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Ynglinga Saga

Snorri Sturluson
==Of the Situation of Countries==
It is said that the earth's circle which the human race inhabits is torn across into many bights, so
that great seas run into the land from the out-ocean. Thus it is nown that a great sea goes in at
!ar"esund, and u# to the land of $erusalem. %rom the same sea a long sea-bight stretches
towards the north-east, and is called the &lac Sea, and di"ides the three #arts of the earth' of
which the eastern #art is called (sia, and the western is called by some )uro#a, by some )nea.
!orthward of the &lac Sea lies Swithiod the *reat, or the Cold. The *reat Swithiod is reconed
by some as not less than the *reat Serland' others com#are it to the *reat &lueland. The
northern #art of Swithiod lies uninhabited on account of frost and cold, as liewise the southern
#arts of &lueland are waste from the burning of the sun. In Swithiod are many great domains,
and many races of men, and many inds of languages. There are giants, and there are dwarfs,
and there are also blue men, and there are any inds of stranger creatures. There are huge wild
beasts, and dreadful dragons. On the south side of the mountains which lie outside of all
inhabited lands runs a ri"er through Swithiod, which is #ro#erly called by the name of Tanais, but
was formerly called Tana+uisl, or ,ana+uisl, and which falls into the &lac Sea. The country of
the #eo#le on the ,ana+uisl was called ,analand, or ,anaheim' and the ri"er se#arates the three
#arts of the world, of which the eastermost #art is called (sia, and the westermost )uro#e.
===)ndnotes-===
./0 The Straits of *ibraltar.
.10 !orthern (frica.
.20 Saharan and sub-Saharan (frica.
==Of the 3eo#le of (sia.==
The country east of the Tana+uisl in (sia was called (saland, or (saheim, and the chief city in
that land was called (sgaard. In that city was a chief called Odin, and it was a great #lace for
sacrifice. It was the custom there that twel"e tem#le #riests should both direct the sacrifices, and
also 4udge the #eo#le. They were called 5iar, or 5rotner, and all the #eo#le ser"ed and obeyed
them. Odin was a great and "ery far-tra"elled warrior, who con+uered many ingdoms, and so
successful was he that in e"ery battle the "ictory was on his side. It was the belief of his #eo#le
that "ictory belonged to him in e"ery battle. It was his custom when he sent his men into battle,
or on any e6#edition, that he first laid his hand u#on their heads, and called down a blessing u#on
them' and then they belie"ed their undertaing would be successful. 7is #eo#le also were
accustomed, whene"er they fell into danger by land or sea, to call u#on his name' and they
thought that always they got comfort and aid by it, for where he was they thought hel# was near.
Often he went away so far that he #assed many seasons on his 4ourneys.
==Of Odin's &rothers.==
Odin had two brothers, the one called ,e, the other ,il4e, and they go"erned the ingdom when he
was absent. It ha##ened once when Odin had gone to a great distance, and had been so long
away that the #eo#le Of (sia doubted if he would e"er return home, that his two brothers too it
u#on themsel"es to di"ide his estate' but both of them too his wife %rigg to themsel"es. Odin
soon after returned home, and too his wife bac.
==Of Odin's 8ar 8ith the 3eo#le of ,analand.==
Odin went out with a great army against the ,analand #eo#le' but they were well #re#ared, and
defended their land' so that "ictory was changeable, and they ra"aged the lands of each other, and
did great damage. They tired of this at last, and on both sides a##ointed a meeting for
establishing #eace, made a truce, and e6changed hostages. The ,analand #eo#le sent their best
men, !4ord the 9ich, and his son %rey. The #eo#le of (saland sent a man called 7one, whom
they thought well suited to be a chief, as he was a stout and "ery handsome man' and with him
they sent a man of great understanding called :ime. On the other side, the ,analand #eo#le sent
the wisest man in their community, who was called ;"ase. !ow, when 7one came to ,anaheim
he was immediately made a chief, and :ime came to him with good counsel on all occasions.
&ut when 7one stood in the Things or other meetings, if :ime was not near him, and any
difficult matter was laid before him, he always answered in one way -- <!ow let others gi"e their
ad"ice<' so that the ,analand #eo#le got a sus#icion that the (saland #eo#le had decei"ed them
in the e6change of men. They too :ime, therefore, and beheaded him, and sent his head to the
(saland #eo#le. Odin too the head, smeared it with herbs so that it should not rot, and sang
incantations o"er it. Thereby he ga"e it the #ower that it s#oe to him, and disco"ered to him
many secrets. Odin #laced !4ord and %rey as #riests of the sacrifices, and they became 5iar of
the (saland #eo#le. !4ord's daughter %reya was #riestess of the sacrifices, and first taught the
(saland #eo#le the magic art, as it was in use and fashion among the ,analand #eo#le. 8hile
!4ord was with the ,analand #eo#le he had taen his own sister in marriage, for that was allowed
by their law' and their children were %rey and %reya. &ut among the (saland #eo#le it was
forbidden to intermarry with such near relations.
==Odin 5i"ides 7is ;ingdom- (lso Concerning *efion.==
There goes a great mountain barrier from north-east to south-west, which di"ides the *reater
Swithiod from other ingdoms. South of this mountain ridge it is not far to Turland, where Odin
had great #ossessions. In those times the 9oman chiefs went wide around in the world, subduing
to themsel"es all #eo#le' and on this account many chiefs fled from their domains. &ut Odin
ha"ing forenowledge, and magic-sight, new that his #osterity would come to settle and dwell in
the northern half of the world. 7e therefore set his brothers ,e and ,il4e o"er (sgaard' and he
himself, with all the gods and a great many other #eo#le, wandered out, first westward to
*ardarie, and then south to Sa6land. 7e had many sons' and after ha"ing subdued an e6tensi"e
ingdom in Sa6land, he set his sons to rule the country. 7e himself went northwards to the sea,
and too u# his abode in an island which is called Odins in %yen. Then he sent *efion across the
sound to the north to disco"er new countries' and she came to ;ing *yl"e, who ga"e her a
#loughgate of land. Then she went to $otunheim, and bore four sons to a giant, and transformed
them into a yoe of o6en. She yoed them to a #lough, and broe out the land into the ocean
right o##osite to Odins. This land was called Sealand, and there she afterwards settled and dwelt.
S4old, a son of Odin, married her, and they dwelt at =eidre. 8here the #loughed land was is a
lae or sea called =aage. In the Swedish land the f4ords of =aage corres#ond to the nesses in
Sealand. &rage the Old sings thus of it- --
-<*efion from *yl"e dro"e away,
-To add new land to 5enmar's sway --
-&lythe *efion #loughing in the smoe
-That steamed u# from her o6en-yoe-
-%our heads, eight forehead stars had they,
-&right gleaming, as she #loughed away'
-5ragging new lands from the dee# main
-To 4oin them to the sweet isle's #lain.
!ow when Odin heard that things were in a #ros#erous condition in the land to the east beside
*yl"e' he went thither, and *yl"e made a #eace with him, for *yl"e thought he had no strength to
o##ose the #eo#le of (saland. Odin and *yl"e had many trics and enchantments against each
other' but the (saland #eo#le had always the su#eriority. Odin too u# his residence at the
:aelare lae, at the #lace now called Old Sigtun. There he erected a large tem#le, where there
were sacrifices according to the customs of the (saland #eo#le. 7e a##ro#riated to himself the
whole of that district, and called it Sigtun. To the tem#le #riests he ga"e also domains. !4ord
dwelt in !oatun, %rey in >#sal, 7eimdal in the 7iminbergs, Thor in Thrud"ang, &alder in
&reidabli' to all of them he ga"e good estates.
==Of Odin's (ccom#lishments.==
8hen Odin of (saland came to the north, and the 5iar with him, they introduced and taught to
others the arts which the #eo#le long afterwards ha"e #ractised. Odin was the cle"erest of all, and
from him all the others learned their arts and accom#lishments' and he new them first, and new
many more than other #eo#le. &ut now, to tell why he is held in such high res#ect, we must
mention "arious causes that contributed to it. 8hen sitting among his friends his countenance
was so beautiful and dignified, that the s#irits of all were e6hilarated by it, but when he was in war
he a##eared dreadful to his foes. This arose from his being able to change his sin and form in
any way he lied. (nother cause was, that he con"ersed so cle"erly and smoothly, that all who
heard belie"ed him. 7e s#oe e"erything in rhyme, such as now com#osed, which we call scald-
craft. 7e and his tem#le #riests were called song-smiths, for from them came that art of song
into the northern countries. Odin could mae his enemies in battle blind, or deaf, or terror-
struc, and their wea#ons so blunt that they could no more but than a willow wand' on the other
hand, his men rushed forwards without armour, were as mad as dogs or wol"es, bit their shields,
and were strong as bears or wild bulls, and illed #eo#le at a blow, but neither fire nor iron told
u#on themsel"es. These were called &erserer.
==Of Odin's %eats.==
Odin could transform his sha#e- his body would lie as if dead, or aslee#' but then he would be in
sha#e of a fish, or worm, or bird, or beast, and be off in a twinling to distant lands u#on his own
or other #eo#le's business. 8ith words alone he could +uench fire, still the ocean in tem#est, and
turn the wind to any +uarter he #leased. Odin had a shi# which was called Sidbladnir, in which
he sailed o"er wide seas, and which he could roll u# lie a cloth. Odin carried with him :ime's
head, which told him all the news of other countries. Sometimes e"en he called the dead out of
the earth, or set himself beside the burial-mounds' whence he was called the ghost-so"ereign, and
lord of the mounds. 7e had two ra"ens, to whom he had taught the s#eech of man' and they flew
far and wide through the land, and brought him the news. In all such things he was #re-
eminently wise. 7e taught all these arts in 9unes, and songs which are called incantations, and
therefore the (saland #eo#le are called incantation-smiths. Odin understood also the art in which
the greatest #ower is lodged, and which he himself #ractised' namely, what is called magic. &y
means of this he could now beforehand the #redestined fate of men, or their not yet com#leted
lot' and also bring on the death, ill-luc, or bad health of #eo#le, and tae the strength or wit from
one #erson and gi"e it to another. &ut after such witchcraft followed such weaness and an6iety,
that it was not thought res#ectable for men to #ractise it' and therefore the #riestesses were
brought u# in this art. Odin new finely where all missing cattle were concealed under the earth,
and understood the songs by which the earth, the hills, the stones, and mounds were o#ened to
him' and he bound those who dwell in them by the #ower of his word, and went in and too what
he #leased. %rom these arts he became "ery celebrated. 7is enemies dreaded him' his friends #ut
their trust in him, and relied on his #ower and on himself. 7e taught the most of his arts to his
#riests of the sacrifices, and they came nearest to himself in all wisdom and witch-nowledge.
:any others, howe"er, occu#ied themsel"es much with it' and from that time witchcraft s#read far
and wide, and continued long. 3eo#le sacrificed to Odin and the twel"e chiefs from (saland, and
called them their gods, and belie"ed in them long after. %rom Odin's name came the name
(udun, which #eo#le ga"e to his sons' and from Thor's name comes Thore, also Thorarinn' and
also it is sometimes com#ounded with other names, as Steenthor, or 7a"thor, or e"en altered in
other ways.
==Odin's =awgi"ing.==
Odin established the same law in his land that had been in force in (saland. Thus he established
by law that all dead men should be burned, and their belongings laid with them u#on the #ile, and
the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth. Thus, said he, e"ery one will come to ,alhalla
with the riches he had with him u#on the #ile' and he would also en4oy whate"er he himself had
buried in the earth. %or men of conse+uence a mound should be raised to their memory, and for
all other warriors who had been distinguished for manhood a standing stone' which custom
remained long after Odin's time. On winter day there should be blood-sacrifice for a good year,
and in the middle of winter for a good cro#' and the third sacrifice should be on summer day, for
"ictory in battle. O"er all Swithiod the #eo#le #aid Odin a scatt or ta6 -- so much on each head'
but he had to defend the country from enemy or disturbance, and #ay the e6#ense of the sacrifice
feasts for a good year.
==Of !4ord's :arriage.==
!4ord too a wife called Sade' but she would not li"e with him and married afterwards Odin, and
had many sons by him, of whom one was called Saeming' and about him )y"ind Saldas#iller
sings thus- --
-<To (sa's son ?ueen Sade bore
-Saeming, who dyed his shield in gore, --
-The giant-+ueen of roc and snow,
-8ho lo"es to dwell on earth below,
-The iron #ine-tree's daughter, she
-S#rung from the rocs that rib the sea,
-To Odin bore full many a son,
-7eroes of many a battle won.<
To Saeming )arl 7aon the *reat reconed bac his #edigree. This Swithiod they called
:annheim, but the *reat Swithiod they called *odheim' and of *odheim great wonders and
no"elties were related.
==Of Odin's 5eath.==
Odin died in his bed in Swithiod' and when he was near his death he made himself be mared
with the #oint of a s#ear, and said he was going to *odheim, and would gi"e a welcome there to
all his friends, and all bra"e warriors should be dedicated to him' and the Swedes belie"ed that he
was gone to the ancient (sgaard, and would li"e there eternally. Then began the belief in Odin,
and the calling u#on him. The Swedes belie"ed that he often showed to them before any great
battle. To some he ga"e "ictory' others he in"ited to himself' and they reconed both of these to
be fortunate. Odin was burnt, and at his #ile there was great s#lendour. It was their faith that the
higher the smoe arose in the air, the higher he would be raised whose #ile it was' and the richer
he would be, the more #ro#erty that was consumed with him.
==Of !4ord.==
!4ord of !oatun was then the sole so"ereign of the Swedes' and he continued the sacrifices, and
was called the drot or so"ereign by the Swedes, and he recei"ed scatt and gifts from them. In his
days were #eace and #lenty, and such good years, in all res#ects, that the Swedes belie"ed !4ord
ruled o"er the growth of seasons and the #ros#erity of the #eo#le. In his time all the diar or gods
died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them. !4ord died on a bed of sicness, and before he
died made himself be mared for Odin with the s#ear-#oint. The Swedes burned him, and all
we#t o"er his gra"e-mound.
==%rey's 5eath.==
%rey too the ingdom after !4ord, and was called drot by the Swedes, and they #aid ta6es to him.
7e was, lie his father, fortunate in friends and in good seasons. %rey built a great tem#le at
>#sal, made it his chief seat, and ga"e it all his ta6es, his land, and goods. Then began the >#sal
domains, which ha"e remained e"er since. Then began in his days the %rode-#eace' and then
there were good seasons, in all the land, which the Swedes ascribed to %rey, so that he was more
worshi##ed than the other gods, as the #eo#le became much richer in his days by reason of the
#eace and good seasons. 7is wife was called *erd, daughter of *ymis, and their son was called
%4olne. %rey was called by another name, Yng"e' and this name Yng"e was considered long after
in his race as a name of honour, so that his descendants ha"e since been called Ynglinger. %rey
fell into a sicness' and as his illness too the u##er hand, his men too the #lan of letting few
a##roach him. In the meantime they raised a great mound, in which they #laced a door with
three holes in it. !ow when %rey died they bore him secretly into the mound, but told the Swedes
he was ali"e' and they e#t watch o"er him for three years. They brought all the ta6es into the
mound, and through the one hole they #ut in the gold, through the other the sil"er, and through
the third the co##er money that was #aid. 3eace and good seasons continued.
==Of %reya and 7er 5aughters.==
%reya alone remained of the gods, and she became on this account so celebrated that all women
of distinction were called by her name, whence they now ha"e the title %rue' so that e"ery woman
is called frue, or mistress o"er her #ro#erty, and the wife is called the house-frue. %reya continued
the blood-sacrifices. %reya had also many other names. 7er husband was called Oder, and her
daughters 7noss and *erseme. They were so "ery beautiful, that afterwards the most #recious
4ewels were called by their names.
8hen it became nown to the Swedes that %rey was dead, and yet #eace and good seasons
continued, they belie"ed that it must be so as long as %rey remained in Sweden' and therefore they
would not burn his remains, but called him the god of this world, and afterwards offered
continually blood-sacrifices to him, #rinci#ally for #eace and good seasons.
==Of ;ing %4olne's 5eath.==
%4olne, Yng"e %rey's son, ruled thereafter o"er the Swedes and the >#sal domains. 7e was
#owerful, and lucy in seasons and in holding the #eace. %redfrode ruled then in =eidre, and
between them there was great friendshi# and "isiting. Once when %4olne went to %rode in
Sealand, a great feast was #re#ared for him, and in"itations to it were sent all o"er the country.
%rode had a large house, in which there was a great "essel many ells high, and #ut together of
great #ieces of timber' and this "essel stood in a lower room. (bo"e it was a loft, in the floor of
which was an o#ening through which li+uor was #oured into this "essel. The "essel was full of
mead, which was e6cessi"ely strong. In the e"ening %4olne, with his attendants, was taen into the
ad4oining loft to slee#. In the night he went out to the gallery to see a certain #lace, and he was
"ery slee#y and e6ceedingly drun. (s he came bac to his room he went along the gallery to the
door of another left, went into it, and his foot sli##ing, he fell into the "essel of mead and was
drowned. So says Th4odolf of ;"ine- --
-<In %rode's hall the fearful word,
-The death-foreboding sound was heard-
-The cry of fey denouncing doom,
-8as heard at night in %rode's home.
-(nd when bra"e %rode came, he found
-Swithiod's dar chief, %4olne, drowned.
-In %rode's mansion drowned was he,
-5rowned in a wa"eless, windless sea.<
==Of Swegde.==
Swegde too the ingdom after his father, and he made a solemn "ow to see *odheim and Odin.
7e went with twel"e men through the world, and came to Turland, and the *reat S"ithiod, where
he found many of his connections. 7e was fi"e years on this 4ourney' and when he returned home
to Sweden he remained there for some time. 7e had got a wife in ,anheim, who was called ,ana,
and their son was ,anlande. Swegde went out afterwards to see again for *odheim, and came to
a mansion on the east side of Swithiod called Stein, where there was a stone as big as a large
house. In the e"ening after sunset, as Swegde was going from the drining-table to his slee#ing-
room, he cast his eye u#on the stone, and saw that a dwarf was sitting under it. Swegde and his
man were "ery drun, and they ran towards the stone. The dwarf stood in the door, and called to
Swegde, and told him to come in, and he should see Odin. Swegde ran into the stone, which
instantly closed behind him, and Swegde ne"er came bac. Thiodolf of ;"ine tells of this- --
-<&y 5iurnir's elfin race,
-8ho haunt the cliffs and shun day's face,
-The "aliant Swegde was decei"ed,
-The elf's false words the ing belie"ed.
-The dauntless hero rushing on,
-3assed through the yawning mouth of stone-
-It yawned -- it shut -- the hero fell,
-In Saemime's hall, where giants dwell.<
==Of ,anlande, Swegde's Son.==
,anlande, Swegde's son, succeeded his father, and ruled o"er the >#sal domain. 7e was a great
warrior, and went far around in different lands. Once he too u# his winter abode in %inland with
Snae the Old, and got his daughter 5ri"a in marriage' but in s#ring he set out lea"ing 5ri"a
behind, and although he had #romised to return within three years he did not come bac for ten.
Then 5ri"a sent a message to the witch 7uld' and sent ,isbur, her son by ,anlande, to Sweden.
5ri"a bribed the witch-wife 7uld, either that she should bewitch ,anlande to return to %inland, or
ill him. 8hen this witch-wor was going on ,anlande was at >#sal, and a great desire came o"er
him to go to %inland' but his friends and counsellors ad"ised him against it, and said the
witchcraft of the %inn #eo#le showed itself in this desire of his to go there. 7e then became "ery
drowsy, and laid himself down to slee#' but when he had sle#t but a little while he cried out,
saying that the :ara was treading u#on him. 7is men hastened to him to hel# him' but when
they too hold of his head she trod on his legs, and when they laid hold of his legs she #ressed
u#on his head' and it was his death. The Swedes too his body and burnt it at a ri"er called
Sytaa, where a standing stone was raised o"er him. Thus says Th4odolf- --
-<(nd ,anlande, in a fatal hour,
-8as dragg'd by *rimhild's daughter's #ower,
-The witch-wife's, to the dwelling-#lace
-8here men meet Odin face to face.
-Tram#led to death, to Sytaa's shore
-The cor#se his faithful followers bore'
-(nd there they burnt, with hea"y hearts,
-The good chief illed by witchcraft's arts.
==Of ,isbur, ,anlande's Son.==
,isbur succeeded his father ,anlande. 7e married the daughter of (ude the 9ich, and ga"e her
as her bride-gift three large farms, and a gold ornament. They had two sons, *isle and Ond' but
,isbur left her and too another wife, whereu#on she went home to her father with her two sons.
,isbur had a son who was called 5omald, and his ste#mother used witchcraft to gi"e him ill-luc.
!ow, when ,isbur's sons were the one twel"e and the other thirteen years of age, they went to
their father's #lace, and desired to ha"e their mother's dower' but he would not deli"er it to them.
Then they said that the gold ornament should be the death of the best man in all his race, and
they returned home. Then they began again with enchantments and witchcraft, to try if they
could destroy their father. The sorceress 7uld said that by witchcraft she could bring it about by
this means, that a murderer of his own in should ne"er be wanting in the Yngling race' and they
agreed to ha"e it so. Thereafter they collected men, came une6#ectedly in the night on ,isbur,
and burned him in his house. So sings Th4odolf- --
-<7a"e the fire-dogs' fierce tongues yelling
-=a#t ,isbur's blood on his own hearth@
-7a"e the flames consumed the dwelling
-Of the here's soul on earth@
-:adly ye acted, who set free
-The forest foe, red fire, night thief,
-%ell brother of the raging sea,
-(gainst your father and your chief.<
==Of 5omald, ,isbur's Son.==
5omald too the heritage after his father ,isbur, and ruled o"er the land. (s in his time there was
great famine and distress, the Swedes made great offerings of sacrifice at >#sal. The first
autumn they sacrificed o6en, but the succeeding season was not im#ro"ed thereby. The following
autumn they sacrificed men, but the succeeding year was rather worse. The third autumn, when
the offer of sacrifices should begin, a great multitude of Swedes came to >#sal' and now the
chiefs held consultations with each other, and all agreed that the times of scarcity were on
account of their ing 5omald, and they resol"ed to offer him for good seasons, and to assault and
ill him, and s#rinle the stalle of the gods with his blood. (nd they did so. Th4odolf tells of
this- --
-<It has ha##ened oft ere now,
-That foeman's wea#on has laid low
-The crowned head, where battle #lain,
-8as miry red with the blood-rain.
-&ut 5omald dies by bloody arms,
-9aised not by foes in war's alarms --
-9aised by his Swedish liegemen's hand,
-To bring good seasons to the land.<
==Of 5omar, 5omald's Son.==
5omald's son, called 5omar, ne6t ruled o"er the land. 7e reigned long, and in his days were
good seasons and #eace. !othing is told of him but that he died in his bed in >#sal, and was
trans#orted to the %yris"old, where his body was burned on the ri"er ban, and where his standing
stone still remains. So says Th4odolf- --
-<I ha"e ased wise men to tell
-8here 5omar rests, and they new well.
-5omar, on %yrie's wide-s#read ground,
-8as burned, and laid on Yng"e's mound.<
==Of 5yg"e, 5omar's Son.==
5yg"e was the name of his son, who succeeded him in ruling the land' and about him nothing is
said but that he died in his bed. Th4odolf tells of it thus- --
-<5yg"e the &ra"e, the mighty ing,
-It is no hidden secret thing,
-7as gone to meet a royal mate,
-9iding u#on the horse of %ate.
-%or =oe's daughter in her house
-Of Yng"e's race would ha"e a s#ouse'
-Therefore the fell-one snatched away
-&ra"e 5yg"e from the light of day.<
5yg"e's mother was 5rott, a daughter of ;ing 5an#, the son of 9ig, who was first called <ing<
in the 5anish tongue. 7is descendants always afterwards considered the title of ing the title of
highest dignity. 5yg"e was the first of his family to be called ing, for his #redecessors had been
called <5rottnar<, and their wi"es <5rottningar<, and their court <5rott<. )ach of their race was
called Yng"e, or Yngune, and the whole race together Ynglinger. The ?ueen 5rott was a sister of
;ing 5an :iillati, from whom 5enmar a too its name.
==Of 5ag The 8ise.==
;ing 5yg"e's son, called 5ag, succeeded to him, and was so wise a man that he understood the
language of birds. 7e had a s#arrow which told him much news, and flew to different countries.
Once the s#arrow flew to 9eidgotaland, to a farm called ,ar"a, where he flew into the #easant's
corn-field and too his grain. The #easant came u#, too a stone, and illed the s#arrow. ;ing
5ag was ill-#leased that the s#arrow did not come home' and as he, in a sacrifice of e6#iation,
in+uired after the s#arrow, he got the answer that it was illed at ,ar"a. Thereu#on he ordered a
great army, and went to *otland' and when he came to ,ar"a he landed with his men and
#lundered, and the #eo#le fled away before him. ;ing 5ag returned in the e"ening to his shi#s,
after ha"ing illed many #eo#le and taen many #risoners. (s they were going across a ri"er at a
#lace called S4otan's Athe 8ea#on'sB %ord, a labouring thrall came running to the ri"er-side, and
threw a hay- for into their troo#. It struc the ing on the head, so that he fell instantly from his
horse and died. In those times the chief who ra"aged a country was called *ram, and the men-at-
arms under him *ramer. Th4odolf sings of it thus- --
-<8hat news is this that the ing's men,
-%lying eastward through the glen,
-9e#ort@ That 5ag the &ra"e, whose name
-Is sounded far and wide by %ame --
-That 5ag, who new so well to wield
-The battle-a6e in bloody field,
-8here bra"e men meet, no more will head
-The bra"e -- that mighty 5ag is deadC
-<,ar"a was wasted with the sword,
-(nd "engeance taen for the bird --
-The little bird that used to bring
-!ews to the ear of the great ing.
-,ar"a was ra"aged, and the strife
-8as ended, when the monarch's life
-8as ended too -- the great 5ag fell
-&y the hay-for of a base thrallC<
==Of (gne, 5ag's Son.==
(gne was the name of 5ag's son, who was ing after him -- a #owerful and celebrated man,
e6#ert, and e6ercised in all feats. It ha##ened one summer that ;ing (gne went with his army to
%inland, and landed and marauded. The %inland #eo#le gathered a large army, and #roceeded to
the strife under a chief called %roste. There was a great battle, in which ;ing (gne gained the
"ictory, and %roste fell there with a great many of his #eo#le. ;ing (gne #roceeded with armed
hand through %inland, subdued it, and made enormous booty. 7e too %roste's daughter S4al",
and her brother =oge, and carried them along with him. 8hen he sailed from the east he came to
land at Stosund, and #ut u# his tent on the flat side of the ri"er, where then there was a wood.
;ing (gne had at the time the gold ornament which had belonged to ,isbur. 7e now married
S4al", and she begged him to mae burial feast in honour of her father. 7e in"ited a great many
guests, and made a great feast. 7e had become "ery celebrated by his e6#edition, and there was a
great drining match. !ow when ;ing (gne had got dran, S4al" bade him tae care of his gold
ornament which he had about his nec' therefore he too hold of the ornament, and bound it fast
about his nec before he went to slee#. The land-tent stood at the wood side, and a high tree o"er
the tent #rotected it against the heat of the sun. !ow when ;ing (gne was aslee#, S4al" too a
noose, and fastened it under the ornament. Thereu#on her men threw down the tent-#oles, cast
the loo# of the noose u# in the branches of the tree, and hauled u#on it, so that the ing was
hanged close under the branches and died' and S4al" with her men ran down to their shi#s, and
rowed away. ;ing (gne was buried u#on the s#ot, which was afterwards called (gnefet' and it lies
on the east side of the Tauren, and west of Stosund. Th4odolf s#eas of it thus- --
-<7ow do ye lie the high-souled maid,
-8ho, with the grim %ate-goddess' aid,
-("enged her sire@ -- made Swithiod's ing
-Through air in golden halter swing@
-7ow do ye lie her, (gne's men@
-Thin ye that any chief again
-8ill court the fate your chief befell,
-To ride on wooden horse to hell@<
==Of (lric and )ric.==
The sons of (gne were called (lric and )ric, and were ings together after him. They were
#owerful men, great warriors, and e6#ert at all feats of arms. It was their custom to ride and
brea in horses both to wal and to gallo#, which nobody understood so well as they' and they
"ied with each other who could ride best, and ee# the best horses. It ha##ened one day that both
the brothers rode out together alone, and at a distance from their followers, with their best horses,
and rode on to a field' but ne"er came bac. The #eo#le at last went out to loo after them, and
they were both found dead with their heads crushed. (s they had no wea#ons, e6ce#t it might be
their horses' bridles, #eo#le belie"ed that they had illed each other with these. So says Th4odolf-
--
-<(lric fell, by )ric slain,
-)ric's life-blood dyed the #lain,
-&rother fell by brother's hand'
-(nd they tell it in the land,
-That they wored the wiced deed
-8ith the shar# bits that guide the steed.
-Shall it be said of %rey's bra"e sons,
-The ingly race, the noble ones,
-That they ha"e fought in deadly battle
-8ith the head-gear of their cattle@<
==Of Yng"e and (lf.==
(lric's sons, Yng"e and (li, then succeeded to the ingly #ower in Sweden. Yng"e was a great
warrior, always "ictorious' handsome, e6#ert in all e6ercises, strong and "ery shar# in battle,
generous and full of mirth' so that he was both renowned and belo"ed. (lf was a silent, harsh,
unfriendly man, and sat at home in the land, and ne"er went out on war e6#editions. 7is mother
was called 5ageid, a daughter of ;ing 5ag the *reat, from whom the 5agling family is
descended. ;ing (lf had a wife named &era, who was the most agreeable of women, "ery bris
and gay. One autumn Yng"e, (lric's son, had arri"ed at >#sal from a "iing cruise by which he
was become "ery celebrated. 7e often sat long in the e"ening at the drining-table' but (lf went
willingly to bed "ery early. ?ueen &era sat often till late in the e"ening, and she and Yng"e
con"ersed together for their amusement' but (lf soon told her that she should not sit u# so late in
the e"ening, but should go first to bed, so as not to waen him. She re#lied, that ha##y would be
the woman who had Yng"e instead of (lf for her husband' and as she often re#eated the same, he
became "ery angry. One e"ening (lf went into the hall, where Yng"e and &era sat on the high
seat s#eaing to each other. Yng"e had a short sword u#on his nees, and the guests were so
drun that they did not obser"e the ing coming in. ;ing (lf went straight to the high seat, drew
a sword from under his cloa, and #ierced his brother Yng"e through and through. Yng"e lea#ed
u#, drew his short sword, and ga"e (lf his death-wound' so that both fell dead on the floor. (lf
and Yng"e were buried under mounds in %yris"old. Thus tells Th4odolf of it- --
-<I tell you of a horrid thing,
-( deed of dreadful note I sing --
-7ow by false &era, wiced +ueen,
-The murderous brother-hands were seen
-)ach raised against a brother's life'
-7ow wretched (lf with bloody nife
-*ored Yng"e's heart, and Yng"e's blade
-(lf on the bloody threshold laid.
-Can men resist %ate's iron laws@
-They slew each other without cause.<
==Of 7uglei.==
7uglei was the name of ;ing (lf's son, who succeeded the two brothers in the ingdom of the
Swedes, the sons of Yng"e being still children. ;ing 7uglei was no warrior, but sat +uietly at
home in his country. 7e was "ery rich, but had still more the re#utation of being "ery greedy. 7e
had at his court all sorts of #layers, who #layed on har#s, fiddles, and "iols' and had with him
magicians, and all sorts of witches. 7ae and 7agbard were two brothers, "ery celebrated as sea-
ings, who had a great force of men-at-arms. Sometimes they cruised in com#any, sometimes
each for himself, and many warriors followed them both. ;ing 7ae came with his troo#s to
Sweden against ;ing 7uglei, who, on his side, collected a great army to o##ose him. Two
brothers came to his assistance, S"i#dag and *eigad, both "ery celebrated men, and #owerful
combatants. ;ing 7ae had about him twel"e cham#ions, and among them Starad the Old' and
;ing 7ae himself was a murderous combatant. They met on %yris"old, and there was a great
battle, in which ;ing 7uglei's army was soon defeated. Then the combatants, S"i#dag and
*eigad, #ressed forward manfully' but 7ae's cham#ions went si6 against one, and they were
both taen #risoners. Then ;ing 7ae #enetrated within the shield-circle around ;ing 7uglei,
and illed him and two of his sons within it. (fter this the Swedes fled' and ;ing 7ae subdued
the country, and became ing of Sweden. 7e then sat +uietly at home for three years, but during
that time his combatants went abroad on "iing e6#editions, and gathered #ro#erty for
themsel"es.
==;ing *udlog's 5eath.==
$orund and )ric, the sons of Yng"e (lricsson, lay all this time in their warshi#s, and were great
warriors. One summer they marauded in 5enmar, where they met a ;ing *udlog from
7alogaland, and had a battle with him, which ended in their clearing *udlog's shi# and taing
him #risoner. They carried him to the land at Stromones, and hanged him there, and afterwards
his men raised a mound o"er him. So says )y"ind Saldas#iller- --
-<&y the fierce )ast-ings' cruel #ride,
-*udlog must on the wild horse ride --
-The wildest horse you e'er did see-
-'Tis Sigur's steed -- the gallows tree.
-(t Stromones the tree did grow,
-8here *udlog's cor#se wa"es on the bough.
-( high stone stands on Stromo's heath,
-To tell the gallant hero's death.<
==Of ;ing 7ae.==
The brothers )ric and $orund became more celebrated by this deed, and a##eared to be much
greater men than before. 8hen they heard that ;ing 7ae in Sweden had sent from him his
cham#ions, they steered towards Sweden, and gathered together a strong force. (s soon as the
Swedes heard that the Yngling brothers were come to them, they floced to them in multitudes.
The brothers #roceeded u# the :aelare lae, and ad"anced towards >#sal against ;ing 7ae,
who came out against them on the %yris"oid with far fewer #eo#le. There was a great battle, in
which ;ing 7ae went forward so bra"ely that he illed all who were nearest to him, and at last
illed ;ing )ric, and cut down the banner of the two brothers. ;ing $orund with all his men fled
to their shi#s. ;ing 7ae had been so grie"ously wounded that he saw his days could not be long'
so he ordered a warshi# which he had to be loaded with his dead men and their wea#ons, and to
be taen out to the sea' the tiller to be shi##ed, and the sails hoisted. Then he set fire to some tar-
wood, and ordered a #ile to be made o"er it in the shi#. 7ae was almost if not +uite dead, when
he was laid u#on this #ile of his. The wind was blowing off the land -- the shi# flew, burning in
clear flame, out between the islets, and into the ocean. *reat was the fame of this deed in after
times.
==$orund, Yng"e's Son.==
$orund, ;ing Yng"e's son, remained ing at >#sal. 7e ruled the country' but was often in
summer out on war e6#editions. One summer he went with his forces to 5enmar' and ha"ing
#lundered all around in $utland, he went into =ymf4ord in autumn, and marauded there also.
8hile he was thus lying in Oddesund with his #eo#le, ;ing *ylog of 7alogaland, a son of ;ing
*udlog, of whom mention is made before, came u# with a great force, and ga"e battle to $orund.
8hen the country #eo#le saw this they swarmed from all #arts towards the battle, in great shi#s
and small' and $orund was o"er#owered by the multitude, and his shi#s cleared of their men. 7e
s#rang o"erboard, but was made #risoner and carried to the land. *ylog ordered a gallows to be
erected, led $orund to it, and had him hanged there. So ended his life. Th4odolf tals of this e"ent
thus- --
-<$orund has tra"elled far and wide,
-&ut the same horse he must bestride
-On which he made bra"e *udlog ride.
-7e too must for a neclace wear
-7agbert's fell noose in middle air.
-The army leader thus must ride
-On 7or"a's horse, at =ymf4ord's side.<
==Of ;ing On, $orund's Son.==
On or (ne was the name of $orund's son, who became ing of the Swedes after his father. 7e
was a wise man, who made great sacrifices to the gods' but being no warrior, he li"ed +uietly at
home. In the time when the ings we ha"e been s#eaing of were in >#sal, 5enmar had been
ruled o"er by 5an :iellati, who li"ed to a "ery great age' then by his son, %rode :iellati, or the
3eace-lo"ing, who was succeeded by his sons 7alfdan and %ridleif, who were great warriors.
7alfdan was older than his brother, and abo"e him in all things. 7e went with his army against
;ing On to Sweden, and was always "ictorious. (t last ;ing On fled to 8ester *otland when he
had been ing in >#sal about twenty-fi"e years, and was in *otland twenty-fi"e years, while
7alfdan remained ing in >#sal. ;ing 7alfdan died in his bed at >#sal, and was buried there in
a mound' and ;ing On returned to >#sal when he was si6ty years of age. 7e made a great
sacrifice, and in it offered u# his son to Odin. On got an answer from Odin, that he should li"e
si6ty years longer' and he was afterwards ing in >#sal for twenty-fi"e years. !ow came Ole the
&old, a son of ;ing %ridleif, with his army to Sweden, against ;ing On, and they had se"eral
battles with each other' but Ole was always the "ictor. Then On fled a second time to *otland'
and for twenty-fi"e years Ole reigned in >#sal, until he was illed by Starad the Old. (fter Ole's
fall, On returned to >#sal, and ruled the ingdom for twenty-fi"e years. Then he made a great
sacrifice again for long life, in which he sacrificed his second son, and recei"ed the answer from
Odin, that he should li"e as long as he ga"e him one of his sons e"ery tenth year, and also that he
should name one of the districts of his country after the number of sons he should offer to Odin.
8hen he had sacrificed the se"enth of his sons he continued to li"e' but so that he could not wal,
but was carried on a chair. Then he sacrificed his eighth son, and li"ed thereafter ten years, lying
in his bed. !ow he sacrificed his ninth son, and li"ed ten years more' but so that he dran out of a
horn lie a weaned infant. 7e had now only one son remaining, whom he also wanted to
sacrifice, and to gi"e Odin >#sal and the domains thereunto belonging, under the name of the
Ten =ands, but the Swedes would not allow it' so there was no sacrifice, and ;ing On died, and
was buried in a mound at >#sal. Since that time it is called On's sicness when a man dies,
without #ain, of e6treme old age. Th4odolf tell of this- --
-<In >#sal's town the cruel ing
-Slaughtered his sons at Odin's shrine --
-Slaughtered his sons with cruel nife,
-To get from Odin length of life.
-7e li"ed until he had to turn
-7is toothless mouth to the deer's horn'
-(nd he who shed his children's blood
-Suced through the o6's horn his food.
-(t length fell 5eath has traced him down,
-Slowly, but sure, in >#sal's town.<
==Of )gil and Tunne.==
)gil was the name of On the Old's son, who succeeded as ing in Sweden after his father's death.
7e was no warrior, but sat +uietly at home. Tunne was the name of a sla"e who had been the
counsellor and treasurer of On the Old' and when On died Tunne too much treasure and buried
it in the earth. !ow when )gil became ing he #ut Tunne among the other sla"es, which he too
"ery ill and ran away with others of the sla"es. They dug u# the treasures which Tunne had
concealed, and he ga"e them to his men, and was made their chief. (fterwards many malefactors
floced to him' and they lay out in the woods, but sometimes fell u#on the domains, #illaging and
illing the #eo#le. 8hen ;ing )gil heard this he went out with his forces to #ursue them' but one
night when he had taen u# his night +uarters, Tunne came there with his men, fell on the ing's
men une6#ectedly, and illed many of them. (s soon as ;ing )gil #ercei"ed the tumult, he
#re#ared for defence, and set u# his banner' but many #eo#le deserted him, because Tunne and
his men attaced them so boldly, and ;ing )gil saw that nothing was left but to fly. Tunne
#ursued the fugiti"es into the forest, and then returned to the inhabited land, ra"aging and
#lundering without resistance. (ll the goods that fell into Tunne's hands he ga"e to his #eo#le,
and thus became #o#ular and strong in men. ;ing )gil assembled an army again, and hastened
to gi"e battle to Tunne. &ut Tunne was again "ictorious, and ;ing )gil fled with the loss of many
#eo#le. )gil and Tunne had eight battles with each other, and Tunne always gained the "ictory.
Then ;ing )gil fled out of the country, and went to Sealand in 5enmar, to %rode the &old, and
#romised him a scatt from the Swedes to obtain hel#. %rode ga"e him an army, and also his
cham#ions, with which force ;ing )gil re#aired to Sweden. 8hen Tunne heard this he came out
to meet him' and there was a great battle, in which Tunne fell, and ;ing )gil reco"ered his
ingdom, and the 5anes returned home. ;ing )gil sent ;ing %rode great and good #resents
e"ery year, but he #aid no scatt to the 5anes' but notwithstanding, the friendshi# between )gil
and %rode continued without interru#tion. (fter Tunne's fall, )gil ruled the ingdom for three
years. It ha##ened in Sweden that an old bull, which was destined for sacrifice, was fed so high
that he became dangerous to #eo#le' and when they were going to lay hold of him he esca#ed
into the woods, became furious, and was long in the forest committing great damage to the
country. ;ing )gil was a great hunter, and often rode into the forest to chase wild animals. Once
he rode out with his men to hunt in the forest. The ing had traced an animal a long while, and
followed it in the forest, se#arated from all his men. 7e obser"ed at last that it was the bull, and
rode u# to it to ill it. The bull turned round suddenly, and the ing struc him with his s#ear'
but it tore itself out of the wound. The bull now struc his horn in the side of the horse, so that
he instantly fell flat on the earth with the ing. The ing s#rang u#, and was drawing his sword,
when the bull struc his horns right into the ing's breast. The ing's men then came u# and
illed the bull. The ing li"ed but a short time, and was buried in a mound at >#sal. Th4odolf
sings of it thus- --
-<The fair-haired son of Odin's race,
-8ho fled before fierce Tunne's face,
-7as #erished by the demon-beast
-8ho roams the forests of the )ast.
-The hero's breast met the full brunt
-Of the wild bull's shaggy front'
-The hero's heart's asunder torn
-&y the fell $otun's s#ear-lie horn.<
==Of ;ing Ottar.==
Ottar was the name of ;ing )gil's son who succeeded to the domains and ingdom after him.
7e did not continue friendly with ;ing %rode, and therefore ;ing %rode sent messengers to ;ing
Ottar to demand the scatt which )gil had #romised him. Ottar re#lied, that the Swedes had ne"er
#aid scatt to the 5anes, neither would he' and the messengers had to de#art with this answer.
%rode was a great warrior, and he came one summer with his army to Sweden, and landed and
ra"aged the country. 7e illed many #eo#le, too some #risoners, burned all around in the
inhabited #arts, made a great booty, and made great de"astation. The ne6t summer ;ing %rode
made an e6#edition to the eastward' and when ;ing Ottar heard that %rode was not at home in his
own country, he went on board his own shi#s, sailed o"er to 5enmar, and ra"aged there without
o##osition. (s he heard that a great many #eo#le were collected at Sealand, he #roceeds
westward to the Sound, and sails north about to $utland' lands at =ymf4ord' #lunders the ,end
district' burns, and lays waste, and maes desolate the country he goes o"er with his army. ,att
and %aste were the names of the earls whom %rode had a##ointed to defend the country in
5enmar while he was abroad. 8hen the earls heard that the Swedish ing was laying 5enmar
waste, they collected an army, hastened on board their shi#s, and sailed by the south side to
=ymf4ord. They came une6#ectedly u#on Ottar, and the battle began immediately. The Swedes
ga"e them a good rece#tion, and many #eo#le fell on both sides' but as soon as men fell in the
5anish army other men hastened from the country to fill their #laces, and also all the "essels in
the neighbourhood 4oined them. The battle ended with the fall of Ottar and the greater #art of
his #eo#le. The 5anes too his body, carried it to the land, laid it u#on a mound of earth, and let
the wild beasts and ra"ens tear it to #ieces. Thereafter they made a figure of a crow out of wood,
sent it to Sweden, and sent word with it that their ing, Ottar, was no better than it' and from this
he was called Ottar ,endelcrow. Th4odolf tells so of it- --
-<&y 5anish arms the hero bold,
-Ottar the &ra"e, lies stiff and cold.
-To ,endel's #lain the cor#se was borne'
-&y eagles' claws the cor#se is torn,
-S#attered by ra"ens' bloody feet,
-The wild bird's #rey, the wild wolf's meat.
-The Swedes ha"e "owed re"enge to tae
-On %rode's earls, for Ottar's sae'
-=ie dogs to ill them in their land,
-In their own homes, by Swedish hand.<
==Of ;ing (dils' :arriage.==
(dils was the name of ;ing Ottar's son and successor. 7e was a long time ing, became "ery
rich, and went also for se"eral summers on "iing e6#editions. On one of these he came to
Sa6land with his troo#s. There a ing was reigning called *eirth4of, and his wife was called (lof
the *reat' but nothing is told of their children. The ing was not at home, and (dils and his men
ran u# to the ing's house and #lundered it, while others dro"e a herd of cattle down to the
strand. The herd was attended by sla"e-#eo#le, churls, and girls, and they too all of them
together. (mong them was a remarably beautiful girl called Yrsa. (dils returned home with this
#lunder. Yrsa was not one of the sla"e girls, and it was soon obser"ed that she was intelligent,
s#oe well, and in all res#ects was well beha"ed. (ll #eo#le thought well of her, and #articularly
the ing' and at last it came to this that the ing celebrated his wedding with her, and Yrsa
became +ueen of Sweden, and was considered an e6cellent woman.
==Of ;ing (dils' 5eath.==
;ing 7alfdan's son 7elge ruled at that time o"er =eidre. 7e came to Sweden with so great an
army, that ;ing (dils saw no other way than to fly at once. ;ing 7elge landed with his army,
#lundered, and made a great booty. 7e too ?ueen Yrsa #risoner, carried her with him to =eidre,
too her to wife, and had a son by her called 9olf ;rae. 8hen 9olf was three years old, ?ueen
(lof came to 5enmar, and told ?ueen Yrsa that her husband, ;ing 7elge, was her own father,
and that she, (lof, was her mother. Thereu#on Yrsa went bac to Sweden to ;ing (dils, and was
+ueen there as long as she li"ed. ;ing 7elge fell in a war e6#edition' and 9olf ;rae, who was
then eight years old, was taen to be ing in =eidre. ;ing (dils had many dis#utes with a ing
called Ole of the >#lands' and these ings had a battle on the ice of the ,enner lae, in which
;ing Ole fell, and ;ing (dils won the battle. There is a long account of this battle in the
<S4oldunga Saga<, and also about 9olf ;rae's coming to (dils, and sowing gold u#on the
%yris"old. ;ing (dils was a great lo"er of good horses, and had the best horses of these times.
One of his horses was called Slong"e, and another 9a"en. This horse he had taen from Ole on
his death, and bred from him a horse, also called 9a"en, which the ing sent in a #resent to ;ing
*odgest in 7alogaland. 8hen *odgest mounted the horse he was not able to manage him, and
fell off and was illed. This accident ha##ened at Omd in 7alogaland. ;ing (dils was at a 5isa
sacrifice' and as he rode around the 5isa hall his horse' 9a"en stumbled and fell, and the ing was
thrown forward u#on his head, and his sull was s#lit, and his brains dashed out against a stone.
(dils died at >#sal, and was buried there in a mound. The Swedes called him a great ing.
Th4odolf s#eas thus of him- --
-<8itch-demons, I ha"e heard men say,
-7a"e taen (dils' life away.
-The son of ings of %rey's great race,
-%irst in the fray, the fight, the chase,
-%ell from his steed -- his clotted brains
-=ie mi6ed with mire on >#sal's #lains.
-Such death .grim %ate has willed it so0
-7as struc down Ole's deadly foe.<
==9olf ;rae's 5eath.==
)ystein, ;ing (dils' son, ruled ne6t o"er Sweden, and in his lifetime 9olf ;rae of =eidre fell. In
those days many ings, both 5anes and !orthmen, ra"aged the Swedish dominions' for there
were many sea-ings who ruled o"er many #eo#le, but had no lands, and he might well be called a
sea-ing who ne"er sle#t beneath sooty roof-timbers.
==Of )ystein and the $utland ;ing Sol"e.==
There was a sea-ing called Sol"e, a son of 7ogne of !4ardo, who at that time #lundered in the
&altic, but had his dominion in $utland. 7e came with his forces to Sweden, 4ust as ;ing )ystein
was at a feast in a district called =ofond. Sol"e came une6#ectedly in the night on )ystein,
surrounded the house in which the ing was, and burned him and all his court. Then Sol"e went
to Sigtun, and desired that the Swedes should recei"e him, and gi"e him the title of ing' but they
collected an army, and tried to defend the country against him, on which there was a great battle,
that lasted, according to re#ort, ele"en days. There ;ing Sol"e was "ictorious, and was afterwards
ing of the Swedish dominions for a long time, until at last the Swedes betrayed him, and he was
illed. Th4odolf tells of it thus- --
-<%or a long time none could tell
-7ow )ystein died -- but now I now
-That at =ofond the hero fell'
-The branch of Odin was laid low,
-8as burnt by Sol"e's $utland men.
-The raging tree-de"ourer fire
-9ushed on the monarch in its ire'
-%irst fell the castle timbers, then
-The roof-beams -- )ystein's funeral #yre.<
==Of Yng"ar's %all.==
Yng"ar, who was ;ing )ystein's son, then became ing of Sweden. 7e was a great warrior, and
often lay out with his warshi#s' for the Swedish dominions were much ra"aged then by 5anes and
)ast-country men. ;ing Yng"ar made a #eace with the 5anes' but betoo himself to ra"aging the
)ast country in return. One summer he went with his forces to )stland, and #lundered at a #lace
called Stein. The men of )stland came down from the interior with a great army, and there was a
battle' but the army of the country was so bra"e that the Swedes could not withstand them, and
;ing Yng"ar fell, and his #eo#le fled. 7e was buried close to the seashore under a mound in
)stland' and after this defeat the Swedes returned home. Th4odolf sings of it thus- --
-<Certain it is the )stland foe
-The fair-haired Swedish ing laid low.
-On )stland's strand, o'er Swedish gra"es,
-The )ast Sea sings her song of wa"es'
-;ing Yng"ar's dirge is ocean's roar
-9esounding on the roc-ribbed shore.<
==Of Onund the =and-clearer.==
Onund was the name of Yng"ar's son who succeeded him. In his days there was #eace in
Sweden, and he became rich in "aluable goods. ;ing Onund went with his army to )stland to
a"enge his father, and landed and ra"aged the country round far and wide, and returned with a
great booty in autumn to Sweden. In his time there were fruitful seasons in Sweden, so that he
was one of the most #o#ular of ings. Sweden is a great forest land, and there are such great
uninhabited forests in it that it is a 4ourney of many days to cross them. Onund bestowed great
diligence and e6#ense on o#ening the woods and culti"ating the cleared land. 7e made roads
through the desert forests' and thus cleared land is found all through the forest country, and great
districts are settled. In this way e6tensi"e tracts of land were brought into culti"ation, for there
were country #eo#le enough to culti"ate the land. Onund had roads made through all Sweden,
both through forests and morasses, and also o"er mountains' and he was therefore called Onund
9oadmaer. 7e had a house built for himself in e"ery district of Sweden, and went o"er the
whole country in guest-+uarters.
==Of Ing4ald the &ad.==
Onund had a son called Ing4ald, and at that time Yng"ar was ing of the district of
%4adryndaland. Yng"ar had two sons by his wife -- the one called (lf, the other (gnar -- who were
about the same age as Ing4ald. Onund's district-ings were at that time s#read widely o"er
Sweden, and S"i#dag the &lind ruled o"er Tiundaland, in which >#sal is situated, and where all
the Swedish Things are held. There also were held the mid-winter sacrifices, at which many ings
attended. One year at midwinter there was a great assembly of #eo#le at >#sal, and ;ing Yng"ar
had also come there with his sons. (lf, ;ing Yng"ar's son, and Ing4ald, ;ing Onund's son, were
there -- both about si6 years old. They amused themsel"es with child's #lay, in which each should
be leading on his army. In their #lay Ing4ald found himself not so strong as (lf, and was so "e6ed
that he almost cried. 7is foster-brother *aut"id came u#, led him to his foster-father S"i#dag the
&lind, and told him how ill it a##eared that he was weaer and less manly than (lf, ;ing Yng"ar's
son. S"i#dag re#lied that it was a great shame. The day after S"i#dag too the heart of a wolf,
roasted it on the tongs, and ga"e it to the ing's son Ing4ald to eat, and from that time he became
a most ferocious #erson, and of the worst dis#osition. 8hen Ing4ald was grown u#, Onund
a##lied for him to ;ing (lgaut for his daughter *authild. (lgaut was a son of *autre the :ild,
and grandson of *aut' and from them *otland .*autland0 too its name. ;ing (lgaut thought
his daughter would be well married if she got ;ing Onund's son, and if he had his father's
dis#osition' so the girl was sent to Sweden, and ;ing Ing4ald celebrated his wedding with her in
due time.
==Of ;ing Onund's 5eath.==
;ing Onund one autumn, tra"elling between his mansion-houses, came o"er a road called
7immenheath, where there are some narrow mountain "alleys, with high mountains on both
sides. There was hea"y rain at the time, and before there had been snow on the mountains. (
landsli# of clay and stones came down u#on ;ing Onund and his #eo#le, and there he met his
death, and many with him. So says Th4odolf, namely- --
-<8e all ha"e heard how $onur's sons,
-8hom wea#ons could not touch, with stones
-8ere stoned to death in o#en day,
-;ing Onund died in the same way.
-Or else #erha#s the wood-grown land,
-8hich long had felt his con+uering hand,
->#rose at length in deadly strife,
-(nd #ressed out Onund's hated life.<
==The &urning in >#sal.==
Then Ing4ald, ;ing Onund's son, came to the ingdom. The >#sal ings were the highest in
Sweden among the many district-ings who had been since the time that Odin was chief. The
ings who resided at >#sal had been the su#reme chiefs o"er the whole Swedish dominions until
the death of (gne, when, as before related, the ingdom came to be di"ided between brothers.
(fter that time the dominions and ingly #owers were s#read among the branches of the family as
these increased' but some ings cleared great tracts of forest-land, and settled them, and thereby
increased their domains. !ow when Ing4ald too the dominions and the ingdom of his father,
there were, as before said, many district-ings. ;ing Ing4ald ordered a great feast to be #re#ared
in >#sal, and intended at that feast to enter on his heritage after ;ing Onund his father. 7e had a
large hall made ready for the occasion -- one not less, nor less sum#tuous, than that of >#sal' and
this hall was called the Se"en ;ings 7all, and in it were se"en high seats for ings. Then ;ing
Ing4ald sent men all through Sweden, and in"ited to his feast ings, earls, and other men of
conse+uence. To this heirshi#-feast came ;ing (lgaut, his father-in-law' Yng"ar ing of
%4adryndaland, with his two sons, (lf and (gnar' ;ing S#orsn4all of !erie' ;ing Sigh"at of
(attundaland- but *ranmar ing of Sodermanland did not come. Si6 ings were #laced in the
seats in the new hall' but one of the high seats which Ing4ald had #re#ared was em#ty. (ll the
#ersons who had come got #laces in the new hall' but to his own court, and the rest of his #eo#le,
he had a##ointed #laces at >#sal. It was the custom at that time that he who ga"e an heirshi#-
feast after ings or earls, and entered u#on the heritage, should sit u#on the footstool in front of
the high seat, until the full bowl, which was called the &rage-beaer, was brought in. Then he
should stand u#, tae the &rage-beaer, mae solemn "ows to be afterwards fulfilled, and
thereu#on em#ty the beaer. Then he should ascend the high seat which his father had occu#ied'
and thus he came to the full heritage after his father. !ow it was done so on this occasion. 8hen
the full &rage-beaer came in, ;ing Ing4ald stood u#, gras#ed a large bull's horn, and made a
solemn "ow to enlarge his dominions by one half, towards all the four corners of the world, or die'
and thereu#on #ointed with the horn to the four +uarters. !ow when the guests had become
drun towards e"ening ;ing Ing4ald told S"i#dag's sons, *aut"id and 7yl"id, to arm themsel"es
and their men, as had before been settled' and accordingly they went out, and came u# to the new
hall, and set fire to it. The hall was soon in a blaDe, and the si6 ings, with all their #eo#le, were
burned in it. Those who tried to come out were illed. Then ;ing Ing4ald laid all the dominions
these ings had #ossessed under himself, and too scatt from them.
==Of 74or"ard's :arriage.==
8hen ;ing *ranmar heard the news of this treachery, he thought the same lot awaited him if he
did not tae care. The same summer ;ing 74or"ard, who was called Ylfing, came with his fleet to
Sweden, and went into a f4ord called :yr"a-f4ord. 8hen ;ing *ranmar heard this he sent a
messenger to him to in"ite him and all his men to a feast. 7e acce#ted it willingly' for he had
ne"er committed waste in ;ing *ranmar's dominions. 8hen he came to the feast he was gladly
welcomed. In the e"ening, when the full bowls went round, as was the custom of ings when they
were at home, or in the feasts they ordered to be made, they sat and dran together, a man and
woman with each other in #airs, and the rest of the com#any sat and dran all together. &ut it
was the law among the "iings that all who were at the entertainment should drin together in one
com#any all round. ;ing 74or"ard's high seat was #laced right o##osite to ;ing *ranmar's high
seat, and on the same bench sat all his men. ;ing *ranmar told his daughter 7ildigunn, who was
a remarably beautiful girl, to mae ready to carry ale to the "iings. Thereu#on she too a sil"er
goblet, filled it, bowed before ;ing 74or"ard, and said, <Success to all Ylfinger- this cu# to the
memory of 9olf ;rae< -- dran out the half, and handed the cu# to ;ing 74or"ard. 7e too the
cu#, and too her hand, and said she must sit beside him. She says that is not "iing fashion to
drin two and two with women. 74or"ard re#lies that it were better for him to mae a change, and
lea"e the "iing law, and drin in com#any with her. Then 7ildigunn sat down beside him, and
both dran together, and s#oe a great deal with each other during the e"ening. The ne6t day,
when ;ing *ranmar and 74or"ard met, 74or"ard s#oe of his courtshi#, and ased to ha"e
7ildigunn in marriage. ;ing *ranmar laid this #ro#osal before his wife 7ilda, and before #eo#le
of conse+uence, saying they would ha"e great hel# and trust in 74or"ard' and all a##ro"ed of it
highly, and thought it "ery ad"isable. (nd the end was, that 7ildigunn was #romised to 74or"ard,
and the wedding followed soon after' and ;ing 74or"ard stayed with ;ing *ranmar, who had no
sons, to hel# him to defend his dominions.
==8ar &etween Ing4ald and *ranmar and 74or"ard.==
The same autumn ;ing Ing4ald collected a war-force, with which he intended to fall u#on
*ranmar and 74or"ard' but when they heard it they also collected a force, and 7ogne, who ruled
o"er )ast *otland, together with his son 7ildur, came to their assistance. 7ogne was father of
7ilda, who was married to ;ing *ranmar. ;ing Ing4ald landed with his army, which was by far
the most numerous. ( battle began, which was "ery shar#' but after it had lasted a short time, the
chiefs who ruled o"er %4adryndaland, 8est *otland, !erie, and (attundaland, too to flight with
all the men from those countries, and hastened to their shi#s. This #laced ;ing Ing4ald in great
danger, and he recei"ed many wounds, but esca#ed by flight to his shi#s. S"i#dag the &lind,
Ing4ald's foster-father, together with his sons, *aut"id and 7yl"id, fell. Ing4ald returned to >#sal,
"ery ill-satisfied with his e6#edition' and he thought the army le"ied from those countries he had
ac+uired by con+uest had been unfaithful to him. There was great hostility afterwards between
;ing Ing4ald and ;ing *ranmar, and his son-in-law ;ing 74or"ard' and after this had continued a
long time the friends of both #arties brought about a reconciliation. The ing a##ointed a
meeting, and concluded a #eace. This #eace was to endure as long as the three ings li"ed, and
this was confirmed by oath and #romises of fidelity. The s#ring after, ;ing *ranmar went to
>#sal to mae offering, as usual, for a steady #eace. Then the foreboding turned out for him so
that it did not #romise him long life, and he returned to his dominions.
==5eath of the ;ings *ranmar and 74or"ard.==
The autumn after, ;ing *ranmar and his son-in-law 74or"ard went to a feast at one of their farms
in the island Sile. 8hen they were at the entertainment, ;ing Ing4ald came there in the night with
his troo#s, surrounded the house, and burnt them in it, with all their men. Then he too to
himself all the country these ings had #ossessed, and #laced chiefs o"er it. ;ing 7ogne and his
son 7ildur often made inroads on horsebac into the Swedish dominions, and illed ;ing
Ing4ald's men, whom he had #laced o"er the ingdom which had belonged to their relation
*ranmar. This strife between ;ing Ing4ald and ;ing 7ogne continued for a long time' but ;ing
7ogne defended his ingdom against ;ing Ing4ald to his dying day. ;ing Ing4ald had two
children by his wife -- the eldest called (asa, the other Olaf. *authild, the wife of Ing4ald, sent
the boy to his foster-father &o"e, in 8est *otland, where he was brought u# along with Sa6e,
&o"e's son, who had the surname of %lette. It was a common saying that ;ing Ing4ald had illed
twel"e ings, and decei"ed them all under #retence of #eace' therefore he was called Ing4ald the
)"il-ad"iser. 7e was ing o"er the greater #art of Sweden. 7e married his daughter (asa to
*udrod ing of Scania' and she was lie her father in dis#osition. (asa brought it about that
*udrod illed his brother 7alfdan, father of I"ar ,idfa"ne' and also she brought about the death
of her husband *udrod, and then fled to her father' and she thus got the name also of (asa the
)"il-ad"iser.
==Of Ing4ald's 5eath.==
I"ar ,idfa"ne came to Scania after the fall of his uncle *udrod, and collected an army in all haste,
and mo"ed with it into Sweden. (asa had gone to her father before. ;ing Ing4ald was at a feast in
9aening, when he heard that ;ing I"ar's army was in the neighbourhood. Ing4ald thought he had
not strength to go into battle against I"ar, and he saw well that if he betoo himself to flight his
enemies would swarm around him from all corners. 7e and (asa too a resolution which has
become celebrated. They dran until all their #eo#le were dead drun, and then #ut fire to the
hall' and it was consumed, with all who were in it, including themsel"es, ;ing Ing4ald, and (asa.
Thus says Th4odolf- --
-<8ith fiery feet de"ouring flame
-7as hunted down a royal game
-(t 9aening, where ;ing Ing4ald ga"e
-To all his men one glowing gra"e.
-On his own hearth the fire he raised,
-( deed his foemen e"en #raised'
-&y his own hand he #erished so,
-(nd life for freedom did forego.<
==Of I"ar.==
I"ar ,idfa"ne subdued the whole of Sweden. 7e brought in sub4ection to himself all the 5anish
dominions, a great deal of Sa6land, all the )ast Country, and a fifth #art of )ngland. %rom his
race the ings of Sweden and 5enmar who ha"e had the su#reme authority in those countries,
are descended. (fter Ing4ald the )"il-ad"iser the >#sal dominion fell from the Yngling race
notwithstanding the length of time they could recon u# the series of their forefathers.
==Of Olaf the Tree-feller.==
8hen Olaf, ;ing Ing4ald's son, heard of his father's end, he went with the men who chose to
follow him to !erie' for all the Swedish community rose with one accord to dri"e out Ing4ald's
family and all his friends. !ow, when the Swedes got intelligence of him he could not remain
there, but went on westwards, through the forest, to a ri"er which comes from the north and falls
into the ,enner lae, and is called ;lar ri"er. There they sat themsel"es down, turned to and
cleared the woods, burnt, and then settled there. Soon there were great districts' which altogether
were called ,ermeland' and a good li"ing was to be made there. !ow when it was told of Olaf, in
Sweden, that he was clearing the forests, they laughed at his #roceedings, and called him the
Tree-feller. Olaf got a wife called Sol"a, or Sol"eig, a daughter of 7alfdan *uldtand, westward in
Soleyar. 7alfdan was a son of Sol"e Sol"arson, who was a son of Sol"e the Old, who first settled
on these islands. Olaf Tree-feller's mother was called *authild, and her mother was (lo",
daughter of Olaf the Shar#-sighted, ing in !erie. Olaf and Sol"a had two sons- Ing4ald and
7alfdan. 7alfdan was brought u# in Soleyar, in the house of his mother's brother Sol"e, and was
called 7alfdan 7"itbein.
==Olaf the Tree-feller's 5eath.==
There were a great many #eo#le who fled the country from Sweden, on account of ;ing I"ar' and
when they heard that ;ing Olaf had got good lands in ,ermeland, so great a number came there
to him that the land could not su##ort them. Then there came dear times and famine, which they
ascribed to their ing' as the Swedes used always to recon good or bad cro#s for or against their
ings. The Swedes too it amiss that Olaf was s#aring in his sacrifices, and belie"ed the dear
times must #roceed from this cause. The Swedes therefore gathered together troo#s, made an
e6#edition against ;ing Olaf, surrounded his house and burnt him in it, gi"ing him to Odin as a
sacrifice for good cro#s. This ha##ened at the ,enner lae. Thus tells Th4odolf of it- --
-<The tem#le wolf, by the lae shores,
-The cor#se of Olaf now de"ours.
-The clearer of the forests died
-(t Odin's shrine by the lae side.
-The glowing flames stri##ed to the sin
-The royal robes from the Swedes' ing.
-Thus Olaf, famed in days of yore,
-,anished from earth at ,enner's shore.<
==7alfdan 7"itbein :ade ;ing.==
Those of the Swedes who had more understanding found that the dear times #roceeded from
there being a greater number of #eo#le on the land than it could su##ort, and that the ing could
not be blamed for this. They too the resolution, therefore, to cross the )ida forest with all their
men, and came +uite une6#ectedly into Soleyar, where they #ut to death ;ing Sol"e, and too
7alfdan 7"itbein #risoner, and made him their chief, and ga"e him the title of ing. Thereu#on
he subdued Soleyar, and #roceeding with his army into 9aumarie, #lundered there, and laid that
district also in sub4ection by force of arms.
==Of 7alfdan 7"itbein.==
7alfdan 7"itbein became a great ing. 7e was married to (asa, a daughter of )ystein the
Se"ere, who was ing of the >#land #eo#le, and ruled o"er 7edemar. 7alfdan and (asa had
two sons, )ystein and *udrod. 7alfdan subdued a great #art of 7edemar, Toten, 7adeland,
and much of 8estfold. 7e li"ed to be an old man, and died in his bed at Toten, from whence his
body was trans#orted to 8estfold, and was buried under a mound at a #lace called Saereid, at
Siringsale. So says Th4odolf- --
-<7alfdan, esteemed by friends and foes,
-9ecei"es at last life's dee# re#ose-
-The aged man at last, though late,
-Yielded in Toten to stern fate.
-(t Siringsale hangs o'er his gra"e
-( roc, that seems to mourn the bra"e 7alfdan,
-To chiefs and #eo#le dear,
-9ecei"ed from all a silent tear.<
==Of Ing4ald, &rother of 7alfdan.==
Ing4ald, 7alfdan's brother, was ing of ,ermeland' but after his death ;ing 7alfdan too
#ossession of ,ermeland, raised scatt from it, and #laced earls o"er it as long as he li"ed.
==Of ;ing )ystein's 5eath.==
)ystein, 7alfdan 7"itbein's son, became ing after in 9aumarie and 8estfold. 7e was married
to 7ild, a daughter of )ric (gnarsson, who was ing in 8estfold. (gnar, )ric's father, was a son
of Sigtryg, ing in the ,end district. ;ing )ric had no son, and died while ;ing 7alfdan 7"itbein
was still in life. The father and son, 7alfdan and )ystein, then too #ossession of the whole of
8estfold, which )ystein ruled o"er as long as he li"ed. (t that time there li"ed at ,arna a ing
called S4old, who was a great warloc. ;ing )ystein went with some shi#s of war to ,arna,
#lundered there, and carried away all he could find of clothes or other "aluables, and of #easants'
stoc, and illed cattle on the strand for #ro"ision, and then went off. ;ing S4old came to the
strand with his army, 4ust as )ystein was at such a distance o"er the f4ord that ;ing S4old could
only see his sails. Then he too his cloa, wa"ed it, and blew into it. ;ing )ystein was sitting at
the helm as they sailed in #ast $arls, and another shi# was sailing at the side of his, when there
came a stroe of a wa"e, by which the boom of the other shi# struc the ing and threw him
o"erboard, which #ro"ed his death. 7is men fished u# his body, and it was carried into &orre,
where a mound was thrown u# o"er it, out towards the sea at 9aden, near ,odle. So says Th4odolf-
--
-<;ing )ystein sat u#on the #oo#
-Of his good shi#- with sudden swoo#
-The swinging boom dashed him to hell,
-(nd fathoms dee# the hero fell
-&eneath the brine. The fury whirl
-Of =oe, Tem#est's brother's girl,
-*rim 7el, clutched his soul away'
-(nd now where ,odle's ocean bay
-9ecei"es the ice-cold stream, the gra"e
-Of )ystein stands -- the good, the bra"eC<
==Of 7alfdan the :ild.==
7alfdan was the name of ;ing )ystein's son who succeeded him. 7e was called 7alfdan the
:ild, but the &ad )ntertainer' that is to say, he was re#orted to be generous, and to gi"e his men
as much gold as other ings ga"e of sil"er, but he star"ed them in their diet. 7e was a great
warrior, who had been long on "iing cruises, and had collected great #ro#erty. 7e was married
to =i", a daughter of ;ing 5ag of 8estmare. 7oltar, in 8estfold, was his chief house' and he
died there on the bed of sicness, and was buried at &orre under a mound. So says Th4odolf- --
-<&y 7el's summons, a great ing
-8as called away to Odin's Thing-
-;ing 7alfdan, he who dwelt of late
-(t 7oltar, must obey grim %ate.
-(t &orre, in the royal mound,
-They laid the hero in the ground.<
==Of *udrod the 7unter.==
*udrod, 7alfdan's son, succeeded. 7e was called *udrod the :agnificent, and also *udrod the
7unter. 7e was married to (lfhild, a daughter of ;ing (lfarin of (lfheim, and got with her half
the district of ,ingulmar. Their son Olaf was afterwards called *eirstad-(lf. (lfheim, at that
time, was the name of the land between the *lommen and *otha ri"ers. !ow when (lfhild died,
;ing *udrod sent his men west to (gder to the ing who ruled there, and who was called 7arald
9edbeard. They were to mae #ro#osals to his daughter (asa u#on the ing's account' but
7arald declined the match, and the ambassadors returned to the ing, and told him the result of
their errand. Soon after ;ing *udrod ho"e down his shi#s into the water, and #roceeded with a
great force in them to (gder. 7e immediately landed, and came altogether une6#ectedly at night
to ;ing 7arald's house. 8hen 7arald was aware that an army was at hand, he went out with the
men he had about him, and there was a great battle, although he wanted men so much. ;ing
7arald and his son *yrd fell, and ;ing *udrod too a great booty. 7e carried away with him
(asa, ;ing 7arald's daughter, and had a wedding with her. They had a son by their marriage
called 7alfdan' and the autumn that 7alfdan was a year old *udrod went u#on a round of feasts.
7e lay with his shi# in Stiflesund, where they had been drining hard, so that the ing was "ery
ti#sy. In the e"ening, about dar, the ing left the shi#' and when he had got to the end of the
gangway from the shi# to the shore, a man ran against him, thrust a s#ear through him, and illed
him. The man was instantly #ut to death, and in the morning when it was light the man was
disco"ered to be (asa's #age-boy- nor did she conceal that it was done by her orders. Thus tells
Th4odolf of it- --
-<*udrod is gone to his long rest,
-5es#ite of all his haughty #ride --
-( traitor's s#ear has #ierced his side-
-%or (asa cherished in her breast
-9e"enge' and as, by wine o##rest,
-The hero staggered from his shi#,
-The cruel +ueen her thrall let sli#
-To do the deed of which I sing-
-(nd now the far-descended ing,
-(t Stiflesund, in the old bed
-Of the old *udrod race, lies dead.<
==Of ;ing Olaf's 5eath.==
Olaf came to the ingdom after his father. 7e was a great warrior, and an able man' and was
besides remarably handsome, "ery strong and large of growth. 7e had 8estfold' for ;ing
(lfgeir too all ,ingulmar to himself, and #laced his son *andalf o"er it. &oth father and son
made war on 9aumarie, and subdued the greater #art of that land and district. 7ogne was the
name of a son of the >#land ing, )ystein the *reat, who subdued for himself the whole of
7edemar, Toten, and 7adeland. Then ,ermeland fell off from *udrod's sons, and turned itself,
with its #ayment of scatt, to the Swedish ing. Olaf was about twenty years old when *udrod
died' and as his brother 7alfdan now had the ingdom with him, they di"ided it between them' so
that Olaf got the eastern and 7alfdan the southern #art. ;ing Olaf had his main residence at
*eirstad. There he died of a disease in his foot, and was laid under a mound at *eirstad. So
sings Th4odolf- --
-<=ong while this branch of Odin's stem
-8as the stout #ro# of !orway's realm'
-=ong while ;ing Olaf with 4ust #ride
-9uled o"er 8estfold far and wide.
-(t length by cruel gout o##ressed,
-The good ;ing Olaf san to rest-
-7is body now lies under ground,
-&uried at *eirstad, in the mound.<
==Of 9ogn"ald the :ountain-high.==
9ogn"ald was the name of Olaf's son who was ing of 8estfold after his father. 7e was called
<:ountain-high,< and Th4odolf of 7"ina com#osed for him the <Ynglinga-tal<, in which he
says- --
-<>nder the hea"en's blue dome, a name
-I ne"er new more true to fame
-Than 9ogn"ald bore' whose silful hand
-Could tame the scorners of the land, --
-9ogn"ald, who new so well to guide
-The wild sea-horses through the tide-
-The <:ountain-high< was the #roud name
-&y which the ing was nown to fame.<

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