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# General Physics ph 202 Name:____________

## Midterm III (Ch 11 19) Type

!e"r#ary 2\$% 200&
Exam is closed book and closed notes. Use only your note card.
'rite all ()r* and ans(ers in the c)l)r papers pr)+ided,
Show all your work and explain your reasoning (No credit will be given for
an answer that does not include the necessary solution or explanation, except
for true/false or multiple choice uestions!
"artial credit may be awarded for a correct method of solution, even if the
Part I Tr#e )r !alse (1,- p)ints each): #or uestions \$ % \$&, state whether each
statement is true or false.
'. (y test type is )))))))).
\$. #alse * wave pulse on a string whose end is fixed is reflected without inversion.
&. #alse +ound waves in air are transverse waves.
,. -rue .nfrasound carries over long distances better than ultrasound.
/. #alse 0ats use infrasound to navigate.
1. -rue * concave lens always produces a virtual image.
2. #alse #or total internal reflection to take place, light must go from a medium of lower
index of refraction to a medium of higher index of refraction.
3. -rue * convex mirror always produces a virtual image smaller than the ob4ect.
5. #alse (agnification is positive for inverted images.
6. #alse -he index of refraction for a given material is directly proportional to the
freuency of light.
\$'. #alse * convex lens is known as a diverging lens and a concave lens is known as a
converging lens. (reverse is true!
\$\$. #alse -he reflection of light from a rough surface is called specular reflection.
\$&. -rue .n a concave mirror the inside of the spherical surface is the reflecting surface.
Part II M#ltiple Ch)ice (1,- p)ints each): 7hoose the one correct answer for each of
the following uestions that best answers or completes the uestion.
\$,. -he velocity of propagation of a transverse wave on a &.'8m long string fixed at both
ends is &'' m/s. 9hich one of the following is not a resonant freuency of this
string:
*! 1' ;< 0! &'' ;< 7! \$'' ;< =! &1 ;<
Use>
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\$
\$/. 9hich of the following is a false statement:
*! +ound can travel through a vacuum.
0! ?ight travels very much faster than sound.
7! +ound waves are longitudinal pressure waves.
=! -he transverse waves on a vibrating string are different from sound waves.
E! @"itch@ (in music! and freuency have approximately the same meaning.
\$1. *n open pipe of length ? is resonating at its fundamental freuency. 9hich statement
is correct:
*! -he wavelength is ? and there is a displacement node at the pipeAs
midpoint.
0! -he wavelength is ? and there is a displacement antinode at the pipeAs
midpoint.
7! -he wavelength is &? and there is a displacement antinode at the pipeAs
midpoint.
=! -he wavelength is &? and there is a displacement node at the pipeAs
midpoint.
Note> the waves here are displacement and not pressure waves. +o at each end of
open pipe, there is a antinode and at its midpointt a displacement node.
\$2. -wo speakers are placed side by side and driven by the same freuency of 1'' ;<. .f
the distance from a person to one speaker is 1.'' m and the person detects little or no
sound, which of the following is a possible distance from the person to the other
speaker: (-he sound speed is ,/' m/s.!
*! 3.3 m 0! 5.\$ m 7! 6.\$ m =! 5./ m
the only answer satisfying this euation is for m B/ d& B
5.'2B5.\$m
\$3. .f one doubles the tension in a violin string, the fundamental freuency of that string
will increase by a factor of
*! &. 0! \$./. 7! \$.3. =! /.
\$5. =oubling only the spring constant of a vibrating mass8and8spring system produces
what effect on the systemAs mechanical energy:
*! increases the energy by a factor of three
0! increases he energy by a factor of four
7! produces no change
=! increases the energy by a factor of two
\$6. Cesonance in a system, such as a string fixed at both ends, occurs when
*! its freuency is greater than the freuency of an external source.
0! its freuency is smaller than the freuency of an external source.
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&
7! its freuency is the same as the freuency of an external source.
=! it is oscillating in simple harmonic motion.
&'. * string of mass m and length ? is under tension -. -he speed of a wave in the string
is v. 9hat will be the speed of a wave in the string if the mass of the string is
increased to &m, with no change in length:
*! '.1v 0! &v 7! '.3\$v =! \$./v
&\$. 9hen sound passes from air into water
*! its freuency does not change.
0! its wavelength does not change.
7! its velocity does not change.
=! all of the above

&&. * sound source approaches a stationary observer. -he freuency heard by the
observer is
*! lower than the source.
0! eual to <ero.
7! the same as that of the source.
=! higher than the source.
&,. * concave spherical mirror has a focal length of &' cm. *n ob4ect is placed \$' cm in
front of the mirror on the mirrorAs axis. 9here is the image located:
*! &' cm behind the mirror 7! 2.3 cm in front of the mirror
0! &' cm in front of the mirror =! 2.3 cm behind the mirror
&/. * light ray, traveling obliuely to a concave mirrorAs surface, crosses the axis at the
mirrorAs focal point before striking the mirrorAs surface. *fter reflection, this ray
*! travels parallel to the mirrorAs axis.
0! passes through the mirrorAs focal point.
7! travels at right angles to the mirrorAs axis.
=! passes through the mirrorAs center of curvature.
&1. #or all transparent material substances, the index of refraction
*! is less than \$.
0! is eual to \$.
7! is greater than \$.
=! could be any of the given answersD it all depends on optical density.
&2. *n ob4ect in simple harmonic motion obeys the following position versus time
euation> y B ('.1' m! sin (E/& t!. 9hat is the maximum speed of the ob4ect:
*! '.,6 m/s 0! '.36 m/s 7! '.\$, m/s =! '.&2 m/s
&3. 7onsider two pipes of the same length> one is open and the other is closed on one end.
.f the fundamental freuency of the open pipe is ,'' ;<, what is the fundamental
freuency of the closed pipe:
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,
*! ,'' ;< 0! /1' ;< 7! \$1' ;< =! 2'' ;<
&5. 9hat is the intensity level of a sound with intensity \$'
8,
9/m
&
:
*! 2' d0 0! 6' d0 7! ,' d0 =! 62 d0
&6. -he decibel is a unit of
*! amplitude. 7! wavelength.
0! loudness. =! freuency.
,'. ;ow tall must a plane mirror be in order for you to be able to see your full image in
it:
*! the same height as you 7! ,// of your height
Part III Pr)"lems (. p)ints each): +how your work clearly and completely for each
of the following problems.
,\$. .n an experiment similar to the one you did in class, one end of a string was fastened
to a secured rod, and then passed over a pulley. * '.1' kg hanging mass was attached
to the other end of the string. * speaker vibrating at freuency &1' ;< was placed
under the string at a distance of \$.&m from the pulley. .n the segment of the string
between pulley and speaker top, a standing wave of &.1 wavelength was observed.
(a! 9hat is the speed of the wave in the string: (b! 9hat is the mass density of the
string:
m B '.1'kg \$.&m B &.1F FB './5m
f B &1';< v B Ff v B './5m(&1' ;<!
?B\$.&m v B \$&'m/s
n B 1

,&. .f the intensity level of one trombone is 3' d0 and that of one cornet is 21 d0, which
is louder> 32 trombones or \$\$' cornets: +how your calculations.
Gt B 3' d0 #irst need to find the sound intensity (w/m
&
! of each instrument>
Gc B 21d0 G B \$' log3' d0
Gt B 3' d0
+ound intensity for -rombone>
*nd for cornet>
/)l#ti)n t) Pr)"lem 02 (c)ntin#ed)
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/
Now total sound intensity from 32 trombone is
*nd total sound intensity for \$\$' cornet is>
Now recalculate the sound level G for each case.
*nd the total sound level of cornets>
-herefore 32 trombone will be louder than \$\$' cornets.
,,. * well with vertical sides and water at the bottom resonates at 3.'' ;< and no lower
freuency. .f the temperature of the air in the well is \$1
o
7, how deep is the well.
f B 3.'';<
- B \$1
o
7 +ince there is no freuency lower than 3.'';<, then
? B : fundamental freuency is 3.'' ;<.
9ell acts like a closed8open tube where>
? B H F and v B f
Unless otherwise specified, you should assume the speed of sound in air
is ,/, m/s at &'
o
7 and is described by>
where -7 is air temperature in
o
7
L B \$&.\$ m

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1
,/. Iwang stands beside the tracks as a train rolls slowly past. ;e notes the freuency of
the train whistle is //& ;< when the train is approaching him and //\$ ;< when the
train is receding from him. +peed of sound in air to be ,/1 m/s. 9hat is the speed of
the train:
Jiven>
freuencies>
f\$B//& ;< where f K is the shifted freuency observed by stationary Iwang, and f
f&B//\$ ;< is freuency emitted by moving source. Use the %vs when the source
v B ,/1 m/s is moving toward the observer and Lvs when the source is moving
away from the observer
-here are two =oppler effects> 9ith the train approaching at speed vs , the
observed freuency is f\$.
*nd as the train recedes, the observed freuency is f&>
=ividing euation (\$! by (&! gives
and solving for the speed of the train yields vs B '/,6\$ m/s B \$./\$ km/hr (slow!
,1. -he light beam in the figure shown strikes surface & at the critical angle. =etermine
the angle incident i.
+ + 60

= 180 = 90 42

= 48

= 42

=90
2

2
= 18

## Using +nellMs ?aw>

n\$ sin
1
= n& sin
2

Nou need to find n& first> use +nellMs law for the refraction
from surface & (n\$ B nair B \$! >
n& sin 42

= n\$ sin 90

n& B \$./6

n\$ sin
1
= n& sin
2
\$.' sin
1
= \$./6 sin18

1
= sin
%\$
(\$./6 sin18

1
= 27.5

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2
#or the following problems show your solution on the color papers. 0ut draw the ray
diagrams on the ruler shown for each problem and attach them to your color papers.
,2. * small ob4ect is \$& cm from a thin positive lens of focal length 2 cm. * plane mirror
is placed at the second focal length of the lens and crosses the x-axis as shown. -he
mirror is tilted so the reflected rays do not go back through the lens.
a! =raw a ray diagram to scale showing the final image.
b! .s the image real or virtual:
c! #ind the position of the final image.
,3. Consider a concave mirror with a focal length of 10.0 cm.
a) Find the image distance when the object distance is 10.0 cm.
b) Find the image distance when the object distance is 5.00 cm.
c) Find the magnifcation of the image for part b).
d) Describe the image for part b).
e) Draw the ray diagram for part b) on the rler shown below.
a) /ince the )"1ect is placed at the 2)cal p)int )2 the mirr)r% ima3e is 2)rmed at
in2inity (n)t +isi"le)

"h &'& sec\$ midterm& w'2
3
Pr)"lem 0\$ (c)ntin#ed)
b!
c) The ima3e is +irt#al% #pri3ht% lar3er and )n )ther side )2 mirr)r,
d)
/)me 4#esti)ns )n 5eat and Therm)dynamics,
Please e6plain )r sh)( y)#r ()r* clearly 2)r each )2 the 2)ll)(in3 4#esti)ns )r
pr)"lems,
\$. Nou are selling your land by suare feet. .f on a hot day you are measuring a plot of
land with a steel tape, will you be making more profit from the land sale: Explain.
+ince the tape is metal, it will expand, and for example \$''cm of it now may be \$'\$cm.
hence the dimensions of actual land are shorter than measured values. Not goodPP
&. 7onsider a cup of tea at room temperature, &/
'
7. .f it is heated until it has twice the
internal energy, what is its new temperature:
9hen internal energy doubles, the Kelvin temperature of the tea will also double.
-new B &-old where -old B &3, L &/ B&63 I
-new B &(&63! B 16/ I.
-new B 165 % &3, B ,&1
o
7 (very hot!

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5
,. * /'.'gram sample of water at &&.'
o
7 is held in a \$'' gram metal cup. 2'.' grams of
water at 21.'
o
7 is stirred into the cool water and the final temperature of the water is
/3.'
o
7. =etermine the specific heat of the metal of the cup.
-i(cup! B -i(water! B &&.'
o
7
m\$ (water! B /'.'g
Q (gained by metal cup and cold water! B %Q (lost by warm water!
mcup B \$'' g
m& (warm water! B 2'.'g
-& B 21.'
o
7
-f B /3.'
o
7
cwater B /.\$5 R/g
o
7
/. * cup of coffee is enclosed in an insulated cup S cm thick in the shape of a cube
\$'cm in a side. -he temperature of the coffee is 61
o
7, and the temperature of the
surroundings is &\$
o
7. #ind the heat loss (in R/s ! due to conduction. -he thermal
conductivity of the cup is & x \$'
8/

C cm
cal
o
. . sec
1. * heat engine with an efficiency of &/.'T performs \$&1'R of work. #ind (a! the heat
absorbed from the hot reservoir, and (b! the heat given off to the cold reservoir.
2. Une mole of an ideal gas initially at sea level atmospheric pressure and '
'
7, is taken
through a cycle as shown.
a! 7alculate the initial volume of the gas:
a! #ind the net work done by the cycle.
b! 9hat is the net energy added by heat per cycle: