!o1BDe( o IotD %'!oteBte(
1( '!oteBte( !i4Dt" %(e! SeBtio 8, A!tiB3e III oE tDe Co"tit%tio 1( "et 1
LBDi33i4 eEEeBtM to tDe BitiJe".

A E1Bi13 !e$ieA oE PP *7*+, %"i4 tDe o$e!I!e1(tD (oBt!ie, i" %B133e( Eo!.

(irst and foremost, tDe o$e!I!e1(tD (oBt!ie i" 1 1135tiB13 too3 (e$e3o'e(
Eo! te"ti4 Lo tDei! E1Be"M "t1t%te" i free speech cases, 13"o HoA %(e! tDe
A2e!iB1 L1A 1" Fi!"t A2e(2et B1"e".

A '31i !e1(i4 oE PP *7*+ "DoA" tD1t it i" ot '!i21!i35 (i!eBte( to "'eeBD
o! e$e "'eeBD#!e31te( Bo(%Bt. It i" 1Bt%1335 1 B133 %'o tDe AFP to '!e$et o!
"%''!e"" 133 Eo!2" oE lawless violence- I 5nited 0tates -. 0alerno,
tDe US
S%'!e2e Co%!t De3( tD1t Lwe have not recognized an Ioverbreadth2 doctrine
outside the limited context of the %irst &mendmentF ;freedom of speech<.

Mo!eo$e!, tDe o$e!I!e1(tD (oBt!ie i" ot ite(e( Eo! te"ti4 tDe $13i(it5 oE
1 31A tD1t L!eE3eBt" 3e4iti21te "t1te ite!e"t i 21it1ii4 Bo2'!eDe"i$e Bot!o3
o$e! D1!2E%3, Bo"tit%tio1335 %'!oteBte( Bo(%Bt.M U(o%Ite(35, 31A3e""
$io3eBe, i"%!!eBtio 1( !eIe33io 1!e Bo"i(e!e( LD1!2E%3M 1( LBo"tit%tio1335
%'!oteBte( Bo(%Bt.M I Broadric# -. "#lahoma,
it A1" De3(/

It !e21i" 1 R21tte! oE o 3itt3e (iEEiB%3t5K to (ete!2ie ADe 1 31A 215
'!o'e!35 Ie De3( $oi( o it" E1Be 1( ADe R"%BD "%221!5 1BtioK i"
i1''!o'!i1te. Aut the plain import of our cases is, at the very least, that
facial overbreadth adjudication is an exception to our traditional rules of
practice and that its function, a limited one at the outset, attenuates as the
otherwise unprotected behavior that it forbids the (tate to sanction moves
from Ipure speech2 toward conduct 1( that conduct 0even if expressive 0
falls within the scope of otherwise valid criminal laws that reflect legitimate
state interests in maintaining comprehensive controls over harmful,
constitutionally unprotected conduct.

TD%", B31i2" oE E1Bi13 o$e!I!e1(tD 1!e ete!t1ie( i B1"e" i$o3$i4 "t1t%te"
ADiBD, by their terms, "eeH to !e4%31te o35 Lspoken wordsM 1( 141i, tD1t
Loverbreadth claims, if entertained at all, have been curtailed when invoked
against ordinary criminal laws that are sought to be applied to protected
He!e, tDe iBot!o$e!tiI3e E1Bt !e21i" tD1t PP *7*+ 'e!t1i" to 1
"'eBt!%2 oE conduct, ot E!ee "'eeBD, ADiBD i" 21iEe"t35 "%ICeBt to "t1te

0econd, E1Bi13 i$13i(1tio oE 31A" i" Bo"i(e!e( 1" Lmanifestly strong
medicine,M to Ie %"e( Lsparingly and only as a last resort,M 1( i" Lgenerally
TDe !e1"o Eo! tDi" i" oI$io%". E2Ie((e( i tDe t!1(itio13 !%3e"
4o$e!i4 Bo"tit%tio13 1(C%(iB1tio i" tDe '!iBi'3e tD1t 1 'e!"o to ADo2 1 31A
215 Ie 1''3ie( Ai33 ot Ie De1!( to BD133e4e 1 31A o tDe 4!o%( tD1t it 215
BoBei$1I35 Ie 1''3ie( %Bo"tit%tio1335 to otDe!", i.e., in other situations not
before the ,ourt-
A A!ite! 1( "BDo31! i Co"tit%tio13 L1A e)'31i" E%!tDe!/

!he most distinctive feature of the overbreadth techniGue is that it
marks an exception to some of the usual rules of constitutional
litigation- Ordinarily, a particular litigant claims that a statute is
unconstitutional as applied to him or her1 if the litigant prevails, the courts
carve away the unconstitutional aspects of the law by invalidating its
improper applications on a case to case basis- 4oreover, challengers to a law
are not permitted to raise the rights of third parties and can only assert their
own interests- In overbreadth analysis, those rules give way1 challenges are
permitted to raise the rights of third parties@ 1( tDe Bo%!t i$13i(1te" tDe eti!e
"t1t%te Lo it" E1Be,M ot 2e!e35 L1" 1''3ie( Eo!M "o tD1t tDe o$e!I!o1( 31A
IeBo2e" %eEo!Be1I3e %ti3 1 '!o'e!35 1%tDo!iJe( Bo%!t Bo"t!%e" it 2o!e
1!!oA35. TDe E1Bto! tD1t 2oti$1te" Bo%!t" to (e'1!t E!o2 tDe o!213 1(C%(iB1to!5
!%3e" i" tDe BoBe! AitD tDe LBDi33i4@M (ete!!et eEEeBt oE tDe o$e!I!o1( "t1t%te o
tDi!( '1!tie" ot Bo%!14eo%" eo%4D to I!i4 "%it. TDe Co%!t 1""%2e" tD1t 1
o$e!I!o1( 31AK" L$e!5 e)i"teBe 215 B1%"e otDe!" ot IeEo!e tDe Bo%!t to !eE!1i
E!o2 Bo"tit%tio1335 '!oteBte( "'eeBD o! e)'!e""io.M A o$e!I!e1(tD !%3i4 i"
(e"i4e( to !e2o$e tD1t (ete!!et eEEeBt o tDe "'eeBD oE tDo"e tDi!( '1!tie".

I otDe! Ao!(", 1 E1Bi13 BD133e4e %"i4 tDe o$e!I!e1(tD (oBt!ie Ai33 !eO%i!e
tDe Co%!t to e)12ie PP *7*+ 1( 'i'oit it" E31A" 1( (eEeBt", ot o tDe I1"i"
oE it" 1Bt%13 o'e!1tio to 'etitioe!", I%t o tDe 1""%2'tio o! '!e(iBtio tD1t it"
$e!5 e)i"teBe 215 B1%"e others not before the ,ourt to !eE!1i E!o2
Bo"tit%tio1335 '!oteBte( "'eeBD o! e)'!e""io. I Gounger -. Harris,
it A1"
De3( tD1t/

FTGDe t1"H oE 1135Ji4 1 '!o'o"e( "t1t%te, 'i'oiti4 it" (eEiBieBie",
1( !eO%i!i4 Bo!!eBtio oE tDe"e (eEiBieBie" IeEo!e tDe "t1t%te i" '%t ito eEEeBt,
i" !1!e35 iE e$e! 1 1''!o'!i1te t1"H Eo! tDe C%(iBi1!5. TDe Bo2Ii1tio oE
tDe relative remoteness of the controversy, tDe impact on the legislative
process of the relief sought, 1( 1Io$e 133 the speculative and amorphous
nature of the reGuired line-by-line analysis of detailed statutes,...o!(i1!i35
!e"%3t" i 1 Hi( oE B1"e tD1t i" wholly unsatisfactory Eo! (eBi(i4 Bo"tit%tio13
O%e"tio", ADiBDe$e! A15 tDe5 2i4Dt Ie (eBi(e(.

A( third, 1 E1Bi13 BD133e4e o tDe 4!o%( oE o$e!I!e1(tD i" tDe 2o"t
(iEEiB%3t BD133e4e to 2o%t "%BBe""E%335, "iBe tDe BD133e4e! 2%"t e"t1I3i"D
tD1t there can be no instance when the assailed law may be valid. He!e,
'etitioe!" (i( ot e$e 1tte2't to "DoA ADetDe! tDi" "it%1tio e)i"t".

Petitioe!" 3iHeAi"e "eeH 1 E1Bi13 !e$ieA oE PP *7*+ o tDe 4!o%( oE
$14%ee"". TDi", too, i" %A1!!1te(.

Re31te( to tDe Lo$e!I!e1(tDM (oBt!ie i" tDe L$oi( Eo! $14%ee"" (oBt!ieM
ADiBD Do3(" tD1t La law is facially invalid if men of common intelligence must
necessarily guess at its meaning and differ as to its application-M
It i" "%ICeBt
to tDe "12e '!iBi'3e" 4o$e!i4 o$e!I!e1(tD (oBt!ie. Fo! oe, it i" 13"o 1
1135tiB13 too3 Eo! te"ti4 Lo tDei! E1Be"M statutes in free speech cases. A( 3iHe
o$e!I!e1(tD, it i" "1i( tD1t 1 3iti41t 215 BD133e4e 1 "t1t%te o it" E1Be o35 iE it
i"vague in all its possible applications- &gain, petitioners did not even attempt
to show that '' )6)* is vague in all its application- TDe5 13"o E1i3e( to e"t1I3i"D
tD1t 2e oE Bo22o ite33i4eBe B1ot %(e!"t1( tDe 2e1i4 1( 1''3iB1tio oE
PP *7*+.

b- ,onstitutional Aasis of '' )6)*

NoA o tDe Bo"tit%tio13 Eo%(1tio oE PP *7*+.

TDe o'e!1ti$e 'o!tio oE PP *7*+ 215 Ie (i$i(e( ito tD!ee i2'o!t1t
'!o$i"io", tD%"/

!irst provision,

LI5 $i!t%e oE tDe 'oAe! $e"te( %'o 2e I5 SeBtio *9, A!ti3Be
VII S (o De!eI5 Bo221( tDe A!2e( Fo!Be" oE tDe PDi3i''ie", to
21it1i 31A 1( o!(e! tD!o%4Do%t tDe PDi3i''ie", '!e$et o!
"%''!e"" 133 Eo!2" oE 31A3e"" $io3eBe 1" Ae33 15 1Bt oE i"%!!eBtio
o! !eIe33ioM

Second provision,

L1( to eEo!Be oIe(ieBe to 133 tDe 31A" 1( to 133 (eB!ee",
o!(e!" 1( !e4%31tio" '!o2%341te( I5 2e 'e!"o1335 o! %'o 25

-#ird provision,

L1" '!o$i(e( i SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II oE tDe Co"tit%tio (o
De!eI5 (eB31!e 1 St1te oE N1tio13 E2e!4eB5.M

!irst Provision, $alling-out Power

TDe Ei!"t '!o$i"io 'e!t1i" to tDe P!e"i(etK" B133i4#o%t 'oAe!. I
0anla#as -. E<ecuti-e 0ecretary,
tDi" Co%!t, tD!o%4D M!. J%"tiBe D1te O.
Ti41, De3( tD1t SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e VII oE tDe Co"tit%tio !e'!o(%Be( 1" Eo33oA"/

(ec- )>- TDe P!e"i(et "D133 Ie tDe Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE 133 1!2e(
Eo!Be" oE tDe PDi3i''ie" 1( whenever it becomes necessary, he may call out
such armed forces to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or
rebellion. I B1"e oE i$1"io o! !eIe33io, ADe tDe '%I3iB "1Eet5 !eO%i!e" it, De
215, Eo! 1 'e!io( ot e)Bee(i4 "i)t5 (15", "%"'e( tDe '!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it
oE habeas corpus o! '31Be tDe PDi3i''ie" o! 15 '1!t tDe!eoE %(e! 21!ti13 31A.
?itDi Eo!t5#ei4Dt Do%!" E!o2 tDe '!oB3121tio oE 21!ti13 31A o! tDe "%"'e"io
oE tDe '!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it oE habeas corpus, tDe P!e"i(et "D133 "%I2it 1 !e'o!t i
'e!"o o! i A!iti4 to tDe Co4!e"". TDe Co4!e"", $oti4 Coit35, I5 1 $ote oE 1t
3e1"t 1 21Co!it5 oE 133 it" Me2Ie!" i !e4%31! o! "'eBi13 "e""io, 215 !e$oHe "%BD
'!oB3121tio o! "%"'e"io, ADiBD !e$oB1tio "D133 ot Ie "et 1"i(e I5 tDe
P!e"i(et. U'o tDe iiti1ti$e oE tDe P!e"i(et, tDe Co4!e"" 215, i tDe "12e
21e!, e)te( "%BD '!oB3121tio o! "%"'e"io Eo! 1 'e!io( to Ie (ete!2ie( I5
tDe Co4!e"", iE tDe i$1"io o! !eIe33io "D133 'e!"i"t 1( '%I3iB "1Eet5 !eO%i!e" it.

TDe Co4!e"", iE ot i "e""io, "D133 AitDi tAet5#Eo%! Do%!" Eo33oAi4
"%BD '!oB3121tio o! "%"'e"io, Bo$ee i 1BBo!(1Be AitD it" !%3e" AitDo%t
ee( oE 1 B133.

TDe S%'!e2e Co%!t 215 !e$ieA, i 1 1''!o'!i1te '!oBee(i4 Ei3e( I5 15
BitiJe, tDe "%EEiBieB5 oE tDe E1Bt%13 I1"e" oE tDe '!oB3121tio oE 21!ti13 31A o!
tDe "%"'e"io oE tDe '!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it o! tDe e)te"io tDe!eoE, 1( 2%"t
'!o2%341te it" (eBi"io tDe!eo AitDi tDi!t5 (15" E!o2 it" Ei3i4.

A "t1te oE 21!ti13 31A (oe" ot "%"'e( tDe o'e!1tio oE tDe Co"tit%tio,
o! "%''31t tDe E%Btioi4 oE tDe Bi$i3 Bo%!t" o! 3e4i"31ti$e 1""e2I3ie", o!
1%tDo!iJe tDe BoEe!2et oE C%!i"(iBtio o 2i3it1!5 Bo%!t" 1( 14eBie" o$e!
Bi$i3i1" ADe!e Bi$i3 Bo%!t" 1!e 1I3e to E%Btio, o! 1%to21tiB1335 "%"'e( tDe
'!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it.

TDe "%"'e"io oE tDe '!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it "D133 1''35 o35 to 'e!"o"
C%(iBi1335 BD1!4e( Eo! !eIe33io o! oEEe"e" iDe!et i o! (i!eBt35 BoeBte( AitD

D%!i4 tDe "%"'e"io oE tDe '!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it, 15 'e!"o tD%" 1!!e"te(
o! (et1ie( "D133 Ie C%(iBi1335 BD1!4e( AitDi tD!ee (15", otDe!Ai"e De "D133 Ie

4!1t" tDe P!e"i(et, 1" Co221(e!#i#CDieE, 1 L"eO%eBeM oE 4!1(%1te(
'oAe!". F!o2 tDe 2o"t to tDe 3e1"t Iei4, tDe"e 1!e/ tDe B133i4#o%t 'oAe!, tDe
'oAe! to "%"'e( tDe '!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it oE habeas corpus, 1( tDe 'oAe! to
(eB31!e M1!ti13 L1A. Citi4 ntegrated Bar of the Philippines -. Eamora,
Co%!t !%3e( tD1t tDe o35 B!ite!io Eo! tDe e)e!Bi"e oE tDe B133i4#o%t 'oAe! i" tD1t
Lwhenever it becomes necessary,M tDe P!e"i(et 215 B133 tDe 1!2e( Eo!Be" Lto
prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion.M Are these
conditions present in the instant casesN A" "t1te( e1!3ie!, Bo"i(e!i4 tDe
Bi!B%2"t1Be" tDe '!e$1i3i4, P!e"i(et A!!o5o Eo%( it eBe""1!5 to i""%e PP
*7*+. OAi4 to De! OEEiBeK" $1"t ite33i4eBe etAo!H, "De i" i tDe Ie"t 'o"itio
to (ete!2ie tDe 1Bt%13 Bo(itio oE tDe Bo%t!5.

U(e! tDe B133i4#o%t 'oAe!, tDe P!e"i(et 215 "%22o tDe 1!2e( Eo!Be" to
1i( Di2 i "%''!e""i4 lawless violence, invasion and rebellion. TDi" i$o3$e"
o!(i1!5 'o3iBe 1Btio. B%t e$e!5 1Bt tD1t 4oe" Ie5o( tDe P!e"i(etK" B133i4#o%t
'oAe! i" Bo"i(e!e( i33e413 o! ultra -ires. Fo! tDi" !e1"o, 1 P!e"i(et 2%"t Ie
B1!eE%3 i tDe e)e!Bi"e oE Di" 'oAe!". He B1ot i$oHe 1 4!e1te! 'oAe! ADe De
Ai"De" to 1Bt %(e! 1 3e""e! 'oAe!. TDe!e 3ie" tDe Ai"(o2 oE o%! Co"tit%tio, tDe
4!e1te! tDe 'oAe!, tDe 4!e1te! 1!e tDe 3i2it1tio".

It i" 'e!tiet to "t1te, DoAe$e!, tD1t tDe!e i" 1 (i"tiBtio IetAee tDe
P!e"i(etK" 1%tDo!it5 to (eB31!e 1 L"t1te oE !eIe33ioM =i 0anla#as> 1( tDe
1%tDo!it5 to '!oB31i2 1 "t1te oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5. ?Di3e P!e"i(et A!!o5oK"
1%tDo!it5 to (eB31!e 1 L"t1te oE !eIe33ioM e211te" E!o2 De! 'oAe!" 1" CDieE
E)eB%ti$e, tDe "t1t%to!5 1%tDo!it5 Bite( i 0anla#as A1" SeBtio 8, CD1'te! 6, BooH
II oE tDe Re$i"e( A(2ii"t!1ti$e Co(e oE *-9+, ADiBD '!o$i(e"/

SEC. 8. < P!oB3121tio". < ABt" oE tDe P!e"i(et Ei)i4 1 (1te o!
(eB31!i4 1 "t1t%" o! Bo(itio oE '%I3iB 2o2et o! ite!e"t, %'o tDe
e)i"teBe oE ADiBD tDe o'e!1tio oE 1 "'eBiEiB 31A o! !e4%31tio i" 21(e to
(e'e(, "D133 Ie '!o2%341te( i '!oB3121tio" ADiBD "D133 D1$e tDe Eo!Be
oE 1 e)eB%ti$e o!(e!.

P!e"i(et A!!o5oK" (eB31!1tio oE 1 L"t1te oE !eIe33ioM A1" 2e!e35 1 1Bt
(eB31!i4 1 "t1t%" o! Bo(itio oE '%I3iB 2o2et o! ite!e"t, 1 (eB31!1tio 133oAe(
%(e! SeBtio 8 Bite( 1Io$e. S%BD (eB31!1tio, i tDe Ao!(" oE 0anla#as, i"
D1!23e"", AitDo%t 3e413 "i4iEiB1Be, 1( (ee2e( ot A!itte. I tDe"e B1"e", PP
*7*+ i" 2o!e tD1 tD1t. I (eB31!i4 1 "t1te oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5, P!e"i(et
A!!o5o (i( ot o35 !e35 o SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e VII oE tDe Co"tit%tio, 1 '!o$i"io
B133i4 o tDe AFP to '!e$et o! "%''!e"" 31A3e"" $io3eBe, i$1"io o!
!eIe33io. SDe 13"o !e3ie( o SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II, 1 '!o$i"io o tDe St1teK"
e)t!1o!(i1!5 'oAe! to t1He o$e! '!i$1te35#oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 1( I%"ie""
1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t. I(ee(, PP *7*+ B133" Eo! tDe e)e!Bi"e oE
1 awesome power. OI$io%"35, "%BD P!oB3121tio B1ot Ie (ee2e( D1!23e"",
AitDo%t 3e413 "i4iEiB1Be, o! ot A!itte, 1" i tDe B1"e oE 0anla#as.

So2e oE tDe 'etitioe!" $eDe2et35 21it1i tD1t PP *7*+ i" 1Bt%1335 1
(eB31!1tio oE M1!ti13 L1A. It i" o "o. ?D1t (eEie" tDe BD1!1Bte! oE PP *7*+ 1!e
it" Ao!(i4". It i" '31i tDe!ei tD1t AD1t tDe P!e"i(et i$oHe( A1" De! B133i4#o%t

TDe (eB31!1tio oE M1!ti13 L1A i" 1 LA1!Fi4G to BitiJe" tD1t tDe 2i3it1!5
'oAe! D1" Iee B133e( %'o I5 tDe e)eB%ti$e to 1""i"t i tDe 21ite1Be oE 31A
1( o!(e!, 1( tD1t, ADi3e tDe e2e!4eB5 31"t", tDe5 2%"t, %'o '1i oE 1!!e"t 1(
'%i"D2et, ot Bo22it 15 1Bt" ADiBD Ai33 i 15 A15 !e(e! 2o!e (iEEiB%3t tDe
!e"to!1tio oE o!(e! 1( tDe eEo!Be2et oE 31A.M

I Di" L0tatement before the 0enate Committee on JusticeM o M1!BD *,,
677., M!. J%"tiBe ViBete V. Me(oJ1,
1 1%tDo!it5 i Bo"tit%tio13 31A, "1i(
tD1t oE tDe tD!ee 'oAe!" oE tDe P!e"i(et 1" Co221(e!#i#CDieE, tDe 'oAe! to
(eB31!e M1!ti13 L1A 'o"e" tDe 2o"t "e$e!e tD!e1t to Bi$i3 3iIe!tie". It i" 1 "t!o4
2e(iBie ADiBD "Do%3( ot Ie !e"o!te( to 3i4Dt35. It B1ot Ie %"e( to "tiE3e o!
'e!"eB%te B!itiB" oE tDe 4o$e!2et. It i" '31Be( i tDe Hee'i4 oE tDe P!e"i(et Eo!
tDe '%!'o"e oE e1I3i4 Di2 to "eB%!e tDe 'eo'3e E!o2 D1!2 1( to !e"to!e o!(e! "o
tD1t tDe5 B1 eCo5 tDei! i(i$i(%13 E!ee(o2". I E1Bt, SeBtio *9, A!t. VII,

A "t1te oE 21!ti13 31A (oe" ot "%"'e( tDe o'e!1tio oE tDe Co"tit%tio,
o! "%''31t tDe E%Btioi4 oE tDe Bi$i3 Bo%!t" o! 3e4i"31ti$e 1""e2I3ie", o!
1%tDo!iJe tDe BoEe!2et oE C%!i"(iBtio o 2i3it1!5 Bo%!t" 1( 14eBie" o$e!
Bi$i3i1" ADe!e Bi$i3 Bo%!t" 1!e 1I3e to E%Btio, o! 1%to21tiB1335 "%"'e( tDe
'!i$i3e4e oE tDe A!it.

J%"tiBe Me(oJ1 13"o "t1te( tD1t PP *7*+ i" ot 1 (eB31!1tio oE M1!ti13
L1A. It i" o 2o!e tD1 1 B133 I5 tDe P!e"i(et to tDe 1!2e( Eo!Be" to '!e$et o!
"%''!e"" 31A3e"" $io3eBe. A" "%BD, it B1ot Ie %"e( to C%"tiE5 1Bt" tD1t o35
%(e! 1 $13i( (eB31!1tio oE M1!ti13 L1A B1 Ie (oe. It" %"e Eo! 15 otDe!
'%!'o"e i" 1 'e!$e!"io oE it" 1t%!e 1( "Bo'e, 1( 15 1Bt (oe Bot!1!5 to it"
Bo221( i" ultra -ires.

J%"tiBe Me(oJ1 E%!tDe! "t1te( tD1t "'eBiEiB1335, =1> 1!!e"t" 1( "eiJ%!e"
AitDo%t C%(iBi13 A1!!1t"@ =I> I1 o '%I3iB 1""e2I3ie"@ =B> t1He#o$e! oE eA"
2e(i1 1( 14eBie" 1( '!e"" Be"o!"Di'@ 1( =(> i""%1Be oE P!e"i(eti13 DeB!ee",
1!e 'oAe!" ADiBD B1 Ie e)e!Bi"e( I5 tDe P!e"i(et 1" Co221(e!#i#
CDieE only ADe!e tDe!e i" 1 $13i( (eB31!1tio oE M1!ti13 L1A o! "%"'e"io oE tDe
A!it oE habeas corpus.

B1"e( o tDe 1Io$e (i"O%i"itio, it i" B3e1! tD1t PP *7*+ i" ot 1 (eB31!1tio
oE M1!ti13 L1A. It is merely an exercise of 'resident &rroyo2s calling-out
power Eo! tDe 1!2e( Eo!Be" to 1""i"t De! i '!e$eti4 o! "%''!e""i4 31A3e""

Second Provision, .-a/e $are0 Power

TDe "eBo( '!o$i"io 'e!t1i" to tDe 'oAe! oE tDe P!e"i(et to e"%!e tD1t
tDe 31A" Ie E1itDE%335 e)eB%te(. TDi" i" I1"e( o SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e VII ADiBD

(#,- )*. TDe P!e"i(et "D133 D1$e Bot!o3 oE 133 tDe e)eB%ti$e
(e'1!t2et", I%!e1%", 1( oEEiBe". "e shall ensure that the laws be faithfully

A" tDe E)eB%ti$e i ADo2 tDe e)eB%ti$e 'oAe! i" $e"te(,
tDe '!i21!5
E%Btio oE tDe P!e"i(et i" to eEo!Be tDe 31A" 1" Ae33 1" to Eo!2%31te 'o3iBie" to
Ie e2Io(ie( i e)i"ti4 31A". He "ee" to it tD1t 133 31A" 1!e eEo!Be( I5 tDe
oEEiBi13" 1( e2'3o5ee" oE Di" (e'1!t2et. BeEo!e 1""%2i4 oEEiBe, De i" !eO%i!e(
to t1He 1 o1tD o! 1EEi!21tio to tDe eEEeBt tD1t 1" P!e"i(et oE tDe PDi3i''ie", De
Ai33, 12o4 otDe!", Le)eB%te it" 31A".M
I tDe e)e!Bi"e oE "%BD E%Btio, tDe
P!e"i(et, iE ee(e(, 215 e2'3o5 tDe 'oAe!" 1tt1BDe( to Di" oEEiBe 1" tDe
Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE 133 tDe 1!2e( Eo!Be" oE tDe Bo%t!5,
iB3%(i4 tDe
PDi3i''ie N1tio13 Po3iBe
%(e! tDe De'1!t2et oE Ite!io! 1( LoB13

Petitioe!", e"'eBi1335 Re'!e"et1ti$e" F!1Bi" Jo"e'D G. E"B%(e!o, S1t%!
OB12'o, R1E1e3 M1!i1o, Teo(o!o C1"iQo, LiJ1 M1J1, 1( Jo"e3 Vi!1(o! 1!4%e tD1t
PP *7*+ i" %Bo"tit%tio13 1" it 1!!o41te( %'o P!e"i(et A!!o5o tDe 'oAe! to
e1Bt 31A" 1( (eB!ee" i $io31tio oE SeBtio *, A!tiB3e VI oE tDe Co"tit%tio,
ADiBD $e"t" tDe 'oAe! to e1Bt 31A" i Co4!e"". TDe5 1""1i3 tDe B31%"e Lto
enforce obedience to all the laws and to all decrees, orders and regulations
promulgated by me personally or upon my direction.M


Petitioe!"K Botetio i" %(e!"t1(1I3e. A !e1(i4 oE PP *7*+ o'e!1ti$e
B31%"e "DoA" tD1t it A1" 3iEte(
E!o2 Fo!2e! P!e"i(et M1!Bo"K P!oB3121tio No.
*79*, ADiBD '1!t35 !e1("/

NO, !"#$#%O$#, I, %#$/IN&N/ #- 4&$,O(, P!e"i(et oE tDe
PDi3i''ie" I5 $i!t%e oE tDe 'oAe!" $e"te( %'o 2e I5 A!tiB3e VII, SeBtio *7,
P1!14!1'D =6> oE tDe Co"tit%tio, (o De!eI5 '31Be tDe eti!e PDi3i''ie" 1"
(eEie( i A!tiB3e *, SeBtio * oE tDe Co"tit%tio %(e! 21!ti13 31A 1(, i 25
B1'1Bit5 1" tDei! Co221(e!#i#CDieE, do hereby command the &rmed %orces
of the 'hilippines, to maintain law and order throughout the 'hilippines,
prevent or suppress all forms of lawless violence as well as any act of
insurrection or rebellion and to enforce obedience to all the laws and decrees,
orders and regulations promulgated by me personally or upon my direction-

?e 133 HoA tD1t it A1" PP *79* ADiBD 4!1te( P!e"i(et M1!Bo" 3e4i"31ti$e
'oAe!. It" e1I3i4 B31%"e "t1te"/ Eto enforce obedience to all the laws and
decrees, orders and regulations promulgated by me personally or upon my
direction-F U'o tDe otDe! D1(, tDe e1I3i4 B31%"e oE PP *7*+ i""%e( I5
P!e"i(et A!!o5o i"/ to enforce obedience to all the laws and to all decrees,
orders and regulations promulgated by me personally or upon my direction.M

s it within the domain of President Arroyo to promulgate /decrees.H

PP *7*+ "t1te" i
'1!t/ Lto eEo!Be oIe(ieBe to 133 tDe 31A" 1( decrees ) ) ) promulgated by
me personally or upon my direction-M

TDe P!e"i(et i" 4!1te( 1 O!(i1Be PoAe! %(e! CD1'te! 6, BooH III oE
E)eB%ti$e O!(e! No. 6-6 =A(2ii"t!1ti$e Co(e oE *-9+>. SDe 215 i""%e 15 oE tDe

SeB. 6. E<ecuti-e "rders. U ABt" oE tDe P!e"i(et '!o$i(i4 Eo! !%3e" oE 1
4ee!13 o! 'e!21et BD1!1Bte! i i2'3e2et1tio o! e)eB%tio oE Bo"tit%tio13
o! "t1t%to!5 'oAe!" "D133 Ie '!o2%341te( i e)eB%ti$e o!(e!".
SeB. ,. Administrati-e "rders. U ABt" oE tDe P!e"i(et ADiBD !e31te to
'1!tiB%31! 1"'eBt oE 4o$e!2et13 o'e!1tio" i '%!"%1Be oE Di" (%tie" 1"
1(2ii"t!1ti$e De1( "D133 Ie '!o2%341te( i 1(2ii"t!1ti$e o!(e!".
SeB. 8. Proclamations. U ABt" oE tDe P!e"i(et Ei)i4 1 (1te o! (eB31!i4
1 "t1t%" o! Bo(itio oE '%I3iB 2o2et o! ite!e"t, %'o tDe e)i"teBe oE ADiBD tDe
o'e!1tio oE 1 "'eBiEiB 31A o! !e4%31tio i" 21(e to (e'e(, "D133 Ie '!o2%341te(
i '!oB3121tio" ADiBD "D133 D1$e tDe Eo!Be oE 1 e)eB%ti$e o!(e!.
SeB. :. $emorandum "rders. U ABt" oE tDe P!e"i(et o 21tte!" oE
1(2ii"t!1ti$e (et1i3 o! oE "%Io!(i1te o! te2'o!1!5 ite!e"t ADiBD o35 BoBe! 1
'1!tiB%31! oEEiBe! o! oEEiBe oE tDe Go$e!2et "D133 Ie e2Io(ie( i 2e2o!1(%2
SeB. .. $emorandum Circulars. U ABt" oE tDe P!e"i(et o 21tte!"
!e31ti4 to ite!13 1(2ii"t!1tio, ADiBD tDe P!e"i(et (e"i!e" to I!i4 to tDe
1ttetio oE 133 o! "o2e oE tDe (e'1!t2et", 14eBie", I%!e1%" o! oEEiBe" oE tDe
Go$e!2et, Eo! iEo!21tio o! Bo2'3i1Be, "D133 Ie e2Io(ie( i 2e2o!1(%2
SeB. +. 8eneral or 0pecial "rders. U ABt" 1( Bo221(" oE tDe
P!e"i(et i Di" B1'1Bit5 1" Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE tDe A!2e( Fo!Be" oE tDe
PDi3i''ie" "D133 Ie i""%e( 1" 4ee!13 o! "'eBi13 o!(e!".

P!e"i(et A!!o5oK" o!(i1Be 'oAe! i" 3i2ite( to tDe Eo!e4oi4 i""%1Be".
SDe B1ot i""%e decrees "i2i31! to tDo"e i""%e( I5 Fo!2e! P!e"i(et M1!Bo" %(e!
PP *79*. P!e"i(eti13 DeB!ee" 1!e 31A" ADiBD 1!e oE tDe "12e B1te4o!5 1(
Ii(i4 Eo!Be 1" "t1t%te" IeB1%"e tDe5 Ae!e i""%e( I5 tDe P!e"i(et i tDe e)e!Bi"e
oE Di" 3e4i"31ti$e 'oAe! (%!i4 tDe 'e!io( oE M1!ti13 L1A %(e! tDe *-+,

!his ,ourt rules that the assailed '' )6)* is unconstitutional insofar as
it grants 'resident &rroyo the authority to promulgate Edecrees-F Le4i"31ti$e
'oAe! i" 'eB%3i1!35 AitDi tDe '!o$iBe oE tDe Le4i"31t%!e. SeBtio *, A!tiB3e VI
B1te4o!iB1335 "t1te" tD1t LJtKhe legislative power shall be vested in the ,ongress
of the 'hilippines which shall consist of a (enate and a "ouse of
$epresentatives.M To Ie "%!e, eitDe! M1!ti13 L1A o! 1 "t1te oE !eIe33io o! 1
"t1te oE e2e!4eB5 B1 C%"tiE5 P!e"i(et A!!o5oK" e)e!Bi"e oE 3e4i"31ti$e 'oAe! I5
i""%i4 (eB!ee".

Can President Arroyo enforce obedience to all decrees and laws through the

A" tDi" Co%!t "t1te( e1!3ie!, P!e"i(et A!!o5o D1" o 1%tDo!it5 to e1Bt
(eB!ee". It Eo33oA" tD1t tDe"e (eB!ee" 1!e $oi( 1(, tDe!eEo!e, B1ot Ie
eEo!Be(. ?itD !e"'eBt to L31A",M "De B1ot B133 tDe 2i3it1!5 to eEo!Be o!
i2'3e2et Be!t1i 31A", "%BD 1" B%"to2" 31A", 31A" 4o$e!i4 E12i35 1( '!o'e!t5
!e31tio", 31A" o oI3i41tio" 1( Bot!1Bt" 1( tDe 3iHe. SDe B1 o35 o!(e! tDe
2i3it1!5, %(e! PP *7*+, to eEo!Be 31A" 'e!tiet to it" (%t5 to suppress lawless

-#ird Provision, Power to -a/e )ver

TDe 'e!tiet '!o$i"io oE PP *7*+ "t1te"/

) ) ) 1( to eEo!Be oIe(ieBe to 133 tDe 31A" 1( to 133
(eB!ee", o!(e!", 1( !e4%31tio" '!o2%341te( I5 2e 'e!"o1335 o!
%'o 25 (i!eBtio@ and as provided in (ection )*, &rticle LII of
the ,onstitution do hereby declare a state of national

TDe i2'o!t oE tDi" '!o$i"io i" tD1t P!e"i(et A!!o5o, (%!i4 tDe "t1te oE
1tio13 e2e!4eB5 %(e! PP *7*+, B1 B133 tDe 2i3it1!5 ot o35 to eEo!Be
oIe(ieBe Lto 133 tDe 31A" 1( to 133 (eB!ee" ) ) )M I%t 13"o to 1Bt '%!"%1t to tDe
'!o$i"io oE SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II ADiBD !e1("/

(ec- )*- I ti2e" oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5, ADe tDe '%I3iB ite!e"t "o
!eO%i!e", tDe St1te 215, (%!i4 tDe e2e!4eB5 1( %(e! !e1"o1I3e te!2"
'!e"B!iIe( I5 it, te2'o!1!i35 t1He o$e! o! (i!eBt tDe o'e!1tio oE 15 '!i$1te35#
oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t.

Chat could be the reason of President Arroyo in in-o#ing the abo-e
pro-ision when she issued PP :+:;H

TDe 1"Ae! i" "i2'3e. D%!i4 tDe e)i"teBe oE tDe "t1te oE 1tio13
e2e!4eB5, PP *7*+ '%!'o!t" to 4!1t tDe P!e"i(et, AitDo%t 15 1%tDo!it5 o!
(e3e41tio E!o2 Co4!e"", to t1He o$e! o! (i!eBt tDe o'e!1tio oE 15 '!i$1te35#
oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t.

TDi" '!o$i"io A1" Ei!"t it!o(%Be( i tDe *-+, Co"tit%tio, 1" 1 '!o(%Bt oE
tDe L21!ti13 31AM tDiHi4 oE tDe *-+* Co"tit%tio13 Co$etio.
I eEEeBt 1t
tDe ti2e oE it" 1''!o$13 A1" P!e"i(et M1!Bo"K Lette! oE I"t!%Btio No. 6 (1te(
Se'te2Ie! 66, *-+6 i"t!%Bti4 tDe SeB!et1!5 oE N1tio13 DeEe"e to t1He o$e!
Lthe management, control and operation of the $anila Electric Company, the
Philippine !ong &istance 2elephone Company, the National Caterwor#s
and 0ewerage Authority, the Philippine National =ailways, the Philippine Air
!ines, Air $anila IandJ (ilipinas "rient Airways . . . for the successful
prosecution by the 8o-ernment of its effort to contain, sol-e and end the present
national emergency.M

Petitioe!", '1!tiB%31!35 tDe 2e2Ie!" oE tDe Ho%"e oE Re'!e"et1ti$e", B31i2
tD1t P!e"i(et A!!o5oK" iB3%"io oE SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II i PP *7*+ i" 1
eB!o1BD2et o tDe 3e4i"31t%!eK" e2e!4eB5 'oAe!".

TDi" i" 1 1!e1 tD1t ee(" (e3ie1tio.

A (i"tiBtio 2%"t Ie (!1A IetAee tDe P!e"i(etK" 1%tDo!it5 to declare L1
"t1te oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5M 1( to exercise e2e!4eB5 'oAe!". To tDe Ei!"t,
1" e3%Bi(1te( I5 tDe Co%!t, SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e VII 4!1t" tDe P!e"i(et "%BD 'oAe!,
DeBe, o 3e4iti21te Bo"tit%tio13 oICeBtio B1 Ie !1i"e(. B%t to tDe "eBo(,
21iEo3( Bo"tit%tio13 i""%e" 1!i"e.

SeBtio 6,, A!tiB3e VI oE tDe Co"tit%tio !e1("/

(#,- +8- ;)< TDe Co4!e"", I5 1 $ote oE tAo#tDi!(" oE IotD Ho%"e" i
Coit "e""io 1""e2I3e(, $oti4 "e'1!1te35, "D133 D1$e tDe sole power to declare
the existence of a state of war.
;+< I ti2e" oE A1! o! other national emergency, tDe Co4!e"" 215, I5
31A, 1%tDo!iJe tDe P!e"i(et, Eo! 1 3i2ite( 'e!io( 1( "%ICeBt to "%BD !e"t!iBtio" 1"
it 215 '!e"B!iIe, to e)e!Bi"e 'oAe!" eBe""1!5 1( '!o'e! to B1!!5 o%t 1 (eB31!e(
1tio13 'o3iB5. U3e"" "ooe! AitD(!1A I5 !e"o3%tio oE tDe Co4!e"", "%BD
'oAe!" "D133 Be1"e %'o tDe e)t 1(Co%!2et tDe!eoE.

It 215 Ie 'oite( o%t tD1t tDe "eBo( '1!14!1'D oE tDe 1Io$e '!o$i"io !eEe!"
ot o35 to A1! I%t 13"o to Lother national emergency.M IE tDe itetio oE tDe
F!12e!" oE o%! Co"tit%tio A1" to AitDDo3( E!o2 tDe P!e"i(et tDe 1%tDo!it5 to
(eB31!e 1 L"t1te oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5M '%!"%1t to SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e VII =B133i4#
o%t 'oAe!> 1( 4!1t it to Co4!e"" =3iHe tDe (eB31!1tio oE tDe e)i"teBe oE 1 "t1te
oE A1!>, tDe tDe F!12e!" Bo%3( D1$e '!o$i(e( "o. C3e1!35, tDe5 (i( ot ite( tD1t
Co4!e"" "Do%3( Ei!"t 1%tDo!iJe tDe P!e"i(et IeEo!e De B1 (eB31!e 1 L"t1te oE
1tio13 e2e!4eB5.M TDe 3o4iB13 BoB3%"io tDe i" tD1t P!e"i(et A!!o5o Bo%3(
$13i(35 (eB31!e tDe e)i"teBe oE 1 "t1te oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5 e$e i tDe 1I"eBe
oE 1 Co4!e""io13 e1Bt2et.

B%t tDe exercise oE e2e!4eB5 'oAe!", "%BD 1" tDe t1Hi4 o$e! oE '!i$1te35
oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t, i" 1
(iEEe!et 21tte!. TDi" !eO%i!e" 1 (e3e41tio E!o2 Co4!e"".

Co%!t" D1$e oEte "1i( tD1t Bo"tit%tio13 '!o$i"io" i pari materia 1!e to Ie
Bo"t!%e( to4etDe!. OtDe!Ai"e "t1te(, (iEEe!et B31%"e", "eBtio", 1( '!o$i"io" oE
1 Bo"tit%tio ADiBD !e31te to tDe "12e "%ICeBt 21tte! Ai33 Ie Bo"t!%e( to4etDe!
1( Bo"i(e!e( i tDe 3i4Dt oE e1BD otDe!.
Co"i(e!i4 tD1t SeBtio *+ oE A!tiB3e
&II 1( SeBtio 6, oE A!tiB3e VI, '!e$io%"35 O%ote(, !e31te to 1tio13 e2e!4eBie",
tDe5 2%"t Ie !e1( to4etDe! to (ete!2ie tDe 3i2it1tio oE tDe e)e!Bi"e oE e2e!4eB5

3enerally, ,ongress is the repository of emergency powers. TDi" i"
e$i(et i tDe teo! oE SeBtio 6, =6>, A!tiB3e VI 1%tDo!iJi4 it to (e3e41te "%BD
'oAe!" to tDe P!e"i(et. ,ertainly, a body cannot delegate a power not reposed
upon it- HoAe$e!, HoAi4 tD1t (%!i4 4!1$e e2e!4eBie", it 215 ot Ie 'o""iI3e
o! '!1BtiB1I3e Eo! Co4!e"" to 2eet 1( e)e!Bi"e it" 'oAe!", tDe F!12e!" oE o%!
Co"tit%tio (ee2e( it Ai"e to 133oA Co4!e"" to 4!1t e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" to tDe
P!e"i(et, "%ICeBt to Be!t1i Bo(itio", tD%"/

;)< TDe!e 2%"t Ie 1 war o! other emergency.

;+< TDe (e3e41tio 2%"t Ie Eo! 1 limited period only.

;8< TDe (e3e41tio 2%"t Ie subject to such restrictions as the ,ongress
may prescribe.
;=< TDe e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" 2%"t Ie e)e!Bi"e( to carry out a national
policy (eB31!e( I5 Co4!e"".

SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II 2%"t Ie %(e!"too( 1" 1 1"'eBt oE tDe e2e!4eB5
'oAe!" B31%"e. TDe t1Hi4 o$e! oE '!i$1te I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t i"
C%"t 1otDe! E1Bet oE tDe e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" 4ee!1335 !e'o"e( %'o
Co4!e"". TD%", ADe SeBtio *+ "t1te" tD1t tDe Lthe (tate may, during the
emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take
over or direct the operation of any privately owned public utility or business
affected with public interest,M it !eEe!" to Co4!e"", ot tDe P!e"i(et. NoA,
ADetDe! o! ot tDe P!e"i(et 215 e)e!Bi"e "%BD 'oAe! i" (e'e(et o ADetDe!
Co4!e"" 215 (e3e41te it to Di2 '%!"%1t to 1 31A '!e"B!iIi4 tDe !e1"o1I3e te!2"
tDe!eoE. Goungstown 0heet K 2ube Co. et al. -. 0awyer,

It i" B3e1! tD1t iE tDe P!e"i(et D1( 1%tDo!it5 to i""%e tDe o!(e! De (i(, it
2%"t Ie Eo%( i "o2e '!o$i"io oE tDe Co"tit%tio. A( it i" ot B31i2e( tD1t
e)'!e"" Bo"tit%tio13 314%14e 4!1t" tDi" 'oAe! to tDe P!e"i(et. TDe Botetio
i" tD1t '!e"i(eti13 'oAe! "Do%3( Ie i2'3ie( E!o2 tDe 144!e41te oE Di" 'oAe!"
%(e! tDe Co"tit%tio. P1!tiB%31! !e3i1Be i" '31Be( o '!o$i"io" i A!tiB3e II
ADiBD "15 tD1t LTDe e)eB%ti$e PoAe! "D133 Ie $e"te( i 1 P!e"i(et . . . .@M tD1t LDe
"D133 t1He C1!e tD1t tDe L1A" Ie E1itDE%335 e)eB%te(@M 1( tD1t De L"D133 Ie
Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE tDe A!25 1( N1$5 oE tDe Uite( St1te".

TDe o!(e! B1ot '!o'e!35 Ie "%"t1ie( 1" 1 e)e!Bi"e oE tDe P!e"i(etK"
2i3it1!5 'oAe! 1" Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE tDe A!2e( Fo!Be". TDe Go$e!2et
1tte2't" to (o "o I5 Biti4 1 %2Ie! oE B1"e" %'Do3(i4 I!o1( 'oAe!" i 2i3it1!5
Bo221(e!" e414e( i (15#to#(15 Ei4Dti4 i 1 tDe1te! oE A1!. S%BD B1"e" ee(
ot BoBe! %" De!e. #ven though Etheater of warF be an expanding concept,
we cannot with faithfulness to our constitutional system hold that the
,ommander-in-,hief of the &rmed %orces has the ultimate power as such to
take possession of private property in order to keep labor disputes from
stopping production- !his is a job for the nation2s lawmakers, not for its
military authorities-

Nor can the seizure order be sustained because of the several
constitutional provisions that grant executive power to the 'resident- In the
framework of our ,onstitution, the 'resident2s power to see that the laws are
faithfully executed refutes the idea that he is to be a lawmaker- !he
,onstitution limits his functions in the lawmaking process to the
recommending of laws he thinks wise and the vetoing of laws he thinks
bad- &nd the ,onstitution is neither silent nor eGuivocal about who shall
make laws which the 'resident is to execute- !he first section of the first
article says that E&ll legislative 'owers herein granted shall be vested in a
,ongress of the ?nited (tates. . .M

Petitioe! Cacho'"li-ares, et al. Bote(" tD1t tDe te!2 Le2e!4eB5M %(e!
SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II !eEe!" to Ltsunami,M
Ltyphoon,M LhurricaneM 1(Lsimilar occurrences.M TDi" i" 1 3i2ite( $ieA oE

E2e!4eB5, 1" 1 4ee!iB te!2, Boote" tDe e)i"teBe oE Bo(itio" "%((e35
ite"iE5i4 tDe (e4!ee oE e)i"ti4 (14e! to 3iEe o! Ae33#Iei4 Ie5o( tD1t ADiBD i"
1BBe'te( 1" o!213. I2'3iBit i tDi" (eEiitio" 1!e tDe e3e2et" oE ite"it5,
$1!iet5, 1( 'e!Be'tio.
E2e!4eBie", 1" 'e!Bei$e( I5 3e4i"31t%!e o! e)eB%ti$e
i tDe Uite( S1te" "iBe *-,,, D1$e Iee oBB1"ioe( I5 1 Ai(e !14e oE "it%1tio",
B31""iEi1I3e %(e! tD!ee =,> '!iBi'13 De1("/ a< economic,
b< natural disaster,
1( c< national security.

LE2e!4eB5,M 1" Bote2'31te( i o%! Co"tit%tio, i" oE tDe "12e I!e1(tD. It
215 iB3%(e !eIe33io, eBoo2iB B!i"i", 'e"ti3eBe o! e'i(e2iB, t5'Doo, E3oo(, o!
otDe! "i2i31! B1t1"t!o'De oE 1tioAi(e '!o'o!tio" o! eEEeBt.
TDi" i" e$i(et i
tDe ReBo!(" oE tDe Co"tit%tio13 Co22i""io, tD%"/

MR. GASCON. Ye". ?D1t i" tDe Co22itteeK" (eEiitio oE L1tio13
e2e!4eB5M ADiBD 1''e1!" i SeBtio *,, '14e :N It !e1("/

?De tDe Bo22o 4oo( "o !eO%i!e", tDe St1te 215 te2'o!1!i35 t1He o$e! o!
(i!eBt tDe o'e!1tio oE 15 '!i$1te35 oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD
'%I3iB ite!e"t.
MR. VILLEGAS. ?D1t I 2e1 i" tD!e1t E!o2 external aggression, Eo!
e)12'3e, calamities o! natural disasters.
MR. GASCON. TDe!e i" 1 O%e"tio I5 Co22i""ioe! (e 3o" Re5e". ?D1t
1Io%t "t!iHe" 1( !iot"N
MR. VILLEGAS. St!iHe", o@ tDo"e Ao%3( ot Ie Bo$e!e( I5 tDe te!2
L1tio13 e2e!4eB5.M
MR. BENGZON. U3e"" tDe5 1!e oE "%BD '!o'o!tio" "%BD tD1t tDe5 Ao%3(
'1!135Je 4o$e!2et "e!$iBe.
) ) ) ) ) )
MR. TINGSON. M15 I 1"H tDe Bo22ittee iE L1tio13 e2e!4eB5M !eEe!"
to military national emergency o! Bo%3( tDi" Ie economic emergencyNM
MR. VILLEGAS. Ye", it Bo%3( !eEe! to both military or economic
MR. TINGSON. TD1H 5o% $e!5 2%BD.

It 215 Ie 1!4%e( tD1t ADe tDe!e i" 1tio13 e2e!4eB5, Co4!e"" 215 ot Ie
1I3e to Bo$ee 1(, tDe!eEo!e, %1I3e to (e3e41te to tDe P!e"i(et tDe 'oAe! to
t1He o$e! '!i$1te35#oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t.

I Araneta -. &inglasan,
tDi" Co%!t e2'D1"iJe( tD1t 3e4i"31ti$e 'oAe!,
tD!o%4D ADiBD e)t!1o!(i1!5 2e1"%!e" 1!e e)e!Bi"e(, !e21i" i Co4!e"" e$e i
ti2e" oE B!i"i".

L) ) )

AEte! 133 tDe B!itiBi"2" tD1t D1$e Iee 21(e 141i"t tDe eEEiBieB5
oE tDe "5"te2 oE tDe "e'1!1tio oE 'oAe!", tDe E1Bt !e21i" tD1t tDe
Co"tit%tio D1" "et %' tDi" Eo!2 oE 4o$e!2et, AitD 133 it" (eEeBt" 1(
"Do!tBo2i4", i '!eEe!eBe to tDe Bo22i43i4 oE 'oAe!" i oe 21 o!
4!o%' oE 2e. TDe Fi3i'io 'eo'3e I5 1(o'ti4 '1!3i12et1!5 4o$e!2et
D1$e 4i$e otiBe tD1t tDe5 "D1!e tDe E1itD oE otDe! (e2oB!1B5#3o$i4
'eo'3e" i tDi" "5"te2, AitD 133 it" E1%3t", 1" tDe i(e13. TDe 'oit i", %(e!
tDi" E!12eAo!H oE 4o$e!2et, 3e4i"31tio i" '!e"e!$e( Eo! Co4!e"" 133
tDe ti2e, ot e)Be'ti4 'e!io(" oE B!i"i" o 21tte! DoA "e!io%". Ne$e! i
tDe Di"to!5 oE tDe Uite( St1te", tDe I1"iB Ee1t%!e" oE ADo"e Co"tit%tio
D1$e Iee Bo'ie( i o%!", D1$e "'eBiEiB E%Btio" oE tDe 3e4i"31ti$e I!1BD
oE e1Bti4 31A" Iee "%!!e(e!e( to 1otDe! (e'1!t2et < %3e"" Ae
!e41!( 1" 3e4i"31ti4 tDe B1!!5i4 o%t oE 1 3e4i"31ti$e 'o3iB5 1BBo!(i4 to
'!e"B!iIe( "t1(1!("@ o, ot e$e ADe tD1t Re'%I3iB A1" Ei4Dti4 1 tot13
A1!, o! ADe it A1" e414e( i 1 3iEe#1(#(e1tD "t!%443e to '!e"e!$e tDe
Uio. TDe t!%tD i" tD1t %(e! o%! BoBe't oE Bo"tit%tio13 4o$e!2et,
i ti2e" oE e)t!e2e 'e!i3" 2o!e tD1 i o!213 Bi!B%2"t1Be" RtDe $1!io%"
I!1BDe", e)eB%ti$e, 3e4i"31ti$e, 1( C%(iBi13,K 4i$e tDe 1Ii3it5 to 1Bt, 1!e
B133e( %'o Rto 'e!Eo!2 tDe (%tie" 1( (i"BD1!4e tDe !e"'o"iIi3itie"
Bo22itte( to tDe2 !e"'eBti$e35.M

Fo33oAi4 o%! ite!'!et1tio oE SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II, i$oHe( I5 P!e"i(et
A!!o5o i i""%i4 PP *7*+, tDi" Co%!t !%3e" tD1t "%BD P!oB3121tio (oe" ot
1%tDo!iJe De! (%!i4 tDe e2e!4eB5 to te2'o!1!i35 t1He o$e! o! (i!eBt tDe o'e!1tio
oE 15 '!i$1te35 oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t
AitDo%t 1%tDo!it5 E!o2 Co4!e"".

Let it Ie e2'D1"iJe( tD1t ADi3e tDe P!e"i(et 13oe B1 (eB31!e 1 "t1te oE
1tio13 e2e!4eB5, DoAe$e!, AitDo%t 3e4i"31tio, De D1" o 'oAe! to t1He o$e!
'!i$1te35#oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t. TDe
P!e"i(et B1ot (eBi(e ADetDe! e)Be'tio13 Bi!B%2"t1Be" e)i"t A1!!1ti4 tDe
t1He o$e! oE '!i$1te35#oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB
ite!e"t. No! B1 De (ete!2ie ADe "%BD e)Be'tio13 Bi!B%2"t1Be" D1$e
Be1"e(. LiHeAi"e, without legislation, tDe P!e"i(et D1" o 'oAe! to 'oit o%t tDe
t5'e" oE I%"ie""e" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t tD1t "Do%3( Ie t1He o$e!. I
"Do!t, tDe P!e"i(et D1" o 1I"o3%te 1%tDo!it5 to e)e!Bi"e 133 tDe 'oAe!" oE tDe St1te
%(e! SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e VII i tDe 1I"eBe oE 1 e2e!4eB5 'oAe!" 1Bt '1""e( I5

c- E&( &''.I#/ ,"&..#N3#F

Oe oE tDe 2i"Eo!t%e" oE 1 e2e!4eB5, '1!tiB%31!35, tD1t ADiBD 'e!t1i" to
"eB%!it5, i" tD1t 2i3it1!5 eBe""it5 1( tDe 4%1!1tee( !i4Dt" oE tDe i(i$i(%13 1!e
oEte ot Bo2'1tiI3e. O%! Di"to!5 !e$e13" tD1t i tDe B!%BiI3e oE BoE3iBt, 215
!i4Dt" 1!e B%!t1i3e( 1( t!12'3e( %'o. He!e, tDe right against unreasonable
search and seizure1 the right against warrantless arrest1 1( the freedom of
speech, of expression, of the press, and of assembly %(e! tDe Bi33 oE Ri4Dt"
"%EEe!e( tDe 4!e1te"t I3oA.

OE tDe "e$e =+> 'etitio", tD!ee =,> i(iB1te L(i!eBt iC%!5.M

I 3-$- No- )*)89:, 'etitioe!" D1$i( 1( L3121" 133e4e( tD1t, o FeI!%1!5
68, 677., tDe5 Ae!e 1!!e"te( AitDo%t A1!!1t" o tDei! A15 to EDSA to Be3eI!1te
tDe 67
Ai$e!"1!5 oE People Power . TDe 1!!e"ti4 oEEiBe!" Bite( PP *7*+ 1"
I1"i" oE tDe 1!!e"t.

I 3-$- No- )*)=69, 'etitioe!" C1BDo#O3i$1!e" 1( 2ribune P%I3i"Di4 Co.,
IB. B31i2e( tD1t o FeI!%1!5 6:, 677., tDe CIDG o'e!1ti$e" L!1i(e( 1(
!1"1BHe( AitDo%t A1!!1tM tDei! oEEiBe. TD!ee 'o3iBe2e Ae!e 1""i4e( to 4%1!(
tDei! oEEiBe 1" 1 'o""iI3e L"o%!Be oE (e"t1Ii3iJ1tio.M A41i, tDe I1"i" A1" PP *7*+.

A( i 3-$- No- )*)=>8, 'etitioe!" ;MU 1( NAFLU#;MU et al. 133e4e(
tD1t tDei! 2e2Ie!" Ae!e Lt%!e( 1A15 1( (i"'e!"e(M ADe tDe5 Aet to EDSA
1( 31te!, to A5131 A$e%e, to Be3eI!1te tDe 67
Ai$e!"1!5 oE People Power .

A 'e!%"13 oE tDe L(i!eBt iC%!ie"M 133e4e(35 "%EEe!e( I5 tDe "1i( 'etitioe!"
"DoA" tD1t tDe5 !e"%3te( E!o2 tDe implementation, '%!"%1t to G.O. No. :, oE PP

Can this Court adAudge as unconstitutional PP :+:; and 8.". No 9 on the
basis of these illegal actsH I 4ee!13, does the illegal implementation of a law
render it unconstitutionalH

Sett3e( i" tDe !%3e tD1t Bo%!t" 1!e ot 1t 3iIe!t5 to (eB31!e "t1t%te"
i$13i( although they may be abused and misabused
1( may afford an
opportunity for abuse in the manner of application.
TDe $13i(it5 oE 1 "t1t%te
o! o!(i1Be i" to Ie (ete!2ie( E!o2 it" 4ee!13 '%!'o"e 1( it" eEEiBieB5 to
1BBo2'3i"D tDe e( (e"i!e(, not from its effects in a particular case.
PP *7*+
i" 2e!e35 1 i$oB1tio oE tDe P!e"i(etK" B133i4#o%t 'oAe!. It" 4ee!13 '%!'o"e i"
to Bo221( tDe AFP to "%''!e"" 133 Eo!2" oE 31A3e"" $io3eBe, i$1"io o!
!eIe33io. It D1( 1BBo2'3i"De( tDe e( (e"i!e( ADiBD '!o2'te( P!e"i(et A!!o5o
to i""%e PP *76*. B%t tDe!e i" otDi4 i PP *7*+ 133oAi4 tDe 'o3iBe, e)'!e""35 o!
i2'3ie(35, to Bo(%Bt i33e413 1!!e"t, "e1!BD o! $io31te tDe BitiJe"K Bo"tit%tio13

NoA, 215 tDi" Co%!t 1(C%(4e 1 31A o! o!(i1Be %Bo"tit%tio13 o tDe
4!o%( tD1t it" i2'3e2eto! Bo22itte( i33e413 1Bt"N TDe 1"Ae! i" o. TDe
B!ite!io I5 ADiBD tDe $13i(it5 oE tDe "t1t%te o! o!(i1Be i" to Ie 2e1"%!e( i" tDe
e""eti13 I1"i" Eo! tDe e)e!Bi"e oE 'oAe!, and not a mere incidental result arising
from its exertion.
TDi" i" 3o4iB13. J%"t i214ie tDe 1I"%!(it5 oE "it%1tio" ADe
31A" 215Ie (eB31!e( %Bo"tit%tio13 C%"t IeB1%"e tDe oEEiBe!" i2'3e2eti4 tDe2
D1$e 1Bte( 1!Iit!1!i35. IE tDi" Ae!e "o, C%(4i4 E!o2 tDe I3%(e!" Bo22itte( I5
'o3iBe2e i tDe B1"e" '1""e( %'o I5 tDe Co%!t, 21Co!it5 oE tDe '!o$i"io" oE tDe
Re$i"e( Pe13 Co(e Ao%3( D1$e Iee (eB31!e( %Bo"tit%tio13 1 3o4 ti2e 14o.

P!e"i(et A!!o5o i""%e( G.O. No. : to B1!!5 ito eEEeBt tDe '!o$i"io" oE PP
*7*+. Gee!13 o!(e!" 1!e L1Bt" 1( Bo221(" oE tDe P!e"i(et i Di" B1'1Bit5 1"
Co221(e!#i#CDieE oE tDe A!2e( Fo!Be" oE tDe PDi3i''ie".M TDe5 1!e ite!13
!%3e" i""%e( I5 tDe e)eB%ti$e oEEiBe! to Di" "%Io!(i1te" '!eBi"e35 Eo!
tDe proper 1(efficient administration of law- S%BD !%3e" 1( !e4%31tio" B!e1te
o !e31tio e)Be't IetAee tDe oEEiBi13 ADo i""%e" tDe2 1( tDe oEEiBi13 ADo
!eBei$e" tDe2.
TDe5 1!e I1"e( o 1( 1!e tDe '!o(%Bt oE, 1 !e31tio"Di' i ADiBD
'oAe! i" tDei! "o%!Be, 1( oIe(ieBe, tDei! oICeBt.
Fo! tDe"e !e1"o", oe
!eO%i!e2et Eo! tDe"e !%3e" to Ie $13i( i" tD1t tDe5 2%"t Ie reasonable, not
arbitrary or capricious-

G.O. No. : 21(1te" tDe AFP 1( tDe PNP to i22e(i1te35 B1!!5 o%t tDe
Lnecessary and appropriate actions and measures to suppress and prevent acts
of terrorism and lawless $io3eBe.M

U3iHe tDe te!2 L31A3e"" $io3eBeM ADiBD i" %1!4%1I35 e)t1t i o%!
"t1t%te" 1( tDe Co"tit%tio, 1( ADiBD i" i$1!i1I35 1""oBi1te( AitD Li$1"io,
i"%!!eBtio o! !eIe33io,M tDe 'D!1"e L1Bt" oE te!!o!i"2M i" "ti33 1 12o!'Do%" 1(
$14%e BoBe't. Co4!e"" D1" 5et to e1Bt 1 31A (eEii4 1( '%i"Di4 1Bt" oE

I E1Bt, tDi" L(eEiitio13 '!e(iB12etM o! tDe L1I"eBe oE 1 14!ee(
(eEiitio oE te!!o!i"2M BoE!ot" ot o35 o%! Bo%t!5, I%t tDe ite!1tio13
Bo22%it5 1" Ae33. TDe Eo33oAi4 oI"e!$1tio" 1!e O%ite 1'!o'o"/

I tDe 1Bt%13 %i'o31! Bote)t oE ite!1tio13 !e31tio", tDe LEi4Dt 141i"t
te!!o!i"2M D1" IeBo2e oe oE tDe I1"iB "3o41" ADe it Bo2e" to tDe C%"tiEiB1tio
oE tDe %"e oE Eo!Be 141i"t Be!t1i "t1te" 1( 141i"t 4!o%'" o'e!1ti4
ite!1tio1335. Li"t" oE "t1te" L"'o"o!i4 te!!o!i"2M 1( oE te!!o!i"t
o!41iJ1tio" 1!e "et %' 1( Bo"t1t35 Iei4 %'(1te( 1BBo!(i4 to B!ite!i1 tD1t 1!e
ot 13A15" HoA to tDe '%I3iB, I%t 1!e B3e1!35 (ete!2ie( I5 "t!1te4iB ite!e"t".

TDe I1"iB '!oI3e2 %(e!35i4 133 tDe"e 2i3it1!5 1Btio" < o! tD!e1t" oE tDe
%"e oE Eo!Be 1" tDe 2o"t !eBet I5 tDe Uite( St1te" 141i"t I!1O < Bo"i"t" i tDe
1I"eBe oE 1 14!ee( (eEiitio oE te!!o!i"2.

Re21!H1I3e BoE%"io 'e!"i"t" i !e41!( to tDe 3e413 B1te4o!iJ1tio oE 1Bt"
oE $io3eBe eitDe! I5 "t1te", I5 1!2e( 4!o%'" "%BD 1" 3iIe!1tio 2o$e2et", o! I5

TDe (i3e221 B1 I5 "%221!iJe( i tDe "15i4 LOe Bo%t!5K" te!!o!i"t i"
1otDe! Bo%t!5K" E!ee(o2 Ei4Dte!.M TDe 1''1!et Bot!1(iBtio o! 31BH oE
Bo"i"teB5 i tDe %"e oE tDe te!2 Lte!!o!i"2M 215 E%!tDe! Ie (e2o"t!1te( I5 tDe
Di"to!iB13 E1Bt tD1t 3e1(e!" oE 1tio13 3iIe!1tio 2o$e2et" "%BD 1" Ne3"o
M1(e31 i So%tD AE!iB1, H1IiI Bo%!4o%iI1 i T%i"i1, o! AD2e( Be Be331 i
A34e!i1, to 2etio o35 1 EeA, Ae!e o!i4i1335 31Ie3e( 1" te!!o!i"t" I5 tDo"e ADo
Bot!o33e( tDe te!!ito!5 1t tDe ti2e, I%t 31te! IeB12e ite!1tio1335 !e"'eBte(

?D1t, tDe, i" tDe (eEii4 B!ite!io Eo! te!!o!i"t 1Bt" < tDe differentia
specifica (i"ti4%i"Di4 tDo"e 1Bt" E!o2 e$et%1335 3e4iti21te 1Bt" oE 1tio13
!e"i"t1Be o! "e3E#(eEe"eN

SiBe tDe ti2e" oE tDe Co3( ?1! tDe Uite( N1tio" O!41iJ1tio D1" Iee
t!5i4 i $1i to !e1BD 1 Bo"e"%" o tDe I1"iB i""%e oE (eEiitio. TDe
o!41iJ1tio D1" ite"iEie( it" eEEo!t" !eBet35, I%t D1" Iee %1I3e to I!i(4e tDe
41' IetAee tDo"e ADo 1""oBi1te Lte!!o!i"2M AitD 15 $io3et 1Bt I5 o#"t1te
4!o%'" 141i"t Bi$i3i1", "t1te E%Btio1!ie" o! iE!1"t!%Bt%!e o! 2i3it1!5
i"t1331tio", 1( tDo"e ADo Ie3ie$e i tDe BoBe't oE tDe 3e4iti21te %"e oE Eo!Be
ADe !e"i"t1Be 141i"t Eo!ei4 oBB%'1tio o! 141i"t "5"te21tiB o''!e""io oE
etDiB 1(Po! !e3i4io%" 4!o%'" AitDi 1 "t1te i" BoBe!e(.

TDe (i3e221 E1Bi4 tDe ite!1tio13 Bo22%it5 B1 Ie"t Ie i33%"t!1te( I5
!eEe!eBe to tDe Bot!1(iBti4 B1te4o!iJ1tio oE o!41iJ1tio" 1( 2o$e2et" "%BD
1" P13e"tie LiIe!1tio O!41iJ1tio =PLO> < ADiBD i" 1 te!!o!i"t 4!o%' Eo! I"!1e3
1( 1 3iIe!1tio 2o$e2et Eo! A!1I" 1( M%"3i2" < tDe ;1"D2i!i !e"i"t1Be
4!o%'" < ADo 1!e te!!o!i"t" i tDe 'e!Be'tio oE I(i1, 3iIe!1tio Ei4Dte!" i tD1t oE
P1Hi"t1 < tDe e1!3ie! Cot!1" i NiB1!14%1 < E!ee(o2 Ei4Dte!" Eo! tDe Uite(
St1te", te!!o!i"t" Eo! tDe SoBi13i"t B12' < o!, 2o"t (!1"tiB1335, tDe AE4D1i
M%C1De(ee =31te! to IeBo2e tDe T13iI1 2o$e2et>/ (%!i4 tDe Co3( ?1! 'e!io(
tDe5 Ae!e 1 4!o%' oE E!ee(o2 Ei4Dte!" Eo! tDe ?e"t, %!t%!e( I5 tDe Uite( St1te",
1( 1 te!!o!i"t 414 Eo! tDe So$iet Uio. Oe Bo%3( 4o o 1( o i e%2e!1ti4
e)12'3e" oE BoE3iBti4 B1te4o!iJ1tio" tD1t B1ot Ie !eBoBi3e( i 15 A15 <
IeB1%"e oE o''o"i4 'o3itiB13 ite!e"t" tD1t 1!e 1t tDe !oot" oE tDo"e 'e!Be'tio".

HoA, tDe, B1 tDo"e Bot!1(iBti4 (eEiitio" 1( BoE3iBti4 'e!Be'tio"
1( e$13%1tio" oE oe 1( tDe "12e 4!o%' 1( it" 1Btio" Ie e)'31ie(N I o%!
1135"i", tDe I1"iB !e1"o Eo! tDe"e "t!iHi4 iBo"i"teBie" 3ie" i tDe (i$e!4et
ite!e"t oE "t1te". De'e(i4 o ADetDe! 1 "t1te i" i tDe 'o"itio oE 1 oBB%'5i4
'oAe! o! i tD1t oE 1 !i$13, o! 1($e!"1!5, oE 1 oBB%'5i4 'oAe! i 1 4i$e
te!!ito!5, tDe (eEiitio oE te!!o!i"2 Ai33 LE3%Bt%1teM 1BBo!(i435. A "t1te 215
e$et%1335 "ee it"e3E 1" '!oteBto! oE tDe !i4Dt" oE 1 Be!t1i etDiB 4!o%' o%t"i(e it"
te!!ito!5 1( Ai33 tDe!eEo!e "'e1H oE 1 L3iIe!1tio "t!%443e,M ot oE Lte!!o!i"2M
ADe 1Bt" oE $io3eBe I5 tDi" 4!o%' 1!e BoBe!e(, 1( $iBe#$e!"1.

TDe Uite( N1tio" O!41iJ1tio D1" Iee %1I3e to !e1BD 1 (eBi"io o
tDe (eEiitio oE te!!o!i"2 e)1Bt35 IeB1%"e oE tDe"e BoE3iBti4 ite!e"t" oE
"o$e!ei4 "t1te" tD1t (ete!2ie i e1BD 1( e$e!5 i"t1Be DoA 1 '1!tiB%31! 1!2e(
2o$e2et =i.e. 1 o#"t1te 1Bto!> i" 31Ie3e( i !e41!( to tDe te!!o!i"t"#E!ee(o2
Ei4Dte! (iBDoto25. A L'o3iB5 oE (o%I3e "t1(1!("M o tDi" $it13 i""%e oE
ite!1tio13 1EE1i!" D1" Iee tDe %1$oi(1I3e Bo"eO%eBe.

TDi" L(eEiitio13 '!e(iB12etM oE 1 o!41iJ1tio Bo"i"ti4 oE "o$e!ei4
"t1te" < 1( ot oE 'eo'3e", i "'ite oE tDe e2'D1"i" i tDe P!e12I3e to tDe Uite(
N1tio" CD1!te!V < D1" IeBo2e e$e 2o!e "e!io%" i tDe '!e"et 43oI13 'oAe!
Bo"te331tio/ oe "%'e!'oAe! e)e!Bi"e" tDe (eBi"i$e !o3e i tDe SeB%!it5 Co%Bi3,
Eo!2e! 4!e1t 'oAe!" oE tDe Co3( ?1! e!1 1" Ae33 1" 2e(i%2 'oAe!" 1!e
iB!e1"i435 Iei4 21!4i13iJe(@ 1( tDe '!oI3e2 D1" IeBo2e e$e 2o!e 1B%te
"iBe tDe te!!o!i"t 1tt1BH" oE ** Se'te2Ie! 677* I tDe Uite( St1te".

TDe 1I"eBe oE 1 31A (eEii4 L1Bt" oE te!!o!i"2M 215 !e"%3t i 1I%"e 1(
o''!e""io o tDe '1!t oE tDe 'o3iBe o! 2i3it1!5. A i33%"t!1tio i" ADe 1 4!o%' oE
'e!"o" 1!e 2e!e35 e414e( i 1 (!iHi4 "'!ee. Yet tDe 2i3it1!5 o! tDe 'o3iBe 215
Bo"i(e! tDe 1Bt 1" 1 1Bt oE te!!o!i"2 1( i22e(i1te35 1!!e"t tDe2 '%!"%1t to
G.O. No. :. OI$io%"35, tDi" i" 1I%"e 1( o''!e""io o tDei! '1!t. It 2%"t Ie
!e2e2Ie!e( tD1t 1 1Bt B1 o35 Ie Bo"i(e!e( 1 B!i2e iE tDe!e i" 1 31A (eEii4
tDe "12e 1" "%BD 1( i2'o"i4 tDe Bo!!e"'o(i4 'e13t5 tDe!eo.

So E1!, tDe Ao!( Lte!!o!i"2M 1''e1!" o35 oBe i o%! B!i2i13 31A", i.e., i
P.D. No. *9,: (1te( J1%1!5 *., *-9* e1Bte( I5 P!e"i(et M1!Bo" (%!i4 tDe
M1!ti13 L1A !e4i2e. TDi" (eB!ee i" etit3e( LCo(iE5i4 TDe V1!io%" L1A" o Ati#
S%I$e!"io 1( IB!e1"i4 TDe Pe13tie" Eo! Me2Ie!"Di' i S%I$e!"i$e
O!41iJ1tio".M TDe Ao!( Lte!!o!i"2M i" 2etioe( i tDe Eo33oAi4
'!o$i"io/ LTD1t oe ADo Bo"'i!e" AitD 15 otDe! 'e!"o Eo! tDe '%!'o"e oE
o$e!tD!oAi4 tDe Go$e!2et oE tDe PDi3i''ie" ) ) ) I5 Eo!Be,
$io3eBe, terrorism, ) ) ) "D133 Ie '%i"De( I5 reclusion temporal ) ) ).M

P.D. No. *9,: A1" !e'e13e( I5 E.O. No. *.+ =ADiBD o%t31A" tDe Co22%i"t
P1!t5 oE tDe PDi3i''ie"> e1Bte( I5 P!e"i(et Co!1Jo AO%io o M15 :,
*-9:. TDe"e tAo =6> 31A", DoAe$e!, (o ot (eEie L1Bt" oE te!!o!i"2.M SiBe tDe!e
i" o 31A (eEii4 L1Bt" oE te!!o!i"2,M it i" P!e"i(et A!!o5o 13oe, %(e! G.O. No.
:, ADo D1" tDe (i"B!etio to (ete!2ie AD1t 1Bt" Bo"tit%te te!!o!i"2. He!
C%(42et o tDi" 1"'eBt i" 1I"o3%te, AitDo%t !e"t!iBtio". Co"eO%et35, tDe!e B1
Ie i(i"B!i2i1te 1!!e"t AitDo%t A1!!1t", I!e1Hi4 ito oEEiBe" 1( !e"i(eBe",
t1Hi4 o$e! tDe 2e(i1 ete!'!i"e", '!oDiIitio 1( (i"'e!"13 oE 133 1""e2I3ie" 1(
41tDe!i4" %E!ie(35 to tDe 1(2ii"t!1tio. A33 tDe"e B1 Ie eEEeBte( i tDe 12e
oE G.O. No. :. TDe"e 1Bt" 4o E1! Ie5o( tDe B133i4#o%t 'oAe! oE tDe
P!e"i(et. Ce!t1i35, tDe5 $io31te tDe (%e '!oBe"" B31%"e oE tDe Co"tit%tio. TD%",
tDi" Co%!t (eB31!e" tD1t tDe L1Bt" oE te!!o!i"2M 'o!tio oE G.O. No. : i"

Si4iEiB1t35, tDe!e i" otDi4 i G.O. No. : 1%tDo!iJi4 tDe 2i3it1!5 o!
'o3iBe to Bo22it 1Bt" Ie5o( AD1t 1!e necessary and appropriate to suppress
and prevent lawless violence, tDe 3i2it1tio oE tDei! 1%tDo!it5 i '%!"%i4 tDe
O!(e!. OtDe!Ai"e, "%BD 1Bt" 1!e Bo"i(e!e( i33e413.

?e Ei!"t e)12ie 3-$- No- )*)89: =&a-id et al.>

TDe Co"tit%tio '!o$i(e" tD1t LtDe !i4Dt oE tDe 'eo'3e to Ie "eB%!e( i tDei!
'e!"o", Do%"e", '1'e!" 1( eEEeBt" 141i"t %!e1"o1I3e "e1!BD 1( "eiJ%!e oE
AD1te$e! 1t%!e 1( Eo! 15 '%!'o"e "D133 Ie inviolable1 1( o "e1!BD A1!!1t
o! warrant of arrest "D133 i""%e e)Be't %'o '!oI1I3e B1%"e to Ie (ete!2ie(
'e!"o1335 I5 tDe C%(4e 1Ete! e)12i1tio %(e! o1tD o! 1EEi!21tio oE tDe
Bo2'31i1t 1( tDe Aite""e" De 215 '!o(%Be, 1( '1!tiB%31!35 (e"B!iIi4 tDe
'31Be to Ie "e1!BDe( 1( tDe 'e!"o" o! tDi4" to Ie "eiJe(.M
TDe '31i i2'o!t
oE tDe 314%14e oE tDe Co"tit%tio i" tD1t "e1!BDe", "eiJ%!e" 1( 1!!e"t"
1!e normally%!e1"o1I3e %3e"" 1%tDo!iJe( I5 1 $13i(35 i""%e( "e1!BD A1!!1t o!
A1!!1t oE 1!!e"t. TD%", tDe E%(12et13 '!oteBtio 4i$e I5 tDi" '!o$i"io i" tD1t
IetAee 'e!"o 1( 'o3iBe 2%"t "t1( tDe '!oteBti$e 1%tDo!it5 oE 1 214i"t!1te
B3otDe( AitD 'oAe! to i""%e o! !eE%"e to i""%e "e1!BD A1!!1t" o! A1!!1t" oE 1!!e"t.

I tDe B!ieE ABBo%t
"%I2itte( I5 'etitioe! D1$i(, Be!t1i E1Bt" 1!e
e"t1I3i"De(/ first, De A1" 1!!e"te( AitDo%t A1!!1t@ second, tDe PNP o'e!1ti$e"
1!!e"te( Di2 o tDe I1"i" oE PP *7*+@ third, De A1" I!o%4Dt 1t C12' ;1!i413,
Q%eJo Cit5 ADe!e De A1" Ei4e!'!ite(, 'Doto4!1'De( 1( IooHe( 3iHe 1
B!i2i13 "%"'eBt@fourth, De A1" t!e1te( I!%"O%e35 I5 'o3iBe2e ADo LDe3( Di"
De1( 1( t!ie( to '%"D Di2M i"i(e 1 %21!He( B1!@ fifth, De A1" BD1!4e( AitD
Vio31tio oE Aatas 'ambansa Ailang No- >>6
1( Inciting to
(edition@ si<th, De A1" (et1ie( Eo! "e$e =+> Do%!"@ 1( se-enth, De
A1" e$et%1335 !e3e1"e( Eo! i"%EEiBieB5 oE e$i(eBe.

SeBtio :, R%3e **, oE tDe Re$i"e( R%3e" o C!i2i13 P!oBe(%!e '!o$i(e"/

SeB. :. Arrest wit#out warrant2 w#en lawul. # A 'e1Be oEEiBe! o! 1
'!i$1te 'e!"o 215, AitDo%t 1 A1!!1t, 1!!e"t 1 'e!"o/

;a< ?De, i Di" '!e"eBe, tDe 'e!"o to Ie 1!!e"te( D1" Bo22itte(, i"
1Bt%1335 Bo22itti4, o! i" 1tte2'ti4 to Bo22it 1 oEEe"e.

;b< ?De 1 oEEe"e D1" C%"t Iee Bo22itte( 1( De D1" '!oI1I3e
B1%"e to Ie3ie$e I1"e( o 'e!"o13 HoA3e(4e oE E1Bt" o! Bi!B%2"t1Be" tD1t
tDe 'e!"o to Ie 1!!e"te( D1" Bo22itte( it@ 1(

) ) ).

NeitDe! oE tDe tAo =6> e)Be'tio" 2etioe( 1Io$e C%"tiEie" 'etitioe!
D1$i(K" A1!!1t3e"" 1!!e"t. D%!i4 tDe iO%e"t Eo! tDe BD1!4e" oE inciting to
sedition 1(violation of A' >>6, 133 tD1t tDe 1!!e"ti4 oEEiBe!" Bo%3( i$oHe
A1" tDei! oI"e!$1tio tD1t "o2e !1335i"t" Ae!e Ae1!i4 t#"Di!t" AitD tDe
i$eBti$e /"ust 8loria Now. 1( tDei! e!!oeo%" 1""%2'tio tD1t 'etitioe!
D1$i( A1" tDe 3e1(e! oE tDe !1335.
Co"eO%et35, tDe IO%e"t P!o"eB%to! o!(e!e(
Di" i22e(i1te !e3e1"e o tDe 4!o%( oE i"%EEiBieB5 oE e$i(eBe. He ote( tD1t
'etitioe! D1$i( A1" ot Ae1!i4 tDe "%ICeBt t#"Di!t 1( e$e iE De A1" Ae1!i4 it,
"%BD E1Bt i" i"%EEiBiet to BD1!4e Di2 AitD inciting to sedition. F%!tDe!, De 13"o
"t1te( tD1t tDe!e i" i"%EEiBiet e$i(eBe Eo! tDe BD1!4e oE violation of A' >>6 1" it
A1" ot e$e HoA ADetDe! 'etitioe! D1$i( A1" tDe 3e1(e! oE tDe !1335.

B%t AD1t 21(e it (o%I35 Ao!"e Eo! 'etitioe!" D1$i( et al. i" tD1t ot o35
A1" tDei! !i4Dt 141i"t A1!!1t3e"" 1!!e"t $io31te(, I%t 13"o tDei! !i4Dt to 'e1Be1I35

SeBtio 8 oE A!tiB3e III 4%1!1tee"/

No 31A "D133 Ie '1""e( 1I!i(4i4 tDe E!ee(o2 oE "'eeBD, oE e)'!e""io, o!
oE tDe '!e"", o! tDe !i4Dt oE tDe 'eo'3e 'e1Be1I35 to 1""e2I3e 1( 'etitio tDe
4o$e!2et Eo! !e(!e"" oE 4!ie$1Be".

LA""e2I35M 2e1" 1 !i4Dt o tDe '1!t oE tDe BitiJe" to 2eet 'e1Be1I35 Eo!
Bo"%3t1tio i !e"'eBt to '%I3iB 1EE1i!". It i" 1 eBe""1!5 Bo"eO%eBe oE o%!
!e'%I3iB1 i"tit%tio 1( Bo2'3e2et" tDe !i4Dt oE "'eeBD. A" i tDe B1"e oE
E!ee(o2 oE e)'!e""io, tDi" !i4Dt i" ot to Ie 3i2ite(, 2%BD 3e"" (eie(, e)Be't o 1
"DoAi4 oE 1 clear and present danger oE 1 "%I"t1ti$e e$i3 tD1t Co4!e"" D1" 1
!i4Dt to '!e$et. I otDe! Ao!(", 3iHe otDe! !i4Dt" e2I!1Be( i tDe E!ee(o2 oE
e)'!e""io, tDe !i4Dt to 1""e2I3e i" ot "%ICeBt to '!e$io%" !e"t!1it o!
Be"o!"Di'. It 215 ot Ie Bo(itioe( %'o tDe '!io! i""%1Be oE 1 'e!2it o!
1%tDo!iJ1tio E!o2 tDe 4o$e!2et 1%tDo!itie" e)Be't, oE Bo%!"e, iE tDe 1""e2I35 i"
ite(e( to Ie De3( i 1 '%I3iB '31Be, 1 'e!2it Eo! tDe %"e oE "%BD '31Be, 1( ot Eo!
tDe 1""e2I35 it"e3E, 215 Ie $13i(35 !eO%i!e(.

TDe !i4i4 t!%tD De!e i" tD1t 'etitioe! D1$i(, et al. Ae!e 1!!e"te( ADi3e tDe5
Ae!e e)e!Bi"i4 tDei! !i4Dt to 'e1BeE%3 1""e2I35. TDe5 Ae!e ot Bo22itti4 15
B!i2e, eitDe! A1" tDe!e 1 "DoAi4 oE 1 B3e1! 1( '!e"et (14e! tD1t A1!!1te( tDe
3i2it1tio oE tD1t !i4Dt. A" B1 Ie 43e1e( E!o2 Bi!B%2"t1Be", tDe BD1!4e"
oEinciting to sedition 1( violation of A' >>6 Ae!e 2e!e 1Ete!tDo%4Dt. E$e tDe
So3iBito! Gee!13, (%!i4 tDe o!13 1!4%2et, E1i3e( to C%"tiE5 tDe 1!!e"ti4 oEEiBe!"K
Bo(%Bt. I &e Jonge -. "regon,
it A1" De3( tD1t 'e1Be1I3e 1""e2I35 B1ot Ie
21(e 1 B!i2e, tD%"/

Pe1Be1I3e 1""e2I35 Eo! 31AE%3 (i"B%""io B1ot Ie 21(e 1 B!i2e. TDe
Do3(i4 oE 2eeti4" Eo! 'e1Be1I3e 'o3itiB13 1Btio B1ot Ie '!o"B!iIe(. TDo"e
ADo 1""i"t i tDe Bo(%Bt oE "%BD 2eeti4" B1ot Ie I!1(e( 1" B!i2i13" o tD1t
"Bo!e. TDe O%e"tio, iE tDe !i4Dt" oE E!ee "'eeBD 1( 'e1BeE%3 1""e2I35 1!e ot to
Ie '!e"e!$e(, i" ot 1" to tDe 1%"'iBe" %(e! ADiBD tDe 2eeti4 A1" De3( I%t 1" to
it" '%!'o"e@ ot 1" to tDe !e31tio" oE tDe "'e1He!", I%t ADetDe! tDei! %tte!1Be"
t!1"Be( tDe Io%(" oE tDe E!ee(o2 oE "'eeBD ADiBD tDe Co"tit%tio '!oteBt". IE
tDe 'e!"o" 1""e2I3i4 D1$e Bo22itte( B!i2e" e3"eADe!e, iE tDe5 D1$e Eo!2e( o!
1!e e414e( i 1 Bo"'i!1B5 141i"t tDe '%I3iB 'e1Be 1( o!(e!, tDe5 215 Ie
'!o"eB%te( Eo! tDei! Bo"'i!1B5 o! otDe! $io31tio" oE $13i( 31A". Aut it is a
different matter when the (tate, instead of prosecuting them for such
offenses, seizes upon mere participation in a peaceable assembly and a lawful
public discussion as the basis for a criminal charge-

O tDe I1"i" oE tDe 1Io$e '!iBi'3e", tDe Co%!t 3iHeAi"e Bo"i(e!" tDe
(i"'e!"13 1( 1!!e"t oE tDe 2e2Ie!" oE ;MU et al. =G.R. No. *+*89,> %A1!!1te(.
A''1!et35, tDei! (i"'e!"13 A1" (oe 2e!e35 o tDe I1"i" oE M131B1Q14K" (i!eBti$e
B1Be3i4 133 'e!2it" '!e$io%"35 i""%e( I5 3oB13 4o$e!2et %it". TDi" i"
1!Iit!1!5. TDe ADo3e"13e B1Be331tio oE 133 'e!2it" to !1335 i" 1 I31t1t (i"!e41!( oE
tDe '!iBi'3e tD1t Lfreedom of assembly is not to be limited, much less denied,
except on a showing of a clear and present danger of a substantive evil that the
(tate has a right to prevent.M
To3e!1Be i" tDe !%3e 1( 3i2it1tio i" tDe
e)Be'tio. O35 %'o 1 "DoAi4 tD1t 1 1""e2I35 '!e"et" 1 B3e1! 1( '!e"et
(14e! tD1t tDe St1te 215 (e5 tDe BitiJe"K !i4Dt to e)e!Bi"e it. I(ee(,
!e"'o(et" E1i3e( to "DoA o! Bo$iBe tDe Co%!t tD1t tDe !1335i"t" Bo22itte( 1Bt"
12o%ti4 to 31A3e"" $io3eBe, i$1"io o! !eIe33io. ?itD tDe I31Het !e$oB1tio
oE 'e!2it", tDe (i"tiBtio IetAee '!oteBte( 1( %'!oteBte( 1""e2I3ie" A1"

Mo!eo$e!, %(e! BP 997, tDe 1%tDo!it5 to !e4%31te 1""e2I3ie" 1( !133ie" i"
3o(4e( AitD tDe 3oB13 4o$e!2et %it". TDe5 D1$e tDe 'oAe! to i""%e 'e!2it" 1(
to !e$oHe "%BD 'e!2it" after due notice and hearing o tDe (ete!2i1tio oE tDe
'!e"eBe oE B3e1! 1( '!e"et (14e!. He!e, 'etitioe!" Ae!e ot e$e otiEie( 1(
De1!( o tDe !e$oB1tio oE tDei! 'e!2it".
TDe Ei!"t ti2e tDe5 3e1!e( oE it A1" 1t
tDe ti2e oE tDe (i"'e!"13. S%BD 1I"eBe oE otiBe i" 1 E1t13 (eEeBt. ?De 1 'e!"oK"
!i4Dt i" !e"t!iBte( I5 4o$e!2et 1Btio, it IeDoo$e" 1 (e2oB!1tiB 4o$e!2et to
"ee to it tD1t tDe !e"t!iBtio i" E1i!, !e1"o1I3e, 1( 1BBo!(i4 to '!oBe(%!e.

3-$- No- )*)=69, =C1BDo#O3i$1!e", et al.> '!e"et" 1otDe! E1Bet oE E!ee(o2
oE "'eeBD i.e., tDe E!ee(o2 oE tDe '!e"". Petitioe!"K 1!!1tio oE E1Bt", ADiBD tDe
So3iBito! Gee!13 E1i3e( to !eE%te, e"t1I3i"De( tDe Eo33oAi4/ first, tDe &aily
2ribune%s oEEiBe" Ae!e "e1!BDe( AitDo%t A1!!1t@ second, tDe 'o3iBe o'e!1ti$e"
"eiJe( "e$e!13 21te!i13" Eo! '%I3iB1tio@ third, tDe "e1!BD A1" Bo(%Bte( 1t 1Io%t
*/77 oK B3oBH i tDe 2o!i4 oE FeI!%1!5 6:, 677.@ fourth, tDe "e1!BD A1"
Bo(%Bte( i tDe 1I"eBe oE 15 oEEiBi13 oE tDe &aily 2ribune e)Be't tDe "eB%!it5
4%1!( oE tDe I%i3(i4@ 1( fifth, 'o3iBe2e "t1tioe( tDe2"e3$e" 1t tDe $iBiit5 oE
tDe &aily 2ribune oEEiBe".

TDe!e1Ete!, 1 A1$e oE A1!i4 B12e E!o2 4o$e!2et oEEiBi13". P!e"i(eti13
CDieE oE St1EE MiBD1e3 DeEe"o! A1" O%ote( 1" "15i4 tD1t "%BD !1i( A1" Emeant
to show a Istrong presence,2 to tell media outlets not to connive or do anything
that would help the rebels in bringing down this government-F Di!eBto!
Gee!13 Lo2iI1o E%!tDe! "t1te( tD1t Eif they do not follow the standards 0and
the standards are if they would contribute to instability in the government, or
if they do not subscribe to what is in 3eneral Order No- 7 and 'roc- No- )6)*
0 we will recommend a Rtakeover.KM N1tio13 Te3eBo22%iB1tio"
Co22i""ioe! Ro13( So3i" %!4e( te3e$i"io 1( !1(io etAo!H"
to /cooperate. AitD tDe 4o$e!2et Eo! tDe (%!1tio oE tDe "t1te oE 1tio13
e2e!4eB5. "e warned that his agency will not hesitate to recommend the
closure of any broadcast outfit that violates rules set out for media coverage
during times when the national security is threatened.

TDe "e1!BD i" i33e413. R%3e *6. oE TDe Re$i"e( R%3e" o C!i2i13 P!oBe(%!e
315" (oA tDe "te'" i tDe Bo(%Bt oE "e1!BD 1( "eiJ%!e. (ection = !eO%i!e" tD1t
1search warrant Ie i""%e( %'o '!oI1I3e B1%"e i BoeBtio AitD oe "'eBiEiB
oEEeBe to Ie (ete!2ie( 'e!"o1335 I5 tDe C%(4e 1Ete! e)12i1tio %(e! o1tD o!
1EEi!21tio oE tDe Bo2'31i1t 1( tDe Aite""e" De 215 '!o(%Be. (ection
> 21(1te" tD1t tDe "e1!BD oE 1 Do%"e, !oo2, o! 15 otDe! '!e2i"e Ie 21(e in the
presence of the lawful occupant tDe!eoE o! 15 2e2Ie! oE Di" E12i35 o! i tDe
1I"eBe oE tDe 31tte!, i tDe '!e"eBe oE tAo =6> Aite""e" oE "%EEiBiet 14e 1(
(i"B!etio !e"i(i4 i tDe "12e 3oB13it5. A( (ection 9 "t1te" tD1t tDe A1!!1t
2%"t (i!eBt tD1t it Ie "e!$e( i tDe daytime, %3e"" tDe '!o'e!t5 i" o tDe 'e!"o o!
i tDe '31Be o!(e!e( to Ie "e1!BDe(, i ADiBD B1"e 1 (i!eBtio 215 Ie i"e!te( tD1t
it Ie "e!$e( 1t 15 ti2e oE tDe (15 o! i4Dt. A33 tDe"e !%3e" Ae!e $io31te( I5 tDe
CIDG o'e!1ti$e".

Not o35 tD1t, tDe "e1!BD $io31te( 'etitioe!"K E!ee(o2 oE tDe '!e"". TDe
Ie"t 41%4e oE 1 E!ee 1( (e2oB!1tiB "oBiet5 !e"t" i tDe (e4!ee oE E!ee(o2 eCo5e(
I5 it" 2e(i1. I tDe Burgos -. Chief of 0taff
tDi" Co%!t De3( tD1t ##
A" De!etoEo!e "t1te(, tDe '!e2i"e" "e1!BDe( Ae!e tDe I%"ie"" 1(
'!iti4 oEEiBe" oE tDe W$etropolitan $ailW 1( tDe WCe (orumM eA"'1'e!". A" 1
Bo"eO%eBe oE tDe "e1!BD 1( "eiJ%!e, these premises were padlocked and
sealed, with the further result that the printing and publication of said
newspapers were discontinued.

(uch closure is in the nature of previous restraint or censorship
abhorrent to the freedom of the press guaranteed under the fundamental law,
and constitutes a virtual denial of petitionersM freedom to express themselves
in print- !his state of being is patently anathematic to a democratic
framework where a free, alert and even militant press is essential for the
political enlightenment and growth of the citizenry.

?Di3e 1(2itte(35, tDe &aily 2ribune A1" ot '1(3oBHe( 1( "e13e( 3iHe tDe
L$etropolitan $ailM 1( LCe (orumM eA"'1'e!" i tDe 1Io$e B1"e, 5et it B1ot
Ie (eie( tD1t tDe CIDG o'e!1ti$e" e)Bee(e( tDei! eEo!Be2et (%tie". TDe "e1!BD
1( "eiJ%!e oE 21te!i13" Eo! '%I3iB1tio, tDe "t1tioi4 oE 'o3iBe2e i tDe $iBiit5
oE tDe 2he &aily 2ribune oEEiBe", 1( tDe 1!!o41t A1!i4 oE 4o$e!2et oEEiBi13"
to 2e(i1, 1!e '31i Be"o!"Di'. It i" tD1t oEEiBio%" E%Btio1!5 oE tDe !e'!e""i$e
4o$e!2et ADo te33" tDe BitiJe tD1t De 215 "'e1H o35 iE 133oAe( to (o "o, 1( o
2o!e 1( o 3e"" tD1 AD1t De i" 'e!2itte( to "15 o '1i oE '%i"D2et "Do%3( De
Ie "o !1"D 1" to (i"oIe5.
U(o%Ite(35, tDe 2he &aily 2ribune A1" "%ICeBte( to
tDe"e 1!Iit!1!5 it!%"io" IeB1%"e oE it" 1ti#4o$e!2et "eti2et". TDi" Co%!t
B1ot to3e!1te tDe I31t1t (i"!e41!( oE 1 Bo"tit%tio13 !i4Dt e$e iE it i$o3$e" tDe
2o"t (eEi1t oE o%! BitiJe". F!ee(o2 to Bo22et o '%I3iB 1EE1i!" i" e""eti13 to
tDe $it13it5 oE 1 !e'!e"et1ti$e (e2oB!1B5. It i" tDe (%t5 oE tDe Bo%!t" to Ie
A1tBDE%3 Eo! tDe Bo"tit%tio13 !i4Dt" oE tDe BitiJe, 1( 141i"t 15 "te13tD5
eB!o1BD2et" tDe!eo. TDe 2otto "Do%3( 13A15" Ie obsta principiis.

IBi(et1335, (%!i4 tDe o!13 1!4%2et", tDe So3iBito! Gee!13 1(2itte( tD1t
tDe "e1!BD oE tDe 2ribune%s oEEiBe" 1( tDe "eiJ%!e oE it" 21te!i13" Eo! '%I3iB1tio
1( otDe! '1'e!" 1!e i33e413@ 1( tD1t tDe "12e 1!e i1(2i""iI3e LEo! 15 '%!'o"e,M


Yo% 21(e O%ite 1 2o%tDE%3 oE 1(2i""io ADe 5o% "1i(
tD1t tDe 'o3iBe2e, ADe i"'eBte( tDe T!iI%e Eo! tDe
'%!'o"e oE 41tDe!i4 e$i(eBe 1( 5o% 1(2itte( tD1t tDe
'o3iBe2e Ae!e 1I3e to 4et tDe B3i''i4". I" tD1t ot i
1(2i""io oE tDe 1(2i""iIi3it5 oE tDe"e B3i''i4" tD1t Ae!e
t1He E!o2 tDe T!iI%eN


U(e! tDe 31A tDe5 Ao%3( "ee2 to Ie, iE tDe5 Ae!e i33e41335
"eiJe(, I tDiH 1( I HoA, Yo%! Hoo!, 1( tDe"e 1!e
i1(2i""iI3e Eo! 15 '%!'o"e.

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )


TDe"e D1$e Iee '%I3i"De( i tDe '1"t i""%e" oE tDe D1i35
T!iI%e@ 133 5o% D1$e to (o i" to 4et tDo"e '1"t i""%e". So
AD5 (o 5o% D1$e to 4o tDe!e 1t * oKB3oBH i tDe 2o!i4
1( AitDo%t 15 "e1!BD A1!!1tN Di( tDe5 IeBo2e
"%((e35 '1!t oE tDe e$i(eBe oE !eIe33io o! iBiti4 to
"e(itio o! AD1tN


?e33, it A1" tDe 'o3iBe tD1t (i( tD1t, Yo%! Hoo!. Not %'o
25 i"t!%Btio".


A!e 5o% "15i4 tD1t tDe 1Bt oE tDe 'o3iBe21 i" i33e413, it i"
ot I1"e( o 15 31A, 1( it i" ot I1"e( o P!oB3121tio


It i" ot I1"e( o P!oB3121tio *7*+, Yo%! Hoo!, IeB1%"e
tDe!e i" otDi4 i *7*+ ADiBD "15" tD1t tDe 'o3iBe Bo%3( 4o
1( i"'eBt 1( 41tDe! B3i''i4" E!o2 D1i35 T!iI%e o! 15
otDe! eA"'1'e!.


I" it I1"e( o 15 31AN


A" E1! 1" I HoA, no, Yo%! Hoo!, E!o2 tDe E1Bt", no.


So, it D1" o I1"i", o 3e413 I1"i" AD1t"oe$e!N


M15Ie "o, Yo%! Hoo!. M15Ie "o, tD1t i" AD5 I "1i(, I
(oKt HoA iE it i" '!e21t%!e to "15 tDi", we do not
condone this. If the people who have been injured by
this would want to sue them, they can sue and there are
remedies for this.

LiHeAi"e, tDe A1!!1t3e"" 1!!e"t" 1( "eiJ%!e" e)eB%te( I5 tDe 'o3iBe Ae!e,
1BBo!(i4 to tDe So3iBito! Gee!13, i33e413 1( B1ot Ie Bo(oe(, tD%"/


TDe!e "ee2" to Ie "o2e BoE%"io" iE ot Bot!1(iBtio i
5o%! tDeo!5.


I (oKt HoA ADetDe! tDi" Ai33 B31!iE5. TDe 1Bt", tDe
"%''o"e( i33e413 o! %31AE%3 1Bt" Bo22itte( o tDe oBB1"io oE
*7*+, 1" I "1i(, it cannot be condoned. Yo% B1ot I312e tDe
P!e"i(et Eo!, 1" 5o% "1i(, 1 2i"1''3iB1tio oE tDe 31A. TDe"e 1!e
1Bt" oE tDe 'o3iBe oEEiBe!", tD1t i" tDei! !e"'o"iIi3it5.

TDe Di""eti4 O'iio "t1te" tD1t PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. : 1!e
Bo"tit%tio13 i e$e!5 1"'eBt 1( L"Do%3( !e"%3t i o Bo"tit%tio13 o! "t1t%to!5
I!e1BDe" iE 1''3ie( 1BBo!(i4 to tDei! 3ette!.M

TDe Co%!t D1" '1""e( %'o tDe Bo"tit%tio13it5 oE tDe"e i""%1Be". It"
!1tioBi1tio D1" Iee e)D1%"ti$e35 '!e"ete(. At tDi" 'oit, "%EEiBe it to !eite!1te
tD1t PP *7*+ i" 3i2ite( to tDe B133i4 o%t I5 tDe P!e"i(et oE tDe 2i3it1!5 to '!e$et
o! "%''!e"" 31A3e"" $io3eBe, i$1"io o! !eIe33io. ?De i i2'3e2eti4 it"
'!o$i"io", '%!"%1t to G.O. No. :, tDe 2i3it1!5 1( tDe 'o3iBe Bo22itte( 1Bt"
ADiBD $io31te tDe BitiJe"K !i4Dt" %(e! tDe Co"tit%tio, tDi" Co%!t D1" to (eB31!e
"%BD 1Bt" %Bo"tit%tio13 1( i33e413.

I tDi" BoeBtio, CDieE J%"tiBe A!te2io V. P141iI1K" BoB%!!i4
o'iio, 1tt1BDe( De!eto, i" Bo"i(e!e( 1 ite4!13 '1!t oE tDi" ponencia.

( ? 4 4 & ! I O N

I "%2, tDe 3iEti4 oE PP *7*+ tD!o%4D tDe i""%1Be oE PP *76* < 1
"%'e!$ei4 e$et < Ao%3( D1$e o!21335 !e(e!e( tDi" B1"e 2oot 1(
1B1(e2iB. HoAe$e!, ADi3e PP *7*+ A1" "ti33 o'e!1ti$e, i33e413 1Bt" Ae!e
Bo22itte( 133e4e(35 i '%!"%1Be tDe!eoE. Be"i(e", tDe!e i" o 4%1!1tee tD1t PP
*7*+, o! oe "i2i31! to it, 215 ot 141i Ie i""%e(. A3!e1(5, tDe!e D1$e Iee
2e(i1 !e'o!t" o A'!i3 ,7, 677. tD1t 133e4e(35 PP *7*+ Ao%3( Ie !ei2'o"e( LiE tDe
M15 * !133ie"M IeBo2e L%!%35 1( $io3et.M Co"eO%et35, tDe t!1"Be(et13
i""%e" !1i"e( I5 tDe '1!tie" "Do%3( ot Ie Le$1(e(@M tDe5 2%"t oA Ie !e"o3$e( to
'!e$et E%t%!e Bo"tit%tio13 1Ie!!1tio.

TDe Co%!t Ei(" 1( "o Do3(" tD1t PP *7*+ i" Bo"tit%tio13 i"oE1! 1" it
Bo"tit%te" 1 B133 I5 tDe P!e"i(et Eo! tDe AFP to '!e$et o! "%''!e"" lawless
violence- TDe '!oB3121tio i" "%"t1ie( I5 SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e VII oE tDe
Co"tit%tio 1( tDe !e3e$1t C%!i"'!%(eBe (i"B%""e( e1!3ie!. HoAe$e!, PP *7*+K"
e)t!1eo%" '!o$i"io" 4i$i4 tDe P!e"i(et e)'!e"" o! i2'3ie( 'oAe! =*> to i""%e
(eB!ee"@ =6> to (i!eBt tDe AFP to eEo!Be oIe(ieBe to all laws e$e tDo"e ot
!e31te( to 31A3e"" $io3eBe 1" Ae33 1" (eB!ee" '!o2%341te( I5 tDe P!e"i(et@ 1( =,>
to i2'o"e "t1(1!(" o 2e(i1 o! 15 Eo!2 oE '!io! !e"t!1it o tDe '!e"", 1!e ultra
-ires 1(unconstitutional. TDe Co%!t 13"o !%3e" tD1t %(e! SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &II
oE tDe Co"tit%tio, tDe P!e"i(et, i tDe 1I"eBe oE 1 3e4i"31tio, B1ot t1He o$e!
'!i$1te35#oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 1( '!i$1te I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t.

I tDe "12e $ei, tDe Co%!t Ei(" G.O. No. : $13i(. It i" 1 O!(e! i""%e( I5
tDe P!e"i(et < 1Bti4 1" Co221(e!#i#CDieE < 1((!e""e( to "%I13te!" i tDe AFP
to B1!!5 o%t tDe '!o$i"io" oE PP *7*+. Si4iEiB1t35, it 13"o '!o$i(e" 1 $13i(
"t1(1!( < tD1t tDe 2i3it1!5 1( tDe 'o3iBe "Do%3( t1He o35 tDe Lnecessary and
appropriate actions and measures to suppress and prevent acts of lawless
violence.M B%t tDe Ao!(" Lacts of terrorismM Eo%( i G.O. No. : D1$e ot Iee
3e41335 (eEie( 1( 21(e '%i"D1I3e I5 Co4!e"" 1( "Do%3( tD%" Ie (ee2e(
(e3ete( E!o2 tDe "1i( G.O. ?Di3e Lte!!o!i"2M D1" Iee (eo%Be( 4ee!1335 i
2e(i1, o 31A D1" Iee e1Bte( to 4%i(e tDe 2i3it1!5, 1( e$et%1335 tDe Bo%!t", to
(ete!2ie tDe 3i2it" oE tDe AFPK" 1%tDo!it5 i B1!!5i4 o%t tDi" 'o!tio oE G.O. No.

O tDe I1"i" oE tDe !e3e$1t 1( %Bote"te( E1Bt" 1!!1te( e1!3ie!, it i" 13"o
'!i"tie B3e1! tD1t =*> tDe A1!!1t3e"" 1!!e"t oE 'etitioe!" R1(o3E S. D1$i( 1(
Ro13( L3121"@ =6> tDe (i"'e!"13 oE tDe !133ie" 1( A1!!1t3e"" 1!!e"t oE tDe ;MU
1( NAFLU#;MU 2e2Ie!"@ =,> tDe i2'o"itio oE "t1(1!(" o 2e(i1 o! 15 '!io!
!e"t!1it o tDe '!e""@ 1( =8> tDe A1!!1t3e"" "e1!BD oE tDe 2ribune oEEiBe" 1( tDe
ADi2"iB13 "eiJ%!e" oE "o2e 1!tiB3e" Eo! '%I3iB1tio 1( otDe! 21te!i13", 1!e ot
1%tDo!iJe( I5 tDe Co"tit%tio, tDe 31A 1( C%!i"'!%(eBe. Not e$e I5 tDe $13i(
'!o$i"io" oE PP *7*+ 1( G.O. No. :.

OtDe! tD1 tDi" (eB31!1tio oE i$13i(it5, tDi" Co%!t B1ot i2'o"e 15 Bi$i3,
B!i2i13 o! 1(2ii"t!1ti$e "1Btio" o tDe i(i$i(%13 'o3iBe oEEiBe!"
BoBe!e(. TDe5 D1$e ot Iee i(i$i(%1335 i(etiEie( 1( 4i$e tDei! (15 i
Bo%!t. TDe Bi$i3 Bo2'31it" o! B1%"e" oE 1Btio 1(Po! !e3e$1t B!i2i13
IEo!21tio" D1$e ot Iee '!e"ete( IeEo!e tDi" Co%!t. E3e2et1!5 (%e '!oBe""
I1!" tDi" Co%!t E!o2 21Hi4 15 "'eBiEiB '!oo%Be2et oE Bi$i3, B!i2i13 o!
1(2ii"t!1ti$e 3i1Ii3itie".

It i" well to remember that military power is a means to an end and
substantive civil rights are ends in themselves- "ow to give the military the
power it needs to protect the $epublic without unnecessarily trampling
individual rights is one of the eternal balancing tasks of a democratic
state. D%!i4 e2e!4eB5, 4o$e!2et13 1Btio 215 $1!5 i I!e1(tD 1( ite"it5
E!o2 o!213 ti2e", 5et tDe5 "Do%3( ot Ie 1!Iit!1!5 1" to %(%35 !e"t!1i o%!
'eo'3eK" 3iIe!t5.

Pe!D1'", tDe $it13 3e""o tD1t Ae 2%"t 3e1! E!o2 tDe tDeo!i"t" ADo "t%(ie(
tDe $1!io%" Bo2'eti4 'o3itiB13 'Di3o"o'Die" i" tD1t, it i" 'o""iI3e to 4!1t
4o$e!2et tDe 1%tDo!it5 to Bo'e AitD B!i"e" AitDo%t "%!!e(e!i4 tDe tAo $it13
'!iBi'3e" oE Bo"tit%tio13i"2/ the maintenance of legal limits to arbitrary
power, 1( political responsibility of the government to the governed.

"#$#%O$#, tDe Petitio" 1!e '1!t35 4!1te(. TDe Co%!t !%3e" tD1t PP
*7*+ i" ,ON(!I!?!ION&. i"oE1! 1" it Bo"tit%te" 1 B133 I5 P!e"i(et G3o!i1
M1B1'1413#A!!o5o o tDe AFP to prevent or suppress lawless
violence. HoAe$e!, tDe '!o$i"io" oE PP *7*+ Bo221(i4 tDe AFP to eEo!Be
31A" ot !e31te( to 31A3e"" $io3eBe, 1" Ae33 1" (eB!ee" '!o2%341te( I5 tDe
P!e"i(et, 1!e (eB31!e( ?N,ON(!I!?!ION&.. I 1((itio, tDe '!o$i"io i PP
*7*+ (eB31!i4 1tio13 e2e!4eB5 %(e! SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e VII oE tDe
Co"tit%tio i" ,ON(!I!?!ION&., I%t "%BD (eB31!1tio (oe" ot 1%tDo!iJe tDe
P!e"i(et to t1He o$e! '!i$1te35#oAe( '%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD
'%I3iB ite!e"t AitDo%t '!io! 3e4i"31tio.

G.O. No. : i" ,ON(!I!?!ION&. "iBe it '!o$i(e" 1 "t1(1!( I5 ADiBD
tDe AFP 1( tDe PNP "Do%3( i2'3e2et PP *7*+, i.e. AD1te$e! i" Lnecessary and
appropriate actions and measures to suppress and prevent acts of lawless
violence-M ,o"i(e!i4 tD1t L1Bt" oE te!!o!i"2M D1$e ot 5et Iee (eEie( 1(
21(e '%i"D1I3e I5 tDe Le4i"31t%!e, "%BD 'o!tio oE G.O. No. : i"
(eB31!e( ?N,ON(!I!?!ION&.-

TDe A1!!1t3e"" 1!!e"t oE R1(o3E S. D1$i( 1( Ro13( L3121"@ tDe (i"'e!"13
1( A1!!1t3e"" 1!!e"t oE tDe ;MU 1( NAFLU#;MU 2e2Ie!" (%!i4 tDei!
!133ie", i tDe 1I"eBe oE '!ooE tD1t tDe"e 'etitioe!" Ae!e Bo22itti4 1Bt"
Bo"tit%ti4 31A3e"" $io3eBe, i$1"io o! !eIe33io 1( $io31ti4 BP 997@ tDe
i2'o"itio oE "t1(1!(" o 2e(i1 o! 15 Eo!2 oE '!io! !e"t!1it o tDe '!e"", 1"
Ae33 1" tDe A1!!1t3e"" "e1!BD oE tDe 2ribune oEEiBe" 1( ADi2"iB13 "eiJ%!e oE it"
1!tiB3e" Eo! '%I3iB1tio 1( otDe! 21te!i13", 1!e
(eB31!e( ?N,ON(!I!?!ION&..

No Bo"t".

(O O$/#$#/.

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe


CDieE J%"tiBe

=O 3e1$e>
A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe

A""oBi1te J%"tiBe


P%!"%1t to SeBtio *,, A!tiB3e VIII oE tDe Co"tit%tio, it i" De!eI5 Be!tiEie(
tD1t tDe BoB3%"io" i tDe 1Io$e DeBi"io Ae!e !e1BDe( i Bo"%3t1tio IeEo!e tDe
B1"e A1" 1""i4e( to tDe A!ite! oE tDe o'iio oE tDe Co%!t.

CDieE J%"tiBe

O 3e1$e.
!aw and &isorder, 2he (ran#lin $emorial !ectures, J%"tiBe To2 C. C31!H < LeBt%!e!, Vo3%2e &I&, *-+*, '.
CDieE J%"tiBe A!te2io V. P141iI1, !iberty and Prosperity, FeI!%1!5 *:, 677..

A!tiB%31te( i tDe A!iti4" oE tDe G!eeH 'Di3o"o'De!, He!1B3it%" oE E'De"%", :87#897 B.C., ADo '!o'o%(e(
%i$e!"13 i2'e!21eBe 1( tD1t 133 tDi4", ot1I35 o''o"ite" 1!e ite!!e31te(.
Re"'o(et"K Co22et (1te( M1!BD ., 677..
Mi%te" oE tDe Ite33i4eBe Re'o!t 1( SeB%!it5 G!o%', PDi3i''ie A!25, Ae) LIM oE Re"'o(et"K
Co"o3i(1te( Co22et.
Re"'o(et"K Co"o3i(1te( Co22et.

Petitio i G.R. No. *+*,-., '. :.
Po3iBe 1Btio i $1!io%" '1!t" oE Met!o M1i31 1( tDe !e1Btio" oE tDe D%4e B!oA(" Iei4 (i"'e!"e( Ae!e
I!o1(B1"t 1" LI!e1Hi4 eA"M I5 tDe 21Co! te3e$i"io "t1tio" oE tDi" Bo%t!5.

Petitio i G.R. No. *+*877, '. **.


TDe '!i2e (%t5 oE tDe Go$e!2et i" to "e!$e 1( '!oteBt tDe 'eo'3e. TDe Go$e!2et 215 B133 %'o tDe
'eo'3e to (eEe( tDe St1te 1(, i tDe E%3Ei332et tDe!eoE, 133 BitiJe" 215 Ie !eO%i!e(, %(e! Bo(itio" '!o$i(e(
I5 31A, to !e(e! 'e!"o13 2i3it1!5 o! Bi$i3 "e!$iBe.
No 'e!"o "D133 Ie (e'!i$e( oE 3iEe, 3iIe!t5, o! '!o'e!t5 AitDo%t (%e '!oBe"" oE 31A, o! "D133 15 'e!"o Ie
(eie( tDe eO%13 '!oteBtio oE tDe 31A".
TDe !i4Dt oE tDe 'eo'3e to Ie "eB%!e i tDei! 'e!"o", Do%"e", '1'e!", 1( eEEeBt" 141i"t %!e1"o1I3e "e1!BDe"
1( "eiJ%!e" oE AD1te$e! 1t%!e 1( Eo! 15 '%!'o"e "D133 Ie i$io31I3e, 1( o "e1!BD A1!!1t o! A1!!1t oE
1!!e"t "D133 i""%e e)Be't %'o '!oI1I3e B1%"e to Ie (ete!2ie( 'e!"o1335 I5 tDe C%(4e 1Ete! e)12i1tio %(e!
o1tD o! 1EEi!21tio oE tDe Bo2'31i1t 1( tDe Aite""e" De 215 '!o(%Be, 1( '1!tiB%31!35 (e"B!iIi4 tDe '31Be
to Ie "e1!BDe( 1( tDe 'e!"o" o! tDi4" to Ie "eiJe(.
No 31A "D133 Ie '1""e( 1I!i(4i4 tDe E!ee(o2 oE "'eeBD, oE e)'!e""io, o! oE tDe '!e"", o! tDe !i4Dt oE tDe
'eo'3e 'e1Be1I35 to 1""e2I3e 1( 'etitio tDe Go$e!2et Eo! !e(!e"" oE 4!ie$1Be".
;)< TDe Co4!e"", I5 1 $ote oE tAo#tDi!(" oE IotD Ho%"e" i Coit "e""io 1""e2I3e(, $oti4 "e'1!1te35, "D133
D1$e tDe "o3e 'oAe! to (eB31!e tDe e)i"teBe oE 1 "t1te oE A1!.
;+< I ti2e" oE A1! o! otDe! 1tio13 e2e!4eB5, tDe Co4!e"" 215, I5 31A, 1%tDo!iJe tDe P!e"i(et, Eo! 1
3i2ite( 'e!io( 1( "%ICeBt to "%BD !e"t!iBtio" 1" it 215 '!e"B!iIe, to e)e!Bi"e 'oAe!" eBe""1!5 1( '!o'e! to
B1!!5 o%t 1 (eB31!e( 1tio13 'o3iB5. U3e"" "ooe! AitD(!1A I5 !e"o3%tio oE tDe Co4!e"", "%BD 'oAe!" "D133
Be1"e %'o tDe e)t 1(Co%!2et tDe!eoE.
I ti2e" oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5, ADe tDe '%I3iB ite!e"t "o !eO%i!e", tDe St1te 215, (%!i4 tDe e2e!4eB5 1(
%(e! !e1"o1I3e te!2" '!e"B!iIe( I5 it, te2'o!1!i35 t1He o$e! o! (i!eBt tDe o'e!1tio oE 15 '!i$1te35 oAe(
'%I3iB %ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t.
* C!1BD *,+ F*97,G.
HoA1!( L. M1BB1i, L0ome Aspects of Judicial =e-iew,. Bacon !ectures on the Constitution of the 5nited
0tates =Bo"to/ Bo"to Ui$e!"it5 HeEEe!1 P!e"", *-,->, ''. ,+.#++.
TDe Co%!t D1" o "e3E#"t1!ti4 B1'1Bit5 1( 2%"t 1A1it tDe 1Btio oE "o2e 3iti41t "o 144!ie$e( 1" to D1$e 1
C%"tiBi1I3e B1"e. =SD1'i!o 1( T!e"o3ii, American Constitutional !aw, Si)tD E(itio, *-9,, '. +->.
C!%J, PDi3i''ie Po3itiB13 L1A, 6776 E(., '. 6:-.
Pro-ince of Batangas -. =omulo, G.R. No. *:6++8, M15 6+, 6778, 86- SCRA +,..
Banco (ilipino 0a-ings and $ortgage Ban# -. 2uaDon, Jr., G.R. No. *,6+-:, M1!BD *7, 6778, 86: SCRA
*6-@ Bda. &e &abao -. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. **.:, M1!BD 6,, 6778, 86. SCRA -*@ 1( Paloma -. Court
of Appeals, G.R. No. *8:8,*, No$e2Ie! **, 677,, 8*: SCRA :-7.
=oyal Cargo Corporation -. Ci-il Aeronautics Board, G.R. No". *7,7::#:., J1%1!5 6., 6778, 86* SCRA
6*@ Bda. &e &abao -. Court of Appeals, supra.
!acson -. PereD, G.R. No. *8++97, M15 *7, 677*, ,:+ SCRA +:..
C!%J, PDi3i''ie Po3itiB13 L1A, 6776, '. 6.9 Biti4 Norton -. 0helby, **9 U.S. 86:.
Pro-ince of Batangas -. =omulo, supra.
!acson -. PereD, supra.
Pro-ince of Batangas -. =omulo, supra.
AlbaFa -. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. *.,,76, J%35 6,, 6778, 8,: SCRA -9, Acop -. 8uingona,
Jr., G.R. No. *,89::, J%35 6, 6776, ,9, SCRA :++, 0anla#as -. E<ecuti-e 0ecretary, G.R. No. *:-79:,
FeI!%1!5 ,, 6778, 86* SCRA .:..
0alonga -. CruD PaFo, et al., No. L# :-:68, FeI!%1!5 *9, *-9:, *,8 SCRA 8,9.

G.R. No. *:-79:, FeI!%1!5 ,, 6778, 86* SCRA .:..

B31BHK" L1A DiBtio1!5, .
E(. *--*, '. -8*.
0alonga -. Carner Barnes K Co., 99 PDi3. *6: =*-:*>.
6+: ;5 -*, *67 S?6( +.: =*-,9>.
*- ?e(. :. =*9,+>.
6,6 NC 89, :- SE6( ,:- =*-:7>.
,76 U.S. .,,.
,*9 U.S. 88..
.: PDi3. :. =*-,+>.
G.R. No. **+, No$e2Ie! +, *-8: =U!e'o!te(>.
G.R. No. 6-8+, J1%1!5 **, *-:- =U!e'o!te(>.
**7 PDi3. ,,* =*-.7>.
++ PDi3. *7*6 =*-8+>.
98 PDi3. ,.9 =*-8-> TDe Co%!t De3(/ LAIo$e 133, tDe t!1"Be(et13 i2'o!t1Be to tDe '%I3iB oE tDe"e B1"e"
(e21(" tD1t tDe5 Ie "ett3e( '!o2't35 1( (eEiite35, I!%"Di4 1"i(e, iE Ae 2%"t, teBDiB13itie" oE '!oBe(%!e.M
L#No. 87778, J1%1!5 ,*, *-+:, .6 SCRA 6+:.
-a3ada v. -uvera, G.R. No. .,-*:, A'!i3 68, *-9:, *,. SCRA 6+, ADe!e tDe Co%!t De3( tD1t ADe!e tDe
O%e"tio i" oe oE '%I3iB (%t5 1( tDe eEo!Be2et oE 1 '%I3iB !i4Dt, tDe 'eo'3e 1!e tDe !e13 '1!t5 i ite!e"t, 1(
it i" "%EEiBiet tD1t tDe 'etitioe! i" 1 BitiJe ite!e"te( i tDe e)eB%tio oE tDe 31A@
Legaspi v. $ivil Service $ommission, G.R. No. +6**-, M15 6-, *-9+, *:7 SCRA :,7, ADe!e tDe Co%!t
De3( tD1t i B1"e" i$o3$i4 1 1""e!tio oE 1 '%I3iB !i4Dt, tDe !eO%i!e2et oE 'e!"o13 ite!e"t i" "1ti"Eie( I5 tDe
2e!e E1Bt tD1t tDe 'etitioe! i" 1 BitiJe 1( '1!t oE tDe 4ee!13 '%I3iB ADiBD 'o""e""e" tDe !i4Dt.
4apatiran ng mga *agliling/od sa Pama#alaan ng Pilipinas1 Inc. v. -an, L. No. 9*,**, J%e ,7, *-99,
*., SCRA ,+*, ADe!e tDe Co%!t De3( tD1t oICeBtio" to t1)'15e!"K 31BH oE 'e!"o13it5 to "%e 215 Ie (i"!e41!(e(
i (ete!2ii4 tDe $13i(it5 oE tDe VAT 31A@
Albano v. Reyes, G.R. No. 9,::*, J%35 **, *-9-, *+: SCRA 6.8, ADe!e tDe Co%!t De3( tD1t ADi3e o
e)'e(it%!e oE '%I3iB E%(" A1" i$o3$e( %(e! tDe O%e"tioe( Bot!1Bt, oetDe3e"" Bo"i(e!i4 it" i2'o!t1t
!o3e i tDe eBoo2iB (e$e3o'2et oE tDe Bo%t!5 1( tDe 214it%(e oE tDe Ei1Bi13 Bo"i(e!1tio i$o3$e(,
'%I3iB ite!e"t A1" (eEiite35 i$o3$e( 1( tDi" B3otDe( 'etitioe! AitD tDe 3e413 'e!"o13it5 %(e! tDe (i"B3o"%!e
'!o$i"io oE tDe Co"tit%tio to O%e"tio it.
Association o Small Landowners in t#e P#ilippines1 Inc. v. Sec. o Agrarian Reorm1 G.R. No. +9+86,
J%35 *8, *-9-, *+: SCRA ,8,, ADe!e tDe Co%!t !%3e( tD1t ADi3e 'etitioe!" 1!e "t!iBt35 "'e1Hi4, ot Bo$e!e( I5
tDe (eEiitio oE 1 L'!o'e! '1!t5,M oetDe3e"", it D1" tDe (i"B!etio to A1i$e tDe !eO%i!e2et, i (ete!2ii4 tDe
$13i(it5 oE tDe i2'3e2et1tio oE tDe CARP.
(on5ales v. Macaraig1 6r-, G.R. No. 9+.,., No$e2Ie! *-, *--7, *-* SCRA 8:6, ADe!e tDe Co%!t De3( tD1t
it eCo5" tDe o'e (i"B!etio to ete!t1i t1)'15e!K" "%it o! ot 1( tD1t 1 2e2Ie! oE tDe Se1te D1" tDe !eO%i"ite
'e!"o13it5 to I!i4 1 "%it ADe!e 1 Bo"tit%tio13 i""%e i" !1i"e(.
Maceda v. Macaraig1 6r., G.R. No. 996-*, M15 ,*, *--*, *-+ SCRA ++*, ADe!e tDe Co%!t De3( tD1t
'etitioe! 1" 1 t1)'15e!, D1" tDe 'e!"o13it5 to Ei3e tDe i"t1t 'etitio, 1" tDe i""%e" i$o3$e(, 'e!t1i" to i33e413
e)'e(it%!e oE '%I3iB 2oe5@
)sme3a v. $omelec, G.R. No. *77,*9, *77,79, *778*+,*77867, J%35 ,7, *--*, *-- SCRA +:7, ADe!e tDe
Co%!t De3( tD1t ADe!e "e!io%" Bo"tit%tio13 O%e"tio" 1!e i$o3$e(, tDe Lt!1"Be(et13 i2'o!t1BeM to tDe
'%I3iB oE tDe B1"e" i$o3$e( (e21(" tD1t tDe5 Ie "ett3e( '!o2't35 1( (eEiite35, I!%"Di4 1"i(e teBDiB13itie"
oE '!oBe(%!e"@
7e (uia v. $omelec, G.R. No. *78+*6, M15 ., *--6, 679 SCRA 867, ADe!e tDe Co%!t De3( tD1t tDe
i2'o!t1Be oE tDe i""%e" i$o3$e( BoBe!i4 1" it (oe" tDe 'o3itiB13 e)e!Bi"e oE O%13iEie( $ote!" 1EEeBte( I5 tDe
1''o!tio2et, eBe""it1te" tDe I!%"Di4 1"i(e oE tDe '!oBe(%!13 !eO%i!e2et oE locus standi.
G.R. No. *,,6:7, J%35 -, 6776, ,98 SCRA *:6.

G.R. No". *,9:+7, *,9:+6, *,9:9+, *,9.97, *,9.-9, OBtoIe! *7, 6777, ,86 SCRA 88-.

G.R. No. *:*88:, A'!i3 **, 6776, ,97 SCRA +,-.

G.R. No. **9-*7, No$e2Ie! *., *--:, 6:7 SCRA *,7.
G.R. No. *,6-66, A'!i3 6*, *--9, 69- SCRA ,,+.
G.R. No. *8++97, *8++9*, *8++--, *8+9*7, M15 *7, 677*, ,:+ SCRA +:..
G.R. No. *:-79:, FeI!%1!5 ,, 6778, 86* SCRA .:..
6,: SCRA :7. =*--8>.



*-+ SCRA :6, .7 =*--*>.


See NAACP -. Alabama, ,:+ U.S. 88- =*-:9>.
G.R. No. *8*698, A%4%"t *:, 6777, ,,9 SCRA 9*.

F!o2 tDe (e3iIe!1tio" oE tDe Co"tit%tio13 Co22i""io, tDe itet oE tDe E!12e!" i" B3e1! tD1t tDe i22%it5 oE
tDe P!e"i(et E!o2 "%it i" BoB%!!et o35 AitD Di" te%!e 1( ot Di" te!2. =De Leo, Philippine Constitutional
!aw, Vo3. 6, 6778 E(., '. ,76>.
SeBtio *, A!tiB3e &I oE tDe Co"tit%tio '!o$i(e"/ P%I3iB OEEiBe i" 1 '%I3iB t!%"t. P%I3iB oEEiBe!"
1( e2'3o5ee" 2%"t 1t 133 ti2e" Ie 1BBo%t1I3e to tDe 'eo'3e, "e!$e tDe2 AitD %t2o"t !e"'o"iIi3it5, ite4!it5,
3o513t5 1( eEEiBieB5, 1Bt AitD '1t!ioti"2 1( C%"tiBe, 1( 3e1( 2o(e"t 3i$e".

bid., SeB. 6.

No. 6-79, Se'te2Ie! ,7, 677:, 8+* SCRA 9+.
-* PDi3. 996 =*-:6>.
No. L#,,-.8, DeBe2Ie! **, *-+*, 86 SCRA 889.
No. L#,::8., Se'te2Ie! *+, *-+8, :- SCRA *9,.
No. L#.*,99, A'!i3 67, *-9,, *6* SCRA 8+6.
2aFada -. Cuenco, *7, PDi3. *7:* =*-:+>.
!ansang -. 8arcia, supra, ''. 8+, 1( 89*.

LFi$e J%"tiBe" < Atoio, M1H1"i1!, E"4%e!!1, Fe!1(eJ, 1( AO%io < tooH tDe 'o"itio tD1t tDe '!oB3121tio oE
21!ti13 31A 1( tDe 1!!e"t 1( (etetio o!(e!" 1BBo2'15i4 tDe '!oB3121tio 'o"e( 1 L'o3itiB13 O%e"tioM Ie5o(
tDe C%!i"(iBtio oE tDe Co%!t. J%"tiBe Atoio, i 1 "e'1!1te o'iio BoB%!!e( i I5 M1H1"i1!, Fe!1(eJ, 1(
AO%io, 1!4%e( tD1t tDe Co"tit%tio D1( (e3iIe!1te35 "et %' 1 "t!o4 '!e"i(eB5 1( D1( BoBet!1te( 'oAe!" i ti2e"
oE e2e!4eB5 i tDe D1(" oE tDe P!e"i(et 1( D1( 4i$e Di2 I!o1( 1%tDo!it5 1( (i"B!etio ADiBD tDe Co%!t A1"
Io%( to !e"'eBt. He 21(e !eEe!eBe to tDe (eBi"io i !ansang -. 8arcia I%t !e1( it 1" i eEEeBt %'Do3(i4 tDe
L'o3itiB13 O%e"tioM 'o"itio. Fe!1(eJ, i 1 "e'1!1te o'iio, 13"o 1!4%e( !ansang, e$e %(e!"too( 1" 4i$i4 1
1!!oA "Bo'e oE !e$ieA 1%tDo!it5 to tDe Co%!t, 1EEi!2e( tDe i2'o""iI3e t1"H oE RBDeBHi4K tDe 1Btio t1He I5 tDe
P!e"i(et. HeBe, De 1($oB1te( 1 !et%! to Barcelon -. Ba#er. Si2i31!35, E"4%e!!1 1($oB1te( tDe 1I1(o2et
oE !ansang 1( 1 !et%! to Barcelon. A(, 13tDo%4D J%"tiBe" C1"t!o, Fe!1(o, M%QoJ# P1321, 1(, i2'3iBit35,
TeeD1Hee, 3ie( %' o tDe "i(e oE C%"tiBi1Ii3it5 1" e%Bi1te( i !ansang, ) ) ) B1!!e(o, DoAe$e!, A1te( to D1$e
tDe Ie"t oE IotD Ao!3(" 1( o'te( Eo! tDe $ieA tD1t L'o3itiB13 O%e"tio" 1!e ot per se Ie5o( tDe Co%!tK"
C%!i"(iBtio ... I%t tD1t 1" 1 21tte! oE 'o3iB5 i2'3iBit i tDe Co"tit%tio it"e3E tDe Co%!t "Do%3( 1I"t1i E!o2 ite!Ee!i4
AitD tDe E)eB%ti$eK" P!oB3121tio.M =Be!1", 2he :>?; Constitution of the =epublic of the PhilippinesL A
Commentary, *--. E(itio, '. +-8.>
See Se'1!1te O'iio oE J. P%o i ntegrated Bar of the Philippines -. Eamora, supra.
CruD, PDi3i''ie Po3itiB13 L1A, 6776 E(., '. 68+.
0antiago -. 8uingona, J!., G.R. No. *,8:++, No$e2Ie! *9, *--9, 6-9 SCRA +:..
0upra, 89*#896.
S2itD 1( Cotte!, Powers of the President during Crises, *-+6, '. ..
2he 0ocial Contract =NeA Yo!H/ D%tto, *-:7>, ''. *6,#*68.
S2itD 1( Cotte!, Powers of the President during Crises, *-+6, ''. .#+.
=epresentati-e 8o-ernment, NeA Yo!H, D%tto, *-:7, ''. 6+8, 6++#+9.
2he &iscourses, BH. *, CD. &&&IV.
S2itD 1( Cotte!, Powers of the President &uring Crises, *-+6. '. 9.
See 2he Problem of Constitutional &ictatorship, '. ,69.
bid., '. ,:,.
bid., ''. ,,9#,8*.
S2itD 1( Cotte!, Powers of the President &uring Crises, *-+6, '. -.
Constitutional 8o-ernment and &emocracy, CD. &&VI, !e$. e(., Bo"to/ Gi X Co., *-8-, '. :97.
bid, ''. :+8#:98.
0mith and Cotter, PoAe!" oE tDe P!e"i(et D%!i4 C!i"e", *-+6, '. *7.
=ossiter, Co"tit%tio13 DiBt1to!"Di', P!iBeto/ P!iBeto Ui$e!"it5 P!e"", *-89, ''. 6-9#,7..
0mith and Cotter, Powers of the President &uring Crises, *-+6, '. **.
S2itD 1( Cotte!, Powers of the President &uring Crises, *-+6, '. *6.
Yo%4"toA SDeet 1( T%Ie Co. $. S1A5e!, ,8, U.S. :+-@ +6 S%'. Ct. 9.,@ -. L. E(. **:, =*-:6>, See
CoB%!!i4 O'iio J. J1BH"o.

See CoB%!!i4 O'iio oE J%"tiBe Me(oJ1 i Estrada -. 0andiganbayan, G.R. No. *89:.7, No$e2Ie! *-,
677*, ,.- SCRA ,-,.

89* U.S. +,-, -: L. E(. 6( .-+ =*-9+>.


See CoB%!!i4 O'iio oE J%"tiBe Me(oJ1 i Estrada -. 0andiganbayan, supra.

Broadric# -. "#lahoma, 8*, U.S. .7* =*-+,>.

87* U.S. ,+, :6#:,, 6+ L.E(.6( ..-, .97 =*-+*>, 5nited 0tates -. =aines, ,.6 U.S. *+, 8 L.E(.6( :68
=*-.7>@ Board of 2rustees, 0tate 5ni-. of N.G -. (o<, 8-6 U.S. 8.-, *7. L.E(.6( ,99 =*-9->.

Ermita'$alate Hotel and $otel "perators Association -. City $ayor, No. L#68.-,, J%35 ,*, *-.+, 67
SCRA 98- =*-.+>.
G.R. No. *:-79:, FeI!%1!5 ,, 6778, 86* SCRA .:., ADe!ei tDi" Co%!t "%"t1ie( P!e"i(et A!!o5oK"
(eB31!1tio oE 1 L"t1te oE !eIe33ioM '%!"%1t to De! B133i4#o%t 'oAe!.


Cestel Cilloughby, Co"tit%tio13 L1A oE tDe Uite( St1te" *:-* F6( E(. *-6-, O%ote( i A1uino -. Ponce
Enrile, :- SCRA *9, =*-+8>, =Fe!1(o, J., BoB%!!i4>G.

Reti!e( A""oBi1te J%"tiBe oE tDe S%'!e2e Co%!t.

SeBtio *, A!tiB3e VII oE tDe Co"tit%tio.

SeBtio :, A!tiB3e VII oE tDe Co"tit%tio.

SeBtio *9, A!tiB3e VII oE tDe Co"tit%tio.

SeBtio ., A!tiB3e &VI oE tDe Co"tit%tio.

See Re'%I3iB ABt No. .-+:.

I!oiB1335, e$e tDe +
?De!e1" C31%"e oE PP *7*+ ADiBD "t1te" tD1t LArticle ), 0ection * of our
Constitution ma/es t#e deense and preser-ation o the democratic institutions and the State the primary
duty of 8o-ernment.!e'3iB1te" 2o!e B3o"e35 SeBtio 6, A!tiB3e 6 oE tDe *-+, Co"tit%tio tD1 SeBtio 8,
A!tiB3e 6 oE tDe *-9+ Co"tit%tio ADiBD '!o$i(e" tD1t, LFtFDe '!i2e (%t5 oE tDe Go$e!2et i" to serve and
protect the people.M

A4'13o, 0tatutory Construction, (ourth Edition, *--9, '. *, Biti4 !egaspi -. $inistry of (inance, **: SCRA
8*9 =*-96>@ 8arcia'Padilla -. Ponce'Enrile, supra. A1uino -. Commission on Election, supra.
SeBtio *+, A!tiB3e &IV oE tDe *-+, Co"tit%tio !e1("/ LI ti2e" oE 1tio13 e2e!4eB5 ADe tDe '%I3iB
ite!e"t "o !eO%i!e", tDe St1te 215 te2'o!1!i35 t1He o$e! o! (i!eBt tDe o'e!1tio oE 15 '!i$1te35 oAe( '%I3iB
%ti3it5 o! I%"ie"" 1EEeBte( AitD '%I3iB ite!e"t.M

Atie1%, Co"tit%tio13 Co"t!%Btio, *-96, '.6*.

C!%J, PDi3i''ie Po3itiB13 L1A, *--9, '. -8.

,8, U.S. :+-@ +6 S%'. Ct. 9.,@ -. L. E(. **:, =*-:6>.

T!e"o3ii, American Constitutional !aw, *-:-, PoAe! oE tDe P!e"i(et, ''. 6::#6:+.
S2itD 1( Cotte!, Powers of the President &uring Crises, *-+6, '. *8

TDe Fe(e!13 Emergency =elief Act of :>MM o'ee( AitD 1 (eB31!1tio tD1t tDe economic depression B!e1te( 1 "e!io%"
e2e!4eB5, (%e to Ai(e#"'!e1( %e2'3o52et 1( tDe i1(eO%1B5 oE St1te 1( 3oB13 !e3ieE E%(", . . . 21Hi4 it i2'e!1ti$e
tD1t tDe Fe(e!13 Go$e!2et Boo'e!1te 2o!e eEEeBti$e35 AitD tDe "e$e!13 St1te" 1( Te!!ito!ie" 1( tDe Di"t!iBt oE Co3%2Ii1
i E%!i"Di4 !e3ieE to tDei! ee(5 1( (i"t!e""e( 'eo'3e. P!e"i(et Roo"e$e3t i (eB31!i4 1 I1H Do3i(15 1 EeA (15" 1Ete!
t1Hi4 oEEiBe i *-,, '!oB31i2e( tD1t LDe1$5 1( %A1!!1te( AitD(!1A13" oE 4o3( 1( B%!!eB5 E!o2 S I1Hi4
i"tit%tio" Eo! tDe '%!'o"e oE Do1!(i4@ ... !e"%3ti4 i L"e$e! (!1i" o tDe N1tioK" "toBH" oE 4o3( S D1$e B!e1te( 1
1tio13 e2e!4eB5,M !eO%i!i4 Di" 1Btio. E1Bte( AitDi 2otD" 1Ete! J1'1K" 1tt1BH o Pe1!3 H1!Io!, tDe Emergency
Price Control Act of :>*) A1" (e"i4e( to '!e$et economic dislocations E!o2 e(14e!i4 tDe 1tio13 (eEe"e 1(
"eB%!it5 1( tDe eEEeBti$e '!o"eB%tio oE tDe A1!. =S2itD 1( Cotte!, Powers of the President &uring Crises, *-+6, '.*9>

TDe Emergency Appropriation Act for (iscal :>M9 1''!o'!i1te( E%( to 2eet tDe e2e!4eB5 1( eBe""it5 Eo! !e3ieE i
"t!iBHe 14!iB%3t%!13 1!e1" 1( i 1otDe! "eBtio !eEe!!e( to Lthe present drought emergency.M
2he ndia Emergency
(ood Aid Act of :>9: '!o$i(e( Eo! e2e!4eB5 "Di'2et" oE Eoo( to I(i1 to 2eet E12ie Bo(itio" tDe !1$14i4 tDe 4!e1t
A"i1 "%I#Botiet. TDe Communication Act of :>M* 1( it" *-:* 12e(2et 4!1t tDe P!e"i(et Be!t1i 'oAe!" i ti2e oE
L'%I3iB 'e!i3 o! (i"1"te!.M TDe otDe! "t1t%te" '!o$i(e Eo! e)i"ti4 o! 1tiBi'1te( e2e!4eBie" 1tt!iI%t1I3e to e1!tDO%1He,
E3oo(, to!1(o, B5B3oe, D%!!iB1e, BoE314!1tio 1 31("3i(e".
TDe!e i" 13"o 1 Joit Re"o3%tio oE A'!i3 *-,+. It 21(e
LE%(" 1$1i31I3e Eo! tDe Bot!o3 oE iBi'iet o! e2e!4eB5 o%tI!e1H" oE i"eBt 'e"t" o! '31t (i"e1"e", iB3%(i4 4!1""Do''e!",
Mo!2o B!iBHet", 1( BDiBD I%4". =.. St1t ,*:, J%35 *, *-:6, SeB. 6 F1G> 0upra.

N1tio13 SeB%!it5 215 Ie B1t13o4e( %(e! tDe De1(" oE ;)< Ne%t!13it5, ;+< DeEe"e, ;8< Ci$i3 DeEe"e, 1( ;=< Ho"ti3itie" o!
?1!. ='. 66> 2he (ederal Ci-il &efense Act of :>9+ Bote2'31te( 1 1tt1BH o! "e!ie" oE 1tt1BH" I5 1 ee25 oE tDe Uite(
St1te" ADiBD BoBei$1I35 Ao%3( B1%"e "%I"t1ti13 (1214e o! iC%!5 to Bi$i3i1 '!o'e!t5 o! 'e!"o" i tDe Uite( St1te" I5
15 oe oE "e$e!13 2e1"@ "1Iot14e, tDe %"e oE Io2I", "De33Ei!e, o! 1to2iB, !1(io3o4iB13, BDe2iB13, I1Bte!io3o4iB13 2e1" o!
otDe! Ae1'o" o! '!oBe""e". S%BD 1 oBB%!!eBe Ao%3( B1%"e 1 LN1tio13 E2e!4eB5 Eo! Ci$i3 DeEe"e P%!'o"e",M o! L1
"t1te oE Bi$i3 (eEe"e e2e!4eB5,M (%!i4 tDe te!2 ADiBD tDe Ci$i3 DeEe"e A(2ii"t!1to! Ao%3( D1$e !eBo%!"e to
e)t!1o!(i1!5 'oAe!" o%t3ie( i tDe ABt. TDe New Gor#'New Jersey Ci-il &efense Compact "%''3ie" 1 i33%"t!1tio i tDi"
Bote)t Eo! e2e!4eB5 Boo'e!1tio. LE2e!4eB5M 1" %"e( i tDi" Bo2'1Bt "D133 2e1 1( iB3%(e invasion, o! otDe! hostile
action, disaster, insurrection o!imminent danger tDe!eoE. = d., '.*:#*.>

CruD, PDi3i''ie Po3itiB13 L1A, *--9, '. -:.

ReBo!( oE tDe Co"tit%tio13 Co22i""io, Vo3. III, ''. 6..#6.+.

ReBo!( oE tDe Co"tit%tio13 Co$etio, ''. .89#.8-.

98 PDi3. ,.9 =*-8->.
5ren - Bagley, **9 O! ++, 68: P *7+8, 8. ALR **+,.
8utierreD -. $iddle =io 8rande Conser-ancy &ist., ,8 NM ,8., 696 P *, +7 ALR *6.*, Be!t (e 697 US .*7,
+8 L e( .:,, :7 S Ct *:9.
0anitation &ist. B. Campbell I4yJ, 68- S? 6( +.+@ =ochester -. 8utberlett, 6** NY ,7-, *7: NE :89.
Hammond Pac#ing Co. -. Ar#ansas, 6*6 US ,66, :, L e( :,7, 6- S Ct ,+7.
De Leo 1( De Leo J!., A(2ii"t!1ti$e L1A, Te)t 1( C1"e", 677* E(., '. **:.
I 1 LeBt%!e (e3i$e!e( o M1!BD *6, 6776 1" '1!t oE tDe S%'!e2e Co%!t Cete1!5 LeBt%!e Se!ie", H1"
;oeBD3e!, P!oEe""o! oE PDi3o"o'D5 1t tDe Ui$e!"it5 oE I"I!%BH =A%"t!i1> 1( P!e"i(et oE tDe Ite!1tio13
P!o4!e"" O!41iJ1tio, "'e1Hi4 o LTDe Uite( N1tio", TDe Ite!1tio13 R%3e oE L1A 1( Te!!o!i"2M Bite(
i tDe Di""eti4 O'iio oE J%"tiBe ;1'%1 i !im -. E<ecuti-e 0ecretary, G.R. No. *:*88:, A'!i3 **, 6776,
,97 SCRA +,-.
SeBtio 6, A!tiB3e III oE tDe *-9+ Co"tit%tio.
Be!1", 2he :>?; Constitution of the =epublic of the Philippines, A Re$ieAe!#P!i2e!, '. :*.
Ae) LAM oE tDe Me2o!1(%2 i G.R. No. *+*,-., ''. 6+*#6+,.
A ABt E"%!i4 tDe F!ee E)e!Bi"e I5 tDe Peo'3e oE tDei! Ri4Dt Pe1Be1I35 to A""e2I3e 1( Petitio tDe
Go$e!2et Eo! OtDe! P%!'o"e".

Ae) LAM oE tDe Me2o!1(%2 i G.R. No. *+*,-., ''. 6+*#6+,.
6-- U.S. ,:,, :+ S. Ct. 6::, 9* L. E(. 6+9.

=eyes -. Bagatsing, No. L#.:,.., No$e2Ie! -, *-9,, *6: SCRA ::,.

(ection 7- Application re1uirements # A33 1''3iB1tio" Eo! 1 'e!2it "D133 Bo2'35 AitD tDe Eo33oAi4 4%i(e3ie"/

x x x x x x
=B> IE tDe 215o! i" oE tDe $ieA tD1t tDe!e i" i22iet 1( 4!1$e (14e! oE 1 "%I"t1ti$e e$i3
A1!!1ti4 tDe denial o! modification oE tDe 'e!2it, De "D133 i22e(i1te35 iEo!2 tDe 1''3iB1t
ADo 2%"t Ie De1!( o tDe 21tte!.
Petitio i G.R. No. *+*877, '. **.
No. L#.8*.*, DeBe2Ie! 6., *-98, *,, SCRA 9*..

Di""eti4 O'iio, J. C!%J, National Press Club -. Commission on Elections, G.R. No". *76.:,, *76-6: X
*76-9,, M1!BD :, *--6, 67+ SCRA *.

Boyd -. 5nited 0tates, **. U.S. .*. =*99.>.
T!1"B!i't oE Steo4!1'DiB Note", O!13 A!4%2et", M1!BD +, 677., '. 8+7.
bid., ''. 8,6#8,,.

bid, ''. :7+#:79.
S2itD 1( Cotte!, PoAe!" oE tDe P!e"i(et D%!i4 C!i"i", *-+6, '. *8..