Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

1

I. Introduction
Fungi are living organisms that are distantly related to plants, and more
closely related to animals, but rather different from either of those groups. Their
cells resemble like plants and animals cells. They are heterotrophic and
osmotrophic. They mostly develop very diffuse bodies made up of a spreading
network of very narrow, tubular, branching filaments called hyphae. These
filaments exude enzymes, and absorb food, at their growing tips. Although these
filaments are very narrow, they are collectively very long, and can explore and
exploit food substrates very efficiently. Fungi usually reproduce by means of
spores, which develop on, and are released by, a range of unique structures
such as mushrooms, cup fungi, and many other kinds of microscopically small
fruiting bodies (Kendrick, 2002).
Fungi can be macro or microorganisms. Macrofungi are those fungi that
form large fructifications visible without the aid of a microscope and they are
defined here to include Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with large, easily
observed spore bearing structures (Hawksworth, 1991).Although by definition
visible to the naked eye, are, like all fungi, they are microorganisms. They
interact and compete in all manner with other microorganisms and predators or
browsers (Redhead, 1997).
Most conspicuous and familiar macrofungi are those colorful fruiting
bodies that are found in the wooded patches, ground soil and also in plants
called mushrooms.





2

Mushroom is the sporulating or fruiting body of a fungus in the Division
Basidiomycetes, a large and diverse group of about 16,000 species, sometimes
known as club fungi. Mushrooms have many fascinating properties, in addition to
the extreme toxicity of some species. Mushrooms can sometimes grow extremely
rapidlyin some cases, masses of mushrooms can seemingly appear overnight,
under suitable environmental conditions, and usually following a heavy rainfall.
Mushrooms may also have unusual shapes and growth patterns, for example,
the concentric circles or "fairy rings" that some species develop in open places,
such as fields and meadows. These and other interesting qualities were not
easily explainable by naturalists in earlier times. As a result, mushrooms have
acquired a supernatural reputation in some cultures, and are commonly
associated with cold, dank, dangerous, or evil contexts (Net Industries, 2011)
The objective of this study is to provide added information to the
community and to the whole mycological world on the mushroom diversity in
Manresa, College of Agriculture Complex, Masterson Avenue, Cagayan de Oro
City.










3

II. Objectives
General Objectives:
To assess the species diversity of mushrooms in Manresa, College of
Agriculture Complex, Masterson Avenue, Cagayan de Oro City.
Specific Objectives:
1. To identify all the collected specimens of mushrooms in Manresa
2. To determine the relative abundance, diversity index and coefficient of
dispersion of mushrooms in the study area
3. To record the substrate type where each mushroom grow
4. To determine the association between the substrate type and groupings
of the mushrooms
5. To construct a dichotomous field key
III. Significance of the Study
Since there are few researchers who conduct macrofungal studies or even
the whole of fungi Fungi, stand out, as they represent a group of organisms
where most countries in Asia and other regions lack taxonomists to carry out the
roles of the Convention of Biological Diversity (Hyde, 2003), there is a need for
further documentation of mushroom species.
The challenge then of this study is to provide added general information and
update on the standing biodiversity data of macrofungal species not just to
contribute in the worlds database of biodiversity but most importantly to the
Philippine biological world.





4

The records, information and results of this study will serve as additional
information on the mushroom species in Manresa, College of Agriculture
Complex along Masterson Avenue, Cagayan de Oro City.
IV. Limitations of the Study
Cultured mushrooms in the study area will not be included as they will not
be in the natural habitat. Although they play a very important role in the growth of
mushrooms, measurement of environmental factors such as temperature,
humidity, evaporation potential, substrate moisture content, light, pH and gas
concentrations (Przybylowicz & Donoghue, 1990) will not be employed.
The collection and documentation of mushrooms specimens will not
include those mushrooms which will not be accessible even if they may be
visible. Molecular analysis to identify collected specimens will not be employed;
therefore identification of possible subspecies may not be attained.















5

V. Literature Review
Hawksworth (1991) estimated that there are about 1 500 000 fungi
species throughout the world, with basis from the extrapolation from Britain to the
entire globe. Hawksworth added that Britain is among the most intensively
investigated areas on Earth for plants and fungi, pointing out that almost all the
flowering plants are known numbering to about 2000 species. Although the fungi
of Britain are definitely not fully known, with new ones that are still being
described, about 12 000 species have already been recorded. This gives a ratio
of about 6 fungi to each plant species. Furthermore, Hawksworth suggested that
since there appeared to be about 250 000 species of flowering plants in the
world, there are probably six times as many fungi that leads to the total number
of fungal species of 1 500 000. Even if this figure is an over- estimate, and with
only half- a- million fungi, we still have described only 20% of the total and a
huge task lies before us.
In the study in Nepal, Rana and Giri (2006) conducted a study on
Mushroom diversity in the Sagarmatha National Park and its buffer zone area
and recorded a total of 150 mushroom species belonging to 37 families and 65
genera collected from Lukla (2480m above sl) to Panboche (4000m above sl).
The largest family recorded were Boletaceae and Russulaceae having 18
species followed by Tricholomataceae (16 sps.), Polyporaceae (9 sps.). Most of
the collected mushrooms species were found on soil. The appearance,
occurrence and dominance were found to be controlled by different factors such
as altitude, vegetation, temperature, humidity. The diversity of mushroom were





6

found the highest (84 spp.) at an altitudinal range of 3500- 4000m above msl
followed by 2500- 3000m above msl (52 spp.) and 3000- 3500m above msl (14
spp.).
Another study done by Mueller et. al (2006) on global diversity and
distribution of macrofungi, 21,679 macrofungal species were compiled. Half of
the total species were from North America and Western Europe; other studies
were conducted in tropical America, Mexico, Central America, Caribbean, South
America, Antarctica, Africa Australasia, Hawaii and some countries from Asia
such as China and Japan. The percentage of unique names for each region
ranged from 37% for temperate Asia to 72% for Australia and Asia. Aside from
the known species, 35,000 macrofungal species from other contributing authors
were labeled unknown. This would give a total of 56,679 macrofungi species. In
addition, as a starting point for generating a global estimate of macrofungal
diversity, compiled list of names of macrofungi for North America and Europe
assumed to give a true and nearly complete indication of species diversity for the
two regions. Comparing from these two figures, 10,000 for North America and
6,827 for Europe, to documented plant species diversity data, 20,000 for North
America and 125, 000 for Europe. Thus, these two data give macrofungal
species ratio of 2:1. Extrapolating this ratio of two species of flowering plants to
each macrofungal species using the reported plant species diversity data for
each region, these gives a very high diversity estimate for macrofungi;85,000-
110,000 depending on the employed degree of endemism.





7

As many as 615 taxa of macrofungi representing two phyla were recorded
in the study Macrofungi of wooded patches in the agricultural landscape in
Poland. Most of these 528 or 86%, belonged to the subdivision Basidiomycota,
represented by 3 classes, 14 orders and 52 families. Species of the order
Agaricales constituted 63.5% of all recorded species. The phylum Ascomycota,
87 species or 14%, was represented by 5 classes, 7 orders and 18 families.
Richest in recorded species were the orders Pezizales (35 spp) and Helotiales
(34 spp). In this study, the total area that is covered by the park is 223 squares (I
km2 each) of the ATPOL grid with 58 squares lie on the border of the park. Fungi
data were gathered in 5 squares only about 33.6% of the total area. The number
of recorded species per square meter ranged between 1 and 213. Moreover,
most species (399 or 64%) were recorded in only 1-3 squares and being
regarded as rare or very rare species but among them, 213 species are
unknown from a single square. Some of the species observed were Gymnopus
dryophilus (28), Mycena sanguinolenta (25), Xerocomus chrysenteron (24),
Mycena galericulata(23), Gymnopus peronatus (21), Marasmius oreades(20) and
Mycena leptocephala (20) (Kujawa, 2009).
Macrofungal studies have been a worldwide mycological activity but in the
Philippine setting, very few have been done, much more, published .Abella et al
(2007) reported wild edible macroscopic fungi from Mt. Nagpale, Abucay. This
study was conducted in collaboration with the Aetas living in the area. The
expedition also aimed to collect, identify, and rescue the mycelia of these wild
edible species with potential commercial value. The Aetas identified six edible





8

macrofungi that are normally found in the wild: kuwat kawayan (Schizophyllum
commune), kuwat susong biik (Coprinus sp.), kuwat maya (Mycena sp.), kuwat
punso (Termitomyces sp.), kuwat are (Volvariella volvacea), and kuwat balugbug
dagis (Auricularia polytricha). Another macrofungus collected during the
expedition with high economic value due to its reputed medicinal properties was
Ganoderma lucidum. However, the Aetas only use this macrofungus as an
ornament and not as food.
North East of Bataan lies the province of Nueva Ecija. An assessment on
macrofungi was done in Puncan, Carranglan, Nueva Ecija. There were seven
species found during the dry season on April 5, 2008. Names of the species and
their taxa are as follows: Auricularia fuscosuccinea belongs to Oder Tulasnellales
or Tremellales (jelly Fungi) from Family Auriculariaceae: Gloeoporous dichrous
(fr) Bres, Coltricia perennis (Fr) Murr, Trametes versicolor and Phellinus pini form
Order Poluporales: Family Polyporaceae: Hobenbuebelia petaloides from Family
Tricholomataceae and Cantharellus minor Pk from Family Cantharellaceae both
of Order Agaricales (Sibounnavong et al., 2008).
Macrofungi inhabit organic rich substrates. To find out which habitat
harbors the most macrofungal species, Gaditano et al (2011) surveyed Barugo,
Leyte. In the monthly study of macrofungal species from November 2010 to
January 2011 and their associated habitats, the coconut plantation was found to
be the most species rich habitat with a total number of 51 species, 31 species
were recorded from the open grassland and 21 species from the mangrove area
(out of 89 species). Coconut plantation has a species richness index value of





9

15.44 which is the highest among the sites, this indicates that the habitat has the
most number of macro fungi followed by the open grassland with 12 and
Mangrove with 7, in evenness count. All study sites have poor equitability in the
apportionment of individuals among species. The Shannon Index of species
diversity value of 2.988 was the highest among the macrofungi from three
habitats; this was in the coconut plantation. This was followed by the macrofungi
from open grassland with H=2.772 and H=2.082 for the macrofungi in the
mangrove area. With all species found, Roridomyces roridus is most dominant
(Gaditano et al., 2011).
There were also unpublished studies conducted by several researchers
based in the Mindanao area.
Comparatively large numbers or species were identified in Initao National
Park, Initao, Misamis Oriental. Two separate studies made by Patindol
(Unpublished) and Mapandi (Unpublished) reported 29 species of
Baisidomycetes, and 40 species of Baisidomycetes and Ascomycetes,
respectively. Lactarus fragilis was the most abundant species found in the area.
Polyporus species were widely distributed throughout the area composed of four
species, Polyporus sulphureus, P. versiclor, P. arcularis and P. elegans.
In a similar study conducted in Bukidnon particularly Manolo Fortich on the
species diversity of macrofungi by Adobo (Unpublished), 33 species were
identified. An average Shannon- Weiner index (H) of the three areas selected
was calculated to be 2.21. There were 27 species in subdivision Basidiomycetes,





10

2 species in class Ascomycetes, 3 species in class Phragmobasidiomycetes and
1 species in class Myxomycota. The most abundant species were Dacrymces
sp., Lentinus sp., and Pleurotus sp.
Assessment of the macrofungal species in Impalutao Natural Monument,
Impasug-ong, Bukidnon was conducted during months of August to December
2002 (Macadato, unpublished). Plotless Method was used in collecting samples
of macrofungal species. There were a total of 34 macrofungal species collected
from Impalutao Natural Monument thirty- three of which belonged to Class
Basidiomycetes and only one species belonged to Class Ascomycetes, which
was Xylaria sp.. The top three most abundant species were Agaricus sp. 1 with a
relative abundance value of 11.43% followed by Ganoderma resiniceum with
10.48% and Boletus sp. ranks third with 7.619%. Marasmius sp, Ceratiomyxa sp,
Polyporus versicolor, Polyporus elegans, Polyporus sp. 3, Polyporus sp. 4,
Fomes sp. 3, Fomes sp. 6, Ganoderma sp. 1, Ganoderma sp. 3, were the least
abundant species. The Shannon- Weiner Index value of 3.19 reveals that
macrofungi are highly diverse in Impalutao Natural Monument. Most of the
macrofungal species were found to thrive in dead, fallen logs, branches and trigs,
while few were found to colonize living trees, leaf litter, ground soil and in soil.
Polypolarys sp. comes out to be the most abundant species, with the
Cinchona forest having a Shannon-Weiner diversity index of 2.83 in the study
conducted by Mosqueda (Unpublished) in Lantapan, Bukidnon. All the identified
macrofungi were saprobes in which 97% were associated with tree tissues and
the remaining 3% on decaying matter.





11

A similar study by Dinsag (Unpublished) in Guilang- guilang,
ManoloFortich, Bukidnon reported 40 species in 18 families. Polyporaceae sp.
was the most abundant species and Phellinus ignarius was the only parasitic
species found in the area. A Shannon- Weiner index value of 3.32 was
calculated.
Three month sampling period generated 76 species of mushrooms from
the vicinity of Macahambus Adventure Park (Boyles, unpublished). These
mushrooms belong to 25 families of Kingdom Eumycota (of fungi). Most of the
mushrooms found in the area belong to the family Tricholomataceae with 21
species, and Polyporaceae with 9 species. The most abundant species was
Schisophyllum commune followed by a species in family Ramariaceae, Trametes
hirsute, Pycnoporus sp., and Mycena sp. 4. All of these have more than 100
fruiting bodies, with Schizophyllum commune having the most with 418 fruiting
bodies. Four species, namely Auricularia polytricha, Aleura aurantia, Trametes
hirsute and Schizophyllum commune were common as they were always found
during the entire sampling period.
But despite the number and existing data of macrofungal diversity, we
cannot deny the fact that there are only few active mycologists in Asia and some
mycologists all throughout the world are declining because of other
commitments, retirement of the mycology population without replacement and of
more importance, being placed on other disciplines such as biotechnology
(Hyde,2003). However, this does not mean that the condition of mycologists and
fungi database would retain as is because associations of fungal diversity





12

organizations pave their way in developing and implementing effective ways to
move forward from its present predicament.
VI. Work Plan
A. Study Area
Manresa farm is 5 kilometers away from the center of the city. It is situated
along the Masterson Avenue (Figure 1) and covers an area of about 63.4
hectares. Manresa was developed to be a laboratory or experimental station for
the students of Xavier University College of Agriculture. The main crops are
sweet corn, corn, cucumber, string beans, eggplant, bottle gourd and ladys
finger.
Plate 1 shows the entrance of Manresa farm. The starting point was
established from the left side of the entrance. Plate 2 shows the walkways inside
the study area. Plate 3 shows some of the sampled sites; it includes woody areas
and grasslands in the highland area, slope areas and valley part of Manresa.





13


Coordinates 827'38"N 12437'34"E Philippine Map


Aerial view of Cagayan de Oro City

Figure 1. Map of Manresa, College of Agriculture Complex, Masterson Avenue, Cagayan de Oro City







14























15























16

B. Duration of the Study
Table 1 Schedule of Activities
Activity June July Aug Sept Oct
Research Topic
Literature Review
Reconnaissance
Research Proposal
Proposal Defense
1
st
Sampling
2
nd
Sampling
Identification and Preservation
Progress Report

C. Methodology
The methodology in the field of this study was derived from the protocol
created by Mueller et al. 2004 on the topic entitled Recommended Protocols for
Sampling Macrofungi and Approaches to Sampling Macrofungi
Sample collection was done for 3 consecutive days, to cover as much
area of the 63.4 hectares







17

In the Field
Plot less method was employed in the sampling of mushroom species.
Plot less method is a sampling method in which it has no dimension and does
not need to be established unlike any transect or quadrat method. The
advantages of this method are sample plot need not be established, time saving
and less subjective error associated in the sample plot boundaries (Fidelibus and
Mac Aller, 1993).
Collection of the Specimens
As soon as the fruiting bodies were spotted, photo documentation was
done then representative samples were taken. Specimens were slowly dug by a
bolo or knife to prevent from destroying the whole specimen. The specimens
were then wrapped in individual brown paper, placed in a sealable container and
labeled appropriately.
Identification of the Specimens
Collected representative samples were identified with the use of a
taxonomic key by Petersen, Gaba and Lsse in Mycological Identification Site
(Mycokey), Mushrooms and Fungi by Jackman (2007), Great Encyclopedia of
Mushrooms by Konemann (1999) and Illustrated Philippine Fungi by Quimio
(1988). Other samples were identified through spore printing since there are
mushroom specimens that are actually alike and can only be identified through
their spores (Jackman, 2007). In spore printing, sterilized scalpel was used in





18

cutting the cap from the stem of a mushroom at the highest possible point (Figure
2). The cap was placed on a white paper facing down so as not to expose the
spores to the outside air and covered with a glass. After a maximum of 24 hours
or as the spores have fallen down, the glass was removed and placed the printed
paper using a pair of tweezers in a sealable plastic bag (Mushroom-
Appreciation.com, 2008).
Step 1 Step 2
Cut the cap from the stem Face down the cap to a white paper

Step 3 Step 4
Cover with a glass Remove the cap with a tweezers

Step 5 Step 6
Place inside a sealable plastic bag

Figure 2. Process in Spore Printing





19

Preservations of the Specimens
After collecting and identifying the specimens, air drying technique
followed. Mushrooms were wiped off with a damp cloth rather than washing
directly with water. Samples were set aside and kept in an area with low level
heat and away from direct heat from the sun. Mushrooms were preserved in
broken dry condition and stored in airtight containers in a cool, dark place
(Mushroom-Appreciation.com). The label for each specimen includes the
following information;
Common Name:
Scientific Name:
Date of Collection:
Place of Collection:
Collected By:
Data Analyses
1. Species Diversity Index- provide important information about rarity and
commonness of species in a community.
s
H = - p
i
( ln p
i
)
i=1

Where: H = the Shannon diversity index
p
i
= fraction of the entire population made up of species i
S = numbers of species encountered
= sum from species 1 to species S





20

2. Relative Abundance- proportional representation of a species in a community
or sample of a community.
Relative Abundance = No. of individual species X 100
Total no. of individuals

3. Coefficient of Dispersion- arrangement of organisms within an area, it may be
random, uniform or clumped
CD= Variance/Mean
Where;
CD>1 Clumped distribution
CD<1 Uniform distribution
CD=1 Random distribution














21

VII Partial Results and Discussion
During the three consecutive days of sampling, there were about 30
species of mushrooms that were identified, 28 species belonging to Division
Basidiomycota and 2 species to Division Ascomycota. There were a total of 779
individuals collected and a total of 11 families were counted. The family of
Polyporaceae consisting of 10 species had the most number of species counted,
followed by Tricholomataceae (5 species), Ganodermataceae (3 species),
Pleurotaceae ,Coprinaceae and Russulaceae with 2 species; Auriculariaceae,
Bolbitaceae, Bondarzewiaceae, Pluteaceae, and Xylariaceae having the least
with 1 species identified (Table 2). The 3 most abundant species were Lentinus
squarrosus (43.39%), Russula sp.2 (26.32%) and Pleurotus dryinus with 5.39%
(Figure 3).
Furthermore, Table 2 shows the different mushrooms identified. In family
Auriculariaceae, 5 individuals were collected for Auricularia polytricha; family
Bolbitaceae, 3 individuals were collected for Panaelous cyanescens; family
Bondarzewiaceae, 1 individual was collected for Bondarzewia sp.; family
Coprinaceae, 5 individuals were collected for the species Coprinus cinereus(1)
and Coprinus comatus(4); family Ganodermataceae, 10 individuals were
collected for the species of Ganoderma applanatum (3), Ganoderma australe(3)
and Ganoderma lucidum(4); family Pleurotaceae, 43 collected individuals for the
species of Pleurotus dryinus (42) and Pleurotus sp. (1); family Pluteaceae, 2
collected individuals for Volvariella volvaceae; family Polyporaceae, a total of 413
individuals were counted for the following species; Laetiporus sp. (1), Lentinus





22

Table 2 List and Number of Individual Species
Family Species
# of
individuals Type of Substrate
Auriculariaceae
Auricularia polytricha 5 Tree logs
Bolbitaceae
Panaelous cyanescens 3 Waste
Bondarzewiaceae
Bondarzewia sp. 1 Soil
Coprinaceae
Coprinus cinereus 1 Dead logs
Coprinus comatus 4 Dead logs
Ganodermataceae
Ganoderma applanatum 3 Coconut Tree
Ganoderma australe 3 Coconut Tree
Ganoderma lucidum 4 Tree logs
Marasmiaceae
Collybia sp. 1 22 Soil
Collybia sp. 2 205 Soil
Pleurotaceae
Pleurotus dryinus 42 Tree logs
Pleurotus sp. 1 1 Soil
Pluteaceae
Volvariella volvacea 2 Banana Tree
Polyporaceae
Laetiporus sp. 1 Dead logs
Lentinus squarrosus 338 Dead logs
Lenzites sp. 36 Tree logs
Polyporus elegans 2 Tree logs
Polyporus sp. 4 Tree logs
Pycnoporus sanguineus 5 Dead logs
Trametes gibbosa 6 Tree logs
Trametes versicolor 16 Dead logs
Trametes sp.1 3 Dead logs
Trametes sp.2 2 Tree logs
Tricholomataceae
Clitocybe costata 3 Fallen logs
Clitocybe fragrans 32 Tree logs
Clitocybe sp. 1 5 Tree logs
Clitocybe sp. 2 20 Soil
Clitocybe sp. 3 5 Tree logs
Xylariaceae

Daldinia concentrica 4 Dead logs
Unidentified species 1 Tree logs
Total 779







23

squarrosus (338), Lenzites sp. (36), Polyporus elegans (2), Polyporus sp. (4),
Pycnoporus sanguineus (5), Trametes gibbosa (6), Trametes versicolor (16),
Trametes sp. 1 (3) and Trametes sp. 2 (2); family Russulaceae, a total of 227
individuals were counted and the species are Russula sp. 1(22) and Russula sp.
2(205); family Tricholomataceae with 65 counted individuals and the species are
Clitocybe costata (3), Clitocybe fragrans (32), Clitocybe sp. 1(5), Clitocybe sp. 2
(20) and Clitocybe sp. 3 (5); and lastly, family Xylariaceae with 5 individuals
collected and the species are Daldinia concentrica (4) and 1 unidentified species.
Figure 3 shows that over a period of 3 days sampling, the species
Lentinus squarrosus came out to be the most abundant species with a relative
abundance of 43.39 compared to the other species that were found and counted.
This species was found only in a single site. The second most abundant species
was Russula sp. with a relative abundance of 26. 32. The third most abundant
species was Pleurotus dryinus with a relative abundance of 5.39. The latter
species were present on the entire sampling period. Lenzites sp. Trametes
versicolor, Russula sp. 1, Clitocybe fragrans and Clitocybe sp. are from 2-4%.
Other species are in the range of 0.12-0.64%.











24




Figure 3 Percentage Relative Abundance of Mushrooms in Manresa, College of Agriculture Complex
Auricularia polytricha
Panaelous cyanescens
Bondarzewia sp.
Coprinus cinereus
Coprinus comatus
Ganoderma applanatum
Ganoderma australe
Ganoderma lucidum
Collybia sp. 1
Collybia sp. 2
Pleurotus dryinus
Pleurotus sp. 1
Volvariella volvacea
Laetiporus sp.
Lentinus squarrosus
Lenzites sp.
Polyporus elegans
Polyporus sp.
Pycnoporus sanguineus
Trametes gibbosa
Trametes versicolor
Trametes sp.1
Trametes sp.2
Clitocybe costata
Clitocybe fragrans
Clitocybe sp. 1
Clitocybe sp. 2





25

The calculated diversity index was H=1.19. The calculated value means
that the area is diverse. This may be due to the reason that the sampling area is
a protected, undisturbed and away from any pollution. According to the
hypotheses, Really intense disturbances reduce diversity. Long undisturbed
areas also tend to have low diversity because competitively dominant life-forms
usurp all resources available. Intermediate levels of disturbance, however, often
facilitate diversity (Net Industries, 2011).
The sampling area is characterized by patchy resources which means an
area of habitat that differs from its surroundings with sufficient resources to allow
a population to persists(Smith and Smith, 2004) that resulted to a clumped
distribution with a CD=221. There is a minimal distance between mushroom
species. Some species of the same like Lentinus squarrosus can be found in one
area clumped together, other individuals can be found on indefinite location and
others constituting different species form in a cluster.
In terms of the substrate type, tree logs constitute 40% of the most
preferable substrate where mushrooms grow. 27% of them preferred dead
stems, 16% on soil and 17% on other substrate type like the fallen logs, animal
waste, banana tree, and coconut tree (Figure 4).






26


Figure 4 Preferable Substrate Type (%) of Mushrooms
The most commonly found mushroom in the whole area is the Russula sp.
Workers in Manresa usually picked this mushrooms because of its edible
characteristic. They use this as viand. Other commonly found species are the
Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus dryinus. However, Lentinus squarrosus is
found only in one site.








tree logs
40%
soil
16%
dead stems
27%
others
17%
Substrate Type





27

VIII Time Table for Completion of Project
Gantt chart shows the list of activities and dates of accomplished from the
very first requirement of the research until the last. Gantt chart is a best tool in
monitoring the progress of a project.
As illustrated in the figure, the progress of the research is almost halfway
through the whole research paper and the whole process from Research topic to
Progress report took 99 days to be completed.


Figure 5 Gantt chart of the Accomplished Activities





6/22/2011 7/12/2011 8/1/2011 8/21/2011 9/10/2011 9/30/2011
Research Topic
Literature Review
Reconnaissance
Proposal Paper
Proposal Defense
1st-3rd Sampling
Identification and Preservation
Progress Report





28

Bibliography

Abella, E. A, R. G. Reyes, M. J. Tayamen, B. Garcia, E. J. Floresca and
J. C. Santos. 2007. In search of Wild macroscopic fungi with potential for
cultivation: The Mt. Nagpale expedition. Journal of Nature Studies. V. 3.

Adobo, Irene S. (Unpublished). Macrofungal Species in Selceted Areas of
Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon. A paper presented to the Biology Department,
Xavier Univerisity, Cagayan de Oro City, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements of the course Bio 20, March 2003.

Akata, I., H. Servi and B. Cetin. 2010. Macrofungal diversity of Bolu Abant
Nature Park (Turkey). Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 9(24), pp. 3622-
3628

Boyles, Murphy E. ( Unpublished ). Mushrooms in Macahambus Adventure Park,
Macahambus, Cagayan de Oro City and its immediate vicinity. A paper
presented to the Biology Department, Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro
City. In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course Bio 20, March
2005.

Beals, M., L. Gross and S. Harell. 2000. Diversity Indices. Available from
http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~mbeals/shannonDI.html.

Chidburee, P., W. Tharavecharak and A. Chidburee. 2009. Biodiversity
of Bryophyte and Wild Mushroom to Develop as Ecotourism at Natural
routes in Chae- Sorn National Park of Lampang Province. University of
Technology Lanna, Chiang- Mai, Thailand 23- 29.

China Papers. 2010. Macrofungal Diversity of Jingyuetan National Forestry
Park. Available from http://mt.chinapapers.com/l/?p=131963.

Dinsag, Kharla L. (Unpublished). Macrofungal species in Pamantangan, Guilang-
guilang, Manolo Fortich, Bukidnon. Apaper presented to the Biology
Department, Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City. In partial fulfillment
of the requirements of the course Bio 20, March 2004.

Encyclopedia Britannica.2011. Relative Abundance. Available from
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/496821/relative-abundance

Fidelibus, M.W and R.T.F. Mac Aller. 1993. Methods for Plant Sampling.
Available from http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/SERG/techniques/mfps.html.








29

Gaditano, A. J. M., J. V. Lampera, C. A. A. Ponferrada, F. M. Ladiao and
M. B. Berida. 2011. Diversity of Macrofungi in Barugo, Leyte Philippines.
Widlife Conservation Society of the Philippines.

Hawksworth, D. L. 1991. The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude,
Significance, and conservation. Mycol. Res. 95: 641-655.

Hyde, K.D. 2003. Mycology and its future in the Asia region. Fungal Diversity
13: 59-68.

Jackman, Leslie. 2007. Mushrooms and Fungi. Alligator Books Limited, Gadd
house, Arcadia Avenue, London. 10-77 pp.

Kaya, Abdullah. 2010. Macrofungal diversity of Adiyaman Province (Turkey).
Mycotaxon 110:43- 46.

Kendrick, Bryce. 2002. What are Fungi?. Available from
http://www.mycolog.com/fungus.htm.

Konemann. 1999. Great Encyclopedia of Mushrooms. Neue Stalling, Oldenburg.

Krishnappa, M, S. Abrar and Swapna S. 2008. Diversity of Macrofungi in Semi-
evergreen and moist deciduous forest of Shimoga District- Karnataka,
India. J Mycol Pl Pathol. V 38, No. 1.

Kujawa, Anna. 2009. Macrofungi of wooded patches in the agricultural landscape
(Species Diversity). Acta Mycologica. V. 44 (1): 49- 75.

Macadato, Fahad V. (Unpublished). Macrofungal Species in Impalutao
Natural Monument, Impasug- ong, Bukidnon. A paper presented to the
Biology Department, Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City, in partial
fulfillment of the requirements of the course Bio 20, March 2003.

Mapandi, Juhara Ali. (Unpublished). A Macrofungal Species in Initao National
Park. A paper presented to the Biology Department, Xavier University,
Cagayan de Oro City, in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the
course Bio 20, March 2002.

May, T. W, J. M Packham, M. J. Brown, I. J Wardlaw and K. Mills. 2002.
Macrofungal Diversity and community ecology in mature and regrowth wet
eucalypt forest in Tasmania: A multivariate study. Austral Ecology. 27,
149- 161.

McDarby, M. 2006. Kingdom Monera and Fungi. Available from
http://faculty.fmcc.suny.edu/mcdarby/Pages/ClassificationKey/Classificatio
nMonera-Fungi.htm.





30


Mosqueda, Alain T. (Unpublished). Macrofungal species of Cinchona forest
reserve in Lantapan, Bukidnon. A paper presented to the Biology
Department, Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City. In partial fulfillment
of the requirements of the course Bio 20, March 2003.

Mueller, G. M., P. R. Leacock and J. P. Schmit. 2006. Global diversity and
distribution of macrofungi. Biodivers Conserv. 16: 37-48.

Mueller et al. 2004. Recommended Protocols for Sampling Macrofungi. Biodivers
Conserv. 16: 169-172

Mueller et al. 2004. Approaches to Sampling Macrofungi. Biodivers Conserv. 16:
163-168

Mushplanet. 2004. Available from
http://mushplanet.com/cultivation_manual/making-spore-print.html.

Mushroom- Appreciation. 2008. Drying Mushrooms: Methods and Tips.
Available from http://www.mushroom-appreciation.com/drying-
mushrooms.html.

Mycologue Publications. All About Fungi.
Available from http://www.mycolog.com/CHAP1.htm.

Net Industries. 2011. Mushrooms - Biology And Ecology Of Mushroom-producing
Fungi, Mushrooms Of North America, Poisonous Mushrooms And Drugs.
Available from http://science.jrank.org/pages/4513/Mushrooms.html.

Net Industries, 2011. Species Diversity.
Available from http://science.jrank.org/pages/48777/Species-Diversity.html

Offwell Woodland and Wildlife Trust. The Importance of Fungi. Available from
http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/fungi/importce.html

Osemwegie, O.O and J. A. Okhuoya. 2011. Diversity and abundance of
macrofungi in Rubber Agroforest in Southwestern Nigeria. Nordic Journal
of Botany 29: 119-128

Patindol, Ched Marie P. (Unpublished). Species Diversity of Basidiomycetes in
Initao National Park, Misamis Oriental. A paper presented to the Biology
Department, Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City, in partial fulfillment
of the requirementsof the course Bio 20, March 2001.

Petersen, J. H and T. Lsse. Mycological Information Site. Available from
www.mycokey.com.





31


Przybylowicz, P and J. Donoghue. 1990. Shiitake Cultivation. pp. 25-31.


Quimio, Tricita H. 1988. Illustrated Philippine Fungi. Technology and Livelihood
Resource Center & University of Philippines at Los Banos.

Rana, P. and A. Giri. 2006. Mushroom diversity in the Sagarmatha Natural Park
and its buffer zone area. Banko Janakari. V. 16 (2), pp. 17- 24.

Redhead, S. 1997. Macrofungi of British Columbia: requirements for inventory.
Available from http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/wp/wp28.htm.

Sibounnavong, D., C. D. Cynthia, S. P Kalaw, R. G. Reyes and K. Soytong.
2008. Some species of macrofungi at Puncan, Carranglan, Nueva Ecija
in the Philippines. Journal of Agricultural Technology 4(2): 105- 115.

Smith, R. L and T. M. Smith. 2004. Elements of Ecology. Pearson Education
South Asis PTE ltd. P 655.