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e-Learning English, Grammar Review, Level 4, Units A-Z

40000 0 ! Its important to understand these grammatical concepts:



! A verb describes an action or state.
It usually goes after the subject:
Jack works on the 5
th
floor
We dont understand this

! An infinitive is the basic/root form of the verb.
For example: (to) be, (to) do, (to) take, (to) win, etc.:
To be or not to be?
I cant do this

! A gerund is the -ing form of the verb:
I hate flying
Thank you for listening

! A subject is the thing or person that goes before a verb:
The boy needs help
We walk to work

! An object is a thing or person that goes after the verb:
He loves them very much
She wants more money

! A noun is a thing or person.
It usually goes before a verb:
These plates are dirty!
That man lives in London

! A pronoun substitutes a noun:
Give me the books -> Give me them
Its her key -> Its hers

! An adjective describes something or somebody
It goes before a noun:
The blue pens are mine
Hes a very stupid man

! An adverb describes how? how much? when? where? etc.
It goes after a verb, but before an adjective:
He sings beautifully
Its an incredibly cheap watch

! A preposition describes position, direction, relation, etc.
It usually goes before a noun, pronoun or gerund:
Thanks for the biscuits
Give it to him
Im tired of studying

42510 A Good Deal / A Great Deal ! A good deal and a great deal are synonyms. They mean a lot and are
usually used with Uncountable nouns:
Daniels got a good deal of money
Daniels got a great deal of money
I spent a good deal of time preparing that meal!
I spent a great deal of time preparing that meal!

! Look at these typical mistakes:
A good deal of people applied Many / A lot of / Lots of / Loads of
A great deal of people applied Many / A lot of / Lots of / Loads of
We need a good deal of chairs many / a lot of / lots of / loads of
We need a great deal of chairs many / a lot of / lots of / loads of

! Remember that lots and loads are used informally and may not always be
appropriate in the context.

40709 A Little v. A Few ! We use (just) a little with Uncountable Nouns:
How much oil do we need?
Just a little (= Not much)

! We use (just) a few with Plural Nouns:
How many bananas do we need?
Just a few (= Not many)

40709 A Little v. Little, A Few v. Few ! A little (= some) is more positive than little (= hardly any):
Ive got a little money. I might buy a new suit! "
Ive got little money. I cant afford to buy a new suit #
Theres a little time left. Lets play another game! "
Theres little time left. I think thats enough for today #

! Similarly, a few (= some) is more positive than few (= hardly any):
Weve got a few days. Lets go camping! "
Weve got few days. We cant do much #
There are a few customers. We might sell everything! "
There are few customers. I cant see us selling much today #

! Remember we use little with Uncountable Nouns and few with Plurals:
Shes got a few time little
Ive got little friends few (little friends = small friends!)

42510 A Lot, Lots, etc. ! Lots and loads are informal alternatives for a lot:
Daniels got lots of money
Daniels got loads of money
Lots of people rang the TV station
Loads of people rang the TV station

! Look at these typical mistakes:
- Did many people go?
- A lot of! A lot!

- Did you spend much money?
- Lots of! Lots!

- Have we got enough time?
- Loads of! Loads!

42507 A Piece Of... When we want to make uncountable nouns singular, we sometimes use
the phrase a piece of + uncountable noun.

Learn these 10 common phrases:
information -> a piece of information an information
data -> a piece of data a data
advice -> a piece of advice an advice
furniture -> a piece of furniture a furniture
news -> a piece of news a news a new
luck -> a piece of luck a luck
art -> a piece of art an art
inspiration -> a piece of inspiration an inspiration
criticism -> a piece of criticism a criticism
work -> a piece of work a work

Look at these typical mistakes:
She gave me a good advice piece of advice
Thats a useful information piece of information
Ive bought a lovely furniture in the sales piece of furniture
I have a good news for you piece of news
Thats a terrible new! piece of news
That was a good luck! piece of luck
Its a fantastic art piece of art
Thats not a reliable data piece of data
Its a rare work of da Vinci piece of work by

43408 A/An ! We use the Indefinite Article a/an in the following situations:

! Non-Specific Singular Nouns
Is that an eagle or a hawk?
Ive got an idea for a film!
Ill have an orange juice, please
Could I have a pint of lager?

! Jobs
Janes an architect and Willys a teacher
Bobs a doctor and Samanthas an electrical engineer

! 100 / 1,000 / 1,000,000 / etc.
There are a hundred people outside NOT There are hundred
Shes got a thousand euros to spend NOT Shes got thousand
I can give you a million reasons NOT I can give you million

! Be careful with nouns beginning with the letter h or u. We use a or an
depending on whether the h or u is pronounced or silent respectively:
horse -> a house (the h is pronounced)
hour -> an hour (the h is silent)
university -> a university (the u is pronounced like you)
umbrella -> an umbrella (the u is pronounced like us)

41616 Activities: -ing ! We often use the ing form of verbs to create activities:
shop -> shopping
fish -> fishing
walk -> walking
smoke -> smoking
play football -> playing football
listen to the radio -> listening to the radio

! Look at these examples:
He hates shopping (activity = object)
We like playing football (activity = object)
She loves listening to the radio (activity = object)
Fishing is very relaxing (activity = subject)
Walking is good for the body (activity = subject)
Smoking is bad for your health (activity = subject)

! When an activity is the subject of the sentence, we must use the ing form
(the gerund). Look at these typical mistakes:
Drink too much isnt good for you Drinking
To work 20 hours a day is too much Working
Fry an egg isnt difficult! Frying
To use a mobile while driving is stupid Using

41023 Actually Actually is a False Friend for many learners of English. For example, it
does not mean actuellement (French) or actualmente (Spanish). It means
in fact / really:
- I suppose you enjoy your job?
- Well, actually, I hate it!

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Jim was at home, but actually hes at the pub now / at the moment
We are actually employing 400 people now / currently / at present
Actually we care more for our environment now / nowadays / these days

! Remember that the correct phrase is at the moment:
Im unemployed in this moment at the moment
Were having problems in these moments at the moment

43514 Adjectives ending in -y ! We often form adjectives by adding y to a noun. Look at these examples:
wind -> windy
rain -> rainy
sun -> sunny
boss -> bossy
mess -> messy
grease -> greasy
hair -> hairy
price -> pricey

43533 Adjectives: Gradable v. Non-Gradable ! Gradable (scalable) adjectives are adjectives that you can
modify/intensify using words like very, extremely, rather, etc. Most
adjectives are gradable. For example:
intelligent -> Shes very intelligent, Hes rather intelligent, etc.
boring -> Its fairly boring, Theyre extremely boring, etc.
tired -> Im pretty tired, You seem terribly tired, etc.

! Non-gradable (absolute) adjectives are, as the name suggests,
adjectives that you can not modify/intensify with words like very,
extremely, rather, etc. Extreme adjectives are the best example:
freezing -> Its extremely freezing, Im fairly freezing, etc.
exhausted -> Shes rather exhausted, Were pretty exhausted, etc.
amazing -> Thats very amazing, Its terribly amazing, etc.

! With extreme adjectives, it is possible, however, to use extreme adverbs
such as really, absolutely, totally, etc.:
Its absolutely freezing
Shes really exhausted
Thats totally amazing

! Nationalities and colours are normally non-gradable:
Shes Canadian, but not Shes very French
Hes Russian, but not Hes rather Russian
This shirt is orange, but not This shirt is fairly orange
These boots are grey, but not These boots are extremely grey

40103 Adjectives: -ing v -ed ! We use ing to describe something or somebody:
Legal documents are confusing for many people
The film was very frightening
Charles is the most entertaining person Ive ever met!
At times, Angela can be surprising

! We use ed to describe somebodys feelings:
Most normal people are confused by legal documents
We were frightened by the film
Everybody is entertained in Charless company!
Sometimes Im surprised by Angela

! Something or somebody is ...-ing. As a result, somebody is ...-ed:
Politicians are boring -> Im bored by politics
The film was interesting -> We were interested in the film

40421 Adverbs of Frequency (1): Types ! Look at these examples of Adverbs of Definite Frequency:
Once a week
Several times a year
Every day
Every couple of months
Every few years
Twice a week
On weekdays
Every morning
At weekends
Every other week
Three times a year

! Look at these examples of Adverbs of Indefinite Frequency:
Always
Almost always
Usually
Regularly
Normally
Generally
Frequently
Often
Sometimes
Occasionally
Rarely
Seldom
Hardly ever
Never

40422 Adverbs of Frequency (2): Position ! Adverbs of definite frequency
These usually come at the beginning or at the end of the sentence:
Twice a year, I visit Barcelona / I visit Barcelona twice a year
Every month we get paid / We get paid every month

! Adverbs of indefinite frequency:
The rules for these adverbs are rather more complex

! They go immediately before the main verb:
He usually wins He wins usually
They seldom help They help seldom

! They go immediately after be:
Shes rarely right Shes right rarely
Were frequently wrong Were wrong frequently

! They go immediately after auxiliary verbs eg. be and have:
Ive never won the pools I never have won the pools
Shes always complaining She always is complaining

! They go immediately after modal verbs eg. could, might, must, etc.:
I could normally run a mile in 5 minutes I normally could
They must sometimes ask for help They sometimes must

! They go immediately before used to and have to:
We hardly ever used to eat fish We used hardly ever to eat fish
It always has to rain on my birthday! It has always to rain on my birthday!

! They go after the subject in questions:
Has he always been so arguable? Has he been always so arguable?
Does she usually behave like that? Does she behave usually like that?

! Negative phrases like not always, not often, not generally, not usually, etc.
are never separated. They go after the first verb:
Shes not usually late for work Shes usually not late for work
He doesnt always pay attention He doesnt pay always attention

! When we use always or never to give instructions (imperatives), they go
at the beginning of the sentence:
Always be nice to your parents
Never eat too much before going to bed

40718 Adverbs of Manner ! An adverb of manner describes how we do something. It normally goes
after the verb:
He sings beautifully
She dances terribly

! To make adverbs we add -ly to the adjective:
bad -> badly
slow -> slowly

! If the adjective ends in y, change y to i and add ly:
happy -> happily
lucky -> luckily

! If the adjective ends in le, change e to y:
terrible -> terribly
gentle -> gently

! There are a few irregular adverbs of manner:
good -> well goodly
fast -> fast fastly
hard -> hard hardly
early -> early earlily
late -> late lately
long -> long longly

! This passage illustrates some typical mistakes:
Jennifer studied hardly for her exam. Every day she got up earlily and went
to bed lately. When the big day arrived, she didnt need to think longly
about her answers. She replied very fastly but she did very goodly.

Jennifer studied hard for her exam. Every day she got up early and went to
bed late. When the big day arrived, she didnt need to think long about her
answers. She replied very fast but she did very well.

! To form comparative adverbs, the same rules apply as for making
comparisons with adjectives. In other words, if the adverb has two or more
syllables (nearly always the case), use more or most:
She writes much more neatly than you do
I drive far more carefully than my brother
Gareth speaks French the most fluently of all of them
The person who answers the questions the most honestly will get the job

! The irregular adverbs of manner have the same comparative forms as
their adjectives:
Jack studied harder than me, but Debra studied the hardest
I usually get up earlier than Bob, but Pete gets up the earliest
It takes longer to get to work in the rush hour
Marjory always arrives the latest.Why is that?
Howard speaks faster than usual when hes nervous

! Both bad and good use the same comparative adverb forms as their
comparative adjective forms:
I type better than my father, but my sister types the best
I type worse than my sister, but my father types the worst

41409 Afraid, Alive, Asleep, Awake ! A few adjectives cannot be used before nouns. Most begin with a-.

! Look at these examples:
Are you awake?
Sh! Shes asleep!
Do you think hes still alive?
Youre not afraid, are you?

An awake student is better than an asleep one
A student who is awake is better than one who is asleep

He was an afraid man all his life
He was a frightened man all his life / He was afraid all his life

I dreamt I was attacked by an alive tiger
I dreamt I was attacked by a live tiger

41114 After, After that, etc. ! We always say after something:
After breakfast, I go to work
After having breakfast, she went to work
After the class, we played football
After 6 oclock, Im free to meet you
After that, we went home

! Look at this typical mistake:
I had a shower and, after, I got dressed
I had a shower and, after that, I got dressed

! You can also use afterwards as an alternative to after that:
I had a shower and, afterwards, I got dressed

43711 After, After that, etc. ! We always say after something:
After breakfast, I go to work
After having breakfast, she went to work
After the class, we played football
After 6 oclock, Im free to meet you
After that, we went home

! Look at this typical mistake:
I had a shower and, after, I got dressed
I had a shower and, after that, I got dressed

! You can also use afterwards as an alternative to after that:
I had a shower and, afterwards, I got dressed

40422 Almost / Nearly ! Almost and nearly mean the same and are interchangeable:
Ive almost finished / Ive nearly finished
Its almost 10 oclock / Its nearly 10 oclock
Almost everybody complained / Nearly everybody complained
Shes almost always right / Shes nearly always right

41903 Already / Just / Yet / Still We often use the Present Perfect Tense with already, just and (not) yet:
Have you decided where to go yet?
No, we havent thought about it yet
Ive just heard the news!
Theyve just told me too
Has Nigel already spoken to you?
Yes, hes already told me what to do

We often use the Present Continuous Tense with still:
Are you still tidying your room?
Yes, Im still doing it

Other tenses are sometimes possible:
eg.1 I saw Jane yesterday and she was still angry (= Past Simple)
eg.2 Do you know the answer yet? (= Present Simple)

40404 Arrive / Get / Reach ! We arrive in cities, towns, countries, etc. (places you live):
We arrived in Germany on the 14
th

What time did you arrive in London?

! We arrive at airports, stations, etc. (places in general):
I arrived at Heathrow at 9.30
What time did you arrive at Victoria Station?

! We arrive home/there:
I cant wait to arrive home and put my feet up! to home
We should arrive there in about half an hour to there

! We arrive early/late for something:
I arrived early for my class, so I had a coffee while I waited
Hes always late for his piano class

! We arrive early/late to somewhere:
She arrived late to class again yesterday
Why does John always arrive so early to work?

! We often use get to or reach as alternatives for arrive:
We got to Germany on the 14
th
We reached Germany on the 14
th
What time did you get to London?
What time did you reach London?
I got to Heathrow at 9.30
I reached Heathrow at 9.30
What time did you get to Victoria Station?
What time did you reach Victoria Station?
I cant wait to get home and put my feet up! get to home
I cant wait to reach home and put my feet up! reach to home
We should get there in about half an hour get to there
We should reach there in about half an hour reach to there

! If we get somebody to somewhere, it means we take them to a place:
We must get Barbara to a hospital. Shes in a lot of pain!

! If we reach somebody, it means we contact them:
We need to reach Bob urgently!

! Both get and reach often suggest difficulties:
Look at the traffic! Well never get there on time!
Do you think well reach Manchester before it gets dark?

44006 As Long As, Provided etc. ! We use as long as, provided, etc. to stress a condition (= if and only if):
You can join us as long as you behave
You can join us so long as you behave
You can join us provided you behave
You can join us provided that you behave
You can join us providing you behave
You can join us providing that you behave
You can join us on condition you behave
You can join us on condition that you behave

! After provided, providing and on condition, that is optional.

! We normally use as long as, etc. in affirmative statements. Look at these
typical mistakes:
Will you be angry as long as I go to the party? Will you be angry if?
Im not going so long as they invite me Im not going unless

40113 Ask We ask something:
Can I ask a question?
She asked if it was so important

We ask somebody:
Can I ask you?
She asked Steve

We ask somebody something:
Can I ask you a question?
She asked Steve if it was so important

We never say ask to:
Can I ask to you?
She asked to Steve
Can I ask to you a question?
She asked to Steve if it was so important

41316 Ask v. Tell We use tell somebody (that) to make Reported Statements:
She told John that they were leaving the following week
Did you tell Harriet I was angry with her?

! We use tell somebody to to make Reported Commands:
He told Gareth to leave them alone
They told me to be quiet or I would lose my job

! We use ask somebody to make Reported Questions:
Joanne asked Steve where he was going
He asked her if it was so important

! We use ask somebody to to make Reported Requests:
They asked us to leave before the guests arrived
Vic asked me to help him wash the car

! Look at these sentences:
Please listen carefully -> He asked us to listen carefully
Listen carefully! -> He told us to listen carefully

Pass the salt, will you? -> She asked me to pass the salt
Pass the salt! -> She told me to pass the salt

41409 Birth / Marriage / Death / Life ! The word born always appears in a passive construction with be:
I was born in 1970 NOT I born in 1970

! Birth is a noun. Dont confuse birthday with date of birth:
Could I have your date of birth, please?
Certainly: 10/10/1984

Whens your birthday?
The 9
th
of June

! The verb marry is used without a preposition:
Will you marry me?

! Get married refers to the action / cerfemony:
Theyre engaged and theyre going to get married in October

! Married refers to the state. Its the opposite of being single:
Is your brother married?

! Get married and be married take to when the person is mentioned:
Did you hear? Mark got married to Monica last week
Hes married to Jims sister

! Marriage is a noun. It refers to the state of being marriage:
I dont think they had a very happy marriage

! Wedding is a noun. It refers to the ceremony:
Did you enjoy the wedding?

! Dead is an adjective. Its the opposite of alive:
Wanted! Dead or Alive. Reward: $10,000

! Death is a noun:
His death came as quite a shock to us all

! Deadly means fatal, something that causes death, either literally or
figuratively:
It was a deadly race. Many died
Thats a deadly perfume youre wearing, Doris!

! Die is a verb:
How many people died in the war?

! Deathly is an adjective. It means like death:
Will broke the terrible news and there was a deathly silence

! Live /laiv/, pronounced like five, is an adjective / adverb meaning direct(ly):
And now Marty Jones joins us live from Brussels
Did you buy their live album?

! Live /liv/, pronounced like give, is a verb:
Where do you live?

! Alive is an adjective. Its the opposite of dead:
Wanted! Dead or Alive. Reward: $10,000

! Life is a noun:
This is my life and Ill do what I want!

42304 Can...? & Could...? ! We use Can? and Could? to ask for things, get information, get
permission, offer to do something, etc

! Asking For Information
Can I have your name, please?
Could I have your phone number, please?
Can you give me your full name, please?
Could you give me your date of birth, please?

! Asking For Something
Can I have some more wine, please?
Could I have another cup of coffee, please?
Can you give me the report, please?
Could you give me the results, please?
Can I see your permit, please?
Could you pass the salt, please?

! Asking Somebody To Do Something
Could you tell Mr. Jones that Jenny is here, please?
Can you tell her to call me, please?
Could you ask her if shes coming to the party?
Can you ask him to phone Peter, please?
Could you wait until we finish?
Can you spell that, please?
Could you say that again, please?
Can you speak up, please?

! Asking For Permission
Could I open the window?
Can I smoke here?
Can I ask you a few questions?
Could I interrupt you for a moment?

! Offering To Do Something
Can I take a message?
Can I take your coat?
Can I help you?
Can I get you a drink?

40712 Comparing: (Not) As/So As ! We use as + + as to express equality or similarity:
Im as tall as my father (tall = adjective)
Jane drives as well as her mother (well = adverb)
Hes got as much time as he wants (time = uncountable noun)
Shes seen as many places as I have (places = plural noun)

! We use not as/so + + as to express difference:
Im not as tall as my father
Im not so tall as my father
Jane doesnt drive as well as her mother
Jane doesnt drive so well as her mother
He hasnt got as much time as he wants
He hasnt got so much time as he wants
She hasnt seen as many places as I have
She hasnt seen so many places as I have

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Im as taller as my father tall
Im not as rich than my brother as
Jane drives so well as her mother as

40709 Comparing: As + Adjective + As ! We use (not) as + adjective + as to compare two things, situations, etc.:

! We use as + adjective + as to express equality or similarity:
Im as tall as my father
Janes as intelligent as her sister

! We use not as + adjective + as to express difference:
Im not as rich as my brother
Apartments arent as expensive as hotels

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Im as taller as my father tall
Im not as rich than my brother as

! Remember a-a-a: as + adjective + as

40709 Comparing: less, least ! The opposite of more + adjective / adjective + -er is less + adjective:
Bob is less tall than he appears on TV
Hes also less unfriendly than he looks

! The opposite of most + adjective / adjective + -est is least + adjective:
Option C is probably the least cheap
I think Option C will also be the least popular

! We can use less/least with any adjective the number of syllables is
irrelevant (unlike more/-er and most/-est).

! However, comparisons with more and most are much more usual:
Bob is shorter (less tall) than he appears on TV
Hes also friendlier (less unfriendly) than he looks
Option C is probably the most expensive (least cheap)
I think Option C will also be the most unpopular (least popular)

40709 Comparing: more + adjective / adjective + -er ! When we compare two things or two people, we use more + adjective +
than or adjective + -er + than (Comparative Structures)

! If the adjective has one syllable, use er:
small -> Cardiff is smaller than Edinburgh
short -> Im shorter than my father

! If the adjective ends in e, add r:
safe -> Swimming is safer than skiing
nice -> Mark is nicer than Jack

! If the adjective ends in Consonant + y, change the y to i, then add er:
dry -> London is drier than Edinburgh

! If the adjective ends in Consonant+Vowel+Consonant, double the final
consonant, then add er:
hot -> Madrid is hotter than Helsinki
slim -> My brother is slimmer than he was

! If the adjective has three syllables or more, use more:
expensive (ex-pen-sive) -> Hotels are more expensive than apartments
ridiculous (ri-di-cu-lous) -> Your story is more ridiculous than mine

! If the adjective has two syllables and ends in -y, we use er:
friendly (friend-ly) -> Bob and Pam are friendlier than Tim and Ann
healthy (health-y) -> My diet is healthier than yours

! If the adjective has two syllables and ends in ful, we use more:
useful (use-ful) -> Todays class was more useful than last weeks
painful (pain-ful) -> My tooth is more painful than it was yesterday

! If the adjective has two syllables and does not end in y or ful, we use er
or more depending on the adjective:
modern (mo-dern) -> This building is more modern than that one
clever (cle-ver) -> Samantha is cleverer than her sister

! With two-syllable adjectives, its often a question of personal preference:
simple (sim-ple) -> English is simpler / more simple than we thought
quiet (qui-et) -> This room is quieter / more quiet than that one

! There are three exceptions:
good -> better
My results were better than I expected gooder

bad -> worse
My results were worse than I expected badder

far -> further
New York is further than London farer

40709 Comparing: than ! We use than, not that, to compare two things, situations, etc:
Cardiff is less expensive than Edinburgh that
Edinburgh is more touristic than Cardiff
Cardiff is smaller than Edinburgh
Jenny has more friends than me
Are you better today than you were yesterday?
Better late than never!
Better safe than sorry!
Youre driving faster than you should
He drank much more than he realised

40709 Comparing: the ! We always use the before most or -est:
London is one of the most famous cities in the world
Rome is one of the nicest cities Ive ever visited
The most expensive hotels arent always the best ones
The quickest way to a mans heart is through his stomach

40709 Comparing: the most + adjective / the + adjective + -est ! When we compare more than two things or two people (everything or
everybody), we use the most + adjective or the + adjective + -est
(Superlative Structures)

! If the adjective has one syllable, use est:
small -> England is smaller than France, but Luxembourgs the smallest
short -> Im shorter than my father, but my mother is the shortest

! If the adjective ends in e, add st:
safe -> Walking is probably the safest sport
nice -> Mark is nicer than Jack, but Andys the nicest

! If the adjective ends in Consonant + y, change the y to i, then add est:
dry -> London is drier than Edinburgh, but Valencias the driest

! If the adjective ends in Consonant+Vowel+Consonant, double the final
consonant, then add est:
hot -> Madrid is hotter than Helsinki, but Cairos the hottest
slim -> My brother is the slimmest in our family

! If the adjective has three syllables or more, use most:
expensive (ex-pen-sive) -> A Mercedes is one of the most expensive cars
you can buy.
ridiculous (ri-di-cu-lous) -> Your story is the most ridiculous Ive ever heard!

! If the adjective has two syllables and ends in -y, we use est:
friendly (friend-ly) -> Steve and Carol are the friendliest people I know
healthy (health-y) -> My diet is healthier than yours, but Sandras is the
healthiest

! If the adjective has two syllables and ends in ful, we use most:
useful (use-ful) -> Todays class was the most useful in weeks!
painful (pain-ful) -> This is the most painful headache Ive ever had

! If the adjective has two syllables and does not end in y or ful, we use
est or most depending on the adjective:
modern (mo-dern) -> This church is the most modern one Ive ever seen
clever (cle-ver) -> Samantha is the cleverest person I know

! With two-syllable adjectives, its often a question of personal preference
or regional dialect:
simple (sim-ple) -> English is the simplest / most simple language
quiet (qui-et) -> This room is the quietest / most quiet

! There are three exceptions:
good -> best
My results were the best in the class! goodest

bad -> worst
My results were the worst in the class! baddest

far -> furthest
New York is further than London, but San Franciscos the furthest farest

42918 Compound Adjectives ! Compound adjectives are a common and useful feature of English. They
are formed from two or more words. We usually put hyphens between the
parts. Look at these examples:
A man with a kind heart = a kind-hearted man
An animal with cold blood = a cold-blooded animal
A film that lasts two hours = a two-hour film
A holiday that lasts three weeks = a three-week holiday
A decision taken at the last minute = a last-minute decision
A position that is not full-time = a part-time position
A system by which you pay per view = a pay-per-view system
A system by which you try before you buy = a try-before-you-buy system

! Remember that adjectives are always singular in English. Look at these
typical mistakes:
A thirteen-years-old girl a thirteen-year-old girl
A six-months project a six-month project
A five-minutes problem a five-minute project

42918 Compound Nouns ! We often find it useful to put two nouns together instead of using a longer
phrase. This is a natural and economical use of words. Look at these
examples of compound nouns:
a shop window = a window of a shop
a business trip = a trip for business
a university student = a student at university
office furniture = furniture for the office
work clothes = clothes for working

! In compound nouns the first noun in each pair is usually singular
because it is used like an adjective. The second noun is the real noun.
Look at these examples:
a tooth brush = a brush for cleaning your teeth teeth brush
a trouser press = a device for pressing trousers trousers press
apple juice = juice from apples apples juice
a road map = a map of roads roads map
a book list = a list of books books list

! The two parts of a compound noun can be joined, separated or,
occasionally, hyphened but, unfortunately, there are no simple rules. The
only way is to learn the correct written form for each new compound noun.
Hyphened compound nouns, however, are very rare, so, if in doubt, dont
put one.

! Examples of joined compound nouns
teapot, sunglasses, headphones, earmuffs

! Examples of separated compound nouns
airline pilot, bank manager, windscreen wiper, golf club

! Examples of hyphenated compound nouns
wind-surfing, pen-friend, choc-ice

! In any case, there is a lot of disagreement between native speakers on this
topic! For instance, is it flower pot, flower-pot or flowerpot? Is it tooth brush,
tooth-brush or toothbrush? Is it washing-machine or washing machine? Ask
your teacher they will probably say that it doesnt matter, so dont become
too obsessed with compound nouns!

44006 Conditions and Results: Position ! We can begin a sentence with the Condition (If...) and finish with the Result
(...would...): If + Condition, Result (would). For example:
If there were more policemen, we would catch more criminals
If we had less unemployment, the situation would be better

! Alternatively, we can begin with the Result (...would...) and finish with the
Condition (...if...): Result (would) if + Condition. For example:
We would catch more criminals if there were more policemen
The situation would be better if we had less unemployment

! Similarly, we can reverse the positions of the First Conditional and
Result (...will...)...

! If + Condition, Result (will):
If shes interested, well invite her
If they dont come, it will be a pity

! Result (will) if + Condition:
Well invite her if shes interested
It will be a pity if they dont come

43104 Defining Relative Clauses. ! Defining relative clauses give essential information about a person,
thing, place, time or reason. For example:
People who speak five languages fluently are hard to find

There are many people, but in this instance we are talking specifically
about those people who speak five languages fluently.

Similarly, in the sentence I know a bar where you can hear great live music,
I am not referring to any bar, but specifically to a bar where you can hear
great live music.

! Note that there are no commas in defining relative clauses:
Men, who do the ironing, are a rare breed
Men who do the ironing are a rare breed
Books, which both entertain and educate, are hard to find
Books which both entertain and educate are hard to find

! The relative pronoun is optional if it is the object of the relative clause:
The boy who you spoke to is the mayors son
The boy that you spoke to is the mayors son
The boy you spoke to is the mayors son (the boy = object)

The film which we saw was incredibly dull
The film that we saw was incredibly dull
The film we saw was incredibly dull (the film = object)

! The relative pronoun is necessary if it is the subject of the relative clause:
The girl who works with me is a pain
The girl that works with me is a pain
The girl works with me is a pain (the girl = subject)

The CD which is released today costs $10
The CD that is released today costs $10
The CD is released today costs $10 (the CD = subject)

43711 Despite / In Spite Of v. Instead Of ! Many learners confuse these words

! Despite (ONE word) and in spite of (THREE words) are linkers of
contrast. They are synonyms with a meaning similar to even (after)
considering:
Im going to accept the job despite the low salary.
Im going to accept the job in spite of the low salary.
They won the game despite having one player less.
They won the game in spite of having one player less.
They won the game despite the fact that they had one player less.
They won the game in spite of the fact that they had one player less.

Look at these typical mistakes:
Despite of the weather, we went out Despite the weather
In spite the weather, we went out In spite of the weather
Inspite of the weather, we went out In spite of the weather
Despite I was hungry, I didnt have lunch Despite the fact that
In spite of I was hungry, I didnt have lunch In spite of the fact that

! Instead of (TWO words) means as an alternative to:
Ive decided to go skiing this Christmas instead of staying at home
Cant you do something useful instead of just sitting there?
In the end, I bought two shirts instead of a jumper.

! There is no relation between in spite of (3 words, = despite) and instead of
(2 words, = as an alternative to). Look at these typical mistakes:
Instead of the snow, I drove to work In spite
Ill have tea in spite of coffee today instead
I drove to work inspite of the snow in spite (2words)
Today Ill have tea in stead of coffee instead (1word)

42001 Didnt v. Never never + affirmative past verb is more emphatic than didnt + infinitive. It
usually expresses surprise or irritation:
They didnt give us the solution -> They never gave us the solution!
I didnt find what I wanted -> I never found what I wanted!

never + affirmative past verb often refers to a repeated situation:
I hated school! I never understood anything!
She was a terrible boss! You never knew what she was going to do next!

never used to is an emphatic alternative for didnt use to or used not
to :
You never used to complain about my cooking!
(= You didnt use to complain / You used not to complain)
Brian never used to drink so much wine, did he?!
(= Brian didnt use to drink / Brian used not to drink)

40113 Direct Questions v. Indirect Questions ! Look at these examples of Direct Questions:
Where are the lifts?
Do you know?
What does Jeff want?
Can you ask him?

Indirect Questions are questions inside questions. For example:
Do you know where the lifts are? where are the lifts
Can you ask Jeff what he wants? what does he want

! With Indirect Questions, the word order is the same as in Direct
Statements (eg. where the lifts are / what he wants). This is because the
question has already been formed (eg. Do you know? / Can you ask Jeff?)

41301 Down & Phrasal Verbs ! Down often combines with a verb to indicate one of the following

! Writing / Recording
eg. write sth down, note sth down, get sth down, take sth down, etc.
Have you written everything down?
I think Id better note that down
Did you manage to get everything down?
I want you all to take this down, so listen carefully!

! Reducing / Decreasing
eg. slow down, cut down on sth, come down, turn sth. down, etc.
Can you slow down? I cant follow you!
We ought to cut down on chocolate
At last, petrol prices are coming down
Turn that music down!

! Destroying / Grounding
eg. break sth down, pull sth down, cut sth down, come down
They had no choice but to break the door down
Theyre going to pull those old cottages down
Well have to cut this tree down.
A lot of telegraph poles came down during the storm

! Stopping / Ending
eg. break down, close sth down, die down, calm down
My old portables broken down again
Weve decided to close the business down
Once the applause had died down, the presenter continued
They had to wait several days for things to calm down

44111 Emphatic Sentences: Do / Does / Did, etc. ! Auxiliaries - eg. do, does, did, etc. - can be used in commands, invitations
and statements for special emphasis. In verb structures which already
contain an auxiliary the emphasis is achieved, in spoken English, simply
by stressing the auxiliary and in written English by underlining or putting
the auxiliary in italics. Look at these examples:
I really did enjoy that excursion!
She does know how to speak in public!
Do be patient, Mr Jones!
You dont love me any more But I do love you!
They cant come this afternoon But they can come! They told me so
Youve never tried to understand him But I have tried!
You didnt enjoy the concert much, did you? I did like it!
They arent interested, are they? They are interested!

41418 Enough v. Plenty ! Plenty means more than enough:
- Have we got enough pasta?
- Plenty! Weve got enough to feed a regiment!

- Are you sure about this?
- Yes, weve got plenty of time

! Plenty does not mean a lot. Look at these typical mistakes:
The concert was plenty of people packed / crowded
Is the tank plenty? full

41418 Enough: Adjectives and Adverbs ! Enough always goes after the adjective or adverb:
He isnt old enough to drive yet
She isnt tall enough to reach the top shelf
He didnt run fast enough to catch the ball
They didnt play well enough to win the league

! Look at these typical mistakes:
He isnt enough old to drive yet old enough
She isnt enough tall to reach the top shelf tall enough
He didnt run enough fast to catch the ball fast enough
They didnt play enough well to win the league well enough

41418 Enough: Nouns ! Enough always goes before the noun:
Hes got enough money to retire
There arent enough chairs for everyone
We have enough projects to keep us busy!
There isnt enough time to do everything

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Hes got money enough to retire enough money
There arent chairs enough for everyone enough chairs
We have projects enough to keep us busy! enough projects
There isnt time enough to do everything enough time

40814 False Friends: Sensible, Sympathetic If you are sensible, you think carefully about what you do. If something is
sensible, it is wise, a good idea. Sensible is not related to feelings:
That was very sensible of you to take an umbrella.
Debs a very sensible person. She always takes the right decision

! If you are sensitive, you are easily affected. This may be a quality (having
feelings or consideration for peoples needs and wants) or it may be a
defect (easily offended or overemotional):
Good managers are sensitive to their workers demands
Be careful what you say to Linda. You know how sensitive she is!

! Sympathy means compassion: feeling sorry for somebody because we
understand their situation. Somebody who feels sympathy is sympathetic.

For many European learners of English, words like sympathetic and
sensible are problematic because their languages have words that look
similar but have different meanings, for example simptico and sensible
in Spanish. We call these words False Friends because they are not what
they appear to be! So, sympathetic is a false friend for a Spanish-speaking
learner of English and, conversely, simptico is a false friend for an
English-speaking learner of Spanish. Here are some more common False
Friends: actually, carpet, idiom, library and realise. Do you know what they
mean? Check in a good dictionary if youre unsure.

We will work more on False Friends in Level 5.

44006 First Conditionals ! Look at this example of a First Conditional:
IF they invite me, Ill go

! The Conditional verb the Secondary Clause refers to a Future
Possibility, but we use the Present Simple:
If they invite me... If they will invite me

! The Result verb the Main Clause - is in the Future:
... Ill go

! The condition If they invite me - is possible (50-50):
Maybe they will invite me. Maybe they wont (will not) invite me

! IF the condition is true, the result Ill go - is certain (100%):
Certainly I will go... but ONLY IF they invite me...

! Look at these typical mistakes:
If they will invite me, Ill go
Ill need my jersey if I will get cold
What will you do if they will ignore your request?

42011 Fit / Suit / Match ! Fit means be the right size:
These shoes dont fit. Have you got a larger size?

! Suit means look good:
I like your glasses. They suit you!

! Match means go well with:
Thats a lovely bag. It matches your outfit

41903 For v. Since ! We use for to express the DURATION of the action:
Weve known Bill for 10 years since

! We use since to indicate the STARTING POINT of the action.
Weve known Bill since 1996 for

42807 Future (01): Plans / Going To ! We use (be) going to + verb when we want to express future plans:
What are you going to do with all that money?
Im going to buy a new house
Brian hates his work but he isnt going to look for a new job

42807 Future (02): Spontaneous Decisions / Will ! We use Ill Well etc. for spontaneous decisions

! Offering to do something
-This exercise is impossible!
-Ill help you do it

! Promising to do something
-I really need that report
-Well do it this afternoon

! Threatening to do something
-We cant refund your money
-Ill take you to court!

! We often introduce spontaneous decisions with Perhaps Ill... Maybe Ill... or
I think Ill...:
Perhaps Ill go for a walk
Maybe Ill try that again
I think Ill leave it there

42807 Future (03): Decisions / Going To v. Will ! When a decision is made before speaking (when it is planned), we use an
appropriate form of (be) going to:
Im going to visit my aunt in Boston this summer
Peters going to start looking for another job
Why are you going to study law?
Shes going to speak to her teacher

! When a decision is made while speaking (when it is spontaneous), we
use an appropriate form of will:
I think Ill go and see that new play at The Odeon
Maybe Ill go fishing
Well help you with your bags
Perhaps Ill get a job as a painter

42807 Future (04): Predictions / Going To ! We use (be) going to + verb when we predict the future:
I think its going to rain
Im never going to pass my exams
Are they going to get married?

! We usually use going to (instead of will) when there is clear evidence to
support the prediction:
I think its going to rain (Can you hear the thunder?)
Im never going to pass my exams (Look at these results!)
Are they going to get married? (Thats what everybody is saying!)

42807 Future (05): Predictions / Will We use will, ll or wont to make predictions. ll is a contracted form of
will, and wont is the negative form of will:
Itll rain non-stop (= It will rain)
Therell be black clouds (= There will be)
It wont rain much (= It will not rain)
There wont be any fog for once (= There will not be)
Youll be able to see where youre driving. (= You will be)
Northern Ireland will have a bit of everything. Northern Irelandll

We use will and not the short form ll after Ireland because we normally
use contractions after short words like I, you, there, Dad, etc.

42807 Future (06): Predictions / Going To v. Will We normally use will to make predictions:
They say itll be good weather this weekend
Maybe youll be wrong this time
The bus wont wait for us

We use (be) going to when the speaker sees clear evidence now to
justify their prediction:
We all know its going to rain (Evidence = It always rains at the weekend!)
Were going to miss the last bus (Evidence = were still in the office!)

We can use either going to or will after think :
Who do you think will win the Cup?
Who do you think is going to win the Cup?
I think Brazils going to win
I think Brazil will win

42807 Future (07): Facts / Will We use will when a future event is a fact:
Tomorrow will be Friday
Ill be 28 next year
The shops wont be open tomorrow

! Alternatively, we can use the Present Simple:
Tomorrow is Friday
Im 28 next year
The shops arent open tomorrow

42807 Future (08): Going To v. Will Going to (1) Plans
What are you going to do?
Im going to have a big party

Going to (2) - Predictions (Based on Evidence)
Whats going to happen?
Hes going to have a terrible accident

Will / ll (1) - Spontaneous Decisions
I think Ill send flowers
Maybe Ill buy her a book

Will / ll (2) - Predictions (No Evidence Necessary)
What will they do?
They wont wait for us

Will / ll (3) - Facts (Inevitable Events)
Tomorrow will be Friday
Ill be 28 next year

42807 Future (09): Arrangements / Present Continuous ! We use the Present Continuous for arrangements (mutual plans):
Im meeting Jim later for a beer
(I know. Jim knows)

Janes coming for dinner tonight
(Jane knows. We know)

Richards taking Samantha home
(Richard knows. Samantha knows / Samanthas parents know / etc.)

42807 Future (10): Plans / Intentions v. Arrangements ! Plans can be either personal (intentions) or mutual (arrangements).

! We use going to for any plan (intention or arrangement):
Im going to have a beer when I get home (intention)
Were going to drive to the coast (intention)
Bobs going to meet Jenny at 3 oclock (arrangement)
My mothers going to stay with us over Christmas (arrangement)

! We use the Present Continuous for arrangements only:
Bobs meeting Jenny at 3 oclock
My mothers staying with us over Christmas

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Im having a beer when I get home (intention -> going to have)
Were driving to the coast (intention -> going to drive)

42807 Future (11): Timetabled Actions / Present Simple ! We use the Present Simple for Timetabled Actions:
The train leaves at 13:43
We arrive in Manchester at 20:14
On Friday we sleep at the sports centre
On Sunday we decamp and head north

42807 Future (12): Facts / Present Simple We use the Present Simple when a future event is a fact:
Tomorrow is Friday
Im 28 next year
The shops arent open tomorrow

! Alternatively, we can use will:
Tomorrow will be Friday
Ill be 28 next year
The shops wont be open tomorrow

42807 Future (13): Subordinate Clauses / Present Simple ! If the Main Clause refers to a Future Action, the verb in the Subordinate
Clause is usually in the Present Simple:
Remember to call us when you arrive
Im going to phone you as soon as my plane lands
Ill need them if I get hungry
Put this jersey on before you catch a cold

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Remember to call us when you will arrive
Im going to phone you as soon as my plane will land
Ill need them if I will get hungry
Put this jersey on before you will catch a cold

42807 Future (14): Actions in Progress / Future Continuous ! We use the Future Continuous (will be ing) to say that an action will
be in progress at a definite time in the future:
This time next week, well be flying to Miami
Years from now, youll be remembering these chats fondly

42807 Future (15): Completed Actions / Future Perfect ! We use the Future Perfect (will have + past participle) to describe
something that will be completed by a definite time in the future:
By the end of the day, Ill have answered about 120 letters
By next month, well have taken a definite decision

42807 Future (16): Summary Going to (1) Plans (Intentions / Arrangements)
Im going to have a big party
Malcolms going to join us for lunch

Going to (2) - Predictions (Based on Evidence)
Whats going to happen?
Hes going to have a terrible accident

Will / ll (1) - Spontaneous Decisions
I think Ill send flowers
Maybe Ill buy her a book

Will / ll (2) - Predictions (No Evidence Necessary)
What will they do?
They wont wait for us

Will / ll (3) - Facts (Inevitable Events)
Tomorrow will be Friday
Ill be 28 next year

! Present Simple (1) - Timetabled Actions
The train leaves at 13:43
We arrive in Manchester at 20:14

Present Simple (2) Facts (Inevitable Events)
Tomorrow is Friday
Im 28 next year

! Present Simple (3) - Subordinate Clauses
Remember to call us when you arrive
Im going to phone you as soon as my plane lands

! Present Continuous - Arrangements
Im meeting Jim later for a beer
Janes coming for dinner tonight

! Future Continuous (will be ing) - Actions in Progress
This time next week, well be flying to Miami
Years from now, youll be remembering these chats fondly

! Future Perfect (will have + past participle) Completed Actions
By the end of the day, Ill have written about 200 emails
By next month, well have taken a definite decision

43406 Gain, Earn, Win, Beat ! We win cups, competitions, games, prizes, etc

! We earn money, recognition, respect, etc. in exchange for our work

! We gain an advantage, a lead, an edge, territory, etc. (similar to obtain)

! We beat our opponent, the other team, our competitors, etc.

! Look at these typical mistakes:
You win more than me! earn more
We won Liverpool 3-1 last night beat Liverpool
Its been hard, but were winning ground gaining ground

42001 Giving Advice: Had better ! We use had better to to give advice or make recommendations:
-Ive got a headache
-Youd better to take an aspirin...

-Im bored
-Wed better go for a walk...

-Shes full up
-Shed better not to eat so much...

! The negative form is had better not

! We normally use the contracted form of had: d

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Youd better not to laugh at Cathy. Youd better to be nice to her.
Youd better not laugh at Cathy. Youd better be nice to her.

42001 Giving Advice: If I were you, Id... ! We use If I were you, Id... to give advice

! The negative form is If I were you, I wouldnt...

! Examples
-Its my sons birthday.
-If I were you, Id buy him a new cricket bat

-I dont understand this sentence
-If I were you, I wouldnt worry about it

! This structure is an example of a Second Conditional.

42001 Giving Advice: Ought to ! We use ought to to give advice or make recommendations:
-Ive got a headache
-You ought to take an aspirin...

-Im bored
-We ought to go for a walk...

-Shes full up
-She ought not to eat so much...

! The negative form is ought not to (no contraction)

! Remember to use to after ought

! Look at these typical mistakes:
You oughtnt laugh at Cathy. You ought be nice to her.
You ought not to laugh at Cathy. You ought to be nice to her.

42001 Giving Advice: Should ! We use should to give advice or make recommendations:
-Ive got a headache
-You should take an aspirin...

-Im bored
-We should go for a walk...

-Shes full up
-She shouldnt eat so much...

! The negative form is shouldnt

! We do not use to after should

! Look at these typical mistakes:
You shouldnt to laugh at Cathy. You should to be nice to her.
You shouldnt laugh at Cathy. You should be nice to her.

42001 Giving Advice: Summary ! There are several ways we can give advice:
# I dont understand this text...

$ You should pay more attention in class
$ You shouldnt worry about understanding all the words
$ You ought to concentrate on the general meaning
$ You ought not to read so slowly
$ Youd better tell your teacher you need help
$ Youd better not take the exam in June
$ Why dont you ask your teacher for help?
$ If I were you, Id buy a new dictionary

42001 Giving Advice: Why dont you...? ! We use Why dont you...? to give advice or make suggestions:

! Examples
-Its our wedding anniversary
-Why dont you go away for the weekend?

-I dont understand this sentence
-Why dont you buy a good dictionary?

! We can also say Why dont we...? Why dont they...? etc:
-This roundabout is very dangerous
-Why dont they put traffic lights?

-Im tired! Arent you?
-Why dont we leave it for today?

40718 Hard v.Hardly ! There is no relation between hard and hardly.

! The adverb related to hard is hard, not hardly:
Hes always been a hard worker -> Hes always worked hard hardly
She had a hard think before agreeing -> She thought hard before agreeing

! Hardly means not much / not a lot:
Susan hardly studied for the exam, but she still passed!
Jack hardly speaks to us now that hes been promoted

! Hardly is often used before any:
Weve got hardly any milk. Could you go and get some?
Hardly anybody defended me at the meeting
Shes a very calm person. Hardly anything worries her

! Hardly ever means almost never / nearly never:
They hardly ever invite us out
He hardly ever complains
She hardly ever comes with us

42611 Have (got) v. Have (got) to - Possession v. Obligation Dont confuse have (got) something = possession with have (got) to do
something = obligation:

Possession
I have a nice car / Ive got a nice car
She has 3 brothers / Shes got 3 brothers

Obligation
We have to paint the kitchen / Weve got to paint the kitchen
He has to buy a new computer / Hes got to buy a new computer

43206 Have Something Done / Get Something Done ! If we pay somebody to do something for us, we have it done:
I had my hair cut yesterday
Im going to have my kitchen refitted
How often do you have your eyes checked?
We should have our home assessed
Jane plans to have her car serviced before the holiday

! We can use get instead of have with the same meaning:
I got my hair cut yesterday
Im going to get my kitchen refitted
How often do you get your eyes checked?

! The phrase get something done is slightly more informal than have
something done

41707 Help ! We help somebody (to) do something:
Can you help me get the dinner?
Can you help me to get the dinner?
Ill help you wash up
Ill help you to wash up

! We cant help doing something (its inevitable):
I cant help wondering how shes getting on
He cant help crying every time he thinks about it
I couldnt help noticing that painting. Is it for sale?

41903 How long? v. How long ago...? ! We use How long ago? + the Past Simple to ask about when a
completed action happened:
How long ago was he in London?
How long ago did you have breakfast?

! We use How long? + the Present Perfect to ask about the duration of an
unfinished action:
How long have they been in France?
How long has America been independent?

44427 Hypothesising (1): I Wish / If Only ! There are several ways to express wishes in English but the most common
phrases are I wish and If only

! We use I wish and If only with the Past Simple when we would like to
change the present situation. The desired change may be either likely or
impossible:
I wish I earned more money! (but I dont)
If only I earned more money! (but I dont)

If only I had more free time! (but I dont)
I wish I had more free time! (but I dont)

! We use I wish and If only with could to express wishes related to ability:
I wish I could Speak Japanese! (but I cant)
If only I could speak Japanese! (but I cant)

! We use I wish and If only with would when something is annoying us
and we want it to stop:
I wish you would stop playing your music so loud!
If only my students would learn how to use wish correctly!

! Note that we do not normally say I wish I would to express annoyance
because we would be complaining about our own actions.

! We use I wish and If only with the Past Perfect to express a regret about
the past an impossible wish:
I wish you'd told me you loved me! (but you didnt).
If only youd told me you loved me! (but you didnt)

I wish Id studied! I wouldnt have failed (but I did)
If only Id studied! I wouldnt have failed (but I did)

! Note that the contracted forms youd told and Id studied in the above
examples are abbreviations of the past perfect:
I wish you had told me I wish you would told me
I wish I had studied I wish I would studied

44431 Hypothesising (2): Suppose / Imagine ! Look at these ways of introducing a hypothetical situation:
Suppose I offered you 1 million dollars to sleep with me
Supposing I offered you 1 million dollars to sleep with me
Imagine I offered you 1 million dollars to sleep with me
What if I offered you 1 million dollars to sleep with me?

! If the hypothetical situation is in the Present, the verb is in the Past:
Suppose I told you a secret
Supposing we agreed to let you use our offices for free
Imagine somebody asked you to lend them 500
What if you had all the money in the world?

! If the hypothetical situation is in the Past, the verb is in the Past Perfect:
Suppose Id told you a secret
Supposing wed agreed to let you use our offices for free
Imagine somebody had asked you to lend them 500
What if youd had all the money in the world?...

44431 Hypothesising (3): Its Time ! The expression Its time can be followed by an infinitive:
Its time to buy a new car
He realised it was time to buy a car

! When we want to say who is going to do the action, we use Its time for:
+object +infinitive:
Its time for us to buy a new car
He realised (that) it was time for him to buy a new car

! This expression can also be followed by a subject with a past verb but with
present meaning. Its often used to criticise or to complain about
something:
Its time we bought a new car
The floor is filthy. Its time we cleaned it

! We can make the criticism stronger by putting about or high before time:
Its about time you did something instead of just talking
Its high time you did something instead of just talking

44106 I think so, I hope so, etc. ! I hope so, I think so, etc. are short answers which we often use as
alternatives to Yes or No:
Do you think its going to rain?
I hope so / I hope not
I expect so / I expect not
I suppose so / I suppose not
I think so / I dont think so

! We use hope to express a desire; expect or suppose to express a good
possibility; and think to express an opinion.

! I dont think so is more usual than I think not.

44107 I think I dont think ! After think, the verb is always positive, so we use dont think if we want to
express a negative idea:
I think its going to rain
I think it isnt going to rain -> I dont think its going to rain

She thinks the plan will work
She thinks the plan wont work -> She doesnt think the plan will work

I think you can never justify capital punishment
I dont think you can ever justify capital punishment

! Remember: Think Positive!

44431 Id Rather / Id Sooner / Id Prefer



! There are many different ways to express preference:

prefer (doing) sth to (doing) sth.
I prefer (studying) Goyas paintings to (studying) Picassos

would prefer to do sth
Id prefer to stay here

would prefer to do sth (rather) than do sth
Id prefer to stay here (rather) than start looking for another hotel

would prefer it if sb did sth
Id prefer it if she didnt come

would rather do sth
Id rather stay here

would rather do sth than do sth
Id rather stay here than start looking for another hotel

would rather sb did sth
Id rather she didnt come

would sooner do sth
Id sooner stay here

would sooner do sth than do sth
Id sooner stay here than start looking for another hotel


would sooner sb did sth
Id sooner she didnt come

! Note that we can use prefer for both specific and general preferences,
but we can only use sooner or rather to express a specific preference at a
specific moment:
I prefer chicken to lamb (general)
Id prefer to have chicken (specific occasion)
Id rather have chicken (specific occasion)
Id sooner have chicken (specific occasion)

44006 If I were you... ! We use If I were... + somebody to introduce impossible conditions:
If I were you, Id get her a new handbag (but Im not you, so I cant)
If I were President, Id abolish that law (but Im not President, so I cant)
If I were Jackie, Id speak to them (but Im not Jackie, so I cant)
If I were Ms. Jones, Id get a secretary (but Im not Ms. Jones, so I cant)

40113 Indirect Questions With indirect questions, the word order and stucture is the same as in
Direct Statements

The subject must come before the verb:
Do you know where Jane is going? is Jane going?
Shall we ask her what she was doing? was she doing?
I wonder what theyve been doing! have they been doing?
Did she tell you where theyd been? had they been?

We dont use the auxiliaries do, does or did:
Can you tell us how the party went? did the party go?
Do you know where he lives? does he live?

43711 Inversion in Negative Sentences ! If we begin a sentence with a Negative phrase eg. No, Not, Never -
we invert the subject and verb as if we were forming a question:
Not only is Bob arrogant, hes also very narrow-minded
Not only did we lose the match, we were fined 3000 as well!
Not only does Spain have great wine, they have great beaches too
Not once had she spoken to me until that day
Never have I heard of anything so stupid
Never again will I agree to do that
No sooner had Jack arrived than we started arguing
Under no circumstances can we agree to a refund
Rarely does one find a character as popular as Harry Potter
Seldom did she complain about her arthritis
Hardly ever would he talk to us after that

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Not only Bob is arrogant, is Bob
Not only we lost the match, did we lose
Not only Spain has great wine, does Spain have / has Spain got
Not once she had spoken had she
Never I have heard of have I
Never again I will will
No sooner Jack had arrived than had Jack arrived
Under no circumstances we can can we
Rarely one finds a character does one find
Seldom she complained did she complain
Hardly ever he would talk would he talk

40215 Journey / Trip / Travel ! Journey refers exclusively to transport. Trip refers to both transport and,
especially, the visit. Travel is the action: its normally used as a verb.

! Look at these examples:
- Did you have a good journey?
- Fine thanks. I slept throughout!

- Did you have a good trip?
- Oh yes! Rome is just amazing!

- How do you travel to work?
- On bike most days, but today I walked.

! Look at these typical mistakes:
The trip to Washington took 7 hours. journey
I have an important business journey next month. trip
It was a very interesting travel. journey/trip
I hate journeying travelling

! Remember: trip = journey + visit

43403 Lend/Give/Sell, Borrow/Take/Buy ! These words share similar structures

! lend / give / sell
We lend somebody something
We lend something to somebody
We give somebody something
We give something to somebody
We sell somebody something
We sell something to somebody

Examples
Did you lend your motorbike to Peter?
Did you lend Peter your motorbike?
Did you give your motorbike to Peter?
Did you give Peter your motorbike?
Did you sell your motorbike to Peter?
Did you sell Peter your motorbike?

! The opposite of lend is borrow
The opposite of give is take
The opposite of sell is buy

! borrow / take / buy
We borrow something from somebody
We borrow something off somebody
We take something from somebody
We take something off somebody
We buy something from somebody
We buy something off somebody

Examples
Did you borrow a CD from Janice?
Did you borrow a CD off Janice?
Did you take a CD from Janice?
Did you take a CD off Janice?
Did you buy a CD from Janice?
Did you buy a CD off Janice?

! The opposite of borrow is lend
The opposite of take is give
The opposite of buy is sell

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Did you borrow a pen to Marjory? from / off
Can you borrow me a pencil? lend
Ill lend Brians car borrow
I bought a lovely vase to them from / off

40709 Less v. Fewer ! We use less with Uncountable Nouns:
Ive got very little money, but poor Dave has less! (less money)
She has little time to relax, but Ive got much less! (less time)

! We use fewer with Plural Nouns:
Hes got very few friends, but Ive got even fewer! (fewer friends)
They have few free days off, but we have far fewer! (fewer days)

44403 Let / Permission If we let somebody do something, we allow (permit) them to do it:
I thought they would say no, but they let me sit at the front
Should we let them go to the fair?

! We do not use let in passive sentences. Use allow:
I thought they would say no, but I was allowed to sit at the front
Should they be allowed to go to the fair?

! Look at these typical mistakes:
I thought they would say no, but they let me to sit at the front let me sit
Should we let them to go to the fair? let them go
I was let to sit at the front allowed to sit

41011 Like (1): Introduction Like can be used as a verb or as a preposition. There is no relation
between these two uses. Look at these examples:
Do you like swimming? (verb = enjoy)
I like Tom better now that I know him (verb = appreciate)
Shes a bit like my sister (preposition = similar to)
Poor countries such as Sudan need our help (preposition = for example)

41011


Like (2): General Likes & Dislikes ! When we talk about likes and dislikes, the following verb takes an ing
form:
We love playing tennis
Do you like going for walks?
I dont mind shopping
He doesnt like watching TV
She hates cooking
They cant stand getting up early

41011 Like (3): Would Like To v. Like + Ing ! We use Would you like? to offer something:
Would you like anything to drink?
Would you like anything to eat?
Would you like a room with a bath?
Would you like a single room?

! We use Id like to say what we want:
Id like a beer, please
Id like a double room, please
Id like to see the manager
Id like to visit Australia one day
! Id like is a contraction of I would like.

! We use Id like and Would you like? in specific moments or situations:
Id like a beer, please (now)
Would you like to visit Australia? (one day)

! We use I like and Do you like? (Present Simple) to refer to general
situations:
I like biscuits with my tea (habit)
Do you like cheese? (fact)

! Look at these typical mistakes:
-What do you like? What would you like?
-I like a black coffee, please Id like a black coffee, please
-Do you like anything to eat?... Would you like anything to eat?...

41011 Like (4): Preferences: Like To ! We use like to do something to express a preference (not necessarily
enjoyment!). Look at these examples:
Jack likes to do the shopping on Friday to have more free time on Saturday
Pat likes to work mornings. That way, she doesnt miss her yoga class

! In the examples above, Jack probably doesnt enjoy doing the shopping
but if he has to do the shopping, he prefers to do it on Fridays. Similarly,
Pat probably doesnt like working but if she has to work, she prefers
mornings to afternoons.

41011 Like (5): Prefer A to B ! When we talk about preferences, we use prefer A to B:
I prefer cats to dogs
She prefers jogging to swimming

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Do you prefer whisky than gin? -> Do you prefer whisky to gin?
We prefer driving than flying -> We prefer driving to flying

41011 Like (6): Descriptions: What like? ! We ask Whatslike? or What waslike? when we want a description of
somebody or something:
Whats your sister like?
Whats Bilbao like?
What was the match like?

! Look at this typical mistake:
- Whats your brother like?
- Football, basketball, (Hes tallish, outgoing,)
The listener understood What does your brother like?

41011 Like (7): Abilities: Whatlike at? ! We use What are you like at? Whats Jane like at? etc. to ask about
somebodys ability :
What are you like at golf?
What were you like at physics when you were at school?
Whats Martha like at chess?

41011 Like (8): Feel Like We say feel like (doing) something to say what we want to do:
I feel like a coffee (= I want a coffee)
I dont feel like going out tonight (= I dont want to go out tonight)

! We use fancy in exactly the same way (same meaning, same structure):
I fancy a coffee (= I want a coffee)
I dont fancy going out tonight (= I dont want to go out tonight)

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Do you feel like to come with us? coming
Do you fancy to come with us? coming
I dont feel like to visit her today visiting
I dont fancy to visit her today visiting

43708 Linking Words and Phrases ! Linking words and phrases linkers for short connect ideas related to:
Addition: moreover, furthermore
Contrast: however, despite
Time: as soon as, firstly
Cause: because of, since
Result: therefore, consequently
Condition: as long as, unless
Clarification: namely, in other words
Purpose: in order to, so as to
Exemplification: for instance, for example
Similarity: similarly, in the same way

! A good command of linkers is essential at both a written and spoken level.
(Linkers do not only appear in Cambridge First Certificate exams!). Below,
we list the most used / useful ones, together with examples

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (01): ADDITION, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (01): ADDITION, Examples Its a ridiculous idea. Moreover, theyll never agree.
Its a ridiculous idea. Furthermore, theyll never agree.
Its a ridiculous idea. Besides, theyll never agree.
Besides losing the game, they were also fined 10,000
I attach our offer. In addition, Im attaching our current price list.
I attach our offer in addition to our current price list.
I attach our offer in addition to including our current price list.
I attach our offer. Im attaching our current price list as well.
I attach our offer as well as our current price list.
I attach our offer as well as including our current price list.
I attach our offer, together with our current price list.
I attach our offer, along with our current price list.
Were not interested. Whats more, weve got a better idea.
Were not interested. Also, weve got a better idea.
Were not interested. Plus, weve got a better idea.
Both Dan and Wendy seemed surprised by the decision.
Hes not only angry with us but hes also threatening to sue.
Hes not only angry with us but hes threatening to sue, too.
Hes not only angry with us but hes threatening to sue, as well.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (02): CONTRAST, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (02): CONTRAST, Examples Weve thought hard. However, were decided to reject your offer.
Weve thought hard. Nevertheless, were decided to reject your offer.
Weve thought hard. Nonetheless, were decided to reject your offer.
Im going to accept the job despite the low salary.
Im going to accept the job in spite of the low salary.
They won the game despite having one player less.
They won the game in spite of having one player less.
They won the game despite the fact that they had one player less.
They won the game in spite of the fact that they had one player less.
They won the game although they had one player less.
They won the game even though they had one player less.
They won the game though they had one player less.
Bill works 10 hours a day, while Pat works just 5.
Bill works 10 hours a day, whilst Pat works just 5.
Bill works 10 hours a day, whereas Pat works just 5.
Bill works 10 hours a day. On the other hand, Pat works just 5.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (03): TIME, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (03): TIME, Examples Today Im going to talk about loans. Firstly, Ill look at interest rates
Today Im going to talk about loans. First of all, Ill look at interest rates
Secondly, Ill discuss repayment options.
Then, Ill discuss repayment options.
Next, Ill discuss repayment options.
Jack slipped on the ice when he crossed the road.
Jack slipped on the ice when crossing the road.
We went home once wed paid the bill.
She lost her balance while she was trying to get up.
She lost her balance while trying to get up.
She lost her balance as she tried to get up.
Well send you the results as soon as we get them.
I cant drive until Im18.
Having read the conditions, she signed the contract.
On hearing the news, Brian went straight home.
I got the dinner ready. Meanwhile, my wife continued reading her book.
We went back to the hotel. After that, we had a shower.
We went back to the hotel. Afterwards, we had a shower.
We went out again after wed had a rest.
We went out again after a rest.
We went out again after resting.
We checked our figures before we went to the meeting.
We checked our figures before the meeting.
We checked our figures before going to the meeting.
Ive got to pack my bags. Before that, I have to decide what to take.
Please read our conditions prior to when you leave.
Please read our conditions prior to your departure.
Please read our conditions prior to leaving.
We met Dave at the White Horse. Later, we went on to the Red Lion.
Well, that concludes my talk. Finally, Id like to thank you all for coming.
Well, that concludes my talk. Lastly, Id like to thank you all for coming.
Well, that concludes my talk. Last of all, Id like to thank you all for coming.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (04): CAUSE, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (04): CAUSE, Examples We had a lovely time because of the great weather.
We had a lovely time thanks to the great weather.
We had a lovely time on account of the great weather.
We had a lovely time due to the great weather.
We had a lovely time owing to the great weather.
We had a lovely time due to the fact that we had great weather.
We had a lovely time owing to the fact that we had great weather.
We had a lovely time as we had great weather.
We had a lovely time since we had great weather.
We had a lovely time because we had great weather.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (05): RESULT, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (05): RESULT, Examples They stole our idea. So, we had no choice but to sue.
They stole our idea. Thus, we had no choice but to sue.
They stole our idea. Therefore, we had no choice but to sue.
They stole our idea. Consequently, we had no choice but to sue.
They stole our idea. As a result, we had no choice but to sue.
As a result of their stealing our idea, we had no choice but to sue.
They stole our idea, with the result that we had no choice but to sue.
They stole our idea, thereby leaving us with no choice but to sue.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (06): CONDITION, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (06): CONDITION, Examples If you tell me your problem, I may be able to help.
Unless you tell me your problem, I cant help.
Should you have any questions, dont hesitate to ask.
Ill do it on condition that you dont tell anybody.
Ill do it on condition you dont tell anybody.
Ill do it provided that you dont tell anybody.
Ill do it provided you dont tell anybody.
Ill do it providing that you dont tell anybody.
Ill do it providing you dont tell anybody.
Ill do it as long as you dont tell anybody.
Ill do it so long as you dont tell anybody.
Take an umbrella just in case it rains.
Take an umbrella in case it rains.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (07): CLARIFICATION, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (07): CLARIFICATION, The complainant, namely George Riley, accused BA of overbooking.
Examples Its vital to understand basic concepts ie. verbs, nouns, etc.
Its vital to understand basic concepts, that is to say, verbs, nouns, etc.
Its vital to understand basic concepts, in other words, verbs, nouns, etc.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (08): PURPOSE, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (08): PURPOSE, Examples I said I liked the scarf to please him.
I said I liked the scarf in order to please him.
I said I liked the scarf so as to please him.
I said I liked the scarf so as not to hurt his feelings
I asked them to keep the noise down so that I could get some sleep
We value your opinion. To this end, we attach a questionnaire

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (09): EXEMPLIFICATION,
Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (09): EXEMPLIFICATION,
Examples
I enjoy adventure sports, for example, rafting, bungee-jumping
I enjoy adventure sports, for instance, rafting, bungee-jumping
I enjoy adventure sports eg. rafting, bungee-jumping
I enjoy adventure sports such as rafting, bungee-jumping

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (10): SIMILARITY, Checklist

43708 Linking Words and Phrases (10): SIMILARITY, Examples If you disagree, tell us. Similarly, if were unhappy, well say so.
If you disagree, tell us. Likewise, if were unhappy, well say so.
If you disagree, tell us. In the same way, if were unhappy, well say so.
If you disagree, tell us. By the same token, if were unhappy, well say so.

43708 Linking Words and Phrases: Formal / Informal ! Some linkers are more formal than others. For example:
+ Formal + Informal
In addition Plus
Nevertheless But
Thus So
In spite of the fact that Although
Moreover Also
On account of Because of

44403 Make / Obligation If we make somebody do something, we force them to do it:
I didnt want to sign the paper, but they made me do it
You cant make me help you!

! If we use make in a passive sentence, we put to after the object:
I didnt want to sign the paper, but I was made to do it
I cant be made to help you!

! Look at these typical mistakes:
I didnt want to sign the paper, but they made me to do it made me do
You cant make me to help you! make me help
I didnt want to sign the paper, but I was made do it made to do
I cant be made help you! made to help

43201 Make or Do? (1): Make ! We use make to talk about creating or constructing something:
My company makes plastic containers.
I made some tea for all the guests

! We also use make with certain nouns, particularly when we are talking
about an action (often spoken) that someone performs:
Are you going to make a speech at your brothers wedding?
Im going to make you an offer you cant refuse.

! Other nouns commonly used with make include an announcement, an
application, an arrangement, an attempt, a choice, a comment, a complaint,
a contribution, a decision, a difference, a discovery, an enquiry, an excuse,
a list, a journey, a mistake, money, a (phone) call, a plan, a point, a
promise, a proposal, a recommendation, a remark, a sound, and a
suggestion.

! We can use make to say how successful someone was or would be in a
particular position or job, or how successful something was or would be for
a particular purpose:
She would probably have made an excellent boss.
That cupboard would make a good hiding place for all those magazines.

43201 Make or Do? (2): Do ! We often use do with certain nouns to describe activities, or things that
have an effect on people:
I can't go out - I have to do the housework.
The operation may have done more harm than good.

! In informal English, we can use do as a substitute for another verb to
talk about certain tasks:
Can you do the flowers before mum arrives? (= arrange the flowers)
Aren't you going to do the garden? (= tidy the garden)

! We can also use do instead of, for example: cook or make (a curry), cut
(nails, hair), make (beds), tidy (a room, a desk, a garden, a cupboard).

! We also use do when we talk about general or indefinite rather than
particular activities:
I think Nigel must have done something to that cassette recorder
Have you done anything about that?

! We use do with an -ing form as a noun when we talk about jobs and
activities:
I never do the washing up after lunch
Im looking forward to doing some fishing when I go to Ireland

! We also use do to talk about cleaning, cooking, gardening, shopping, filing,
photocopying, and typical everyday tasks in general

44006 Mixed Conditionals ! When a past event has a present effect, we make sentences which mix
elements of both Second and Third Conditionals. We call these sentences
Mixed Conditionals:
If she had accepted that job, she wouldnt be here now
If I hadnt twisted my ankle, I would be jogging today

! The condition refers to the Past

! The condition is impossible / hypothetical:
If she had accepted that job... = (but) she didnt accept it
If I hadnt twisted my ankle = (but) I twisted my ankle

! If the condition is true, then the result will be true / certain too:
She wouldnt be here now
= Certainly (she wouldnt be here now) but ONLY IF she had accepted that
job

I would be jogging today
= Certainly (I would be jogging today) but ONLY IF I hadnt twisted my
ankle

! The Condition (the Secondary Clause) is in the Past Perfect:
If she had accepted...
If I hadnt broken

! The Result (the Main Clause) is in the Hypothetical Future (would)...
... she wouldnt be here
... I would be jogging

42301 Modal Verbs: Logical Deduction If we think something is logically possible, we use may, might or could:
Jane may be busy
Jane might be busy
Jane could be busy
It may rain
It might rain
It could rain

! If the sentence is negative, use may not or might not, but not could not:
Jane may not be busy
Jane might not be busy
Jane could not be busy
It may not rain
It might not rain
It could not rain

! We do NOT use can in these situations. Look at these typical mistakes:
Alan can be right may / might / could
It can snow may / might / could
Alan can not be right may not / might not
It can not snow may not / might not

! If we think something is logically certain, we use must:
Jane must be busy
It must rain

! If we think something is logically impossible, we use cant:
Jane cant be busy
It cant rain

! We do NOT use mustnt in these situations:
Alan mustnt be right cant
It mustnt snow cant

42301 Modal Verbs: Logical Deduction in the Past If we think something that happened in the past is logically possible, we
use may have, might have or could have, plus the past participle:
Ted may have taken an earlier plane
Ted might have taken an earlier plane
Ted could have taken an earlier plane
He may have gone fishing
He might have gone fishing
He could have gone fishing

! If the sentence is negative, use may not have or might not have, plus the
past participle, but not could not:
Ted may not have taken an earlier plane
Ted might not have taken an earlier plane
Ted could not have taken an earlier plane
He may not have gone fishing
He might not have gone fishing
He could not have gone fishing

! We do NOT use can have in these situations. Look at these typical
mistakes:
Alan can have been right may / might / could
It can have snowed may / might / could
Alan can not have been right may not / might not
It can not have snowed may not / might not

! If we think something that happened in the past is logically certain, we
use must have, plus the past participle:
Ted must have taken an earlier plane
He must have gone fishing

! If we think something that happened in the past is logically impossible,
we use cant have or couldnt have, plus the past participle:
Ted cant have taken an earlier plane
Ted couldnt have taken an earlier plane

He cant have gone fishing
He couldnt have gone fishing

! We do NOT use mustnt have in these situations:
Alan mustnt have been right cant / couldnt
It mustnt have snowed cant / couldnt

41107 Narrative Tenses (1): Past Simple


41108 Narrative Tenses (2): Past Continuous


41109 Narrative Tenses (3): Past Perfect


41110 Narrative Tenses (4): Present Perfect


41111 Narrative Tenses (5): Present Perfect Continuous


41111 Narrative Tenses (6): Used To / Would ! Other frequently used verb forms in Past Narratives are used to and would.
These express Past Habits:
We used to play in the fields by the railway line
We would play in the fields by the railway line

! We look at these in more detail in Level 4 Unit 20

43206 Need +ing ! We use need ing with a passive meaning:
My hair needs to be cut -> My hair needs cutting
My kitchen needs to be refitted -> My kitchen needs refitting
My eyes need to be checked -> My eyes need checking
Our property needed to be assessed -> Our property needed assessing
Janes car may need to be serviced -> Janes car may need servicing
What needs to be done? -> What needs doing?

43111 Negative Prefixes ! Unfortunately, there are no simple rules for deciding which negative prefix
to use. The only way is to learn the correct negative form for each new
adjective or noun.

! in = not
justice -> injustice
visible -> invisible
competence -> incompetence
active -> inactive

! im = not (typically before m or p)
moral -> immoral
mature -> immature
possible -> impossible
patient -> impatient

! il = not (typically before l)
legal -> illegal
logical -> illogical
legible -> illegible
legitimate -> illegitimate

! ir = not (typically before r)
rational -> irrational
resistible -> irresistible
relevant -> irrelevant
responsible -> irresponsible

! un = not
available -> unavailable
usual -> unusual
thinkable -> unthinkable
wise -> unwise

! non = not
smoker -> non-smoker
alcoholic -> non-alcoholic
verbal -> non-verbal
attendance -> non-attendance

! dis = not
honest -> dishonest
obey -> disobey
agreement -> disagreement
assembly -> disassembly

! mis = badly / wrongly
use -> misuse
spell -> misspell
pronounce -> mispronounce
understanding -> misunderstanding

42505 New / News / A Piece of News News looks like a plural noun but its uncountable:
No news is good news
The news is very worrying
Have you heard the news?

New is NOT the singular form of news. New is an adjective and means the
opposite of old eg. We need some new blood in this company.

We use the phrase a piece of news to refer to specific news
Thats a terrible piece of news!
I have a good piece of news for you

The following phrases are incorrect:
a piece of new -> a piece of news
a news -> a piece of news
a new -> a piece of news

44312 Newspaper Headlines Past Participles are commonly used in headlines with a passive meaning:
GIRL GIVEN LIVER TRANSPLANT
= A girl has been given a liver transplant

49 TAKEN TO HOSPITAL
= 49 people were taken to hospital

If the Past Participle is the same as the Past Simple, this can create
confusion if you are not careful. For example, ARTIST MURDERED means
that an artist was murdered, not that the artist murdered somebody.

British newspapers often omit words in their headlines, particularly a/an,
been, has/have, people, the and was/were:
GIRL GIVEN LIVER TRANSPLANT
= A girl has been given a liver transplant

49 TAKEN TO HOSPITAL
= 49 people were taken to hospital

CURE FOR AIDS DISCOVERED
= A cure for AIDS has been discovered

22 ARRESTED IN ANTI-GLOBALISATION DEMONSTRATION
= 22 people were arrested in an anti-globalisation demonstration

ELVIS FOUND ALIVE AND WELL IN MEXICO
= Elvis has been found alive and well in Mexico

NEW MUSEUM COMPLETED
= A new museum has been completed

PHOTOS OF PRESIDENTS LOVER PUBLISHED
= Photos of the Presidents lover were published

500 PRISONERS RELEASED IN PEACE DEAL
= 500 prisoners were released in a peace deal

42611 No Obligation: dont have to, dont need to, etc. There are four ways to say there is no obligation:

dont/doesnt + have to + Verb
You dont have to give tips to waiters
She doesnt have to go to school today

havent/hasnt + got to + Verb
You have got to give tips to waiters
She hasnt got to go to school today

dont/doesnt + need to + Verb
You dont need to give tips to waiters
She doesnt need to go to school today

neednt + Verb
You neednt give tips to waiters
She neednt go to school today

Neednt has a similar structure to cant and mustnt. It does not take to:

Look at these typical mistakes:
She doesnt have got to come -> She doesnt have to come
We havent to do anything -> We havent got to do anything
They dont need go to the meeting -> They dont need to go to the meeting
He neednt to worry about that -> He neednt worry about that

42611 No Obligation: Past, Present & Future No Obligation, Past
I didnt have to go
I didnt need to go
He didnt have to pay
He didnt need to pay

No Obligation, Present
I dont have to go
I dont need to go
I havent got to go
I neednt go
He doesnt have to pay
He doesnt need to pay
He hasnt got to pay
He neednt pay

No Obligation, Future
I wont have to go
I wont need to go
He wont have to pay
He wont need to pay

43105 Non-Defining Relative Clauses. ! Non-Defining relative clauses give extra information about a person,
thing, place, time or reason. For example:
Englishmen, who usually get a bad press , are the worlds best lovers

The main point here is that Englishmen are the worlds best lovers
(according to the writer!). The fact that they usually get a bad press is extra
(non-essential) information.

Similarly, in the sentence The XT200, which is rather pricey at 4000, is
clearly the best printer, the important thing is that the XT200 is clearly the
best printer. The fact that it is rather pricey at 4000 is secondary, non-
essential, information.

! Note that non-defining relative clauses always take commas:
My mothers best friend who is 87 years old has decided to remarry
My mothers best friend, who is 87 years old, has decided to remarry
The gallery whose exhibits are mainly Egyptian reopened last night
The gallery, whose exhibits are mainly Egyptian, reopened last night

! Never use that in non-defining clauses. Use who or which:
My teacher, thats just joined our school, is wonderful who
The kiwis, that were on special offer, were disgusting which

! The relative pronoun is always necessary, even if its the object:
The lady, who I recognised, asked me to give her a lift
The lady, I recognised, asked me to give her a lift
Dans portrait, which was hanging on the wall, meant a lot to me
Dans portrait, was hanging on the wall, meant a lot to me

42605 Numbers: 0


42601 Numbers: 10 Things to Remember 1. We never use commas when referring to years:
" 1976 nineteen seventy-six
" 1843 eighteen forty-three

# 1,976 one thousand, nine hundred and seventy-six
# 1,843 one thousand, eight hundred and forty-three



2. We use commas for thousands and millions, but we use points for
decimals:
" 670,000 six hundred and seventy thousand
" 19.07 nineteen point o seven

# 670.000
# 19,07


3. We always use o for years 1 to 9 (the first decade in a century):
" 1809 eighteen o nine
" 1902 nineteen o two

# 1809 eighteen nine
# 1902 nineteen two


4. We say two thousand and six, etc. for the first years of this
millennium:
" 2006 two thousand and six
" 2012 two thousand and twelve

# 2006 two thousand six
# 2012 two thousand twelve


5. We use singular forms with hundred, thousand and million:
" 670,000 six hundred and seventy thousand
" 13,000,000 thirteen million

# 670,000 six hundreds and seventy thousands
# 13,000,000 thirteen millions


6a. We use o in decimals to represent 0 after the point
6b. We use nought in decimals to represent 0 before the point:
" 19.07 nineteen point o seven
" 0.304 nought point three o four


# 19.07 nineteen point nought seven
# 0.304 o point three nought four


7. We say a hundred or one hundred:
" 105 a hundred and five / one hundred and five
" 124 one hundred and twenty-four / a hundred and twenty-four


# 105 hundred and five
# 124 hundred and twenty-four


8. We say ... hundred and
" 105 a hundred and five / one hundred and five
" 743 seven hundred and forty-three

# 105 a hundred five / one hundred five / hundred five
# 743 seven hundred forty-three


9a. We use a cardinal number + ordinal number to express fractions
9b. If the fraction is more than one part, the ordinal number is plural:
" 1/3 one-third
" 2/5 two-fifths
" 1/6 one-sixth
" 7/8 seven-eighths

# 1/3 one-three
# 2/5 two-five / two-fives / two fifth
# 1/6 one-six
# 7/8 seven-eight / seven-eights / seven-eighth


10. There are two special fractions: quarters (NOT fourths) and halves
(NOT seconds). They are also the most common!:
" a half
" 2/2 two halves
" a quarter
" three quarters

# a second
# 2/2 two seconds
# a fourth
# three-fourths

42611 Obligation, No Obligation & Prohibition Obligation
Take a card and join the queue (Imperative / Basic Verb)
You must fill in this form
You have to provide references
Youve got to take this job more seriously

No Obligation
You dont have to reply to this letter
You havent got to pay a deposit
You dont need to bring blankets
You neednt do it right away

Prohibition
No smoking (No + Gerund)
No visits during term time (No + Noun)
Dont speak to the driver
You mustnt go in if youre under 18
You cant take pets with you
Youre not allowed to sit on the grass
You arent allowed to use this tennis court

42611 Obligation.

42611 Obligation. There are several ways to express obligation

Imperative (Basic Verb)
Turn right
Use boots
Give way to traffic

You must + Verb
You must turn right
You must use boots
You must give way to traffic

You have to + Verb
You have to turn right
You have to use boots
You have to give way to traffic

Youve got to + Verb
Youve got to turn right
Youve got to use boots
Youve got to give way to traffic

42611 Obligation: Asking Questions We normally use Have/Has (got) to? when we ask about obligation.
Beginning questions with Must? is unusual.

Look at these examples:
Must you finish that today?
Do you have to finish that today? / Have you got to finish that today?

Must we pay for this?
Do we have to pay for this? / Have we got to pay for this?

Must he train every day?
Does he have to train every day? / Has she got to train every day?

Must she reply to the reply?
Does she have to reply to the letter? / Has she got to reply to the letter?

42611 Obligation: have to v. have got to We use have to with or without got to express obligation:
They have to work 10 hours a day / Theyve got to work 10 hours a day
She has to dress smartly / Shes got to dress smartly

Have got to is more informal than have to and, therefore, more usual:
Come on! Weve got to leave in 10 minutes! ...lay the table! (etc)
Bill, Ive got to speak to you about Alison ask you something (etc)

When we are speaking, we normally use the contracted forms: Ive got
to... Shes got to... etc.:
Sorry, but Ive got to leave you
Look, weve got to find a solution as soon as possible

If we use the contracted forms (Ive, Shes...) we must use got as well. Look
at these typical mistakes:
Ive to do the shopping -> Ive got to
Shes to take her work more seriously -> Shes got to


The corresponding question for have got to is Have you got to...? Has she
got to...? etc.:
Have you got to clock in?
Has she got to buy a car?

The corresponding question for have to is Do you have to...? Does she
have to...? etc.:
Do you have to clock in?
Does she have to buy a car?

42611 Obligation: Past, Present & Future Past Obligation, Affirmative
I had to work
She had to work

Past Obligation, Question
Did you have to work?
Did she have to work?...

Present Obligation, Affirmative
I must work / I have to work / Ive got to work
She must work / She has to work / Shes got to work

Present Obligation, Question
Do you have to work? / Have you got to work?
Does she have to work? / Has she got to work?...

Future Obligation, Affirmative
Ill have to work
Shell have to work

Future Obligation, Question
Will you have to work?
Will she have to work?...

40223 On & Phrasal Verbs ! On often combines with a verb to indicate continuity.

! Carry on, go on and keep on are common alternatives for continue:
Well carry on playing while you get the dinner, darling
They went on singing even though there was nobody listening to them
They keep on asking me to work for them

! Hang on and hold on are informal alternatives for wait:
Hang on. Ill get her for you.
Hold on a minute. Im not sure I agree with you.

! Here are a few more common examples:
You want a new house? Dream on! (= continue dreaming)
She saw me but chose to walk on (= continue walking)
As Titanic sank, the band decided to play on (= continue playing)
If you want to know what happened, read on (= continue reading)

! Go on and on and on () is used to express irritation:
Shes always complaining! She goes on and on and on and on!
I told him to be quiet but he just went on and on and on.

42601 Ordinal Numbers ! We normally distinguish between Cardinal Numbers and Ordinal
Numbers:
Cardinal Numbers: 1, 2, 3,
Ordinal Numbers: 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
,

! We can write ordinal numbers in full (eg. first , second...) or in abbreviated
form eg. 1
st
, 2
nd
...

! To write the abbreviated form, take the cardinal number (eg. 1, 2...) and
add the last two letters of the ordinal number in its full form :
first 1
st

second 2
nd

third 3
rd

fourth 4
th

fifth 5
th

etc.

! We write 1
st
, 2
nd
, etc. or I, II, III, etc - but we always say the first, the
second, etc:
January 1
st
-> January the first
Elisabeth II -> Elisabeth the Second
3
rd
March -> the third of March
Henry VIII -> Henry the Eighth

42601 Ordinal Numbers & Dates ! We use ordinal numbers to make dates. There are two ways:
January the 4
th
/ the 4
th
of January
March the 22
nd
/ the 22
nd
of March
July the 31
st
/ the 31
st
of July
August the 3
rd
/ the 3
rd
of August

44001 Out & Phrasal Verbs ! Out often combines with a verb to indicate one of the following

! Removing / Eliminating
eg. wipe sth out, rub sth out, stamp sth out, etc.
Entire villages were wiped out by the floods
Youve made a mistake. Rub that out and try again
We must work together to stamp out bullying in schools

! Ending / Finishing
eg. run out of sth, sell out, wear sth out, etc.
Ive run out of coffee. Can you give me some?
Theyve sold out for tonights show
Youre going to wear your jeans out in no time at all

! Warning / Being careful
eg. watch out, mind out, look out, etc.
Watch out! Youll hit your head if youre not careful
Mind out! Youre getting in the way!
Look out! Didnt you see that bus?

! Distributing / Giving
eg. send sth out, hand sth out, give sth out, etc.
We sent catalogues out to everybody
Could you hand these photocopies out for me?
Do you want me to give these out?

! Being Away From Home / Going Outside
eg. stay out, go out, sleep out, etc.
Dont stay out too late!
Shall we go out?
Camping?! Its too cold to be sleeping out

44312 Passive Sentences We use Passive Sentences when the action is more important than the
person doing the action.

The following sentences are correct English:
They released Nelson Mandela in 1990. (Active)
They dissolved the Soviet Union in 1991. (Active)

But it is more usual to say:
Nelson Mandela was released in 1990. (Passive)
-> The release of Nelson Mandela was the most important thing

The Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991. (Passive)
-> The dissolution of The Soviet Union was the most important thing

If we want to say what or who did the action, we use by:
Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928.
President Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1962.
Millions of computers were affected by the virus.

Passives are formed using the verb to be plus the past participle:
The human genome was decyphered in 2000
The problem will be discussed at tomorrows meeting
Mike could be fired for stealing the companys paper clips
Something needs to be done about the problem of bullying
Passives are formed using the verb to be plus the past participle

43811 Past Perfect


42304 Permission ! We use Can I? Could I? or May I? to ask for permission:
Can I ask you a personal question?
Could I use your phone?
May I interrupt you a second?

! We say Yes of course, Certainly or Go ahead to give permission:
-Can I take sit here?
-Yes, of course

-Can I join you?
-Certainly

-Can I interrupt you?
-Go ahead

! We reply Id rather you didnt to refuse permission

! We use Id rather to express a preference:
Id rather you didnt
Id rather you didnt smoke in here
Id rather live in the city than in the country

40803 Phrasal Verbs: Flexible Structures Some Phrasal Verbs have a flexible structure. They can be either Type
2 (Basic Verb + Particle + Object) or Type 3 (Basic Verb + Object +
Particle).

For example, you can pick up somebody / something (= Type 2) or you
can pick somebody / something up (= Type 3):
I dropped a glass, so I had to pick up the pieces (= Type 2)
I dropped a glass, so I had to pick the pieces up (= Type 3)

Its your turn to pick up the children today, darling! (= Type 2)
Its your turn to pick the children up today, darling! (= Type 3)

40803 Phrasal Verbs: Flexible Structures & Pronouns Some Phrasal Verbs have a flexible structure:
Can you pick up the children? OR Can you pick the children up?
Shall we turn off the television? OR Shall we turn the television off?

However, if the object is a pronoun (me, her, it, them, etc.), it must go
before the particle:
Can you pick them up? Can you pick up them?
Shall we turn it off? Shall we turn off it?

40803 Phrasal Verbs: Introduction A phrasal verb is a combination of a basic verb plus a particle. A Particle
is an Adverb or Preposition eg. across, away, into, on, over, out, up, etc.

Here are some examples:
I looked up and saw a man sitting in the tree
When she turned round, I could see that shed been crying
My sister and I get on very well
Weve run out of petrol!
You want me to do the report in 10 minutes?! Come off it!

Some Phrasal Verbs simply extend the meaning of the Basic Verb. Their
meaning is transparent:
I looked up and saw a man sitting in the tree

In this example, the meaning is transparent because if you know the
meaning of the basic verb look in this case -, you will have no problems
understanding look up:
look = see up = opposite of down so look up = raise your eyes "%

Most Phrasal Verbs create a new meaning from the Basic Verb. Their
meaning is figurative:
Could you look after the children while Im out ?

In this example, the meaning is figurative. Knowing the meaning of the
basic verb look in our example - does not help us to understand the
sentence. If we try to translate look after literally, the resulting translation is
absurd:
look = see after = opposite of before so look after = ?! #&

40803 Phrasal Verbs: Summary Type 1: Basic Verb + Particle

Examples
When does your school break up?
Go away ! Cant you see Im busy?

Examples with Pronoun Object
None: Type 1 never takes an object


Type 2: Basic Verb + Particle + Object

Examples
I came across my old glasses
Im looking for the Meat Section

Examples with Pronoun Object
I came across them
Im looking for it


Type 2 or 3: Basic Verb + Particle + Object / Basic Verb + Object +
Particle

Examples
Youll soon pick up English / Youll soon pick English up

Its your turn to pick up the children / Its your turn to pick the children
up

Examples with Pronoun Object

Youll soon pick it up Youll soon pick up it
Its your turn to pick them up Its your turn to pick up them


Type 3: Basic Verb + Object + Particle

Examples
You mustnt answer your parents back
She bosses Graham about

Examples with Pronoun Object

You mustnt answer them back
She bosses him about


Type 4: Basic Verb + Particle + Particle + Object

Examples
Im looking forward to my holiday
How do you put up with Ian?

Examples with Pronoun Object
Im looking forward to it
How do you put up with him?

40803 Phrasal Verbs: Types 1-4 There are Four Main Types of Phrasal Verbs. Type 1 Phrasal Verbs are
intransitive: they have no object. Types 2-4 are transitive: they always
take an object. Look at these examples:


Type 1: Basic Verb + Particle


When does your school break up?
Go away ! Cant you see Im busy?


Type 2: Basic Verb + Particle + Object


While I was cleaning the car, I came across my old wallet
Can you help me ? Im looking for the Meat Section.


Type 3: Basic Verb + Object + Particle


Laura never answers her parents back
My daughter is always bossing me about


Type 4: Basic Verb + Particle + Particle + Object


Im looking forward to my holiday
How do you put up with Ian?

40803 Phrasal Verbs: Types 1-4, Further Examples Type 1: Basic Verb + Particle
I grew up in a small village
They dont get on at all
House prices have shot up in the last 10 years

Type 2: Basic Verb + Particle + Object
Could you look after Nicholas?
She takes after her grandmother
Dont worry,well look into it.

Type 3: Basic Verb + Object + Particle
My aunt brought me up
Her mother never tells her off
Did you put the cat out for the night?

Type 4: Basic Verb + Particle + Particle + Object
They always looked up to their mother
Our bank manager looks down on everybody
Oh dear! Weve run out of coffee again!

40218 Prefixes ! in = not
justice -> injustice
visible -> invisible
competence -> incompetence
active -> inactive

! im = not (typically before m or p)
moral -> immoral
mature -> immature
possible -> impossible
patient -> impatient

! il = not (typically before l)
legal -> illegal
logical -> illogical
legible -> illegible
legitimate -> illegitimate

! ir = not (typically before r)
rational -> irrational
resistible -> irresistible
relevant -> irrelevant
responsible -> irresponsible

! un = not
available -> unavailable
usual -> unusual
thinkable -> unthinkable
wise -> unwise

! dis = not
honest -> dishonest
obey -> disobey
agreement -> disagreement
assembly -> disassembly

! mis = badly / wrongly
use -> misuse
spell -> misspell
pronounce -> mispronounce
understanding -> misunderstanding

! re = again
play -> replay
do -> redo
paint -> repaint
consider -> reconsider

! over = too much
paid -> overpaid
worked -> overworked
estimate -> overestimate
use -> overuse

! under = too little
paid -> underpaid
worked -> underworked
estimate -> underestimate
use -> underuse

! pre = before
paid -> prepaid
marital -> premarital
historic -> prehistoric
determine -> predetermine

! post = after
graduate -> postgraduate
natal -> postnatal
meridian -> postmeridian
war -> postwar

! ex- = former
husband -> ex-husband
president -> ex-president
lover -> ex-lover
smoker -> ex-smoker

! sub = under
marine -> submarine
way -> subway
normal -> subnormal
division -> subdivision

40409 Present Continuous ! The Present Continuous (or Progressive) is used in the following situations:

! Actions Happening Now
Im making a cake for Jasmines birthday

! Changing / Developing Situations
People are getting used to the idea

! Temporary Situations
Were staying at The Hilton

! Future Arrangements
Im meeting Jim later for a beer

! Annoying Habits
Shes always complaining about her hours

42021 Present Habits ! To describe Present Habits, we use an adverb like usually, often,
normally, etc. together with the Present Simple:
I usually see John on Mondays
She usually meets Tim for a drink after work

! Look at these typical mistakes:
I use to play football at the weekend I usually play
Paul use to call me at least once a week Paul usually calls
Do you use to get up early? Do you usually?

40112 Present Participles v. Past Participles ! We use Present Participles in many ways:
1) to describe something or somebody:
Legal documents are confusing for many people
At times, Angela can be surprising

2) to form Continuous Tenses:
Whats he doing? (Present Continuous)
I was having a shower when you rang (Past Continuous)

3) after verbs of perception (+ object), especially see and hear:
I saw Jim waiting for a bus
(= Jim was waiting for a bus, and I saw him)
If you hear water dripping, call a plumber
(= If water is dripping and if you hear it, call a plumber)

4) after Theres somebody / Theres nobody, etc.:
Theres somebody knocking at the door
(= Somebody is knocking at the door)
Theres nobody listening to you
(= Nobody is listening to you)

5) to qualify a sentence / to add something:
Take the road leading to the coast (= Take the road which leads)
I saw a sign advertising bikes for hire (= I saw a sign which advertised)

6) after go and come to express physical activity / movement:
Would you like to come skiing with us?
Last night I went swimming

7) after keep (on) to express continuity:
My son keeps (on) asking me to take him to London
Despite the noise, they kept (on) working

8) to link sentences / to express a reason:
Knowing hed be angry with them, they decided not to tell him
(= As they knew)
Not wanting to appear rude, I told her I loved the necklace
(= As I didnt want)


! We use Past Participles in these ways:
1) to describe somebodys feelings:
Most normal people are confused by legal documents
Sometimes Im surprised by Angela

2) to form Perfect tenses:
Ive known her all my life (Present Perfect)
This time tomorrow, well have landed in Hawaii (Future Perfect)

3) to form Passive structures:
The Da Vinci Code was written by Dan Brown
A lot of our fruit is imported from Spain

4) to link sentences / to express a reason:
Abandoned by her friends, she fell into a deep depression
(= As she had been abandoned)
Disappointed with their results, they fired their manager
(= As they were disappointed)

41903 Present Perfect ! The Present Perfect is formed using have/has + past participle:
Have you ever been to Italy?
Ive finished!
Brians never had a job
Theyve just arrived
Has Sandra already started university?
We havent written all the letters yet

! If the verb is regular, the Past Participle finishes in ed: finished, arrived,
started, etc.

! If the verb is irregular, you will find the Past Participle in the 3
rd
column of
your verb table:
be was/were been
have had had
write wrote - written

! We use the Present Perfect to emphasise the action or experience:
Have you ever been to Italy? -> Its a beautiful country!
Ive finished! -> Lets celebrate!
We havent written all the letters yet -> Our boss will be furious!

! We often use the Present Perfect to start a conversation:
Have you ever been to Scotland?...
Has everybody read this report?...
Have you heard the news?...
Ive just spoken to Matthew
Ive decided to look for a new job

43809 Present Perfect


41917 Present Perfect Continuous ! We use the Present Perfect Continuous tense
1. When we speak about a recent activity with visible results:
Look at these dirty hands! You can tell Ive been gardening!

2. When we want to emphasise how long an action has been going on for.
Ive been writing Christmas postcards all morning.

3. When we want to suggest that a temporary activity
Ive been learning Italian for two years but Im going to give it up

4. To suggest that an action is incomplete
Ive been watering the plants but I havent finished yet.

43809 Present Perfect Continuous


41903 Present Perfect v. Past Simple. ! The Past Simple refers to a specific time.

! The Present Perfect focuses more on the action or experience.

! We often use the Present Perfect to start a conversation.

! We often change to the Past Simple when we talk about the details -
When? Where? Why? Who with? etc.

Example 1
-Have you ever been to Edinburgh?
(Present Perfect focus on experience, start conversation)

-Yes, I have

-When did you go?
(Past Simple ask for details)

-I went last summer
(Past Simple answer with details)

Example 2
-Ive passed my exam!
(Present Perfect focus on action, start conversation)

-But you told me it was a disaster!
(Past Simple remember details)

-Yes, I was really nervous and Section C was horrible!
(Past Simple more details)

-Have you told your parents?
(Present Perfect focus on action, new direction in conversation)

-I rang Mum, but she wasnt in
(Past Simple answer with details)

41903 Present Perfect: Unfinished Actions ! To describe an Unfinished Action (an action that started in the Past and
that continues Now), we use the Present Perfect (NOT the Present
Simple!) together with for or since.

! We use for to express the DURATION of the action (6 years, 10 minutes,
etc.).

! We use since to indicate the STARTING POINT of the action (8 oclock,
1999, etc.)

Ive been on this computer for 10 minutes
Ive been on this computer since 8 oclock

Shes had that watch for 7 years
Shes had that watch since 1999

! We ask How long? + Present Perfect (NOT the Present Simple!) to ask
about the duration of an Unfinished Action:
How long have you been on this computer? How long are you?
How long has she had that watch? How long does she have?

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Example 1
Im on this computer since 10 minutes
Ive been on this computer for 10 minutes
Unfinished Action (Im still on this computer) -> Present Perfect
Duration (10 minutes) -> for

Example 2
She has that watch for 1999
Shes had that watch since 1999
Unfinished Action (She still has that watch) -> Present Perfect
Starting Point (1999) -> since

40411 Present Simple ! The Present Simple is used in the following situations:

! Routine Actions
I get up at 5.30 every day

! Permanent Situations
My wife works for Microsoft

! Future Timetabled Actions
The train leaves at 13:43

! Laws of Nature (Facts)
Water turns to ice at 0C

! Time Clauses (when, as soon as, if, until)
As soon as they arrive, well go for lunch As soon as they will arrive
I wont do anything until I hear from you until I will hear from you

! With Stative Verbs (verbs rarely used in Continuous forms)
I love adventure sports Im loving adventure sports
What do you need? What are you needing?

43533 Pretty ! Pretty has two very different meanings. It can be used as an adjective (=
attractive) or, more informally, as an adverb (= quite):
Did you see Pretty Woman? (adjective = attractive)
Thats a pretty flower display (adjective = attractive)
The answer is pretty obvious (adverb = quite)
Im feeling pretty tired tonight (adverb = quite)

42611 Prohibition

42611 Prohibition There are many ways to express prohibition

Dont + Verb
Dont smoke
Dont overtake
Dont have picnics
Dont do U-turns
Dont swim
Dont take photos

You mustnt + Verb
You mustnt smoke
You mustnt overtake
You mustnt have picnics
You mustnt do U-turns
You mustnt swim
You mustnt take photos

You cant + Verb
You cant smoke
You cant overtake
You cant have picnics
You cant do U-turns
You cant swim
You cant take photos

Youre not allowed to + Verb
Youre not allowed to smoke
Youre not allowed to overtake
Youre not allowed to have picnics
Youre not allowed to do U-turns
Youre not allowed to swim
Youre not allowed to take photos

You arent allowed to + Verb
You arent allowed to smoke
You arent allowed to overtake
You arent allowed to have picnics
You arent allowed to do U-turns
You arent allowed to swim
You arent allowed to take photos

No + Noun
No picnics
No U-turns
No photos

No + Gerund
No smoking
No overtaking
No swimming

40712 Qualifying Comparisons (01): Introduction ! Sometimes, it is necessary to use phrases like a bit, a lot, etc. to explain
how big the difference really is.

! Study the table below, then look at the examples. Note that dear is a
synonym for expensive.

40712 Qualifying Comparisons (02): Introduction (Cont.)
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (03): Big Difference
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (04): Big Difference
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (05): Big Difference
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (06): Some Difference
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (07): Small Difference
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (08): Small Difference
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (09): No Difference
40712 Qualifying Comparisons (10): Various

40114 Question Tags We use Question Tags with FALLING intonation to involve our listener
in the conversation:

The travellers cheques are in your backpack, arent they?

= I know the travellers cheques are in your backpack and you know this
too. Im listening.

You dont need any more money, do you?

= I know you dont need any more money and you know this too. Im
listening.

! These are NOT real questions! The use here is similar to How do you do?
(= Pleased to meet you) which we use when we meet somebody for the
first time: it is NOT a real question; its only a convention or formula for
making interaction more natural between people.


We use Question Tags with RISING intonation to to ask somebody a real
question:

The travellers cheques are in your backpack, arent they?

= Are the travellers cheques are in your backpack?

You dont need any more money, do you?

= Do you need any more money?


If the main clause contains an affirmative verb, the question tag is usually
negative:
The travellers cheques are in your backpack, arent they?
You took your tablets, didnt you?

If the main clause contains a negative verb, the question tag is usually
affirmative:
You wont forget to phone, will you?
You dont need any more money, do you?

! Similarly, if the main clause contains a negative adverb, the question tag
is usually affirmative:
He rarely apologises, does he? doesnt he? (rarely = not often)
She seldom came to class, did she? didnt she? (seldom = not often)

There are a few special question tags. For example:
They ought to be more careful, didnt they?
She used to be friendlier, didnt she?
Im right, arent I?
Lets go, shall we?
Ill explain it again, shall I?

! We often use question tags after an imperative to make requests. They
have a similar meaning to please:
Pass the wine, will you? (= Will you pass the wine?)
Give me a fork, can you? (= Can you give me a fork?)
Be quiet, would you? (= Would you be quiet?)
Hold this a moment, could you? (= Could you hold this a moment?)

44413 Questions and Prepositions When making questions with verbs that take prepositions (belong to, be
short for, look at, run on, be interested in, etc.), we put the preposition at
the at the end of the question:
Where are you from? (Im from Italy)
Whos that letter for? (Its for Graeme)
What are you afraid of? (Im afraid of snakes)
What music is Gordon listening to? (Hes listening to U2)
What kind of cars are you interested in? (Im interested in sports cars)
Whats that book about? (Its about Nelson Mandela)
Whats that knife for? (Its for cutting bread)
What does that car run on? (It runs on solar energy)
Which university do you go to? (I go to Warwick)
Whats GB short for? (Its short for Great Britain)
Who does that calculator belong to? (It belongs to me!)
Who was War and Peace written by? (It was written by Tolstoy,wasnt it?)
Which map is Patricia looking at? (Shes looking at a map of France)
Who are you writing to? (Im writing to Gran and Grampy)

Look at these typical mistakes:
Whos that letter? Whos that letter for?
For whos that letter? Whos that letter for?
What are you afraid? What are you afraid of?
Of what are you afraid? What are you afraid of?

43533 Quite ! Quite has two very different meanings: 1) fairly ie. more than a little but less
than very and 2) completely. Look at these examples:
This exercise is quite difficult (= fairly difficult)
Its getting quite late (= fairly late)
Thats quite ridiculous! (= completely ridiculous)
Im afraid thats quite impossible (= completely impossible)

! On most occasions, the meaning of quite fairly or completely? will be
clear from the context. Another clue, of course, is the adjective it
accompanies. In our examples, above, ridiculous and impossible are
extreme adjectives, so, logically, quite is being used as an extreme adverb
(= completely).

43533 Quite / Rather / Fairly / Pretty ! These four words all have a similar meaning: more than a little but less
than very:
This exercise is (quite/rather/fairly/pretty) boring. Lets try another
I was (quite/rather/fairly/pretty) disappointed to hear the news

! However, rather is used mainly in negative contexts: rather hard, rather
annoying, rather disappointing, rather ugly, rather expensive, etc.

! Pretty is more informal and should not be used in formal contexts.

43101 Relative Pronouns ! Relative pronouns are words that relate to a previously mentioned
noun:
This is the man who told me off
Wheres the girl that was sitting over there?
Is this the CD which you were telling me about?
Thats the lady whose garden won a prize
Christmas is the time when families get together
Is that the cave where they found those bodies?
Those are the reasons why Im leaving

41713 Remember TO, Remember ING, etc. ! Remember is followed by -ing when it refers to a past action:
Sorry, but I dont remember saying that.

! Remember is followed by to when it refers to a future action:
Remember to sign the cheque before you post it

! Forget is followed by -ing when it refers to a past action:
Sorry, but I forget saying that.

! Forget is followed by to when it refers to a future action:
Dont forget to sign the cheque before you post it

! Regret is followed by -ing when it refers to a past action:
I regret leaving my last job

! Regret is followed by to when it refers to a future action:
I regret to tell you that you cant continue working here

! Try is followed by -ing when it means experiment / see what happens:
He tried loosening the screw, but it made no difference

! Try is followed by to when it is difficult:
He tried to loosen the screw, but he wasnt strong enough

! Stop is followed by -ing when it means the opposite of start:
OK, stop talking please. You can start the exam

! Stop is followed by to when it means pause for a reason:
She was writing a letter but she stopped to answer the phone

! Mean is followed by -ing when it means involve:
Being a milkman means getting up very early

! Mean is followed by to when it means intend (have the intention):
I didnt mean to hurt your feelings

41919 Remember v. Remind ! Remind somebody means make somebody remember:
Remind me to phone Jack
She reminds me of my sister
They reminded us to return our library books
This reminds of the time I was in France

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Remember me to phone Jack Remind me to
She remembers me of my sister She reminds me of
They remembered us to return our library books They reminded us to
This reminds me to the time I was in France This reminds me of

41307 Reported Questions We report questions using X asked Look at these examples:
Where are you going?
-> Joanne asked Steve where he was going

Is it so important?
-> She asked him if it was so important

How did the meeting go?
-> She asked Steve how the meeting had gone

Did you persuade them to sign the contract?
-> Joanne asked him if he had persuaded them to sign the contract

Look at these typical mistakes:
Joanne asked Steve where was he going he was
Joanne asked Steve where hes going he was
Joanne asked to Steve where was going asked Steve
She asked him was it so important if it was
She asked him if its so important if it was
She asked Steve how had gone the meeting the meeting had gone
She asked Steve how did the meeting go the meeting had gone
Joanne asked him had he persuaded them to sign if he had
Joanne asked him did he persuade them to sign if he had persuaded

The subject must come before the verb in reported questions:
Joanne asked Steve where was he going
Joanne asked Steve where he was going

She asked Steve how had gone the meeting
She asked Steve how the meeting had gone

We dont use the auxiliaries do, does or did in Reported Questions:
She asked Steve how did the meeting go
She asked Steve how the meeting had gone

Joanne asked him did he persuade them to sign the contract
Joanne asked him if he had persuaded them to sign the contract

We dont use to after ask:
Joanne asked to Steve where he was going
Joanne asked Steve where he was going

She asked to him if it was so important
She asked him if it was so important

We dont use if after ask to report WH-/HOW Questions:
Where are you going?
Joanne asked Steve if where he was going
Joanne asked Steve where he was going

How did the meeting go?
She asked Steve if how the meeting had gone
She asked Steve how the meeting had gone

We must use if after ask to report YES/NO Questions:
Is it so important?
She asked him it was so important
She asked him if it was so important

Did you persuade them to sign the contract?
Joanne asked him he had persuaded them to sign the contract
Joanne asked him if he had persuaded them to sign the contract

We can use whether to report YES/NO Questions as an alternative to if:
Is it so important?
She asked him whether it was so important
= She asked him if it was so important

Did you persuade them to sign the contract?
Joanne asked him whether he had persuaded them to sign the contract
= Joanne asked him if he had persuaded them to sign the contract

The rules concerning tense changes in Reported Questions are
identical to those in Reported Statements. When we are reporting what
somebody asked, the main verb (eg. dont get) usually moves back one
tense (eg. didnt get):

Why didnt we win that contract?, he asked

--> He asked why they hadnt won the contract,... didnt win


The rules concerning references in Reported Questions are identical to
those in Reported Statements. When we are reporting what somebody
asked, we must change the references (eg. we-> they, this order -> the
order) if the original reference is no longer true:

Why didnt we win that contract?, he asked

--> He asked why they hadnt won the contract,... that contract

41307 Reported Statements: Reference Changes When we are reporting what somebody did or said, we must change the
references (eg. we-> they, this order -> the order, tonight -> that night) if
the original reference is no longer true:

If we dont get this order..., he said

--> He said that if they didnt get the order,... this order

Theyve promised to phone me tonight, he said

--> He said that theyd promised to phone him that night tonight

Here is a checklist illustrating the most typical changes:

41307 Reported Statements: Reference Changes, Checklist

41307 Reported Statements: Verb Changes When we are reporting what somebody did or said, the main verb (eg.
dont get) usually moves back one tense (eg. didnt get)

If we dont get this order..., he said
--> He said that if they didnt get the order,... dont

Youre looking worried, she said
--> She said that he was looking worried is

I cant wait!, she said
--> She said that she couldnt wait cant

! The main verb does not move back a tense if

! What is reported is still true -> main verb in Present Tense
They speak Portuguese in Brazil
-->She told us that they speak Portuguese in Brazil

Another ice age is coming
--> Experts have warned us that another ice age is coming

! The main verb is a Past Modal Form -> No change in main verb
I might be late
--> He said he might be late

Mark could have got lost
--> She thought that Mark could have got lost

! The main verb is in the Past Perfect -> No change in main verb
We hadnt realised there was a problem
--> They admitted that they hadnt realised there was a problem

44317 Reporting News & Rumours (1): Its said that, etc. We use Its said that to introduce news or rumours:
Its said that the thieves escaped with 30,000
Its said that the President is having an affair

! There are many alternatives for said, for example:
Its understood that the thieves escaped with 30,000
Its understood that the President is having an affair

Its believed that the thieves escaped with 30,000
Its believed that the President is having an affair

Its known that the thieves escaped with 30,000
Its known that the President is having an affair

Its rumoured that the thieves escaped with 30,000
Its rumoured that the President is having an affair

Its thought that the thieves escaped with 30,000
Its thought that the President is having an affair

Its recognised that the thieves escaped with 30,000
Its recognised that the President is having an affair

44317 Reporting News & Rumours (2): is/are said to, etc. We use is/are said to to introduce news or rumours:
The thieves are said to have escaped with 30,000
The President is said to be having an affair

! There are many alternatives for said, for example:
The thieves are understood to have escaped with 30,000
The President is understood to be having an affair

The thieves are believed to have escaped with 30,000
The President is believed to be having an affair

The thieves are known to have escaped with 30,000
The President is known to be having an affair

The thieves are rumoured to have escaped with 30,000
The President is rumoured to be having an affair

The thieves are thought to have escaped with 30,000
The President is thought to be having an affair

The thieves are recognised to have escaped with 30,000
The President is recognised to be having an affair

41307 Reporting Verbs & Reported Statements: Introduction We often use verbs like say, tell, comment, promise, add, explain, etc. to
say what somebody said or did. We call these verbs reporting verbs
and we call the sentences that we make with reporting verbs reported
statements.

In the following paragraph there are four reporting verbs and four reported
statements:
1) Susanne said that she had some important news. 2) She told us that
she was going to start a new job. 3) Mark commented that this was going
to be her seventh job in seven months, but 4) Susanne promised to take
this job more seriously

41307 Reporting Verbs & That When we use reporting verbs, we dont need to put that after the verb. It
is optional:
He said that he had a meeting
OR He said he had a meeting

She told us that she was in love
OR She told us she was in love

They explained that they wanted another solution
OR They explained they wanted another solution

41307 Say v. Tell ! We say things. We tell people:
Could you tell Mr. Jones that Jenny is here, please?
Can I say something?
Please tell Jack to phone me
Sorry, did you say fourteen or forty?
First of all, Id like to say thankyou to everybody
Dont tell Mary - its a secret!
Did you tell them about the problem?
You can say anything. Nobody is listening.
How do you say zorro in English?
If you dont tell us, we cant help you.

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Say me! Tell me!
Say to me! Tell me!
She said us she was a doctor She told us

! There are three common exceptions to the say/tell rule:
(1) tell the difference say
eg. Can you tell the difference between a crocodile and an alligator?

(2) tell the time say
eg. Robbies learning to tell the time

(3) tell the truth say
eg. Do you promise to tell the truth?

41307 Say v. Tell: Reporting the Past The past form of say is said (say-said-said).

The past of tell is told (tell-told-told).

We say something or we say that:
He said many things told
She said that she was hungry told

We tell somebody (something) or we tell somebody that:
He told me many things said
She told us that she was hungry said

44006 Second Conditionals ! Look at these examples of Second Conditionals:
If there were more policemen, we would catch more criminals
If we had less unemployment, the situation would be better

! The condition refers to the Present or Future

! The condition is improbable / hypothetical:
If there were more policemen...
= Maybe (there will be more policemen), but its improbable
If we had less unemployment...
= Maybe (we will have less unemployment), but its improbable

! If the condition is true, then the result will be true / certain too:
We would catch more criminals
= Certainly (we would catch more criminals) but ONLY IF there were more
policemen

The situation would be better
= Certainly (the situation would be better) but ONLY IF we had less
unemployment

! The Condition (the Secondary Clause) is in the Past Simple:
If there were more policemen...
If we had less unemployment...

! The Result (the Main Clause) is in the Hypothetical Future (would)...
... we would catch more criminals
... the situation would be better

44415 Short Questions and Prepositions ! Often, simply a question word followed by a preposition is sufficient:
-This parcels from Europe
-Where from?

-Im writing an email
-Who to?

-Im afraid!
-What of?

-Were going to see a lawyer
-What for?

42001 Should / Ought to ! We use either should(nt) or ought (not) to to give advice

! We say You should go to bed but we say You ought to go to bed

! We say You shouldnt eat so much but we say You ought not to eat so
much

42318 Should / Ought to (1): Giving Advice ! We use either should(nt) or ought (not) to to give advice

! We say You should go to bed but we say You ought to go to bed

! We say You shouldnt eat so much but we say You ought not to eat so
much

42318 Should / Ought to (2): Criticising Past Actions We use should(nt) have or ought not to have, plus the past participle to
criticise past actions:
You should have gone to bed (but you didnt!)
You ought to have gone to bed (but you didnt!)
You shouldnt have eaten so much (but you did!)
You ought not to have eaten so much (but you did!)

43808 Still / Yet / Just / Already: Affirmatives, Negatives and
Questions
We only use already or just in affirmative sentences or questions:
Ive already finished (affirmative)
Ive just finished (affirmative)
Have you already started? (question)
Have you just started? (question)

If you want to express a negative idea, use yet. Look at these typical
mistakes:
We havent started already started yet
She hasnt just finished finished yet
Havent you begun already? begun yet?

We use still and yet in affirmative sentences, negatives and questions:
Have you decided how to spend the money yet? (question)
No, we havent decided yet (negative)
Are you still doing that report? (question)
Yes, Im still doing it (affirmative)
Its too early to say yet (affirmative)
They still havent replied to my letter (negative)

43808 Still / Yet / Just / Already: Meaning We use still to refer to something that is continuing to happen now:
Are you still tidying your room?
Yes, Im still doing it

We use (not) yet to refer to something that should happen but has not
happened:
Have you decided where to go yet?
No, we havent thought about it yet

We use just to refer to something that has happened very recently:
Ive just heard the news!
Theyve just told me too

We use already to refer to something that has happened earlier than
expected:
Has Nigel already spoken to you?
Yes, hes already told me what to do

43808 Still / Yet / Just / Already: Position We put already and just before the Past Participle:
Yes, weve already decided.
Yes, Ive just heard.

We put still before the Present Participle:
Are you still doing that report?
Yes, Im still working on it.

We put (not) yet at the end of the sentence:
Have you decided how to spend the money yet?
No, we havent talked about it yet.

43808 Still / Yet / Just / Already: Structure We often use the Present Perfect Tense with already, just and (not) yet:
Have you decided where to go yet?
No, we havent thought about it yet
Ive just heard the news!
Theyve just told me too
Has Nigel already spoken to you?
Yes, hes already told me what to do

We often use the Present Continuous Tense with still:
Are you still tidying your room?
Yes, Im still doing it

Other tenses are sometimes possible:
eg.1 I saw Jane yesterday and she was still angry (= Past Simple)
eg.2 Do you know the answer yet? (= Present Simple)
eg.3 When I arrived, theyd already had lunch! (= Past Perfect)

43808 Still v. Yet: Negative Sentences When we use still in negative sentences, it has a similar meaning to yet.
However, the sentence with still is more emphatic.Compare:
They havent replied to me yet / They still havent replied to me!
She hasnt found her keys yet / She still hasnt found her keys!

We put still before havent / hasnt:
They still havent replied to me!
She still hasnt found her keys!

We put yet at the end of the sentence:
They havent replied to me yet
She hasnt found her keys yet

40220 Suffixes
! ly = Adjective -> Adverb
quick -> quickly
slow -> slowly
wonderful -> wonderfully
painful -> painfully

! ness = Adjective -> Noun
kind -> kindness
hopeless -> hopelessness
useful -> usefulness
sad -> sadness

! ish = Adjective -> Adjective
green -> greenish
yellow -> yellowish
tall -> tallish
short -> shortish

! wards = Noun -> Adverb
back -> backwards
side -> sidewards
north -> northwards
west -> westwards

! ous = Noun -> Adjective
fame -> famous
danger -> dangerous
marvel -> marvellous
envy -> envious

! y = Noun -> Adjective
wind -> windy
sun -> sunny
hair -> hairy
grease -> greasy

! ful = Noun -> Adjective
success -> successful
beauty -> beautiful
wonder -> wonderful
use -> useful

! less = Noun -> Adjective
fear -> fearless
head -> headless
age -> ageless
use -> useless

! able = Noun -> Adjective
fashion -> fashionable
comfort -> comfortable
profit -> profitable
question -> questionable

! able = Verb -> Adjective
afford -> affordable
manage -> manageable
present -> presentable
swim -> swimmable

! ion = Verb -> Noun
confuse -> confusion
instruct -> instruction
revise -> revision
direct -> direction

! ment = Verb -> Noun
employ -> employment
agree -> agreement
place -> placement
appoint -> appointment

41327 Suggest / Recommend / Propose ! Suggest, recommend and propose have a similar meaning and share the
same verb patterns. Look at these examples:
I suggest (that) we start again
I suggest starting again
He suggested (that) they start again
He suggested (that) they started again
He suggested starting again

I recommend (that) we start again
I recommend starting again
He recommended (that) they start again
He recommended (that) they started again
He recommended starting again

I propose (that) we start again
I propose starting again
He proposed (that) they start again
He proposed (that) they started again
He proposed starting again

! We do not use to after suggest, recommend or propose. Look at these
typical mistakes:
I suggest to ask Brian asking / that we ask
He recommended us to go to Madrid going / that we go
She proposed to apply for a grant applying / that we apply

! The verb insist (on) shares the same verb patterns as suggest, recommend
and propose. However, insist has a different (stronger) meaning:
I insist (that) we start again!
I insist on starting again!
He insisted (that) they start again
He insisted (that) they started again
He insisted on starting again

43408 The or ? ! We use the when we are talking about something specific:
To be or not to be? - that is the question!
Can you pass the bread, please?
Don't touch the dogs! They're dangerous
Who invented the vacuum cleaner?
Have you ever visited The Taj Mahal?
We enjoy the Canary Islands for their climate
The Mediterranean is terribly polluted in parts.
Thats the best meal Ive had all year!
Joanna was the fastest runner in my class

! We do not use the when we are talking about something general:
I love sports
Pilots earn a lot of money
I don't like cats. How about you?

! Look at these typical mistakes:
I love the sports sports (sports in general)
The footballers earn a lot Footballers (sports in general)
When did Civil War start? the Civil War (a specific war)
Where did you put yoghourts? the yoghourts (specific yoghourts)

44006 Third Conditionals ! We use the Third Conditional to talk about an event or situation that did
not happen in the past. Some people call it the Impossible Conditional:
If we had known it was a secret, we wouldnt have said anything
If they hadnt noticed, they would have lost a lot of money

! The condition refers to the Past

! The condition is impossible / hypothetical:
If we had known... = (but) we didnt know
If they hadnt noticed = (but) they noticed

! If the condition is true, then the result will be true / certain too:
We wouldnt have said anything
= Certainly (we wouldnt have said anything) but ONLY IF we had known it
was a secret

They would have lost a lot of money
= Certainly (they would have lost a lot of money) but ONLY IF they hadnt
noticed

! The Condition (the Secondary Clause) is in the Past Perfect:
If we had known...
If they hadnt noticed

! The Result (the Main Clause) is in the Hypothetical Past (would have +
past participle)...
we wouldnt have said anything
they would have lost a lot of money

42601 Time Learn these commonly used time phrases:
15 minutes = a quarter of an hour
30 minutes = half an hour
45 minutes = three quarters of an hour
90 minutes = an hour and a half / one and a half hours
150 minutes = two and a half hours
1 month = four and a half weeks
30 months = two and a half years

! Look at these typical mistakes:
a quarter hour a quarter of an hour
a quarter of hour a quarter of an hour
quarter of hour a quarter of an hour
quarter of an hour a quarter of an hour

half hour half an hour
a half hour half an hour
half a hour half an hour

three quarters hour three quarters of an hour
three quarters of hour three quarters of an hour

two hours and a half two and a half hours
two hours and half two and a half hours

four weeks and a half four and a half weeks
four weeks and half four and a half weeks

41418 Too ! We use too when there is a problem
Too much + Uncountable Noun -> # Ive got too much work
Too little + Uncountable Noun -> # Theres too little time to do anything
Too many + Plural Noun -> # There are too many things to do
Too few + Plural Noun -> # Too few people appreciate how hard I work!
Too + adjective -> # Im sorry, Im too busy to help you

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Too many people bought my book -> " A lot of people / Many people
I have too much time to relax -> " a lot of time / plenty of time
The film was too interesting -> " very interesting / really interesting

41418 Too + adjective + to ! We use too + adjective + to to describe a problem or inability:
Hes too young to see the film
Shes too short to touch the ceiling
Hes too slow to catch the bus
Shes too tired to study
Hes too lazy to cook

! Look at these typical mistakes:
Hes too young for to see the film too young to see
Shes too short for touching the ceiling too short to touch
Hes too much slow to catch the bus too slow to catch

40213 Travel & Transport: drive a car, ride a bicycle ! We ride animals or vehicles with one leg on each side:
ride a camel
ride a donkey
ride a horse
ride a bicycle
ride a motorbike
ride a moped

! We drive other vehicles:
drive a car
drive a lorry
drive a bus

40712 Twice As As ! We use twice as as to express a double quality/quantity:
Kiwis are twice as expensive as oranges
She sings twice as well as I do
My car consumes twice as much petrol as yours
Edinburgh has twice as many tourists as Glasgow

! Similarly, we use three times as as to express a triple quality/quantity:
Jack goes swimming three times as often as I do
Todays class seemed three times as long as yesterdays!

! And so on:
Oranges are four times as expensive as apples
I spend ten times as much as I used to on cigarettes

! Look at these typical mistakes:
My car consumes three times more petrol than yours
My car consumes three times as much petrol as yours

Edinburgh has twenty times more tourists than Forfar
Edinburgh has twenty times as many tourists as Forfar

She speaks English two times as well as I do
She speaks English twice as well as I do

41621 Typical Mistakes ! Look at these typical mistakes and learn the correct structures:
I am agree I agree
Havent you finished still? Havent you finished yet?
I went for to see Maria I went to see Maria
Do you mind to work weekends? Do you mind working weekends?
It was as a dream It was like a dream
Like always, I said the wrong thing As always, I said the wrong thing
Were waiting the bus Were waiting for the bus
Im listening the radio Im listening to the radio
Shes waiting for a baby Shes expecting a baby
Were working here for 10 years Weve been working here for 10 years
I suggest you to study more I suggest you study more
Turn on the left Turn left
I cant assist the meeting I cant attend the meeting
Advise them youre not going Tell them youre not going
I rested at home working I stayed at home working
Jacks the best cooker I know Jacks the best cook I know
Have you heard the last news? Have you heard the latest news?
Whats he doing in this moment? Whats he doing at the moment?
It was an important business travel It was an important business trip
Your pen is the same than mine Your pen is the same as mine
Her clothes are different than ours Her clothes are different from/to mine
Hes similar than my brother Hes similar to my brother
We must recuperate the hours We must make up the hours
Have you paid the coffees? Have you paid for the coffees?
I bought it to Peter I bought it from/off Peter
Im boring! Whats on TV? Im bored! Whats on TV?
The best to do is forget it The best thing to do is forget it
Do you want that I help you? Do you want me to help you?
Can you explain me please? Can you explain it to me, please?
Footballs a stupid play! Footballs a stupid game!
I use to smoke 20 a day I usually smoke 20 a day
I was tired. For that, I went to bed I was tired. Thats why I went to bed.

42501 Uncountable & Countable Nouns (1) ! Nouns are Countable or Uncountable. You can count Countable Nouns;
you cant count Uncountable Nouns

! (1) Countable Singular
eg. a banana, an orange, a child, a man

! (2) Countable Plural
eg. bananas, oranges, children, men

! (3) Uncountable
eg. salt, milk, coffee, money
salts, milks, coffees, moneys

42501 Uncountable & Countable Nouns (2) Some nouns can be both uncountable and countable. Look at these
examples:
Could I have a white coffee, please? (= a cup of coffee)
I prefer tea to coffee (= coffee in general)

Theres a lovely wood behind our house? (= a place with trees)
We need wood for the fire (= wood in general)

Theres a hair in my soup! (= one hair)
Who left hair in the shower? (= hair in general)

44006 Unless ! We use unless to stress a condition. In meaning, it is similar to ifnot:
I cant help you unless you tell me whats on your mind
Unless we forget our differences, well never make progress

! Unless is normally followed by a positive verb. Look at these typical
mistakes:
She wont talk to us again unless we dont apologise. we apologise
Unless it doesnt rain, the concert in the park will go ahead. it rains

42021 Used to + ing ! be/get used to + noun/gerund is a more common alternative for be/get
accustomed. Here used to is an adjective and, therefore, may be refer to
any time, not only the past :
I hated Jane at first, but now Ive got used to her
Are you used to living alone, or do you find it difficult?
Im sorry, but youll have to get used to taking orders from me
I was used to looking after myself from a very early age

! Dont confuse the adjective used as in be/get used to (doing) something
with the verb used as in used to do something:
Im used to living on my own (adjective)
Ive got used to living on my own (adjective)
Ill never get used to living on my own (adjective)
I used to live on my own, but now I live with my partner (verb)


! Look at these typical mistakes:
Im used to live on my own Im used to living
Ive got used to live on my own Ive got used to living
Im used Im used to it

42021 Used to v. Used Dont confuse I used to (do something)... = Past Habit with I used
(something)... = Past Form of use. Look at these examples:

I used to visit my grandparents at the weekend (= Past Habit)
We used to like playing marbles (= Past Habit)

I used a hammer to break the window (= Past Form of I use)
We used an old box to sit on (= Past Form of I use)

42021 Used to: Introduction We say somebody used to (do something) to describe a past habit or past
routine. The situation now is different:
Bob used to have eggs for breakfast (but now he doesnt)
I used to be bad-tempered (but now Im not)
They used to live in London (but now they dont)

The corresponding negative structure is didnt use to:
Bob didnt use to have eggs for breakfast (but now he does)
I didnt use to be bad-tempered (but now I am)
They didnt use to live in London (but now they do)

To make questions we use Did use to?:
Did Bob use to have eggs for breakfast?
Did you use to be bad-tempered?
Did they use to live in London?

If we expect a positive reply (Yes!), we use a negative question:
Didnt Bob use to have eggs for breakfast?
Didnt you use to be bad-tempered?
Didnt they use to live in London?

Look at these typical mistakes:
I remember we use to work 12 hours a day! used Past Affirmative
I didnt used to like coffee, but now I love it! use Past Negative
Did you used to play marbles as a child? use Past Question

42021 Used to: Negative Structures There are three ways to make used to negative

1: didnt use to
Bob didnt use to have eggs for breakfast (but now he does)
They didnt use to live in London (but now they do)
I didnt use to be bad-tempered (but now I am)

2: used not to
Bob used not to have eggs for breakfast (but now he does)
I used not to be bad-tempered (but now I am)
They used not to live in London (but now they do)

3: never used to
Bob never used to have eggs for breakfast (but now he does)
I never used to be bad-tempered (but now I am)
They never used to live in London (but now they do)

didnt use to and used not to are identical in meaning

never used to is more emphatic:
Is that Tom playing football?!... He never used to like sports!
History classes were boring We never used to learn anything!

41311 Verb Patterns ! When you learn a verb, its important to know which structure or
structures can follow it. Here are the main verb patterns, together with
examples. Notice that many verbs can take several verb patterns (eg.
suggest, decide, warn, insist, advise, etc.).

! Pattern 1: Verb + No Object
rise, take off, land, pick up
The sun rises in the east
What time does the plane take off?
Well be landing in 10 minutes
Business is picking up at last

! Pattern 2: Verb + Object
threaten, phone, look for, accept, refuse, come across
Dont threaten me
Well phone you
Im looking for my car keys
Theyve accepted our offer
She refused my help
I came across a lovely photo the other day

! Pattern 3: Verb + Infinitive
want, need, decide, threaten, offer, refuse, promise, agree
I want to speak to you
We need to find a solution
Ive decided to leave you
He threatened to tell my parents
Shes offered to come with us
I refuse to waste more time on this
Do you promise to learn this?
Theyll never agree to do it

! Pattern 4: Verb + Bare Infinitive (Without To)
can, must, should
We can ask our teacher
You must be back by 10
They should study harder

! Pattern 5: Verb + Gerund
admit, deny, suggest, propose, recommend
Do you admit taking the watch?
He denied taking the photo
They suggested buying a new car
She proposed joining a club
I really recommend subscribing to this magazine

! Pattern 6: Verb + Preposition + Gerund
insist, apologise, decide
They insisted on finishing the game
He didnt apologise for having ruined our evening
Weve decided against buying a new house

! Pattern 7 Verb + That Clause
recommend, suggest, insist, propose, agree, admit, decide, deny, explain,
add
I really recommend that we subscribe to this magazine
They suggested that we buy a new car
They insisted that we finish the game
She proposed that we join a club
Bob agreed that it was a crazy idea
Jenny admitted that it was a tough decision
Ive decided that enough is enough.
Graeme denied that he took the photo
She explained that it was getting late
He added that he didnt think it was a good idea

! Pattern 8: Verb + Object + Infinitive
encourage, invite, advise, persuade, remind
Our boss encourages us to socialise after work
Theyve invited me to join them for a drink
Id advise you to think carefully before accepting the offer
Stephany persuaded Nigel to change his mind
Mum reminded me to call Jack

! Pattern 9: Verb + Object + Bare Infinitive
let, make, help
Please let me finish
Youll never make them agree
Shall I help you unpack?

! Pattern 10: Verb + Object + Gerund
stop, see, catch
You cant stop me watching you
Can you see that woman crossing the street?
My wife caught me eating chocolate

! Pattern 11: Verb + Object + Preposition + Gerund
congratulate, accuse, warn, advise, ban
Sarah congratulated me on getting the job
They accused Martin of taking the money
He warned us against buying anything from them
She advised them against signing the contract
Theyve banned me from driving for 6 months!

! Pattern 12: Verb + Object + That Clause
warn, remind, promise, advise
They warned us that we would regret it
Mum reminded me that I had to phone Jack
Theyve promised us that it wont happen again
I must advise you that this is a big risk

43101 Who / Which / That ! We use who to refer to people:
The story is about a woman who falls in love at the age of 90
The police have caught the thief who took my car radio

! We use which to refer to things:
Bob works for a company which makes fridges and freezers
Where are the photos which were on my desk?

! We use that to refer to people and things:
The story is about a woman that falls in love at the age of 90
The police have caught the thief that took my car radio
Bob works for a company that makes fridges and freezers
Where are the photos that were on my desk?

! Look at these typical mistakes:
The story is about a woman which falls in love who / that
Where are the photos who were on my desk? which / that

44420 Who? + What?: Subject Questions v. Object Questions Who and What can be the Subject or the Object of a Question.

Examples of Subject Questions
Who saw Jack last?
Who is the Subject: Somebody saw Jack. (Jack is the Object)

What happened next?
What is the Subject: Something happened. (There is no Object)

When Who? or What? form Subject Questions, we dont use the
auxiliary verbs do, does or did. Look at these typical mistakes:
Who did see Jack last? saw
What did happen next? happened
Who does live with their parents? lives
What does make you angry? makes

Examples of Object Questions
Who did Penny call?
Who is the Object: Penny called somebody. (Penny is the Subject)

What did James do?
What is the Object: James did something. (James is the Subject)

When Who? or What? form Object Questions, we must use the
auxiliary verbs do, does or did. Look at these typical mistakes:
Who Penny called? Who did Penny call?
Who Penny call? Who did Penny call?
What James did? What did James do?
What James do? What did James do?

43104 Whom ! Whom is a formal alternative for who or that when the relative pronoun is
an object:
The boy whom you spoke to is the mayors son

! However, it is rarely heard in spoken English and hardly used in written
English these days, either. In the sentence above, most people would
prefer to use who, that or nothing:
The boy who you spoke to is the mayors son
The boy that you spoke to is the mayors son
The boy you spoke to is the mayors son

43101 Whose ! The relative pronoun whose is used for both people and things:
Thats the lady whose garden won a prize
Thats the chair whose screws need replacing
Are they the boys whose football broke your window?
Are they the suitcases whose handles are broken?

! When Whose? is used as a question word, it always refers to people:
Whose pen is this? Is it yours, Noreen?
Whose books are those? Are they Daves?

42505 Work / Works / Task / Job Work is a verb or an uncountable noun meaning job / profession or
things to do in general:
Ive got to work late tonight
Its too much work for one person
Do you enjoy your work?

! Works is a countable noun meaning something created or constructed:
This is one of Shakespeares finest works
Picassos works are overrated in my opinion
I arrived late because of the roadworks

! Task is a countable noun meaning a specific job, something that has to
be done:
Why do I always get the most boring tasks?!
Come here, Penelope, Ive got a task for you

! Job is a countable noun meaning work or task:
Do you enjoy your job?
Why do I always get the most boring jobs?!

! Look at these typical mistakes:
She has an excellent work job
I have 20 works to do today tasks / jobs

40709 Worse v. Worst ! We use worse with Comparative structures (comparing two things):
My French is worse than yours worst
Her bark is worse than her bite worst

! We use worst with Superlative structures (comparing everything):
This is the worst soup Ive ever tasted! worse
Whats the worst experience you can remember? worse

42021 Would: Past Habits We say somebody would (do something) to describe a past habit or past
routine. The situation now is different:
We would play in the fields all day
Passers-by would stop and watch us play

The corresponding negative structure is wouldnt:
They wouldnt complain no matter how badly we behaved
He wouldnt buy anything unless he really needed to

! We do not use would to describe past states. In these situations, we must
say used to. Look at these typical mistakes:
I would be bad-tempered I used to be bad-tempered
They would live in London They used to live in London
They wouldnt live in London They didnt use to live in London
I wouldnt be bad-tempered I didnt use to be bad-tempered

We do not make questions with would to ask about past habits or states.
In these situations, we say used to. Look at these typical mistakes:
What would you do? What did you use to do?
Where would you play? Where did you use to play?
Would they work here? Did they use to work here?
Would you have that painting? Did you use to have that painting?

40201 Writing Letters & E-Mails (1) Beginning
1 (name
unknown)
Dear Sir
Dear Madam
Dear Sir / Madam
Dear Sirs
2 (name
known)
Dear Miss Smith
Dear Mr. Jones
Dear Ms. Green
Dear Mrs. Brown
3 (friendly)

Dear Penny
Dear Howard
4 (very
informal)
Hi James
Hello Steven

Thanking
Thank you for | your letter of | 23rd June 2006
| your fax dated | 16 Sept 2006
| expressING internet in our company

Refferring To Previous Communication

In Reply to
Further to
With reference to

your letter of
your mail dated
our phone call
our conversation

23rd June 2006
16 Sept 2006
yesterday
earlier today


Giving Reason For Writing
I am
- - - - - - writing to
We are
inform you that
ask if
complain about

40201 Writing Letters & E-Mails (2) Referring To Accompanying Documents
Please find

I/We enclose
I/We attach
enclosed
attached
a catalogue
our latest price list
together with
along with

Asking For Information
I/We should like to know when / where / why / how
if / whether

Making A Point
I/We should like to point out
make it absolutely clear
remind you

that

Breaking Good News
I am
We are
pleased
delighted
to inform you
let you know
that


40201 Writing Letters & E-Mails (3) Breaking Bad News
I/We regret to tell you
have to say
that
Unfortunately, however,

Apologising
I/We must apologise
Please accept my/our apologies
for the delay in
takING so long to

Asking For Action
I/We would
should
be grateful if you would
could
take appropriate action
investigate the matter
send me/us a catalogue
contact me/us
let me/us have your decision
Please could you

Demanding Immediate Action
I/We really must insist, therefore, that you

40201 Writing Letters & E-Mails (4) Giving A Warning
Unless you
If I/We do not hear from you

I/We will be forced to
I/We will have no alternative but to

Finishing
I/We look forward to hearING from you
meetING you
your reply
1 (name unknown)
Your faithfully
2 (name known)
Yours sincerely
Yours
3 (friendly)
Best wishes
Kind regards
4 (very informal)
Cheers
Bye

42601 Years ! To say a year, if it is before 2000, divide it into two pairs:
1684 -> 16 84 -> sixteen eighty-four
1799 -> 17 99 -> seventeen ninety-nine
1800 -> 18 00 -> eighteen hundred
1906 -> 19 06 -> nineteen o six

! Look at these typical mistakes:
1789 -> one thousand seven hundred seventeen
1808 -> eighteen eight eighteen o eight
1900 -> nineteen hundreds nineteen hundred

! If the year is 2000 or later, say two thousand and:
2007 -> two thousand and seven
2010 -> two thousand and ten

41307 Yes/No Questions v. Wh-/How Questions. We usually distinguish between two types of Questions

YES/NO Questions
YES/NO Questions are questions to which the answer is Yes or No. Of
course, many answers are possible in reality:

eg.#1 Can your son swim?
- Yes
- No
- Very well
- Better than yours
- (etc.)

eg.#2 Are you hungry?
- Yes
- No
- Im fine thanks
- I could eat a horse!
- (etc.)

WH-/HOW Questions
WH-/HOW Questions are questions beginning Wh-...? or How...?. There
are many possible answers except Yes or No, which are unacceptable
responses to this kind of question:

eg.#1 What do you do?
- Im a dentist
- Nothing.
- Im not telling you
- Yes
- No

eg.#2 How old are you?
- 37
- Ill be 42 in January
- I cant remember
- Yes
- No

44006 Zero Conditionals ! We use the Zero Conditional to show that Action A always results in
Action B. We often use when instead of if:
If I have a headache, I always take an aspirin
When I have a headache, I always take an aspirin
If you heat ice, it turns into water
When you heat ice, it turns into water

! In Zero Conditionals, both the Conditional verb the Secondary Clause
and Result verb the Main Clause take Present verbs, as we are talking
about general truths.

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