Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 54

CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION
1
INTRODUCTION
Nutrition is the selection of foods and preparation of foods, and their ingestion to
be assimilated by the body. By practicing a healthy diet, many of the known health
issues can be avoided. The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely
determined by the perceived palatability of foods.
Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal
planning, economics, and preparation. They are trained to provide safe, evidence
based dietary advice and management to individuals !in health and disease", as
well as to institutions. #linical nutritionists are health professionals who focus
more specifically on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible
prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting
to drugs. $overnment regulation of the use of this professional title is less
universal than for %dietician.%
& poor diet may have an in'urious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases
such as scurvy and kwashiorkor(healththreatening conditions like obesity and
metabolic syndrome( and such common chronic systemic diseases as
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.
History
The first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about
)*++ B#, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days.
,curvy, later found to be a vitamin # deficiency, was first described in 1*++ B# in
the -bers .apyrus.
)
&ccording to /alter $ratzer, the study of nutrition probably began during the 0th
century B#. 1n #hina, the concept of 2i developed, a spirit or %wind% similar to
what /estern -uropeans later called pneuma. 3ood was classified into %hot% !for
e4ample, meats, blood, ginger, and hot spices" and %cold% !green vegetables" in
#hina, 1ndia, 5alaya, and .ersia. 6umours developed perhaps first in #hina
alongside 7i. 6o the .hysician concluded that diseases are caused by deficiencies
of elements !/u 8ing9 fire, water, earth, wood, and metal", and he classified
diseases as well as prescribed diets. &bout the same time in 1taly, &lcmaeon of
#roton !a $reek" wrote of the importance of e7uilibrium between what goes in
and what goes out, and warned that imbalance would result disease marked by
obesity or emaciation.
&round :;* B#, &na4agoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and,
therefore, contains %homeomerics% !generative components", suggesting the
e4istence of nutrients. &round :++ B#, 6ippocrates, who recognized and was
concerned with obesity, which may have been common in southern -urope at the
time, said, %<et food be your medicine and medicine be your food.% The book that
is still attributed to him, #orpus 6ippocraticum, called for moderation and
emphasized e4ercise.
,alt, pepper and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various
preparations for e4ample mi4ed with vinegar. 1n the )nd century B#, #ato the
-lder believed that cabbage !or the urine of cabbageeaters" could cure digestive
diseases, ulcers, warts, and into4ication. <iving about the turn of the millennium,
&ulus #elsus, an ancient =oman doctor, believed in %strong% and %weak% foods
!bread for e4ample was strong, as were older animals and vegetables".
>
Galen to Lind
1t is hard to overlook the doctrines of $alen9 1n use from his life in the 1st century
&D until the 1;th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for 1*++ years.
$alen was physician to gladiators in .ergamon, and in =ome, physician to 5arcus
&urelius and the three emperors who succeeded him. 5ost of $alen?s teachings
were gathered and enhanced in the late 11th century by Benedictine monks at the
,chool of ,alerno in =egimen sanitatis ,alernitanum, which still had users in the
1;th century. $alen believed in the bodily humours of 6ippocrates, and he taught
that pneuma is the source of life. 3our elements !earth, air, fire and water" combine
into %comple4ion%, which combines into states !the four temperaments9 sanguine,
phlegmatic, choleric, and melancholic". The states are made up of pairs of
attributes !hot and moist, cold and moist, hot and dry, and cold and dry", which are
made of four humours9 blood, phlegm, green !or yellow" bile, and black bile !the
bodily form of the elements". $alen thought that for a person to have gout, kidney
stones, or arthritis was scandalous, which $ratzer likens to ,amuel Butler?s
-rehwon !1@;)" where sickness is a crime.
1n the 1*++s, .aracelsus was probably the first to criticize $alen publicly.&lso in
the 10th century, scientist and artist <eonardo da Ainci compared metabolism to a
burning candle. <eonardo did not publish his works on this sub'ect, but he was not
afraid of thinking for himself and he definitely disagreed with $alen. Bltimately,
10th century works of &ndreas Aesalius, sometimes called the father of modern
medicine, overturned $alen?s ideas. 6e was followed by piercing thought
amalgamated with the era?s mysticism and religion sometimes fueled by the
mechanics of Newton and $alileo. Can Baptist van 6elmont, who discovered
several gases such as carbon dio4ide, performed the first 7uantitative e4periment.
=obert Boyle advanced chemistry. ,anctorius measured body weight. .hysician
6erman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. .hysiologist &lbrecht von
6aller worked out the difference between nerves and muscles.
:
,ometimes overlooked during his life, Cames <ind, a physician in the British navy,
performed the first scientific nutrition e4periment in 1;:;. <ind discovered that
lime 'uice saved sailors that had been at sea for years from scurvy, a deadly and
painful bleeding disorder. Between 1*++ and 1@++, an estimated two million
sailors had died of scurvy. The discovery was ignored for forty years, after which
British sailors became known as %limeys.% The essential vitamin # within citrus
fruits would not be identified by scientists until 1D>).
<avoisier and modern science
&round 1;;+, &ntoine <avoisier discovered the details of metabolism,
demonstrating that the o4idation of food is the source of body heat. 6e discovered
the principle of conservation of mass. 6is ideas made the phlogiston theory of
combustion obsolete.
1n 1;D+, $eorge 3ordyce recognized calcium as necessary for fowl survival. 1n the
early 1Dth century, the elements carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and o4ygen were
recognized as the primary components of food, and methods to measure their
proportions were developed.
1n 1@10, 3ranEois 5agendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates !sugar",
fat !olive oil", and water died evidently of starvation, but dogs also fed protein
survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component. /illiam .rout in
1@); was the first person to divide foods into carbohydrates, fat, and protein.
During the 1Dth century, CeanBaptiste Dumas and Custus von <iebig 7uarrelled
over their shared belief that animals get their protein directly from plants !animal
and plant protein are the same and that humans do not create organic compounds".
/ith a reputation as the leading organic chemist of his day but with no credentials
in animal physiology, <iebig grew rich making food e4tracts like beef boullion and
*
infant formula that were later found to be of 7uestionable nutritious value. 1n the
1@0+s, #laude Bernard discovered that body fat can be synthesized from
carbohydrate and protein, showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored
as fat or as glycogen.
1n the early 1@@+s, Fanehiro Takaki observed that Capanese sailors !whose diets
consisted almost entirely of white rice" developed beriberi !or endemic neuritis, a
disease causing heart problems and paralysis", but British sailors and Capanese
naval officers did not. &dding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of
Capanese sailors prevented the disease, !not because of the increased protein as
Takaki supposed but because it introduced a few parts per million of thiamine to
the diet, later understood as a cure".
1n 1@D0, -ugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. 1n 1@D;, #hristiaan
-i'kman worked with natives of Cava, who also suffered from beriberi. -i'kman
observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of
beriberi but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer
bran intact. -i'kman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, discovering
that food can cure disease. Gver two decades later, nutritionists learned that the
outer rice bran contains vitamin B1, also known as thiamine.
3rom 1D++ to the present
1n the early )+th century, #arl von Aoit and 5a4 =ubner independently measured
caloric energy e4penditure in different species of animals, applying principles of
physics in nutrition. 1n 1D+0, /ilcock and 6opkins showed that the amino acid
tryptophan is necessary for the survival of rats. 6e fed them a special mi4ture of
food containing all the nutrients he believed to be essential for survival, but the
rats died. & second group of rats were fed an amount of milk containing vitamins.
,ir 3rederick 6opkins recognized that there e4ist %accessory food factors% other
0
than calories, protein, and minerals, as organic materials essential to health but that
the body cannot synthesize. 1n 1D+;, ,tephen 5. Babcock and -dwin B. 6art
conducted the singlegrain e4periment, which took nearly four years to complete.
1n 1D1), #asimir 3unk coined the term vitamin, a vital factor in the diet, from the
words %vital% and %amine,% because these unknown substances preventing scurvy,
beriberi, and pellagra, were thought then to be derived from ammonia. The
vitamins were studied in the first half of the )+th century.
1n 1D1>, -lmer 5c#ollum discovered the first vitamins, fat soluble vitamin &, and
water soluble vitamin B !in 1D1*( now known to be a comple4 of several water
soluble vitamins" and named vitamin # as the thenunknown substance preventing
scurvy. <afayette 5endel and Thomas Gsborne also performed pioneering work
on vitamins & and B. 1n 1D1D, ,ir -dward 5ellanby incorrectly identified rickets
as a vitamin & deficiency because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil. 1n
1D)), -lmer 5c#ollum destroyed the vitamin & in cod liver oil, but found that it
still cured rickets. &lso in 1D)), 6.5. -vans and <.,. Bishop discover vitamin -
as essential for rat pregnancy, originally calling it %food factor 8% until 1D)*.
1n 1D)*, 6art discovered that trace amounts of copper are necessary for iron
absorption. 1n 1D);, &dolf Gtto =einhold /indaus synthesized vitamin D, for
which he won the Nobel .rize in #hemistry in 1D)@. 1n 1D)@, &lbert ,zent
$yHrgyi isolated ascorbic acid, and in 1D>) proved that it is vitamin # by
preventing scurvy. 1n 1D>*, he synthesized it, and in 1D>;, he won a Nobel .rize
for his efforts. ,zent$yHrgyi concurrently elucidated much of the citric acid
cycle.
1n the 1D>+s, /illiam #umming =ose identified essential amino acids, necessary
protein components that the body cannot synthesize. 1n 1D>*, Bnderwood and
;
5arston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt. 1n 1D>0, -ugene 3loyd
DuBois showed that work and school performance are related to caloric intake. 1n
1D>@, -rhard 3ernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin - and then he
tragically disappeared.1t was synthesised the same year by .aul Farrer.
1n 1D:+, rationing in the Bnited Fingdom during and after /orld /ar 11 took place
according to nutritional principles drawn up by -lsie /iddowson and others. 1n
1D:1, the first =ecommended Dietary &llowances !=D&s" were established by the
National =esearch #ouncil.
1n 1DD), The B.,. Department of &griculture introduced the 3ood $uide .yramid.
1n )++), a Natural Custice study showed a relation between nutrition and violent
behavior. 1n )++*, one inconclusive study found that obesity could be caused by
adenovirus in addition to bad nutrition.
/orld leaders are looking at alternatives like genetically modified foods to tackle
the problem of world hunger and food shortages.
Nutrients
There are two types of nutrients9 macronutrients !needed in relatively large
amounts" or micronutrients !needed in smaller 7uantities".
Dietary fiber !i.e., nondigestible material such as cellulose, here termed a
micronutrient", is re7uired, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although
the e4act reasons remain unclear. Gther micronutrients include antio4idants and
phytochemicals, which are said to influence !or protect" some body systems. Their
necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.
@
5ost foods contain a mi4 of some or all of the nutrient types, together with other
substances, such as to4ins of various sorts. ,ome nutrients can be stored internally
!e.g., the fat soluble vitamins", while others are re7uired more or less continuously.
.oor health can be caused by a lack of re7uired nutrients or, in e4treme cases, too
much of a re7uired nutrient. 3or e4ample, both salt and water !both absolutely
re7uired" will cause illness or even death in e4cessive amounts.
Macronutrients
The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, protein, and water. The macronutrients
!e4cluding fiber and water" provide structural material !amino acids from which
proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling
molecules are built" and energy. ,ome of the structural material can be used to
generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Coules or
kilocalories !often called %#alories% and written with a capital # to distinguish
them from little ?c? calories". #arbohydrates and proteins provide 1; kC
appro4imately !: kcal" of energy per gram, while fats provide >; kC !D kcal" per
gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption
and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance. Aitamins,
minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are re7uired for other reasons.
5olecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and o4ygen
atoms. #arbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides !glucose, fructose,
galactose" to comple4 polysaccharides !starch". 3ats are triglycerides, made of
assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone. ,ome fatty acids, but
not all, are essential in the diet9 they cannot be synthesized in the body. .rotein
molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, o4ygen, and hydrogen.
The fundamental components of protein are nitrogencontaining amino acids,
some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally.
,ome of the amino acids are convertible !with the e4penditure of energy" to
D
glucose and can be used for energy production, 'ust as ordinary glucose, in a
process known as gluconeogenesis. By breaking down e4isting protein, the carbon
skeleton of the various amino acids can be metabolized to intermediates in cellular
respiration( the remaining ammonia is discarded primarily as urea in urine. This
occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.
Carboydrates
#arbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or
polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer !sugar" units they contain.
They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain
based products. 5onosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one,
two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. .olysaccharides are often referred
to as comple4 carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched
chains of sugar units.
Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed 7uickly, and
therefore to raise bloodglucose levels more rapidly than comple4 carbohydrates.
This, however, is not accurate. ,ome simple carbohydrates !e.g., fructose" follow
different metabolic pathways !e.g., fructolysis" that result in only a partial
catabolism to glucose, while, in essence, many comple4 carbohydrates may be
digested at the same rate as simple carbohydrates. $lucose stimulates the
production of insulin through food entering the bloodstream, which is grasped by
the beta cells in the pancreas.
!at
& molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids !containing long
chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms", bonded to a glycerol. They are typically
found as triglycerides !three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone". 3ats
may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of
1+
the fatty acids involved. ,aturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty
acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of
these carbon atoms doublebonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer
hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Bnsaturated fats
may be further classified as monounsaturated !one doublebond" or
polyunsaturated !many doublebonds". 3urthermore, depending on the location of
the doublebond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as
omega> or omega0 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans
isomer bonds( these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources( they are
typically created in an industrial process called !partial" hydrogenation. There are
nine kilocalories in each gram of fat. 3atty acids such as con'ugated linoleic acid,
catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid, in addition to providing energy,
represent potent immune modulatory molecules.
,aturated fats !typically from animal sources" have been a staple in many world
cultures for millennia. Bnsaturated fats !e. g., vegetable oil" are considered
healthier, while trans fats are to be avoided. ,aturated and some trans fats are
typically solid at room temperature !such as butter or lard", while unsaturated fats
are typically li7uids !such as olive oil or fla4seed oil". Trans fats are very rare in
nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have
properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance.
Essential "atty acids
5ost fatty acids are nonessential, meaning the body can produce them as needed,
generally from other fatty acids and always by e4pending energy to do so.
6owever, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in
the diet. &n appropriate balance of essential fatty acidsIomega> and omega0
fatty acidsIseems also important for health, although definitive e4perimental
demonstration has been elusive. Both of these %omega% longchain
11
polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as
prostaglandins, which have roles throughout the human body. They are hormones,
in some respects. The omega> eicosapentaenoic acid !-.&", which can be made
in the human body from the omega> essential fatty acid alphalinolenic acid
!&<&", or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for
series > prostaglandins !e.g., weakly inflammatory .$->". The omega0 dihomo
gammalinolenic acid !D$<&" serves as a building block for series 1
prostaglandins !e.g. antiinflammatory .$-1", whereas arachidonic acid !&&"
serves as a building block for series ) prostaglandins !e.g. proinflammatory .$-
)". Both D$<& and && can be made from the omega0 linoleic acid !<&" in the
human body, or can be taken in directly through food. &n appropriately balanced
intake of omega> and omega0 partly determines the relative production of
different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega> and
omega0 is believed important for cardiovascular health. 1n industrialized
societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils,
which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of
omega0 fatty acids relative to omega> fatty acids.
The conversion rate of omega0 D$<& to && largely determines the production of
the prostaglandins .$-1 and .$-). Gmega> -.& prevents && from being
released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro
inflammatory .$-) !made from &&" toward antiinflammatory .$-1 !made from
D$<&". 5oreover, the conversion !desaturation" of D$<& to && is controlled by
the enzyme delta*desaturase, which in turn is controlled by hormones such as
insulin !upregulation" and glucagon !downregulation". The amount and type of
carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence
processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones( therefore, the ratio of
omega> versus omega0 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects
on immune function and inflammation, and mitosis !i.e., cell division".
1)
.rotein
.roteins are structural materials in much of the animal body !e.g. muscles, skin,
and hair". They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout
the body. -ach protein molecule is composed of amino acids, which are
characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur !these components
are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in
hair". The body re7uires amino acids to produce new proteins !protein retention"
and to replace damaged proteins !maintenance". &s there is no protein or amino
acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. -4cess amino
acids are discarded, typically in the urine. 3or all animals, some amino acids are
essential !an animal cannot produce them internally" and some are nonessential
!the animal can produce them from other nitrogencontaining compounds". &bout
twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are
essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet. & diet that contains ade7uate
amounts of amino acids !especially those that are essential" is particularly
important in some situations9 during early development and maturation,
pregnancy, lactation, or in'ury !a burn, for instance". & complete protein source
contains all the essential amino acids( an incomplete protein source lacks one or
more of the essential amino acids.
1t is possible with protein combinations of two incomplete protein sources !e.g.,
rice and beans" to make a complete protein source, and characteristic combinations
are the basis of distinct cultural cooking traditions. 6owever, complementary
sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by
the body. ,ources of dietary protein include meats, tofu and other soyproducts,
eggs, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese. -4cess amino acids
from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process
1>
called gluconeogenesis. The amino acids remaining after such conversion are
discarded.
/ater
/ater is e4creted from the body in multiple forms( including urine and feces,
sweating, and by water vapour in the e4haled breath. Therefore it is necessary to
ade7uately rehydrate to replace lost fluids.
-arly recommendations for the 7uantity of water re7uired for maintenance of good
health suggested that 0J@ glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper
hydration. 6owever the notion that a person should consume eight glasses of
water per day cannot be traced to a credible scientific source. The original water
intake recommendation in 1D:* by the 3ood and Nutrition Board of the National
=esearch #ouncil read9 %&n ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for
each calorie of food. 5ost of this 7uantity is contained in prepared foods.% 5ore
recent comparisons of wellknown recommendations on fluid intake have revealed
large discrepancies in the volumes of water we need to consume for good health.
Therefore, to help standardize guidelines, recommendations for water
consumption are included in two recent -uropean 3ood ,afety &uthority !-3,&"
documents !)+1+"9 !i" 3oodbased dietary guidelines and !ii" Dietary reference
values for water or ade7uate daily intakes !&D1". These specifications were
provided by calculating ade7uate intakes from measured intakes in populations of
individuals with Kdesirable osmolarity values of urine and desirable water volumes
per energy unit consumed.L 3or healthful hydration, the current -3,& guidelines
recommend total water intakes of ).+ <Mday for adult females and ).* <Mday for
adult males. These reference values include water from drinking water, other
beverages, and from food. &bout @+N of our daily water re7uirement comes from
the beverages we drink, with the remaining )+N coming from food. /ater content
varies depending on the type of food consumed, with fruit and vegetables
1:
containing more than cereals, for e4ample. These values are estimated using
countryspecific food balance sheets published by the 3ood and &griculture
Grganisation of the Bnited Nations.Gther guidelines for nutrition also have
implications for the beverages we consume for healthy hydration for e4ample, the
/orld 6ealth Grganization !/6G" recommend that added sugars should represent
no more than 1+N of total energy intake.
The -3,& panel also determined intakes for different populations. =ecommended
intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy
consumption, the water re7uirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in
renal concentrating capacity. .regnant and breastfeeding women re7uire additional
fluids to stay hydrated. The -3,& panel proposes that pregnant women should
consume the same volume of water as nonpregnant women, plus an increase in
proportion to the higher energy re7uirement, e7ual to >++ m<Mday. To compensate
for additional fluid output, breastfeeding women re7uire an additional ;++ m<Mday
above the recommended intake values for nonlactating women.
3or those who have healthy kidneys, it is somewhat difficult to drink too much
water, but !especially in warm humid weather and while e4ercising" it is
dangerous to drink too little. /hile overhydration is much less common than
dehydration, it is also possible to drink far more water than necessary, which can
result in water into4ication, a serious and potentially fatal condition. 1n particular,
large amounts of deionized water are dangerous.
Micronutrients
The micronutrients are minerals, vitamins, fibers and phytochemicals.O:0P
1*
Minerals
Dietary minerals are the chemical elements re7uired by living organisms, other
than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and o4ygen that are present in
nearly all organic molecules. The term %mineral% is archaic, since the intent is to
describe simply the less common elements in the diet. ,ome are heavier than the
four 'ust mentioned, including several metals, which often occur as ions in the
body. ,ome dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they
occur naturally, or at least as comple4 compounds, or sometimes even from natural
inorganic sources !such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells". ,ome
minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources.
Gn the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements(
the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.
Macro#inerals
5any elements are essential in relative 7uantity( they are usually called %bulk
minerals%. ,ome are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes. -lements with
recommended dietary allowance !=D&" greater than )++ mgMday are, in
alphabetical order !with informal or folkmedicine perspectives in parentheses"9
#alcium, a common electrolyte, but also needed structurally !for muscle and
digestive system health, bone strength, some forms neutralize acidity, may help
clear to4ins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions"
#hlorine as chloride ions( very common electrolyte( see sodium, below
5agnesium, re7uired for processing &T. and related reactions !builds bone,
causes strong peristalsis, increases fle4ibility, increases alkalinity"
.hosphorus, re7uired component of bones( essential for energy processing
.otassium, a very common electrolyte !heart and nerve health"
,odium, a very common electrolyte( in general not found in dietary supplements,
despite being needed in large 7uantities, because the ion is very common in food9
10
typically as sodium chloride, or common salt. -4cessive sodium consumption can
deplete calcium and magnesium, leading to high blood pressure and osteoporosis.
,ulfur, for three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins !skin, hair,
nails, liver, and pancreas". ,ulfur is not consumed alone, but in the form of sulfur
containing amino acids
Trace #inerals
5any elements are re7uired in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic
role in enzymes. ,ome trace mineral elements !=D& Q )++ mgMday" are, in
alphabetical order9
#obalt re7uired for biosynthesis of vitamin B1) family of coenzymes. &nimals
cannot biosynthesize B1), and must obtain this cobaltcontaining vitamin in the
diet
#opper re7uired component of many redo4 enzymes, including cytochrome c
o4idase
5ain article9 #opper in health
#hromium re7uired for sugar metabolism
1odine re7uired not only for the biosynthesis of thyro4ine but also it is presumed
for other important organs as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus, etc. !see
-4trathyroidal iodine"( for this reason iodine is needed in larger 7uantities than
others in this list, and sometimes classified with the macrominerals
1ron re7uired for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins
5anganese !processing of o4ygen"
5olybdenum re7uired for 4anthine o4idase and related o4idases
Nickel present in urease
,elenium re7uired for pero4idase !antio4idant proteins"
Aanadium !,peculative9 there is no established =D& for vanadium. No specific
biochemical function has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is
re7uired for some lower organisms."
1;
Rinc re7uired for several enzymes such as carbo4ypeptidase, liver alcohol
dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase
$ita#ins
&s with the minerals discussed above, some vitamins are recognized as essential
nutrients, necessary in the diet for good health. !Aitamin D is the e4ception9 it can
be synthesized in the skin, in the presence of BAB radiation." #ertain vitaminlike
compounds that are recommended in the diet, such as carnitine, are thought useful
for survival and health, but these are not %essential% dietary nutrients because the
human body has some capacity to produce them from other compounds.
5oreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in
food !particularly in fresh vegetables", which may have desirable properties
including antio4idant activity !see below"( however, e4perimental demonstration
has been suggestive but inconclusive. Gther essential nutrients that are not
classified as vitamins include essential amino acids !see above", choline, essential
fatty acids !see above", and the minerals discussed in the preceding section.
Aitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre, scurvy,
osteoporosis, impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain
forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health
!including eating disorders", among many others. -4cess levels of some vitamins
are also dangerous to health !notably vitamin &", and for at least one vitamin, B0,
to4icity begins at levels not far above the re7uired amount. Deficient or e4cess
levels of minerals can also have serious health conse7uences.
1@
!iber
Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in
some animals. <ike all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four
#alories !kilocalories" of energy per gram. 6owever, in most circumstances it
accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility.
Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer is
indigestible as humans do not have the re7uired enzymes to disassemble it. There
are two subcategories9 soluble and insoluble fiber. /hole grains, fruits !especially
plums, prunes, and figs", and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber. There
are many health benefits of a highfiber diet. Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance
of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the
weight and size of stool and softening it. 1nsoluble fiber, found in whole wheat
flour, nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis J the rhythmic
muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digesta along the digestive
tract. ,oluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water
in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the
intestines. This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the
absorption of sugar. &dditionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains,
is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of
type ) diabetes. The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased
risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain.
.hytochemical
.hytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants !phyto
means %plant% in $reek". 1n general, the term is used to refer to those chemicals
that may have biological significance, for e4ample antio4idants.
There is research interest in the health effects of phytochemicals, but to date there
is no conclusive evidence. /hile many fruits and vegetables that happen to
1D
contain phytochemicals are thought to be components of a healthy diet, by
comparison dietary supplements based on them have no proven health benefit.
Oter nutrients
1n general, other micronutrients are more recent discoveries that have not yet been
recognized as vitamins or as re7uired. .hytochemicals may act as antio4idants, but
not all phytochemicals are antio4idants.
Antio%idants
&s cellular metabolismMenergy production re7uires o4ygen, potentially damaging
!e.g., mutation causing" compounds known as free radicals can form. 5ost of
these are o4idizers !i.e., acceptors of electrons" and some react very strongly. 3or
the continued normal cellular maintenance, growth, and division, these free
radicals must be sufficiently neutralized by antio4idant compounds. =ecently,
some researchers suggested an interesting theory of evolution of dietary
antio4idants. ,ome are produced by the human body with ade7uate precursors
!glutathione, Aitamin #", and those the body cannot produce may only be obtained
in the diet via direct sources !Aitamin # in humans, Aitamin &, Aitamin F" or
produced by the body from other compounds !Betacarotene converted to Aitamin
& by the body, Aitamin D synthesized from cholesterol by sunlight".
.hytochemicals !,ection Below" and their subgroup, polyphenols, make up the
ma'ority of antio4idants( about :,+++ are known. Different antio4idants are now
known to function in a cooperative network. 3or e4ample, Aitamin # can
reactivate free radicalcontaining glutathione or Aitamin - by accepting the free
radical itself. ,ome antio4idants are more effective than others at neutralizing
different free radicals. ,ome cannot neutralize certain free radicals. ,ome cannot
be present in certain areas of free radical development !Aitamin & is fatsoluble
and protects fat areas, Aitamin # is watersoluble and protects those areas". /hen
interacting with a free radical, some antio4idants produce a different free radical
)+
compound that is less dangerous or more dangerous than the previous compound.
6aving a variety of antio4idants allows any byproducts to be safely dealt with by
more efficient antio4idants in neutralizing a free radical?s butterfly effect.
&lthough initial studies suggested that antio4idant supplements might promote
health, later large clinical trials did not detect any benefit and suggested instead
that e4cess supplementation may be harmful.
1ntestinal bacterial flora
1t is now also known that animal intestines contain a large population of gut flora.
1n humans, these include species such as Bacteroides, <. acidophilus, and -. coli,
among many others. They are essential to digestion, and are also affected by the
food we eat. Bacteria in the gut perform many important functions for humans,
including breaking down and aiding in the absorption of otherwise indigestible
food( stimulating cell growth( repressing the growth of harmful bacteria, training
the immune system to respond only to pathogens( producing vitamin B1), and
defending against some infectious diseases.
Healty diets
/hole plant food diet
6eart disease, cancer, obesity, and diabetes are commonly called %/estern%
diseases because these maladies were once rarely seen in developing countries. &n
international study in #hina found some regions had virtually no cancer or heart
disease, while in other areas they reflected %up to a 1++fold increase% coincident
with shifts from diets that were found to be entirely plantbased to heavily animal
based, respectively. 1n contrast, diseases of affluence like cancer and heart disease
are common throughout the developed world, including the Bnited ,tates.
&d'usted for age and e4ercise, large regional clusters of people in #hina rarely
suffered from these %/estern% diseases possibly because their diets are rich in
)1
vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, and have little dairy and meat products. ,ome
studies show these to be, in high 7uantities, possible causes of some cancers.
There are arguments for and against this controversial issue.
The Bnited 6ealthcareM.acificare nutrition guideline recommends a whole plant
food diet, and recommends using protein only as a condiment with meals. &
National $eographic cover article from November )++*, entitled The ,ecrets of
<iving <onger, also recommends a whole plant food diet. The article is a lifestyle
survey of three populations, ,ardinians, Gkinawans, and &dventists, who
generally display longevity and %suffer a fraction of the diseases that commonly
kill people in other parts of the developed world, and en'oy more healthy years of
life.% 1n sum, they offer three sets of ?best practices? to emulate. The rest is up to
you. 1n common with all three groups is to %-at fruits, vegetables, and whole
grains.%
The National $eographic article noted that an N16 funded study of >:,+++
,eventhday &dventists between 1D;0 and 1D@@ %...found that the &dventists? habit
of consuming beans, soy milk, tomatoes, and other fruits lowered their risk of
developing certain cancers. 1t also suggested that eating whole grain bread,
drinking five glasses of water a day, and, most surprisingly, consuming four
servings of nuts a week reduced their risk of heart disease.%
Te !renc &'arado%&
5ain article9 3rench parado4
The 3rench parado4 is the observation that the 3rench suffer a relatively low
incidence of coronary heart disease, despite having a diet relatively rich in
saturated fats. & number of e4planations have been suggested9
,aturated fat consumption does not cause heart disease
))
=educed consumption of processed carbohydrate and other 'unk foods.
=egular consumption of red wine.
6igher consumption of artificially produced transfats by &mericans, which has
been shown to have greater lipoprotein effects per gram than saturated fat.
6owever, statistics collected by the /orld 6ealth Grganization from 1DD+J)+++
show that the incidence of heart disease in 3rance may have been underestimated
and, in fact, may be similar to that of neighboring countries.
)>
CHAPTER - II
NUTRITION NEED( IN
TEENAGE
):
NUTRITION( NEED( IN TEENAGE
Calories
& surge in appetite around the age of ten in girls and twelve in boys foreshadows
the growth spurt of puberty. 6ow much of a surgeS <etTs 'ust say that 5om and
Dad might want to oil the hinges on the refrigerator door and start stockpiling a
small cache of their own favorite snacks underneath the bed.
K&dolescents seem like theyTre hungry all the time,L says 5ary ,tory, Kespecially
boys.L #alories are the measurement used to e4press the energy delivered by food.
The body demands more calories during early adolescence than at any other time
of life. Gn average, boys re7uire about two thousand eight hundred calories per
day( and girls, two thousand two hundred calories per day. Typically, the ravenous
hunger starts to wane once a child has stopped growing, though not always, says
the dietitian. KFids who are big and tall or who participate in physical activity will
still need increased amounts of energy into late adolescence.L During middle and
late adolescence, girls eat roughly )* percent fewer calories per day than boys do(
conse7uently, they are more likely to be deficient in vitamins and minerals.
Nutrients
The nutrients protein, carbohydrates and fats in food serve as the bodyTs energy
sources. -ach gram of protein and carbohydrate supplies four calories, or units of
energy, whereas fat contributes more than twice as much9 nine calories per gram.
Protein
Gf the three nutrients, weTre least concerned about protein. Not because it isnTt
importantI*+ percent of our body weight is made up of proteinIbut because
Kadolescents in the Bnited ,tates get twice as much protein as they need,L ,tory
)*
e4plains. The densest sources of protein include teenage favorites such as beef,
chicken, turkey, pork, fish, eggs and cheese.
Carboydrates
#arbohydrates, found in starches and sugars, get converted into the bodyTs main
fuel9 the simple sugar glucose. Not all carbs are created e7ual, however. 1n
planning meals, we want to push comple4carbohydrate foods and go easy on
simple carbohydrates. #omple4 carbs provide sustained energy( thatTs why you
often see marathon runners and other athletes downing big bowls of pasta before
competing. &s a bonus, many starches deliver fiber and assorted nutrients too.
They are truly foods of substance9 filling yet low in fat. 5ost nutritionists
recommend that comple4 carbohydrates make up *+ to 0+ percent of a teenagerTs
caloric intake. ,imple carbs, on the other hand, seduce us with their sweet taste
and a brief burst of energy but have little else to offer and should be minimized in
the diet.
Dietary !at
Nutrition e4perts recommend that fat make up no more than >+ percent of the diet.
/hile &mericans have trimmed their fat consumption in recent years, as a nation
weTre still about : percentage points above the suggested level.
<etTs give dietary fat its due. 3at supplies energy and assists the body in absorbing
the fatsoluble vitamins9 &, D, - and F. But these benefits must be considered
ne4t to its many adverse effects on health. & teenager who indulges in a fatheavy
diet is going to put on weight, even if heTs active. 1t would take a workout befitting
an Glympic athlete to burn off e4cess fat calories day after day.
3atty foods contain cholesterol, a wa4y substance that can clog an artery and
eventually cause it to harden. The danger of atherosclerosis is that the blockage
)0
will affect one of the blood vessels leading to the heart or the brain, setting off a
heart attack or a stroke. &lthough these lifethreatening events usually donTt strike
until later in adult life, the time to start practicing prevention is now, by reducing
the amount of fat in your familyTs diet. =esearchers studying the eating habits of
appro4imately two hundred #alifornia high school students were dismayed to find
that more than onethird had abnormally high levels of blood cholesterol.
Bltrasound scans of their carotid arteries revealed evidence of atherosclerosis
already. The carotids, a pair of large vessels located in the neck, serve the brain.
Gne of the doctors involved in the study commented that some of the teenagersT
arteries resembled those normally seen in a person twice their age. 3ortunately, at
this early stage, the condition is still reversible.
Te Tree Ty'es o" !at
Dietary fat contains varying proportions of monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated
fat and saturated fat. The last typeIfound in meat and dairy products like beef,
pork, lamb, butter, cheese, cream, egg yolks, coconut oil and palm oilIis the most
cholesterolladen of the three. Uou want to limit your familyTs intake of saturated
fat to no more than 1+ percent of your total daily calories.
The other )+ percent of daily calories from dietary fat should come e7ually from
the two unsaturated kinds of fat, both of which are contained mainly in plant oils.
#orn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, cottonseed oil and sesameseed
oil are predominantly polyunsaturated. ,o are the oils in fish and almonds. 3oods
high in monounsaturated fat, the healthiest kind, include olives and olive oil(
peanuts, peanut oil and peanut butter( cashews( walnuts and walnut oils( and
canola oil. UouTll want to avoid the partially hydrogenated oils in most margarines
and vegetable shortenings.
);
1f your family eats a lot of packaged and processed foods, you should make a habit
of reading the Knutrition factsL food labels. Uou may be surprised to see how much
fat, not to mention sugar and salt !sodium", is in the foods you eat every day. &nd
almost all packaged goods that contain fat are likely to have partially
hydrogenated fat, because it has a longer shelf life.
$ita#ins and Minerals
& wellrounded diet based on the B,D& guidelines should deliver sufficient
amounts of all the essential vitamins and minerals. &dolescents tend to most often
fall short of their daily 7uotas of calcium, iron and zinc. Bnless blood tests and a
pediatricianTs evaluation reveal a specific deficiency, itTs preferable to obtain
nutrients from food instead of from dietary supplements, because unlike
supplements vegetables, fruits and grains contain phytochemicalsInatural
substances that are believed to help safeguard us from disease.
)@
CHAPTER - III
O)*ECTI$E( O! THE
(TUD+
)D
O)*ECTI$E( O! THE (TUD+
To analyze teen age nutrition attitudes and pratices.
To analyze the view of people towards teenage nutritions.
To analyze what people are giving to their teen age childrens.
>+
CHAPTER - I$
RE(EARCH
METHODOLOG+
>1
RE(EARCH METHODOLOG+
MEANING O! RE(EARCH
K=esearchL includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the
advancement of knowledge. =esearch must be systematic and follow a series of
steps and a rigid standard protocol. These rules are broadly similar but may vary
slightly between the different fields of science.
MEANING O! RE(EARCH METHODOLOG+
The word research methodology comes from the word Kadvance learners
dictionaryL meaning of research as a careful investigation or in7uiry specially
through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge for e4ample some
authors have defined research methodology as systematized effort to gain new
knowledge.
=esearch 5ethodology can consider research as movement, a movement from the
known to the unknown. The term =esearch methodology is an academic activity
and as such the term should be used in technical sense. &ccording to #lifford
/oody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating
hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data,
making deduction and reaching conclusions and then testing of the conclusion to
determine whether they fit the in the formulating hypothesis.
&nalysis of past data a helps the management of the company to plan its future
polices according to the e4ternal environment. Based on this, study has been taken
up financial analysis of the company. &ny sound research must have a proper
design to achieve the re7uired result, this study id constructed on the basis of
descriptive design.
>)
T+PE( O! RE(EARCH
Descri'ti,e - Descriptive =esearch includes survey and fact finding en7uiries of
different kinds.
The study conducted is a conclusive descriptive statistical study. #onclusive
because after conducting the study the researcher comes to a decision which is
precise and rational.
RE(EARCH DE(IGN
& research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of
data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with
economy in procedure.1n fact the research design is a conceptual structure within
which the research is conducted 1t constitute the blue print for the collection,
measurement and analysis of data. Decisions regarding what, when, where, how
much, by what means concerning an in7uiry or research study constitute a
research design. =esearch design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing
of the various research operations thereby making research as efficient as possible
yielding ma4imal information with minimal e4penditure of effort, time and
money.
T+PE( . (OURCE( O! DATA
Pri#ary Data (ources
Through interaction with respondents.
(ECONDAR+ DATA (OURCE(-
Through internet, various official site of the #ompany.
Through pamphlets and brochures of the #ompany.
Cournals V 5agazine
1n this study both .rimary and ,econdary Data has been used.
>>
(AMPLE DE(IGN
This pro'ect is special in nature and therefore method used for sample techni7ue in
convenient sampling method. The method used for sample techni7ue was
convenience sampling method. This method was used because it was not know
previously as to whether a particular person will be asked to fill the 7uestionnaire.
#onvenient sampling is used because only those people were asked to fill the
7uestionnaires who were easily accessible and available to the researcher.
(AMPLE (I/E
1++ respondents
TOOL( O! ANAL+(I(
1 have used ,tructured 2uestionnaire 5ethod. ,ome of the softwareTs used for
making this pro'ect will be 5s /ord and 5s -4cel.
LIMITATION(
1. The respondents were limited and cannot be treated as the whole population.
). The respondents may be biased.
>. The accuracy of indications given by the respondents may not be consider
ade7uate
:. 1nspite of precautions taken there are certain procedural and technical
limitations.
*. <ack of sufficient time to e4haust the detail study of the above topic became a
hindering factor in my research.
0. =esources were limited.
;. =espondents are not willing to respond properly.
>:
CHAPTER - $
DATA ANAL+(I(
.
INTERPRETATION
>*
DATA ANAL+(I( . INTERPRETATION
21. Do you give nutritional food to your teensS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
Ues 1++
No +
1nterpretation9
&ll of the parents are saying they are giving nutritional foods to their teens.
>0
2). &re you very much conscious about the eating habits of your teensS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
Ues ;+
No >+
1nterpretation9
;+N of the respondents are very much conscious about the eating habits of their
teens.
>;
2>. /hat do you give them in breakfastS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
3ast 3oods ))
3ruits and breakfast like oats, Felloggs >@
6ealth Breakfast like parathas, etc :+
1nterpretation9
))N of the respondents say that they give 3ast foods in breakfast, >@N of the
respondents say that they give 3ruits, 'uices, and breakfast like oats and kelloggs.
>@
2:. Do you prefer to give them heavy <unch M DinnerS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
Ues 0)
No 1+
$ive only 6ealthy 3ood )@
1nterpretation9
0)N of the respondents say that they give heavy lunch M dinner to their children
because they play and re7uire healthy diet. 1+N of the respondents donTt prefer to
give heavy diet and )@N of the respondents give healthy food to their children.
>D
2*. Do you consult nutritionist and plan diet of your childrensS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
Ues )+
No @+
1nterpretation9
Gnly )+N of the respondents surveyed are consulting nutritionist and plan diet of
their children.
:+
20. /hat your children prefer to eatS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
Cunk 3ood :0
6ealthy Diet >)
Diet with all the NutritionTs ))
1nterpretation9
:0N of the respondents prefer to eat Cunk 3ood, >)N of the respondents prefer to
eat 6ealthy Diet and ))N of the respondents prefer diet with all the nutritions.
:1
2;. Do you go for regular medical checkup for your childrenS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
Ues :0
No *:
1nterpretation9
:0N of the respondents say that they go for regular medical checkup for their
children.
:)
2@. Do you plan child diet according the re7uirement and need of childrenS
Gptions .ercentage of =espondents
Ues 0:
No >0
1nterpretation9
0:N of the respondents say that they plan child diet according to the re7uirement
and needs of the children and >0N of the respondents say that they give food that
is prepared at home no special food for childrens.
:>
CHAPTER - $I
O)(ER$ATION(
.
!INDING(
::
O)(ER$ATION( . !INDING(
&ll of the parents are saying they are giving nutritional foods to their teens.
;+N of the respondents are very much conscious about the eating habits of
their teens.
))N of the respondents say that they give 3ast foods in breakfast, >@N of
the respondents say that they give 3ruits, 'uices, and breakfast like oats and
kelloggs.
0)N of the respondents say that they give heavy lunch M dinner to their
children because they play and re7uire healthy diet. 1+N of the respondents
donTt prefer to give heavy diet and )@N of the respondents give healthy
food to their children.
Gnly )+N of the respondents surveyed are consulting nutritionist and plan
diet of their children.
:0N of the respondents prefer to eat Cunk 3ood, >)N of the respondents
prefer to eat 6ealthy Diet and ))N of the respondents prefer diet with all
the nutritions.
:0N of the respondents say that they go for regular medical checkup for
their children.
0:N of the respondents say that they plan child diet according to the
re7uirement and needs of the children and >0N of the respondents say that
they give food that is prepared at home no special food for childrens.
:*
CHAPTER - $II
CONCLU(ION(
.
(UGGE(TION(
:0
CONCLU(ION
.roper nutrition promotes the optimal growth and development of children.
6ealthy eating helps prevent high cholesterol and high blood pressure and
helps reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular
disease, cancer, and diabetes.
6ealthy eating helps reduce oneTs risk for developing obesity, osteoporosis,
iron deficiency, and dental caries !cavities".
6ealthy eating is associated with reduced risk for many diseases, including
several of the leading causes of death9 heart disease, cancer, stroke, and
diabetes.
)ene"its o" Healty Eatin0
.roper nutrition promotes the optimal growth and development of children.
6ealthy eating helps prevent high cholesterol and high blood pressure and
helps reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular
disease, cancer, and diabetes.
6ealthy eating helps reduce oneTs risk for developing obesity, osteoporosis,
iron deficiency, and dental caries !cavities".
Conse1uences o" a Poor Diet
& poor diet can lead to energy imbalance !e.g., eating more calories than
one e4pends through physical activity" and can increase oneTs risk for
overweight and obesity.
& poor diet can increase the risk for lung, esophageal, stomach, colorectal,
and prostate cancers.
1ndividuals who eat fast food one or more times per week are at increased
risk for weight gain, overweight, and obesity.
:;
Drinking sugarsweetened beverages can result in weight gain, overweight,
and obesity.
.roviding access to drinking water gives students a healthy alternative to
sugarsweetened beverages.
6unger and food insecurity !i.e., reduced food intake and disrupted eating
patterns because a household lacks money and other resources for food"
might increase the risk for lower dietary 7uality and undernutrition. 1n turn,
undernutrition can negatively affect overall health, cognitive development,
and school performance.
:@
)I)LIOGRAPH+
:D
RE!ERENCE(
Dietary $uidelines &dvisory #ommittee. =eport of the Dietary $uidelines
&dvisory #ommittee on the Dietary $uidelines for &mericans, )+1+, to the
,ecretary of &griculture and the ,ecretary of 6ealth and 6uman ,ervices.
/ashington, D#9 B.,. Department of &griculture( )+1+.
#D#. =ecommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the
Bnited ,tates. 55/= 1DD@(:;91J)D.
B.,. Department of &griculture, B.,. Department of 6ealth and 6uman
,ervices. Dietary $uidelines for &mericans, )+1+-4ternal /eb ,ite 1con.
;th -dition. /ashington, D#, B, $overnment .rinting Gffice( )+1+.
Briefel ==., Cohnson #<. ,ecular trends in dietary intake in the Bnited
,tates. &nnual =eview of Nutrition )++:():9:+1J>1.
=eedy C, Frebs,mith ,5. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added
sugars among children and adolescents in the Bnited ,tates. Cournal of the
&merican Dietetic &ssociation )+1+(11+91:;;J1:@:.
3orshee =&, &nderson .&, ,torey 5<. #hanges in calcium intake and
association with beverage consumption and demographics9 comparing data
from #,311 1DD:J1DD0, 1DD@ and N6&N-, 1DDDJ)++). Cournal of the
&merican #ollege of Nutrition )++0()*91+@J110.
B.,. Department of &griculture, &gricultural =esearch ,ervice, B.,.
Department of 6ealth and 6uman ,ervices, #D#, et al. /hat we eat in
&merica, N6&N-, )++;J)++@, individuals ) years and over !e4cluding
breastfed children", day 1 dietary intake data, weighted. /ashington, D#,
B.,. Department of &griculture( )+1+.
1nstitute of 5edicine. .reventing #hildhood Gbesity9 6ealth in the Balance.
/ashington, D#9 The National &cademies .ress( )++:.
*+
Fushi <6, Byers T, Doyle #, Bandera -A, 5c#ullough 5, $ansler T et al.
&merican #ancer ,ociety guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for
cancer prevention9 reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices
and physical activity. #&9 & #ancer Cournal for #linicians )++0(*09)*:J
)@1.
Faiser <<, Townsend 5,. 3ood insecurity among B, children9
implications for nutrition and health. Topics in #linical Nutrition
)++*()+9>1>J>)+.
&laimo F, Glson #5, 3rongillo -&. 3ood insufficiency and &merican
schoolaged children?s cognitive, academic and psychosocial developments.
.ediatrics )++1(1+@9::J*>.
Fleinman =-, 5urphy C5, <ittle 5, .agano C, /ehler #&, =egal F, et al.
6unger in children in the Bnited ,tates9 potential behavioral and emotional
correlates. .ediatrics 1DD@(1+191J0.
Taras 6<. Nutrition and student performance at school. Cournal of ,chool
6ealth )++*(;*91DDJ)1>.
=ampersaud $#, .ereira 5&, $irard B<, &dams C, 5etzl CD. Breakfast
habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in
children and adolescents. Cournal of the &merican Dietetic &ssociation
)++*(1+*9;:>J;0+.
6oyland &, Dye <, <awton #<. & systematic review of the effect of
breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.
Nutrition =esearch =eviews )++D())9))+J):>.
www.wikipedia.org
*1
ANNE2URE
*)
3UE(TIONNAIRE
Name 9 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
&ddress 9 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
#ontact No. 9 WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
21. Do you give nutritional food to your teensS
a. Ues b. No
2). &re you very much conscious about the eating habits of your teensS
a. Ues b. No
2>. /hat do you give them in breakfastS
a. 3ast 3oods
b. 3ruits and breakfast like oats, Felloggs
c. 6ealth Breakfast like parathas, etc
2:. Do you prefer to give them heavy <unch M DinnerS
a. Ues b. No
c. $ive only 6ealthy 3ood
2*. Do you consult nutritionist and plan diet of your childrensS
a. Ues b. No
20. /hat your children prefer to eatS
a. Cunk 3ood b. 6ealthy Diet
c. Diet with all the NutritionTs
*>
2;. Do you go for regular medical checkup for your childrenS
a. Ues b. No
2@. Do you plan child diet according the re7uirement and need of childrenS
a. Ues b. No
*: