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# GLOSSARY OF SEISMIC TERMINOLOGY

## Acceleration The time rate of velocity

change, commonly measured in g (an
acceleration of 32 ft/sec/sec or 980
cm/sec/sec = gravity constant on earth).

Accelerogram The record from an
accelerograph showing acceleration as a
function of time.

Accelerograph A strong motion earthquake
instrument recording ground (or base)
acceleration.

Aftershock One of a series of smaller
quakes following the main shock of the
earthquake.

Amplification - The period (or frequency) of
the ground motion coinciding with the period
of the building causing significant increase of
acceleration and damage.

Amplitude Maximum deviation from mean
of centerline of a wave.

Attenuation Reduction of amplitude or
change in wave due to energy dissipation
over distance within time.

Axial Load Force coincident with primary
axis of a member.

Base Isolation A method using flexible
bearings, whereby a building superstructure is
detached from its foundation in order to
reduce earthquake forces.

Base Shear or Equivalent Lateral Force
(ELF) Total shear force acting at the base of
a structure.

Brittle Failure Failure in material due to
limited plastic range; material subject to
sudden failure without warning signs.

Center of Mass Point in the building plan at
which the building would be exactly balanced.

Center of Resistance Resultant of
resistance provided by walls and frames.

Configuration Terms:

Building Configuration Size, shape and
proportions of the building; size, shape and
location of structural elements; and the
type, size and location of nonstructural
elements.

Regular Configuration Building
configurations resisting lateral forces with
shear walls, moment resistant frames or
braced frames - all in simple and near
symmetrical layout.

Irregular Configuration Deviation from
simple symmetrical building configurations
with repetitive plan and volume. (See
WBDG Seismic Design Principles resource
page for examples).

Structural Configuration The size,
shape and arrangement of the vertical load
carrying the lateral force resistance
components of a building.

Core The central part of the earth below a
depth of 2,900 kilometers. It is thought to be
composed of iron and nickel and to be molten
on the outside with a central solid inner core.

Creep (along a fault) - Very slow periodic or
episodic movement along a fault trace without
earthquakes.

Crust - The lithosphere, the outer 80
kilometers of the earths surface made up of
crustal rocks, sediment and basalt. The
general composition is silicon-aluminum-iron.

Damping The rate at which natural vibration
decays as a result of the absorption of energy.
In buildings it is an inherent nature to resonate
inefficiently to vibration depending on structural
connections, kinds of materials and
nonstructural elements used. Damping
design measures can reduce the magnitude of
seismic forces.

Critical Damping The minimum damping
its initial position without oscillation.

Deflection The horizontal or vertical
displacement of a member due to the
application of external force.

Deformation Permanent distortion due to
seismic forces.

Depth of Focus the depth of the focus or
hypocenter beneath the earths surface
commonly classes Earthquakes: Shallow (0-
70 kilometers), intermediate (70-300
kilometers), and deep (300-700 kilometers).

Design Earthquake Generally defined as
2/3 of the maximum considered earthquake.

Diaphragm Generally a horizontal member,
such as a floor or roof slab, which distributes
lateral forces to vertical resisting elements.

Displacement - Lateral movement of the
structure caused by lateral force.

Drift - Horizontal displacement of basic
building elements due to lateral earthquake
forces.

Ductility Ability to withstand inelastic strain
without fracturing. Ductility is a material
property to fail only after considerable inelastic
(permanent) deformation which process
dissipates the energy from the earthquake by
design.

Duration The period of time within which
ground acceleration occurs.

Dynamic - The opposite of static, when a
body (building) is in motion.

Eccentric Braced Frame A steel frame in
which diagonal bracing is arranged eccentric to
column/beam joints.

Effective Peak Acceleration A coefficient
shown on NEHRP maps used to determine
seismic forces.

Elasticity The ability of a material to return
to its original form or condition after a
displacing force is removed. Materials have an
elastic range.

Elastoplastic The total range of stress
(deformation), including expansion beyond
elastic limit into the plastic range. In the plastic
range deformation is permanent.

Energy Dissipation Reduction in intensity of
earthquake shock waves with time and
distance, or by transmission through
discontinuous materials with different
absorption capabilities.

Epicenter The point of the earths surface
directly above the focus or hypocenter of an
earthquake.

Equivalent Lateral Force (ELF) The
representation of earthquake forces on a
building by a single static force applied at the
base of a building; also referred as Base Shear
(V).

Failure Mode The manner in which a
structure fails (column buckling, overturning of
structure, etc).

Fault Terms:

Fault A fracture plane in the earths crust
across which relative displacement has
occurred. (Location of slippage between
the earths plates).

Normal Fault A fault under tension
where the overlying block moves down the
dip or slope of the fault plane.

Strike-Slip Fault (or lateral slip) A fault
whose relative displacement is purely
horizontal.

Thrust (Reverse) Fault A fault under
compression where the overlying block
moves up the dip or slope of the fault
plane.

Oblique-Slip Fault A combination of
normal and slip or thrust and slip faults
whose movement is diagonal along the dip
of the fault plane.

Faulting The movement which produces
relative displacement of adjacent rock masses
along a fracture.

Fault Zones The zone surrounding a major
fault, consisting of numerous interlacing small
faults.

FEMA Federal Emergency Management
Agency. Free publications available at:
http://www.fema.gov/

Flexible System A structural system that will
sustain relatively large displacements without
failure.

Focal Depth Depth of the earthquake (or
hypocenter) below the ground surface.

Focus (of an earthquake) or Hypocenter
The point at which the rupture occurs; (It
marks the origin of the kinetic waves of an
earthquake).

Frame Terms:

Braced Frame One having diagonal
braces for stability and capacity to resist
lateral forces.

Concentric Braced Frame The
centerlines of brace, supporting beam and
column coincide.
Eccentric Bracing The centerlines of
brace, beam and of column and do not
coincide allowing deformation, thereby
utilizing ductility.

Moment Frame Frames in which
structural members and joints resist lateral
forces by bending. There are ordinary,
intermediate and special moment
frames. The latter provide the most
resistance.

Frequency - The number of wave peaks or
cycles per second. The inverse of Period.

Fundamental or Natural Period The
elapsed time, in seconds, of a single cycle of
oscillation. The inverse of Frequency.

"g" - see Acceleration.

Graben (rift valley) - Long, narrow trough
bounded by one or more parallel normal faults.
These down-dropped fault blocks are caused
by tensional crustal forces.

Ground Acceleration - Acceleration of the
ground due to earthquake forces.

Ground Displacement - The distance that
ground moves from its original position during
an earthquake.

Ground Failure - A situation in which the
ground does not hold together such as land
sliding, mud flows and liquefaction.

Ground Movement - A general term; includes
all aspects of motion: acceleration, particle
velocity and displacement. (The plates of the
earth's crust move slowly relative to one-
another accumulating pressure or strain
resulting in slippage and complex vibration
inducing forces in a building.)

Ground Velocity - Velocity of the ground
during an earthquake.

Hypocenter or Focus - The point below the
epicenter at which an earthquake actually
begins; the focus.

Input Motion - A term representing seismic
forces applied to a structure.

Inelastic - Behavior of an element beyond its
elastic limit, having permanent deformation.

Inertial forces - Earthquake generated
vibration of the building's mass causing
internally generated inertial forces and building
damage. Inertial forces are the product of
mass times acceleration (F = m a).

Intensity - A subjective measure of the force
of an earthquake at a particular place as
determined by its effects on persons,
structures and earth materials. Intensity is a
measure of energy. The principal scale used
in the United States today is the Modified
Mercalli, 1956 version. MM (or Modified
Mercalli) scale is based on observation of the
effects of the earthquake MM-I thru MM-XII
(MM-I = not felt, MM-XII = damage nearly
total).

Isoseismals - Map contours drawn to define
limits of estimated intensity of shaking for a
given earthquake.

Jacketing Encasement of existing columns
with steel or Kevlar to increase resistance.

Landslide - Earthquake triggering land
disturbance on a hillside where one land mass
slides over the other.

Lateral Force Coefficients - Factors applied
to the weight of a structure or its parts to
determine lateral force for seismic structural
design.

Liquefaction - Transformation of a granular
material (soil) from a solid state into a liquefied
state as a consequence of increased pore-
water pressure induced by vibration. Normally
solid soil suddenly changes to liquid state
(usually sand or granular soil in proximity to
water) due to vibration.
Macrozones - Large zones of earthquake
activity such as zones designated by the
International Building Code map.
Machine Isolators Calibrated mountings
with springs used to attenuate vibration
generated by machines. For seismic locations
they are modified in order to absorb lateral
movement and to keep the machine or
equipment upright. These devices are
available commercially.

Magnification Factor - An increase in lateral
forces at a specific site for a specific factor.

Magnitude - A measure of earthquake size
which describes the amount of energy
released. See Richter Scale.

Mantle - The main bulk of the earth between
the crust and the core.

Mass A constant quantity or aggregate of
matter.

50% higher than the Design Base Earthquake
(DBE).

Mercalli Scale See Intensity.

Microzonation - Seismic zoning, generally by
use of maps, for land areas smaller than
regions shown in typical seismic code maps,
but larger than individual building sites.

Modal Analysis - Determination of seismic
design forces based upon the theoretical
response of a structure in its several modes of
vibration to excitation.

Mode - The shape of the vibration curve.

Modified Mercalli - See Intensity.

Moment Magnitude is the measure of total
energy released by an earthquake. It is based
on the area of the fault that ruptured in the
quake. It is calculated in part by multiplying
the area of the faults rupture surface by the
distance the earth moves along the fault.

Mud Flow - Mass movement of material finer
than sand, lubricated with large amounts of
water.

Natural or Fundamental Frequency - The
constant frequency of a vibrating system in the
state of natural oscillation.

NEHERP National Earthquake Hazard
Reduction Program (FEMA).

Nonstructural Components - Those building
components, which are not intended primarily
for the structural support and bracing of the
building.

Oscillation- Mechanism capable to vibrate.

Out of Phases - The state where a structure in
motion is not at the same frequency as the
ground motion; or where equipment in a
building is at a different frequency from the
structure.

Period - The elapsed time in seconds of a
single cycle of oscillation. The inverse of
frequency.

Performance Based Design New concept
of designing a project for optimum
performance within a given life cycle (usually
50 years for institutional use). By definition the
building program is to include the careful
analysis of all physical, economical,
environmental, aesthetic, and sociological
factors that will result in the desirable
functioning of the project. This, of course,
includes hazard mitigation (natural or man-
made) and the agreed upon level thereof.

Plate Tectonics - The theory and study of
plate formation, movement, interaction and
destruction; the theory which explains
seismicity, volcanism, mountain building and
paleomagnetic evidence in terms of plate
motions.

P-Wave See Waves.

Relative Rigidity - The comparative stiffness
of interconnected structural members in view
of relative distribution of the horizontal force.
(Only identical stiffness of interconnected
members can share the total load equally.)

Resonance - Induced oscillations of maximum
amplitude produced in a physical spectrum
when applied oscillatory motion and the natural
oscillatory frequency of the system are the
same. When the site and building periods
coincide, the buildings resonate with the
ground. Then the amplitude of building
vibration gradually approaches infinity by time,
resulting in structural failure. The ground may
vibrate at a period of 0.5 to 1.0 sec. Structures
may vibrate at a period of 0.1 to 6 sec.
depending on the type of structure.

Examples:
1 story structure = 0.1 sec.
Up to 4 story structure = 0.5 sec.
10-20 story structure = 1 - 2 sec.
Water tank structure = 2.5 - 6 sec.
Large suspension bridge = 6 sec.

Response Spectrum - maximum response
(generally acceleration) of a site plotted
against increasing periods.

Return Period of Earthquakes - The time
period (years) in which probability is 63 percent
that an earthquake of a certain magnitude will
recur.

Richter Magnitude Scale - A measure of
earthquake size which describes the amount of
energy released. The measure is determined
by taking the common logarithm (base 10) of
the largest ground motion observed during the
arrival of a P-wave or seismic surface wave
and applying a standard correction for distance
to the epicenter. (Each unit of the Richter
Scale represents a 10 times increase in wave
amplitude. This corresponds to approx. 31
times increase of energy discharge for each
unit on the Richter Scale.) See Moment
Magnitude Scale an alternative.

Rift - A fault trough formed in a divergence
zone or in other areas in tension. (See
Graben)

Rigidity - Relative stiffness of a structure or
element. In numerical terms, equal to the
reciprocal of displacement caused by a unit
force.

Scarp - A cliff, escarpment, or steep slope of
some extent formed by a fault or a cliff or steep
slope along the margin of a plateau, mesa or
terrace.

Seiche - A standing wave on the surface of
water in an enclosed or semi-enclosed basin
(lake, bay or harbor).

Seismic - Pertaining to earthquake activities.

Seismic Zone Areas defined on a map
within which seismic design requirements are
constant.

Seismicity - The worldwide or local
distribution of earthquakes in space and time;
a general term for the number of earthquakes
in a unit of time, or for relative earthquake
activity.

Seismograph - A device, which writes or
tapes a permanent, continuous record of earth
motion, a seismogram.

Shear Distribution - Distribution of lateral
forces along the height or width of a building.

Shear Strain - The ratio obtained by dividing
shear displacement by the thickness of the
rubber layer in shear.

Shear Strength - The stress at which a
material fails in shear.

Shear Wall - A wall designed to resist lateral
forces parallel to the wall. A shear wall is
normally vertical, although not necessarily so.

Simple Harmonic Motion - Oscillatory motion
of a wave, single frequency. Essentially a
vibratory displacement such as that described
by a weight, which is attached to one end of a
spring and allowed to vibrate freely.

Soil Structure Interaction - The effects of the
properties of both soil and structure upon
response of the structure.

Spectra - A plot indicating maximum
earthquake response with respect to natural
period or frequency of the structure or element.
Response can show acceleration, velocity,
displacement, shear or other properties of
response.

Stability - Resistance to displacement or
overturning.

Stiffness - Rigidity, or resistance to deflection
or drift. A measure of deflection or of staying
in alignment within a certain stress.

Strain Deformation per unit of material of the
original dimension.

Strain Release - Movement along a fault
plane; can be gradual or abrupt.

Strength - A measure of load bearing without
exceeding a certain stress.

Stress Internal resistance within a material
opposing a force to deform it.

Subduction - The sinking of a plate under an
overriding plate in a convergence zone.

S-Wave See Waves.

Time Dependent Response Analysis - Study
of the behavior of a structure as it responds to
a specific ground motion.

Torque The action of a force that tends to
produce torsion. The product of a force and a
lever arm.

Torsion - Twisting around an axis. (The center
of the mass does not coincide with the center
of resultant force of the resisting building
elements causing rotation or twisting action in
plans and stress concentrations. Symmetry in
general reduces torsion.)

Trench - A long and narrow deep trough in the
sea floor; interpreted as marking the line along
which a plate bends down into a subduction
zone.

Tsunami - A sea wave produced by large area
displacements of the ocean bottom, the result
of earthquakes or volcanic activity. (Tidal wave
caused by ground motion.)

Tuning - To modify the period of the building
beyond the range of the site period to avoid
resonance. Examples of "tuning" include
lowering the height of a building; lowering the
position of weight in a building; changing
materials; changing fixity of base, etc. The
longer the period, the less inertial forces can
be expected. Short periods close to the fault
and long periods far from the fault are usual.

Velocity Rate of change of distance traveled
with time in a given direction in
centimeters/second.

Vibration - A periodic motion that repeats itself
after a definite interval of time.

Wave Terms:

Body Wave Seismic waves within the
earth.

Longitudinal Wave - Pure compressional
wave with volume changes.

Love Wave Surface waves that produce
a sideways motion.

Rayleigh Wave - Forward and elliptical
vertical seismic surface waves.

P-Wave - The primary or fastest waves
traveling away from a seismic event
through the earth's crust, and consisting of
a train of compressions and dilatations of
the material (push and pull).

S-Wave - Shear wave, produced
essentially by the shearing or tearing
motions of earthquakes at right angles to
the direction of wave propagation.

Seismic Surface Wave - A seismic wave
that follows the earth's surface only, with a
speed less than that of S-waves.

Wave Length - The distance between
successive similar points on two wave cycles.

The I slamic University of Gaza
Earthquake Engineering ENGC 6336
I nstructor: Dr. Samir Shihada Second Semester, 2010-2011
First Assignment (submittal date is 23-03-2011)
For the 4-storey building frame system with shear walls, shown in the figure, do the
following:

(1) Find the base shear V using UBC-94 provisions.
(2) Design the five shear walls for shear and flexure (as ordinary shear walls).

Provided Data:
- The building is used for residential purposes, and located in Gaza City.
- Soil profile is classified as S
2
.
- Use
2
c
cm / Kg 4200 ' f = and
2
y
cm / Kg 4200 f = .
2
.
- Floor live load = 200 kg/m
2
.
- Columns are 40 cm x 40 cm in cross section.
318-08.

Plan Elevation

H.W1 Solution (Prepared by Dr. Shihada):

a- First Direction (shear walls A, B and C)
2 . 1 S , 1 I , 075 . 0 Z
Weight of floor = ( )( ) tons 225 15 15 0 . 1
Total seismic weight = ( ) tons 900 4 225
Building natural frequency
( )
c
n
A
h
T
4
3
0743 . 0

1
1
]
1

,
_

+
2
n
e
i c
h
D
2 . 0 A A 9 . 0 /
n e
h D
( )( ) ( )
2
3
1 i
2
c
m 4725 . 0
12
3
2 . 0 3 2 . 0 3 A
1
1
]
1

,
_

, 9 . 0 25 . 0
12
3
< O.K
C Ca al lc cu ul la at ti io on n o of f T T, ,
( ) ( )
sec 697 . 0
4725 . 0
12
0743 . 0
A
h
0743 . 0 T
4 / 3
c
4 / 3
n

( )
( )
75 . 2 908 . 1
697 . 0
2 . 1 25 . 1
T
S 25 . 1
C
3
2
2
2
< O.K.
( ) K . O 8 075 . 0 908 . 1 C >
8
w
R
( ) ( )
tons 1 . 16
8
908 . 1 0 . 1 075 . 0
R
W C I Z
V
w

Vertical Distribution of Force:

( )

7
1 i
i
x x t
x
F
h w F V
F
Since tons 0 . 0 F , ond sec 7 . 0 T
t
<

level
i
w
tons
x
h
m
x x
h w
ton. m
x
F
tons
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&
!!"
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!
!!"
( #&"% 3.22
#
!!"
& (\$" 1.61
% % % 0
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!
N Ne eg gl le ec ct ti in ng g m mo om me en nt ts s o of f i in ne er rt ti ia a a ab bo ou ut t t th he e w we ea ak k a ax xe es s, ,
( )
4
3
Cy By Ay
m 45 . 0
12
3 2 . 0
I I I
( )
4
3
1 i
iy
m 35 . 1 3 45 . 0 I

( )
4
3
Dx
m 45 . 0
12
3 2 . 0
I
( )
4
3
Ex
m 067 . 1
12
4 2 . 0
I
4
2
1 i
ix
m 517 . 1 067 . 1 45 . 0 I +

( ) ( )
m 33 . 8
35 . 1
0 10 45 . 0 15 45 . 0
I
y I
y
3
1 i
iy
3
1 i
i iy

+ +

( )
m 55 . 10
517 . 1
0 15 067 . 1
I
x I
x
2
1 i
ix
2
1 i
i ix

m 83 . 0 5 . 7 33 . 8 e
y

Torsion caused by eccentricity ( ) 75 . 0 83 . 0 F T
x
t
ix ix ix
F F F +
x
x
Cx Bx Ax
F 33 . 0
35 . 1
F 45 . 0
' F ' F ' F
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
T 0243 . 0
67 . 1 45 . 0 67 . 6 45 . 0 33 . 8 45 . 0 45 . 4 067 . 1 55 . 10 45 . 0
45 . 0 67 . 6 T
I y I x
I y T
' ' F
2 2 2 2 2 5
1 i
iy
i
2
ix
i
2
iy i
Ax

+ + + +

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
T 0061 . 0
67 . 1 45 . 0 67 . 6 45 . 0 33 . 8 45 . 0 45 . 4 067 . 1 55 . 10 45 . 0
45 . 0 67 . 1 T
I y I x
I y T
' ' F
2 2 2 2 2 5
1 i
iy
i
2
ix
i
2
iy i
Bx

+ + + +

"
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
T 0303 . 0
67 . 1 45 . 0 67 . 6 45 . 0 33 . 8 45 . 0 45 . 4 067 . 1 55 . 10 45 . 0
45 . 0 83 . 8 T
I y I x
I y T
' ' F
2 2 2 2 2 5
1 i
iy
i
2
ix
i
2
iy i
Cx

+ + + +

Total force on wall A: ( )
x x x A
F 328 . 0 F 75 . 0 83 . 0 0243 . 0 F 33 . 0 F
Total force on wall B: ( )
x x x B
F 33 . 0 F 75 . 0 83 . 0 0061 . 0 F 33 . 0 F
Total force on wall C: ( )
x x x C
F 378 . 0 F 75 . 0 83 . 0 0303 . 0 F 33 . 0 F + +

Total Forces (x-direction)

b- Second Direction (shear walls D and E)
2 . 1 S , 1 I , 075 . 0 Z
Weight of floor = ( )( ) tons 225 15 15 0 . 1
Total seismic weight = ( ) tons 900 4 225
Building natural frequency
( )
c
n
A
h
T
4
3
0743 . 0

1
1
]
1

,
_

+
2
n
e
i c
h
D
2 . 0 A A 9 . 0 /
n e
h D
( )( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
c
m 4064 . 0
12
4
2 . 0 2 . 0 4
12
3
2 . 0 2 . 0 3 A
1
1
]
1

,
_

+ +
1
1
]
1

,
_

+ , 9 . 0 25 . 0
12
3
<
O.K
9 . 0 33 . 0
12
4
< O.K
C Ca al lc cu ul la at ti io on n o of f T T, ,
( ) ( )
sec 751 . 0
4064 . 0
12
0743 . 0
A
h
0743 . 0 T
4 / 3
c
4 / 3
n

#
( )
( )
75 . 2 816 . 1
751 . 0
2 . 1 25 . 1
T
S 25 . 1
C
3
2
2
2
< O.K.
( ) K . O 8 075 . 0 816 . 1 C >
8
w
R
( ) ( ) ( )
tons 32 . 15
8
900 816 . 1 0 . 1 075 . 0
R
W C I Z
V
w

Vertical Distribution of Force:

( )

7
1 i
i
x x t
x
F
h w F V
F
Since ( ) ( ) tons 805 . 0 32 . 15 751 . 0 07 . 0 V T 07 . 0 F , ond sec 7 . 0 T
t
>

m 05 . 3 5 . 7 55 . 10 e
x

Torsion caused by eccentricity ( ) 75 . 0 05 . 3 F T
y
t
iy iy iy
' ' F ' F F +
level
i
w
tons
x
h
m
x x
h w
ton. m
t x
F F +
tons
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&
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#
!!"
& (\$" 1.45
% % % 0
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\$
y
y
Dy
F 297 . 0
517 . 1
F 45 . 0
' F
y
y
Ey
F 703 . 0
517 . 1
F 067 . 1
' F
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
T 038 . 0
67 . 1 45 . 0 67 . 6 45 . 0 33 . 8 45 . 0 45 . 4 067 . 1 55 . 10 45 . 0
45 . 0 55 . 10 T
I y I x
I x T
' ' F
2 2 2 2 2 5
1 i
iy
i
2
ix
i
2
ix i
Dy

+ + + +

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
T 038 . 0
67 . 1 45 . 0 67 . 6 45 . 0 33 . 8 45 . 0 45 . 4 067 . 1 55 . 10 45 . 0
067 . 1 45 . 4 T
I y I x
I x T
' ' F
2 2 2 2 2 5
1 i
iy
i
2
ix
i
2
ix i
Ey

+ + + +

Total force on wall D: ( )
y y y D
F 44 . 0 F 75 . 0 05 . 3 038 . 0 F 297 . 0 F + +
Total force on wall E: ( )
y x y E
F 62 . 0 F 75 . 0 05 . 3 038 . 0 F 703 . 0 F

Total Forces (y-direction)
Design of shear wall as an example
Forces on shear wall D (service):
F4 = 0.44(6.62) = 2.913 tons
F3= 0.44(4.35) = 1.914 tons
F2= 0.44(2.90) = 1.276 tons
F1= 0.44(1.45) = 0.638 tons
Shear forces on shear wall D (service):
V4 = 0.44(6.62) = 2.913 tons
V3= 0.44(4.35) = 4.827 tons
V2= 0.44(2.90) = 6.103 tons
V1= 0.44(1.45) = 6.741 tons
V0= 6.741 tons
Moments on shear wall D (service):
M4= 0 t.m
%
M3= 8.739 t.m
M2= 23.22 t.m
M1= 41.529 t.m
M0= 61.752 t.m

Bending moment diagram (service)

1- Design for shear:

Check for maximum nominal shear force

d h ' f 65 . 2 V
c max , n

( ) ( )( ) tons 32 . 220 1000 / 300 8 . 0 20 300 65 . 2
( ) ( ) K . O tons 44 . 9 4 . 1 741 . 6 tons 24 . 165 32 . 220 75 . 0 V
max , u

d h ' f 53 . 0 V
c c

( )( )( ) tons 06 . 44 1000 / 300 8 . 0 20 300 53 . 0 V
c

( ) tons 045 . 33 06 . 44 75 . 0 V
c

( ) tons 523 . 16 2 / 045 . 33 2 / V
c

In zones 1, 2, 3 and 4 2 / V V
c u
<

1-1 Horizontal shear reinforcement:

0025 . 0
t

of smaller the
2
S

cm
cm h
cm l
w
45
60 3
60 5 /

&
or cm S 45
max , 2

( ) cm / cm 05 . 0
S
A
and 20 0025 . 0 h 0025 . 0
S
A
2
2
t
2
t

For two curtains of reinforcement and trying 10 mm bars
( )
max , 2 2
2
S cm 4 . 31 S , 05 . 0
S
785 . 0 2
< O.K
Use 10 mm bars @ 30cm.

1-2 Vertical shear reinforcement:
[ ] 0025 . 0 0025 . 0
3
21
5 . 2 5 . 0 0025 . 0
l

1
]
1

+
t l
0025 . 0

of smaller the
1
S

cm
cm h
cm l
w
45
60 3
100 3 /

or cm S 45
max , 1

For two curtains of reinforcement, and trying 10 mm bars
( )
( )
1 1
l
S
0.785 2
20 0025 . 0 h 0025 . 0
S
A

And
max , 1 1
40 . 31 S cm S <
Use 10mm bars @ 30cm.

2- Design for flexure and axial loads:
1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

+
w y s
u
w y s u
l
c
1
f A
P
1 l f A 5 . 0 M
Where:
1 w
85 . 0 2 l
c
+
+
,
' f h l
f A
c w
y s
and
' f h l
p
c w
u

For the vertical shear reinforcement of 10 mm @ 30cm,
2
s
cm 28 . 17 A ,

( ) 836 . 0 280 300
70
05 . 0
85 . 0 ,
( )
( )( )
04032 . 0
300 20 300
4200 28 . 17
' f h l
f A
c w
y s

,
( )
( )( )
u
u
c w
u
P 00055 . 0
300 20 300
1000 P
' f h l
P
,

( ) ( ) 79124 . 0
P 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
836 . 0 85 . 0 04032 . 0 2
P 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
u u
w
+

+
+

For zone 4 (at the base):
'
( )( )( )( ) tons 20 . 16 5 . 2 12 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u

( )
0622 . 0
79124 . 0
2 . 16 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w

+

( ) m . t 4 . 1 752 . 61 m . t 455 . 112 M
u
> , i.e. no boundary elements are required at wall
ends along the entire height of the wall.

The I slamic University of Gaza
Earthquake Engineering ENGC 6336
I nstructor: Prof. Samir Shihada First Semester, 2012-2013
Second Assignment
For the 8-storey building frame system with shear walls, shown in the figure, do the
following:

(1) Evaluate the base shear V using UBC-97 provisions (both orthogonal
directions).
(2) Design walls (A) for shear and flexure (as special shear wall).

Provided Data:
- The building is used for residential purposes, and located in Gaza City.
- Story height is 3.0 m.
- Soil profile is classified as S
D
.
- Use
2
/ 350 ' cm Kg f
c
= and
2
/ 4200 cm Kg f
y
= .
2
.
- Floor live load = 200 kg/m
2
.
- Columns are 40 cm x 40 cm in cross section.
- Reinforced concrete design is to be based on ACI 318-08.

Plan
1

INTRODUCTION TO SEISMOLOGY

2

Earthquake Engineering

Earthquake engineering can be defined as the branch of engineering devoted to
mitigating earthquake hazards.

Earthquake engineering involves planning, designing, constructing and
managing earthquake-resistant structures and facilities.

3

1.1 Earth's Interior

The earth's radius is 6371 km.
Direct drilling went only to 13 km.
Materials brought up by volcanoes are only from the outer 200 km.
Physical conditions are brought about by computer modeling, laboratory
experiments and data generated from seismic waves generated by earthquakes
and nuclear explosions.

Major layers of the Interior
The principal layers of the earth include crust, the mantle and the core (including a
fluid outer core and a solid inner core), shown in Figure (1.1).

Figure (1.1): The earth's interior
The Crust:
The crust is a thin outer shell, about 30 km in thickness on average.
Its thickness exceeds 70 km in some mountain belts, such as the Himalayas.
Its thickness ranges from 3 km to 15 km in oceanic crust.

The Mantle:
It is a solid rocky layer.
It extends to a depth of about 2900 km.

The core:
4

Inner core:
The inner core is solid due to generated pressure.
Outer Core:
It is made of iron mixed with other elements.

5

1.2Tectonic Plates

Stress that causes an earthquake is created by a movement of almost rigid plates,
called tectonic plates, which fit together and make up the outer shell of the earth
(crust). These plates float on a dense, liquid layer beneath them. These plates move at
such a slow rate (approximately the same rate as a fingernail grows), which is not
perceptible.
Over time, however, this small movement can build up enough stress to produce
earthquakes.
Most frequently earthquakes occur on or near the edges of the plates where stress is
most concentrated, such earthquakes are called interplate earthquakes.
A significant number of earthquakes, including some large and damaging ones, do
occur within the plates; these earthquakes are known as intraplate earthquakes.
Figure (1.2) shows various tectonic plates that constitute the surface of the earth.

Figure (1.2): Various tectonic plates that constitute the surface of the earth

6

1.3 Major Earthquakes of the World

Earthquakes can strike any location at any time. But history shows they occur in
the same general patterns year after year, principally in three large zones of the
earth.
The world's greatest earthquake belt, the circum-Pacific seismic belt, is found
along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, where about 81 percent of the world's largest
earthquakes occur. The belt extends from Chile, northward along the South
American coast through Central America, Mexico, the West Coast of the United
States, and the southern part of Alaska, through the Aleutian Islands to Japan,
the Philippine Islands, New Guinea, the island groups of the Southwest Pacific,
and to New Zealand.
The second important belt, the Alpide, extends from Java to Sumatra through
the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. This belt accounts
for about 17 percent of the world's largest earthquakes.
The third prominent belt follows the submerged mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The remaining shocks are scattered in various areas of the world. Earthquakes
in these prominent seismic zones are taken for granted, but damaging shocks
occur occasionally outside these areas.
Figure (1.3) shows major earthquakes of the world.

7

Figure (1.3): Major earthquakes of the world

8

1.4 Fault Types
A fault, shown in Figure (1.4), is a large fracture in rocks, across which the rocks have
moved. Faults can be microscopic or hundreds-to-thousands of kilometers long and
tens of kilometers deep. The width of the fault is usually much smaller, on the order of
a few millimeters to meters.

Normal Fault (extensional):
The hanging wall block moves down relative to the footwall block.
The fault plane makes 45 degree or larger angles with the surface.
These faults are associated with crustal tension.

Figure (1.4): Fault types

Reverse Fault (Compressional)
The hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block.
The fault plane usually makes 45 degree or smaller angles with the surface.
The faults are associated with crustal compression.

Strike-Slip Fault (Transformal)
The two blocks move either to the left or to the right relative to one another.
These faults are associated with crustal shear.

9

1.5 Earthquakes
An earthquake is a sudden movement of the ground that releases built-up energy in
rocks and generates seismic waves. The elastic waves radiate outward from the source
and vibrate the ground. The point where a rupture starts is termed the focus or
hypocenter and may be many kilometers deep within the earth. The point on the
surface directly above the focus is called the earthquake epicenter, shown in Figure
(1.5).

Figure (1.5): Earthquake fracture

Earthquakes can occur anywhere between the Earth's surface and about 700 kilometers
below the surface. For scientific purposes, this earthquake depth range of 0-700 km is
divided into three zones: shallow, intermediate, and deep .
Shallow earthquakes are between 0 and 70 km deep; intermediate earthquakes, 70 -
300 km deep; and deep earthquakes, 300 - 700 km deep. In general, the term "deep-
focus earthquakes" is applied to earthquakes deeper than 70 km.

The Elastic Rebound Theory:
It states that as tectonic plates move relative to each other, elastic strain energy builds
up along their edges in the rocks along fault planes. Since fault planes are not usually
very smooth, great amounts of energy can be stored as movement is restricted due to
interlock along the fault. When the shearing stresses induced in the rocks on the fault
planes exceed the shear strength of the rock, rupture occurs.
10

1.6 Seismic Waves
Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through the earth. The
amplitude of a seismic wave is the amount the ground moves as the wave passes by.
1- Body waves:
They are waves moving through the body of the earth from the point of fracture,
shown in Figure (1.6).
A- Primary waves (P-waves):
They are longitudinal waves that oscillate the ground back and forth along
the direction of wave travel. They are considered the fastest to reach a
recording station. The primary waves can travel through solids, liquids and
gases.

B- Secondary waves (S-waves):
They oscillate the ground perpendicular to the direction of wave travel. They
are slower than the P-waves. These waves are second in reaching a recording
station. They can travel through solids only.

Figure (1.6): Body waves
2- Surface Waves:
They are slower than the primary or the secondary waves and propagate along
the earth's surface rather than through the deep interior, thus causing more
property damage, see Figure (1.7). Two principal types of surface waves; Love
and Raleigh waves, shown in Figure (1.8), are generated during the earthquake.
11

Raleigh waves cause both vertical and horizontal ground motion, and Love
waves cause horizontal motion only. They both produce ground shaking at the
earth's surface but very little motion deep in the earth. Because the amplitude of
surface waves diminishes less rapidly with distance than the amplitude of
primary or secondary waves, surface waves are often the most important
component of ground shaking far from the earthquake source.

Figure (1.7): Seismic wave arrival time

Figure (1.8): Surface waves

12

1.7 Measurement of Ground Motion
Seismographs
Seismographs generally consist of two parts, a sensor of ground motion which we call
a seismometer, and a seismic recording system. Modern seismometers are sensitive
electromechanical devices but the basic idea behind measuring ground movement can
be illustrated using a simpler physical system that is actually quite similar to some of
the earliest seismograph systems, shown in Figure (1.9).

Figure (1.9): The basic ideas behind of seismic recording systems.
Seismometers are spread throughout the world, but are usually concentrated in regions
of intense earthquake activity or research. These days, the recording system is
invariably a computer, custom designed for seismic data collection and harsh weather.
Often they are also connected to a satellite communication system. Such systems
enable us to receive seismic signals from all over the world, soon after an earthquake,
see Figure (1.10).

Figure (1.10): A real-time seismic recording system with
digital storage and satellite communications

13

Classic Seismograms
For most of the last century, seismograms were recorded on sheet of paper, either with
ink or photographically. We call such records "analog" records to distinguish them
from digital recordings. These records are read just like a book - from top-to-bottom
and left-to-right, shown in Figure (1.11).

Figure (1.11): Classic seismogram
One problem with these mechanical systems was the limited range of ground motion
that could be recorded - vibrations smaller than a line thickness and those beyond the
physical range of the ink pen were lost. To elude these limitations we often operated
high and low-gain instruments side-by-side, but that was neither as efficient nor
effective as the modern digital electronic instruments. However, modern "digital" or
computerized instruments are relatively new, only about 15-20 years old, and most of
our data regarding large earthquakes are actually recorded on paper (or film).
Additionally, we still use paper recording systems for display purposes so we can see
what is going on without a computer.
Digital Seismograms
Today, most seismic data are recorded digitally (see Figure 1.12), which facilitates
quick interpretations of the signals using computers. Digital seismograms are
"sampled" at an even time interval that depends on the type of seismic instrument and
the interest of the people who deploy the seismometer.
14

Figure (1.12): Digital seismogram
Also, since we live in a three-dimensional space, to record the complete ground
motion, we must record the motion in three directions. Usually, we usually choose:
Up-down
North-south
East-west
Accelerometers
Another important class of seismometers was developed for recording large amplitude
vibrations that are common within a few tens of kilometers of large earthquakes -
these are called strong-motion seismometers. Strong-motion instruments were
designed to record the high accelerations that are particularly important for designing
buildings and other structures. An example set of accelerations from a large
earthquake that occurred in near the coast of Mexico in September of 1985 are shown
in Figure (1.13).

Figure (1.13): Set of accelerations from a 1985 Mexico earthquake
15

1.8 Locating Earthquakes

Difference between arrival times of the P and S waves is determined.
Using the Travel-Time Curve shown in Figure (1.14), the distance of the
seismograph from the epicenter is evaluated.
Three seismographs are triangulated to find actual location of the epicenter, as
shown in Figure (1.15). In practice, a computer carries out the whole process of
locating an earthquake. The computer estimates the arrival time of the P and S
waves for each seismic station, a seismologist checks out the estimates and then
the location is calculated.

Figure (1.14): Distance versus time curves

Figure (1.15): Locating the epicenter, the old way

16

1.9 Measuring the Size of an Earthquake

The severity of an earthquake can be expressed in terms of the following:
Amplitude
It is based on the amplitude and distance measured from seismograms. The most
common scale is the Richter scale which measures the magnitude on a logarithmic
scale.
The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the
California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of
earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the
amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Adjustments are included for the
variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the epicenter of the
earthquakes. On the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and
decimal fractions. For example, a magnitude 5.3 might be computed for a moderate
earthquake, and a strong earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Because of the
logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a
tenfold increase in measured amplitude; as an estimate of energy, each whole number
step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of about 31 times more energy
than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value.
At first, the Richter Scale could be applied only to the records from instruments of
identical manufacture. Now, instruments are carefully calibrated with respect to each
other. Thus, magnitude can be computed from the record of any calibrated
seismograph.

17

Richter Earthquake
Magnitudes Effects

Less than 3.5 Generally not felt, but recorded.

3.5-5.4 Often felt, but rarely causes damage.

Under 6.0 At most slight damage to well-designed buildings.
Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings
over small regions.

6.1-6.9 Can be destructive in areas up to about 100 kilometers
across where people live.

7.0-7.9 Major earthquake. Can cause serious damage over larger areas.

8 or greater Great earthquake. Can cause serious damage in areas several
hundred kilometers across.

The Richter Scale has no upper limit and doesn't tell you anything about the physics of
the earthquake. Recently, another scale called the moment magnitude scale has been
devised for more precise study of great earthquakes.

Intensity
It is based on the observed effects of ground shaking on people and buildings. It varies
from place to place within the disturbed region depending on the location of the
observer with respect to the earthquake epicenter. The most common scale is the
Modified Mercalli Scale, which uses a twelve-point scale to describe damage. The
scale is named after the Italian Seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli (1850-1914) who
amended the Rossi-Forrel scale to a 12-point scale in 1902. The Americans Harry
Wood and Frank Neumann who amended the Mercalli Scale in 1931.

18

Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale
Mercalli
Intensity
Equivalent Richter
Magnitude
Witness Observations
I 1.0 to 2.0 Felt by very few people; barely noticeable.
II 2.0 to 3.0 Felt by a few people, especially on upper floors.
III 3.0 to 4.0
Noticeable indoors, especially on upper floors, but may not be recognized as
an earthquake.
IV 4.0 Felt by many indoors, few outdoors. May feel like heavy truck passing by.
V 4.0 to 5.0
Felt by almost everyone, some people awakened. Small objects moved.trees
and poles may shake.
VI 5.0 to 6.0
Felt by everyone. Difficult to stand. Some heavy furniture moved, some
plaster falls. Chimneys may be slightly damaged.
VII 6.0
Slight to moderate damage in well built, ordinary structures. Considerable
damage to poorly built structures. Some walls may fall.
VIII 6.0 to 7.0
Little damage in specially built structures. Considerable damage to ordinary
buildings, severe damage to poorly built structures. Some walls collapse.
IX 7.0
Considerable damage to specially built structures, buildings shifted off
foundations. Ground cracked noticeably. Wholesale destruction. Landslides.
X 7.0 to 8.0
Most masonry and frame structures and their foundations destroyed. Ground
XI 8.0
Total damage. Few, if any, structures standing. Bridges destroyed. Wide
cracks in ground. Waves seen on ground.
XII 8.0 or greater Total damage. Waves seen on ground. Objects thrown up into air.

19

Seismic Moment:
A new scale has been developed to overcome the shortcomings of the Richter scale. It
is based on seismic waves and field measurements that describe the fault area. It is
considered very accurate because it takes into account fault geometry.
Seismic moment is a quantity that combines the area of the rupture and the amount of
fault offset with a measure of the strength of the rocks - the shear modulus .
Seismic Moment = x (Rupture Area) x (Fault Offset)
For scientific studies, the moment is the measure we use since it has fewer limitations
than the magnitudes, which often reach a maximum value (we call that magnitude
saturation).
To compare seismic moment with magnitude, M
w
, we use a formula constructed by
Hiroo Kanamori of the California Institute of Seismology:
M
w
= 2 / 3 * log(Seismic Moment) - 10.73

20

Part (2)

Effects of Earthquakes on Structures
and Planning Considerations

The Nature of Earthquake Hazard
Architectural and Structural Considerations
The Effects of Earthquakes on Buildings
General Goals in Seismic-Resistant Design

21

The Nature of Earthquake Hazard

Ground Shaking:
The shaking resulting from an earthquake is not life threatening in itself; it is the
consequential collapse of structures that is the main cause of death, injury, and
economic loss.

Ground Failure:
Ground failure can primarily cause any of the following:
Tsunamis: Tsunami or sea waves, which may threaten coastal regions.
They are caused by the sudden change in seabed level that may occur in
an offshore earthquake.
Liquefaction: Loss of strength in saturated granular soil due to the
Landslides: Which are often triggered by liquefaction of a soil stratum.
Fault Movement: It can be troublesome to structures directly crossing a
fault. However, the number of structures directly over a fault break is
small compared with the total number of structures affected by the
earthquake. Faults are mainly a problem for extended facilities such as
pipelines, canals, and dams.
Fires: They break out following earthquakes. They can be caused by
flammable materials being thrown into a cooking or heating fire or
broken gas lines. Fires can easily get out of control since the earthquake
may have broken water mains or blocked roads firefighters need to use.

22

Damage Due to Ground Shaking (Figure 2.1)

Figure (2.1) Damage due ground shaking

23

2- Damage Due to Ground Failure

A- Due to Surface Faulting (Figure 2.2)

Fault, 1980 El Asnam Earthquake

Overturned Train, 1980 El
Asnam Earthquake

Collapsed Bridge, 1976 Guatemala
Earthquake

Damage to A building, 1971 San
Fernando Earthquake

Figure (2.2) Damage due to surface faulting

24

B- Due to Liquefaction (Figure 2.3)

Tilting of Buildings, 1964 Niigata
Earthquake

Collapsed Bridge, 1964 Niigata
Earthquake

Linear Fissure, 1977 Caucete
Earthquake

Sand Blows

Figure (2.3) Damage due to liquefaction

25

Liquefaction

Liquefaction Process

Liquefaction is a process by which sediments below the water table temporarily lose
strength and behave as a viscous liquid rather than a solid. The types of sediments
most susceptible are clay-free deposits of sand and silts; occasionally, gravel liquefies.
The actions in the soil which produce liquefaction are as follows: seismic waves,
primarily shear waves, passing through saturated granular layers, distort the granular
structure, and cause loosely packed groups of particles to collapse (Fig. 2.4). These
collapses increase the pore-water pressure between the grains if drainage cannot occur.
If the pore-water pressure rises to a level approaching the weight of the overlying soil,
the granular layer temporarily behaves as a viscous liquid rather than a solid.
Liquefaction has occurred.

Figure (2.4) Sketch of a packet of water-saturated sand grains illustrating the process
of liquefaction. Shear deformations (indicated by large arrows) induced by earthquake
shaking distort the granular structure causing loosely packed groups to collapse as
indicated by the curved arrow.

In the liquefied condition, soil may deform with little shear resistance; deformations
large enough to cause damage to buildings and other structures are called ground
failures. The ease with which a soil can be liquefied depends primarily on the
looseness of the soil, the amount of cementing or clay between particles, and the
26

amount of drainage restriction. The amount of soil deformation following liquefaction
depends on the looseness of the material, the depth, thickness, and areal extent of the
liquefied layer, the ground slope, and the distribution of loads applied by buildings and
other structures.
Liquefaction does not occur at random, but is restricted to certain geologic and
hydrologic environments, primarily recently deposited sands and silts in areas with
high ground water levels. Generally, the younger and looser the sediment, and the
higher the water table, the more susceptible the soil is to liquefaction. Liquefaction has
been most abundant in areas where ground water lies within 10 m of the ground
surface; few instances of liquefaction have occurred in areas with ground water deeper
than 20 m. Dense soils, including well-compacted fills, have low susceptibility to
liquefaction.

Effect of Liquefaction on the Built Environment

The liquefaction phenomenon by itself may not be particularly damaging or
hazardous. Only when liquefaction is accompanied by some form of ground
displacement or ground failure is it destructive to the built environment. For
engineering purposes, it is not the occurrence of liquefaction that is of prime
importance, but its severity or its capability to cause damage. Adverse effects of
liquefaction can take many forms. These include: flow failures; lateral spreads; ground
oscillation; and increased lateral pressure on retaining walls.
Flow Failures

Flow failures are the most catastrophic ground failures caused by liquefaction. These
failures commonly displace large masses of soil laterally tens of meters and in a few
instances; large masses of soil have traveled tens of kilometers down long slopes at
velocities ranging up to tens of kilometers per hour. Flows may be comprised of
completely liquefied soil or blocks of intact material riding on a layer of liquefied soil.
Flows develop in loose saturated sands or silts on relatively steep slopes, usually
greater than 3 degrees.
27

Lateral spreads involve lateral displacement of large, surficial blocks of soil as a result
of liquefaction of a subsurface layer. Displacement occurs in response to the
combination of gravitational forces and inertial forces generated by an earthquake.
Lateral spreads generally develop on gentle slopes (most commonly less than 3
degrees) and move toward a free face such as an incised river channel. Horizontal
displacements commonly range up to several meters. The displaced ground usually
breaks up internally, causing fissures and scarps to form on the failure surface. Lateral
spreads commonly disrupt foundations of buildings built on or across the failure, sever
pipelines and other utilities in the failure mass, and compress or buckle engineering
structures, such as bridges, founded on the toe of the failure.

Damage caused by lateral spreads is severely disruptive and often pervasive. For
example, during the 1964 Alaska earthquake, more than 200 bridges were damaged or
compressed the superstructures, buckled decks, thrust stringers over abutments, and
shifted and tilted abutments and piers. Lateral spreads are particularly destructive to
pipelines. For example, every major pipeline break in the city of San Francisco during
the 1906 earthquake occurred in areas of ground failure. These pipeline breaks
severely hampered efforts to fight the fire that ignited during the earthquake; that fire
caused about 85% of the total damage to San Francisco. Thus, rather inconspicuous
ground-failure displacements of less than 2 m were in large part responsible for the
devastation that occurred in San Francisco.

Ground Oscillation

Where the ground is flat or the slope is too gentle to allow lateral displacement,
liquefaction at depth may decouple overlying soil layers from the underlying ground,
allowing the upper soil to oscillate back and forth and up and down in the form of
28

ground waves. These oscillations are usually accompanied by opening and closing of
fissures and fracture of rigid structures such as pavements and pipelines. The
manifestations of ground oscillation were apparent in San Franciscos Marina District
due to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake; sidewalks and driveways buckled and
extensive pipeline breakage also occurred.

Loss of Bearing Strength

When the soil supporting a building or other structure liquefies and loses strength,
large deformations can occur within the soil which may allow the structure to settle
and tip. Conversely, buried tanks and piles may rise buoyantly through the liquefied
soil. For example, many buildings settled and tipped during the 1964 Niigata, Japan,
earthquake. The most spectacular bearing failures during that event were in the
Kawangishicho apartment complex where several four-story buildings tipped as much
as 60 degrees. Apparently, liquefaction first developed in a sand layer several meters
below ground surface and then propagated upward through overlying sand layers. The
rising wave of liquefaction weakened the soil supporting the buildings and allowed the
structures to slowly settle and tip.

Settlement

In many cases, the weight of a structure will not be great enough to cause the large
settlements associated with soil bearing capacity failures described above. However,
smaller settlements may occur as soil pore-water pressures dissipate and the soil
consolidates after the earthquake. These settlements may be damaging, although they
would tend to be much less so than the large movements accompanying flow failures,
lateral spreading, and bearing capacity failures. The eruption of sand boils (fountains
of water and sediment emanating from the pressurized, liquefied sand) is a common
manifestation of liquefaction that can also lead to localized differential settlements.

29

Increased Lateral Pressure on Retaining Walls

If the soil behind a retaining wall liquefies, the lateral pressures on the wall may
greatly increase. As a result, retaining walls may be laterally displaced, tilt, or
structurally fail, as has been observed for waterfront walls retaining loose saturated
sand in a number of earthquakes.

Can Liquefaction Be Predicted?

Although it is possible to identify areas that have the potential for liquefaction, its
occurrence cannot be predicted any more accurately than a particular earthquake can
be (with a time, place, and degree of reliability assigned to it). Once these areas have
been defined in general terms, it is possible to conduct site investigations that provide
very detailed information regarding a sites potential for liquefaction. Mapping of the
liquefaction potential on a regional scale has greatly furthered our knowledge
regarding this hazard. These maps now exist for many regions of the United States,
Japan and several other areas of the world.

30

Tsunamis

Tsunami is a Japanese term that means !harbor wave". Tsunamis are the result of a
sudden vertical offset in the ocean floor caused by earthquakes, submarine landslides,
and volcanic deformation.

Tsunami Initiation:

A sudden offset changes the elevation of the ocean and initiates a water wave that
travels outward from the region of sea-floor disruption. Tsunami can travel all the way
across the ocean and large earthquakes have generated waves that caused damage and
deaths, shown in Figure (2.5).

Figure (2.5) Tsunami initiation

The speed of this wave depends on the ocean depth and is typically about as fast as a
commercial passenger jet (about 700 km/hr). This is relatively slow compared to
seismic waves, so we are often alerted to the dangers of the Tsunami by the shaking
before the wave arrives. The trouble is that the time to react is not very long in regions
close to the earthquake that caused the Tsunami.

Figure (2.6) Tsunami in deep water

31

Tsunamis pose no threat in the deep ocean because they are only a meter or so high in
deep water. But as the wave approaches the shore and the water shallows, all the
energy that was distributed throughout the ocean depth becomes concentrated in the
shallow water and the wave height increases (Figures 2.6 and 2.7).

Figure (2.7) Tsunami in shallow water

Typical heights for large Tsunamis are on the order of 10s of meters and a few have
approached 90 meters. These waves are typically more devastating to the coastal
region than the shaking of the earthquake that caused the Tsunami. Even the more
common Tsunamis of about 10-20 meters can !wipe clean" coastal communities.

32

Architectural and Structural Considerations

Building Configuration:
In recent years, there has been increased emphasis on the importance of a buildings
configuration in resisting seismic forces. Early decisions concerning size, shape,
arrangement, and location of major elements can have a significant influence on the
performance of a structure. Since the design professional plays a large role in these
early decisions, it is imperative that the architect thoroughly understand the concepts
involved.

Building configuration refers to the overall building size and shape and the size and
arrangement of the primary structural frame, as well as the size and location of the
nonstructural components of the building that may aspect its structural performance.
Significant nonstructural components include such things as heavy nonbearing
partitions, exterior cladding, and large weights like equipment or swimming pools.

In the current UBC, elements that constitute both horizontal and vertical irregularities
are specifically defined, so it is clear which structures must be designed with the
dynamic method and which structures may be designed using the static analysis
method. The code states that all buildings must be classified as either regular or
irregular. Whether a building is regular or not helps determine if the static method may
be used. Irregular structures generally require design by the dynamic method, and
additional detailed design requirements are imposed depending on what type of
irregularity exists.

The following sections describe some of the important aspects of building
configuration.
Torsion
Lateral forces on a portion of a building are assumed to be uniformly distributed and
can be resolved into a single line of action acting on a building. In a similar way, the
shear reac
single line
rigidity, th

If the she
rigidity, t
coincide
directions
lateral loa

When the
direction
The UBC
torsion be
occupied
each leve
ction force
e of action
hese lines
ear walls
the resulta
with the
s with an
e force on
as that cau
C requires
e planned
building
el is assum
es produce
n. For sym
of action
or other
ant of the
applied
eccentrici
Figure 2.8
Figu
n a vertic
used by th
that even
d for. Thi
cannot be
med to be
ed by the v
mmetric bu
pass throu
vertical e
eir shear r
lateral fo
ty, torsion
8).
ure (2.8): D
cal elemen
he lateral l
n in symm
s account
e known f
e displace
vertical re
uildings w
ugh the sa
elements
resisting f
orce. Sinc
n force is
Developm
nt caused
metrical bu
ts for the
for certain
ed from t
esisting ele
with vertic
ame point.
are not s
forces, the
ce the fo
developed
ment of tor
by the e
tly, they m
uildings a
fact that
n. The co
the calcul
ements ca
al resistin

ymmetric
e center o
rces are
d, which i

rsion
eccentricit
certain am
the posit
ode requir
ated cente
an be resol
ng element
c or are o
of rigidity
acting in
ty acts in
dded.
mount of
tion of lo
res that th
er of mas
33
lved into a
ts of equa
of unequa
, does no
n opposite
tion to the
the same
accidenta
he mass a
ss in each
3
a
l
l
t
e
e
e
l
n
t
h
direction
perpendic

by a dist
cular to the
tance equ
e direction
Figure (2
ual to 5 p
n of the fo
.9): Torsio
percent of
orce under

ons analo
f the build
r considera

ogous simp
ding dime
ation.
plification
ension at

n
34
that leve

4
l
The impo
following

Plan S
Irregularit
which sh
troublesom

During an
that stress
center of
establishe
section.

Of cours
requireme
shapes are
building c
connectio
ortance of
g sections (
Shape & D
ties in pla
hould be
me plan sh
n earthqua
s concentr
f mass and
ed that res
e, buildin
ents beyon
e unavoid
can be se
on, or the i
f understan
(Figure 2.
Dimension
an shape
avoided
hapes is th
ake, the gr
rations ar
d the cen
ults in a tw
ng shape
nd the con
dable, ther
parated w
inside corn
Fig
nding the
9).
ns:
can creat
wheneve
he re-entra
round mot
re develop
nter of rig
wisting of
is often
ntrol of th
re are way
with a seis
ner can be
gure (2.10)
concept o
te torsion
er possibl
ant corner
tion cause
ped at the
gidity do
f the entire
dictated
he architec
ys to mini
smic joint
e splayed (
): Problem
of torsion
and conc
le. One
.
es the stru
e inside co
not coinc
e structure
by the
ct or engin
imize the
t, they can
(Figures 2
m plan sha
will beco
centrations
of the m
ucture to m
orners. In
cide, there
e as discus
site, the
neer. In th
problem.
n be tied
2.10 and 2.

apes
ome appar
s of stres
most com
move in su
e is an ec
ssed in th
program,
he cases w
The porti
together
.11).
35
rent in the
s, both of
mmon and
uch a way
since the
ccentricity
e previous
or other
where such
ons of the
across the
5
e
f
d
y
e
y
s
r
h
e
e
A second
stiffness a
d common
and streng
n problem
gth of the p
Figure
Figure (2
m that ari
perimeter.
(2.11): So
2.12): Var
ises with

olution to r

riation in p

building

re-entrant
perimeter
plans is
corners
stiffness
a variati
36
ion in the
6
e
37

Even though a building may be symmetric, the distribution of mass and lateral
resisting elements may place the centers of mass and rigidity in such a way that torsion
is developed.

During an earthquake, the open end of the building acts as a cantilevered beam
causing lateral displacement and torsion. There are four possible ways to alleviate the
problem. In the first instance, a rigid frame can be constructed with symmetric rigidity
and then the cladding can be made nonstructural. Secondly, a strong, moment-resisting
or braced frame can be added that has stiffness similar to the other walls. Third, shear
walls can be added to the front if this does not compromise the function of the
building. Finally, for small buildings, the structure can simply be designed to resist the
expected torsion forces.

The ratio of plan dimensions should not be inordinately large to prevent different types
of forces acting on different plan sections. If this cannot be achieved, then seismic
joint should be provided in such a building.

Elevation Design
The ideal elevation from a seismic design standpoint is one that is regular,
symmetrical, continuous, and that matches the other elevations in configuration and
seismic resistance. Setbacks and offsets should be avoided for the same reason as re-
entrant corners in plan should be avoided; that is, to avoid areas of stress
concentration. Of course, perfect symmetry is not always possible due to the
functional and aesthetic requirements of the building, but there are two basic
configurations that should (and can) be avoided by the architect early in the design
process.
The first problem configuration is a discontinuous shear wall. This is a major mistake
and should never happen. Discontinuities can occur when large openings are placed in
shear walls, when they are stopped short of the foundation, or when they are altered in
some other way. Since the entire purpose of a shear wall is to carry lateral loads to the
foundatio
this is cou
be placed

Two com
wall is sto
to open u
great that
2.13).

The secon
floors abo
shear wal
transfer o
In all case
continuou
n and act
unterprodu
in shear w
mmon exam
opped at th
up the first
t even ext
nd exampl
ove are ca
l continue
for the la
f forces fr
es of disco
usly to the
as a beam
uctive. Of
walls if pr
mples of d
he second
t floor, bu
tra reinfor
Figure
le is also
antilevered
es, the offs
rom one sh
ontinuous
foundatio
m cantilev
f course, sm
oper reinf
discontinuo
d floor lev
ut it create
rcing cann
e (2.13): D
a common
d slightly
fset also cr
ds is inter
hear wall t
shear wal
on.
vered out
mall open
forcement
ous shear
vel and sup
es a situat
not alway
Discontinu
n design f
from the
reates an u
rrupted, an
to the nex
lls, the sol
of the fou
nings like d
is provide
walls are
pported by
tion where
ys resist th

uous shear
feature wh
first floor
undesirabl
nd the flo
xt.
lution is si
undation,
doors and
ed.
shown. In
y columns
e stress co
he build-u
r walls
here the s
r shear wa
le situation
oor structu
imple: she
any inter
d small win
n the first
s. This is o
oncentrati
up of stre
econd flo
all. Even t
n because
ure has to
ear walls s
38
rruption of
ndows can
, the shear
often done
ons are so
ss (Figure
or and the
though the
e the direc
o carry the
should run
8
f
n
r
e
o
e
e
e
t
e
n
Another s
when the
at any flo
the greate
case of th
or when t
2.14).

A soft sto
story and
these situ
floors abo

When ear
weak floo
members.

There are
eliminate
serious pr
ground flo
or, it is m
est. The di
he soft stor
the first st
ory can als
the groun
ations to o
ove for the
rthquake
.
e several w
it and try
roblem w
oor is wea
most seriou
scontinuo
ry. Others
tory is hig
F
so be crea
nd level is
occur. For
e guest roo
of being
ways to so
y to work
ith buildin
aker than t
ous shear w
s can occu
gh compar
Figure (2.
ated when
open. Of
r example
oms.
cur, the fo
uniformly
olve the pr
k the arch
ng config
the floors
e level bec
wall discu
ur when al
red with th
14) Soft f
n there is h
f course, th
e, a hotel m
orces and
y distribut
roblem of
hitectural
guration is
above. Al
cause this
ssed in the
ll columns
he other f

first storie
heavy ext
here are u
may need
deformat
ted among
f a soft sto
solution a
s the soft
lthough a
is where
e previous
s do not e
floors of th
s
sually val
a high fir
tions are
g all the f
ory. The f
around th
t story. Th
soft story
the lateral
s section i
extend to t
he structu
dding abov
lid reasons
rst story, b
concentra
floors and
first, of co
he extra co
39
his occurs
can occur
s a specia
the ground
ure (Figure
ve the firs
s for all of
but shorter
ated at the
d structura
ourse, is to
olumns or
9
s
r
e
l
d
e
t
f
r
e
l
o
r
40

lower height. If height is critical, extra columns can be added at the first floor. Another
solution is to add extra horizontal and diagonal bracing. Finally, the framing of the
upper stories can be made the same as the first story. The entire structure then has a
uniform stiffness. Lighter, intermediate floors can be added above the first between
the larger bays so they do not aspect the behavior of the primary structural system.

Lightweight Construction:

The greater the structural mass, the greater the seismic forces. In contrast to wind
design, seismic design calls for lighter construction with a high strength-to-weight
ratio to minimize the internal forces.

Ductility:
The ductility of the structure can be considered as a measure of its ability to sustain
large deformations without endangering its load-carrying capacity. Therefore, in
addition to seismic strength, the ductility of the structure should be given serious
consideration.
The required ductility can be achieved by proper choice of framing and
connection details.
Ductility is improved by limiting the ratio of reinforcement on the tension
side of beams.
Using compression reinforcement in beams enhances ductility.
Using adequate shear reinforcement enhances ductility.
Provision of spiral reinforcement or closely spaced ties improved ductility.

Differential settlement of buildings is to be minimized through proper design of
footings. Earthquake oscillations can cause liquefaction of loose soils, resulting in an
uneven settlement. Stabilization of the soil prior to building construction and the use
of deep footings are some remedial measures needed to overcome such a problem.
Short Co
Frequentl
in design,
due to the
Even if ve
collapses
concept; e
following

Separatio
The mutu
caused sig
sufficient

Joints an
J oints are
strong ho
concrete f

olumn Eff
y a colum
, such as
e short len
ery strong
have been
eliminatin
g relation V
on of Stru
ual hamme
gnificant
clearance
nd Connec
e often th
orizontal c
frames are
fects:
mn is short
the partia
ngth of the
g stirrups a
n frequent
ng such pa
V =2 M (p
Figure (2.
uctures:
ering rece
damage. T
e so that th
ctions:
he weakes
confining
e often res

ened by el
al-height i
e column
are used it
t. The onl
rtial heigh
plastic) / L
.15): Failu
eived by b
The simpl
he free mo
reinforcem
ponsible f
lements, w
infill walls
when subj
t is difficu
ly possibl
hts of infil
L (Figure
ure due to
buildings
lest metho
otion of th
a structur
ment with
for collaps
which hav
s. This cr
bjected to v
ult to save
e solution
ll walls. T
2.15).

short colu
in close p
od of prev
e two stru
ral system
hin the joi
ses in eart
ve not been
eates very
very large
such colu
n is to use
he shear f
umn effect
proximity
venting da
uctures can
m. It is ne
int zone. J
hquakes.
n taken int
y large sh
e bending
umns, ther
e different
force is giv
t
of one an
amage is t
n occur.
ecessary t
J oints in
41
to accoun
hear forces
moments
efore such
t structura
ven by the
nother has
to provide
to provide
reinforced
1
t
s
.
h
l
e
s
e
e
d
42

To enhance shear capacity one should first use suitable amount of stirrups and ties to
prevent the brittle type of failure associated with shear. Diagonal reinforcement is
recommended for deep members to resist diagonal tension.

Materials and Workmanship:
It is obvious that no design can save the structure if bad materials are used or if
workmanship is not good. The best available quality design codes are deemed useless
unless quality control is kept starting from the design process and ending up with the
site execution.

Bond, Anchorage, and Splices:
Bond, when effectively developed, enables the concrete and reinforcement to form a
composite structure. If the area of concrete surrounding the bar is small, splitting is the
common mode of failure. One should avoid splices and anchorage at the location
where the surrounding concrete is extensively cracked (i.e., plastic hinges).

Detailing of Structural Elements:
Closely spaced stirrups and ties are used in columns and walls, to hold the
reinforcement in place and to prevent buckling of longitudinal bars. Closely spaced
stirrups and ties are used in potential hinge regions of beams, to ensure strength
column joints in ductile frames to maintain the integrity of the joints during adjacent
beam hinge plastic deformation is required.

Detailing of Non-Structural Elements:
The tendency of non-structural elements to be damaged, as the building sways need to
be addressed. To overcome such problems, either separation is kept between structural
and non-structural members, or the forces resulting from the attachment of structural
elements need to be taken into consideration.
The Effec
When an
the inertia
the groun
the buildi
opposite d
vibrate ba

Theoretic
states that
by the giv
acting on
the structu
If a buildi
from side
one full s
of the bui
ct of Eart
earthquak
a of the st
nd causes t
ing and a
direction.
ack and fo
Fi
ally, the f
t force eq
ven earth
it. Howev
ure- its na
ing is defl
to side. T
ide-to-sid
lding.
thquakes
ke occurs,
tructure m
the buildin
shear forc
As the dir
rth.
igure (2.16
force on t
quals mass
quake, the
ver, the ac
atural perio
lected by a
The period
e oscillati
on Buildi
the first re
mass. Almo
ng to mov
ce at the b
rection of
6): Buildin
the buildin
s times ac
e greater
cceleration
od (Figure
a lateral fo
d is the tim
on. The p
ings
esponse o
ost instant
ve sideway
base, as th
f the accel
ng motion
ng can be
cceleration
the mass
n of the bu
e 2.16).
orce such
me in seco
period is d
of a buildin
taneously,
ys at the b
hough forc
eration ch
n during an
found by
n. Since th
of the bu
uilding de
as the win
onds it tak
dependent
ng is not to
however,
base causi
ces were b
hanges, the

n earthqua
y using Ne
he acceler
uilding, th
epends on
nd or an e
kes for a b
on the ma
to move at
, the accel
ing a later
being app
e building
ake
ewtons la
ration is e
he greater
another p
earthquake
building to
ass and th
43
t all due to
leration of
lied in the
g begins to
aw, which
established
r the force
property of
e, it moves
o complete
he stiffness
3
o
f
n
e
o
h
d
e
f
s
e
s
In a theor
is zero. Th
When the
accelerati
force on t
induced, a
Natural p
cabinet to

retical, com
he acceler
e building
on decrea
the buildin
and stiff, s
periods va
mpletely s
ration of s
g is mor
ases. As m
ng. Theref
short-perio
ary from a
1 sec. for a
Fig
stiff buildi
such an in
e flexible
mentioned
fore, flexib
od buildin
a one-story
gure (2.18
ing, there
nfinitely ri
e, its per
above, as
ble, long-
ngs have m
5 sec. for
y building
8): Fundam
is no mov
gid buildi
riod incre
the accele
period bu
more latera
r a piece
g.
ments perio
vement, an
ng is the s
ases and
eration de
ildings ha
al force ind
of furnitu
ods
nd the natu
same as th
the corr
ecreases, s
ave less la
nduced.
ure such a

44
ural period
he ground
responding
o does the
teral force
as a filing

4
d
d.
g
e
e
g
45

A rule of thumb is that the building period equals the number of stories divided by 10.
As the building moves, the forces applied to it are either transmitted through the
structure to the foundation, absorbed by the building components, or released in other
ways such as collapse of structural elements.
The goal of seismic design is to build a structure that can safely transfer the loads to
the foundation and back to the ground and absorb some of the energy present rather
than suffering damage.
The ability of a structure to absorb some of the energy is known as ductility, which
occurs when the building deflects in the inelastic range without failing or collapsing.
The elastic limit is the limit beyond which the structure sustains permanent
deformation. The greater the ductility of a building, the greater is its capacity to absorb
energy.
Ductility varies with the material. Steel is a very ductile material because of its ability
to deform under a load above the elastic limit without collapsing. Concrete and
masonry, on the other hand, are brittle materials. When they are stressed beyond the
elastic limit, they break suddenly and without warning. Concrete can be made more
ductile with reinforcement, but at a higher cost.

Resonance
The ground vibrates at its natural period. The natural period of ground varies from
about 0.4 sec. to 2 sec. depending generally on the hardness of the ground.
The terrible destruction in Mexico City in the earthquake of 1985 was primarily the
result of response amplification caused by the coincidence of building and ground
motion periods. Mexico City was some 400 km from the earthquake focus, and the
earthquake caused the soft ground under downtown buildings to vibrate for over 90
seconds at its long natural period of around 2 seconds. This caused tall buildings
around 20 stories tall to resonate at a similar period, greatly increasing the
accelerations within them. This amplification in building vibration is undesirable. The
possibility of it happening can be reduced by trying to ensure that the building period
46

will not coincide with that of the ground. Other buildings, of different heights and with
different vibrational characteristics, were often found undamaged even though they
were located right next to the damaged 20 story buildings. Thus, on soft (long period)
ground, it would be best to design a short stiff (short period) building.

General Goals in Seismic-Resistant Design and Construction
If basic, well-understood principles are ignored and short cuts taken, disaster can
occur.
Many tall buildings that survived major earthquakes show that adherence to these
principles can produce structures out of which people can be sure of walking alive,
even if some structural damage has occurred.

The philosophy of earthquake design for structures other than essential facilities has
been well established and proposed as follows.
To prevent non-structural damage in frequent minor ground shaking.
To prevent structural damage and minimize non-structural damage in occasional
moderate ground shaking.
To avoid collapse or serious damage in rare major ground shaking.

Structura
The Unifo
structural
1- Be
2- Bu
3- Mo
4- Du

1- Bearin
wall lines
used to re
not contai
support fl

2- Buildin
vertical lo
building f
3- Momen
frame thro
frame elem
al System
form Build
systems:
aring Wa
uilding Fr
oment Re
ual System
g wall sys
s and at in
esist latera
in comple
loor and ro
ng frame
frame syst
nt-resistin
oughout th
ments to r
Ear
ms Defined
ding Code

all System
ame Syste
esisting Fr
ms
stems con
nterior loc
al forces a
te vertical
oof vertica
systems u
use either
tem with s
Figu
ng frame s
he buildin
resist later
rthquake
d:
e (UBC)
ms
ems
rame Syst
nsist of ve
ations as n
and are th
use a com
r shear w
shear walls
ure (2.19)
ystems, sh
ng to carry
ral forces.
e-Resista
earthquak
tems
necessary
hen called
rying spac
mplete thre
walls or br
s is shown
Building
hown in F
y vertical l
ant Syst
ke provisio
d carrying
y. Many of
d shear wa
ce frames b
ee dimens
raced fram
n in Figure
Frame Sy
Figure (2.2
ems
ons recog
g walls loc
f these be
alls. Bearin
but may u
ional spac
mes to resi
e (2.19).
stem
20), provid
they use
gnize these
cated alon
earing wal
ing wall s
use some c
ce frame t
ist lateral
de a comp
some of th
47
e building
ng exterior
ls are also
ystems do
columns to
to suppor
forces. A
plete space
hose same
7
g
r
o
o
o
rt
A
e
e
4. A dua
provides
specially
moment-r
shear, an
proportion
This syste
buildings

Lateral-F
Lateral-fo
wind and
walls, bra

Shear Wa
A shear w
wall throu
foundatio
(2.21) sho
another in
al system
support f
detailed
resisting f
nd the tw
n to their r
em, which
where per
Force-Res
orce-resist
d seismic
aced frame
alls:
wall is a ve
ugh shear
n, and, ju
ows two e
n a multist
Figure (2
is a stru
for gravity
moment-r
frame mus
wo system
relative rig
h provide
rimeter fra
sisting Ele
ting eleme
forces. T
es, and mo
ertical stru
r and bend
st as with
examples
tory buildi
2.20): Mo
uctural sy
resisting f
st be capa
ms must b
gidities.
es good re
ames are u
ements
ents must b
he three
oment- res
uctural ele
ding. Such
a beam, p
of a shea
ing.
oment resis

ystem in w
and resista
frame and
able of re
be designe
edundancy
used in co
be provide
principal
sisting fram
ement that
h a wall a
part of its
ar wall, on

sting fram
which an
ance to la
d shear w
sisting at
ed to res
y, is suita
onjunction
ed in ever
types of
mes.
resists lat
acts as a b
strength d
ne in a si
me system
essential
walls or b
least 25 p
sist the to
able for m
with cent
ry structur
resisting
teral force
beam cant
derives fro
imple one
lly compl
ds is prov
braced fra
percent o
otal latera
medium-to
tral shear w
re to brace
elements
es in the pl
ntilevered
om its dep
e-story bui
48
lete frame
vided by a
ames. The
f the base
o-high rise
wall core.
e it agains
are shear
lane of the
out of the
pth. Figure
ilding and
8
e
a
e
e
n
e

t
r
e
e
e
d
49

Figure (2.21): Shear walls
In Figure (2.21.a), the shear walls are oriented in one direction, so only lateral forces
in this direction can be resisted. The roof serves as the horizontal diaphragm and must
also be designed to resist the lateral loads and transfer them to the shear walls. Figure
(2.21.a) also shows an important aspect of shear walls in particular and vertical
elements in general. This is the aspect of symmetry that has a bearing on whether
torsional effects will be produced. The shear walls in Fig. (2.21.a) are symmetrical in

Figure (2.21.b) illustrates a common use of shear walls at the interior of a multistory
building. Because walls enclosing stairways, elevator shafts, and mechanical shafts are
mostly solid and run the entire height of the building, they are often used for shear
walls. Although not as efficient from a strictly structural point of view, interior shear
walls do leave the exterior of the building open for windows. Notice that in Figure
(2.21.b) there are shear walls in both directions, which is a more realistic situation
because both wind and earthquake forces need to be resisted in both directions. In this
diagram, the two shear walls are symmetrical in one direction, but the single shear
wall produces a nonsymmetrical condition in the other since it is off center. Shear
walls do n
torsional e

Shear wal
high.
Shear wa
their abili

What is a

Reinforce
Walls (Fi
start at fo
thickness
walls are
like verti
foundatio

Properly
performan
not need t
effects.
lls, when
lls may h
ity to resis
a Shear W
ed concret
igure 2.22
foundation
can be as
usually p
cally-orien
n.
ges and D
designed
nce in pas
to be symm
used alon
have openi
st lateral lo
Wall Build
te buildin
n level an
s low as 1
provided a
nted wide
Figure (
and deta
t earthqua
metrical in
ne, are suit
ings in th
ding?
ngs often
tion to sla
nd are con
50mm, or
along both
e beams t
2.22): Rei
ages of Sh
ailed build
akes.
n a buildi
table for m
hem, but t
duced dep
have vert
abs, beam
ntinuous t
r as high a
h length an
that carry

inforced c
hear Wall
dings with
ng, but sy
medium r
the calcula
ending on
tical plate
ms and col
throughou
as 400mm
nd width
y earthqua
concrete sh
ls in Rein
h shear w
ymmetry i
ise buildin
ations are
n the perce
e-like RC
umns. Th
ut the bui
m in high r
of buildin

hear wall
nforced Co
walls have
is preferre
ngs up to
e more dif
entage of o
walls cal
hese walls
ilding heig
rise buildin
ngs. Shear
downwar
oncrete B
e shown v
50
d to avoid
20 stories
fficult and
open area.
lled Shear
generally
ght. Their
ngs. Shear
r walls are
rds to the
Buildings:
very good
0
d
s
d
.
r
y
r
r
e
e
:
d
51

Shear walls in high seismic regions require special detailing. However, in past
earthquakes, even buildings with sufficient amount of walls that were not specially
detailed for seismic performance (but had enough well-distributed reinforcement)
were saved from collapse. Shear wall buildings are a popular choice in many
earthquake prone countries, like Chile, New Zealand and USA. Shear walls are easy to
construct, because reinforcement detailing of walls is relatively straightforward and
therefore easily implemented at site. Shear walls are efficient, both in terms of
construction cost and effectiveness in minimizing earthquake damage in structural and
nonstructural elements (like glass windows and building contents).
On the other hand, shear walls present barriers, which may interfere with architectural
and services requirement. Added to this, lateral load resistance in shear wall buildings
is usually concentrated on a few walls rather than on large number of columns.

Architectural Aspects of Shear Walls:
Most RC buildings with shear walls also have columns; these columns primarily carry
gravity loads (i.e., those due to self-weight and contents of building). Shear walls
provide large strength and stiffness to buildings in the direction of their orientation,
which significantly reduces lateral sway of the building and thereby reduces damage
to the structure and its contents.
Since shear walls carry large horizontal earthquake forces, the overturning effects on
them are large. Thus, design of their foundations requires special attention. Shear
walls should be provided along preferably both length and width. However, if they are
provided along only one direction, a proper grid of beams and columns in the vertical
plane (called a moment-resistant frame) must be provided along the other direction to
resist strong earthquake effects.
Door or window openings can be provided in shear walls, but their size must be small
to ensure least interruption to force flow through walls. Moreover, openings should be
symmetrically located. Special design checks are required to ensure that the net cross-
sectional
force.
Shear wal
twist in bu
directions
perimeter

Ductile D
J ust like r
perform m
wall, type
the buildin

Overall G
Shear wal
much larg
shaped se
shafts aro
area of a
lls in build
uildings (F
s in plan
r of the bu
Design of S
reinforced
much bett
es and am
ng help in
Geometry
lls are rec
ger than t
ections are
ound the e
vantage of
wall at an
dings mus
Figure 2.2
. Shear w
ildingsuc
F
Shear Wa
d concrete
ter if desig
mount of re
n improvin
y of Walls
tangular i
the other.
e also use
elevator c
to resist e
n opening
st be symm
23). They c
walls are
ch a layou
Figure (2.2
alls:
beams an
gned to b
einforcem
ng the duc
:
n cross-se
While re
ed (Figure
core of bu
earthquake
g is suffici
metrically
could be p
more ef
ut increase
23): Shear
nd column
be ductile.
ment, and c
ctility of w
ection, i.e.
ectangular
e 2.24). Th
uildings a
e forces.
ient to car
y located i
placed sym
ffective w
es resistanc
wall layo
ns, reinfor
Overall
connection
walls.
., one dim
r cross-sec
hin-walled
also act as
rry the ho
n plan to
mmetricall
when loca
ce of the b

ut
ced concr
geometric
n with rem
mension of
ction is co
d hollow
s shear w
orizontal e
reduce ill
ly along o
ated along
building to
rete shear
c proportio
maining el
f the cross
ommon, L
reinforced
walls, and
52
earthquake
effects of
one or both
g exterior
o twisting
walls also
ons of the
lements in
-section is
L- and U-
d concrete
should be
2
e
f
h
r
.
o
e
n
s
-
e
e

Braced F
A braced
lateral for
the brace
forces fro
one-story
other end
uses com
compressi

Figure 2.2
compressi
from eith
same resu
direction.
Braced fr
placed in
problems
resisting s

Frames:
frame is
rces are re
d frame d
om each b
braced fr
d only one
mpression b
ion, depen
25.b) show
ion memb
her directio
ult, but the
raming ca
one struc
for windo
system.
Fig
a truss s
esisted thr
depends o
building el
frame. At
e bay is b
braces be
nding on w
ws two me
ber in one
on. Altern
ey must be
n be plac
ctural bay
ows and d
gure (2.24)
system of
rough axia
on diagon
lement to
one end o
braced. Th
cause the
which way
ethods of
e bay can
nately, ten
e run both
ed on the
or several
doorways,
): Shear w
f the conc
al stresses
nal membe
the found
of the bui
his buildin
e diagonal
y the force
bracing a
n be used
nsion diag
ways to a
e exterior
l. Obviou
, but it is
wall geome
centric or
s in the m
ers to pro
dation. Fig
ilding two
ng is only
l member
e is applied
multistor
to brace
gonals can
account fo
or interio
sly, a brac
a very ef

etry
eccentric
members. J
ovide a lo
gure (2.25
o bays are
braced in
may be e
d.
y building
against la
n be used
or of a bu
ced frame
fficient and
c type in
J ust as wi
5.a) shows
e braced a
n one dire
either in
g. A single
d to accom
coming fr
uilding, an
e can pres
d rigid lat
53
which the
ith a truss
for latera
s a simple
and at the
ection and
tension or
e diagona
ds coming
mplish the
from either
nd may be
ent design
teral force
3
e
,
l
e
e
d
r
l
g
e
r
e
n
e
j

Moment-
Moment-r
joints. J oi
and theref
and beam
The UBC
is the spe
ductile be
The secon
with less
intermedi
The third
frame doe
concrete f
Moment-r
frames; th
become m
other, and
which inc
Two type
-Resisting
resisting f
ints are de
fore any l
ms. They ar
C differenti
ecial mom
ehavior an
nd type is
restrictiv
ate frames
type is th
es not mee
frames can
resisting
he horizon
more prob
d special
creases the
s of mome
g Frames:
frames car
esigned an
lateral def
re used in
iates betw
ment-resist
d comply
the interm
ve require
s cannot b
e ordinary
et the spe
nnot be us
frames ar
ntal deflec
blematic.
attention
e column b
ent-resisti
Figure (2
:
rry lateral
nd constru
flection of
low-to-m
ween three
ting frame
with the p
mediate mo
ements tha
be used in
y moment-
cial detail
sed in zone
re more
ction, or d
must be
bending st
ng frames
2.25) Brac
ucted so t
f the fram
medium rise
types of m
e that mu
provisions
oment-res
an specia
seismic zo
-resisting
ling requir
es 3 or 4.
flexible t
drift, is gre
buildings
paid to th
tresses.
s are show

ed frames
imarily by
they are th
me occurs f
e building
moment re
ust be spe
s of the UB
sisting fram
l moment
ones 3 or
frame. Th
rements fo
than shea
eater, and
s cannot b
he eccentr
wn in Figur

y flexure i
heoreticall
from the b
gs.
esisting fra
ecifically
BC.
me, which
t-resisting
4.
his concret
for ductile
ar wall st
thus non-
be located
ricity dev
re (2.26)
in the mem
ly comple
bending o
rames. The
detailed t
h is a conc
g frames.
te momen
behavior
tructures
-structura
d too clos
veloped in
54
mbers and
etely rigid
of columns
e first type
to provide
rete frame
However
nt-resisting
. Ordinary
or braced
l elements
se to each
n columns
4
d
d,
s
e
e
e
r,
g
y
d
s
h
,

- Pro
whi
ext
- The
from
- Poo
cata
fail
- Bea
con
- Req

Horizont
In all late
the vertic
most com
A diaphra
There are
ges:
ovide a po
ich can a
eir flexibi
m the forc
ntages:
orly desi
astrophica
lures aroun
am colum
nsiderable
quires goo
tal Elemen
eral force-
cal resistin
mmon way
agm acts a
two types
Figur
otentially
allow free
dding.
ility and a
cing motio
gned mo
ally in ea
nd beam-c
mn joints re
skill to de
od fixing s
nts (Diaph
resisting s
ng elemen
used is th
as a horizo
s of diaphr
re (2.26) M
high-duct
edom in
associated
ons on stif
oment res
arthquakes
column jo
epresent a
esign succ
skills and c
hragms):
systems, t
nts. This i
he diaphra
ontal beam
ragms: fle
Moment r
tile system
architectu
d long per
ff soil or ro
sisting fr
s, mainly
oints.
an area of
cessfully.
concreting

there must
s done wi
agm.
m resisting
exible and

esisting fr
m with a
ural plann
riod may
ock sites.
rames ha
y by form
high stres
g.
t be a way
ith severa
forces wi
d rigid.
rames
good deg
ning of in
serve to d
ave been
mation of
ss concent
y to transm
al types of
ith shear a
gree of re
nternal sp
detune the
observed
f weak st
tration, wh
mit latera
f structure
and bendin
55
dundancy
paces and
e structure
d to fai
tories and
hich needs
l forces to
es, but the
ng action.
5
y,
d
e
l
d
s
o
e
Although
between t
distributed
A flexible
times the
comparing
distributed
With a r
vertical el
(assuming
diagram a
to each e
between t
The illust
However,
unequal.
Concrete
deck cons
of their co

no horiz
the two ty
d.
e diaphrag
average
g the midp
vertical re
d accordin
rigid diaph
lements w
g there is
are twice a
end wall a
these two.
tration sho
, if the ve
floors are
struction.
onstruction
ontal elem
ypes beca
gm is one
story drif
point in-p
esisting el
ng to tribu
hragm, th
will be in p
s no torsio
as stiff as
and one-th
ows symm
ertical res
e consider
Steel deck
n. Wood d
Figure
ment is co
ause the ty
e that has
ft of that
lane defle
lements un
utary areas
he shear f
proportion
on), as sh
the interio
hird to th
metrically
sisting ele
red rigid d
ks may be
decks are c
e (2.27) Di
ompletely
ype affect
a maximu
story. Th
ection of th
nder equiv
s as shown
forces tra
n to the re
hown in F
or walls, t
he two int
placed sh
ements are
diaphragm
e either fle
considere
iaphragm
y flexible
ts the way
um lateral
his deform
he diaphra
valent trib
n in Figure
ansmitted
lative stiff
Fig, (2.27
then one-t
terior wal
hear walls
e asymme
ms, as are
exible or ri
d flexible

or rigid,
y in whic
l deforma
mation can
agm with t
e (2.27.a).
from the
ffness of th
7.b). If th
third of th
lls, which
, so the d
etric, the
steel and
igid, depe
diaphragm
ibution
distinction
ch lateral
ation more
n be deter
the story d
d. The late
.
e diaphrag
he vertica
he end wa
h is equall
distribution
shearing
concrete
ending on
ms.
56
forces are
e than two
rmined by
drift of the
gm to the
l elements
alls in the
distributed
ly divided
n is equal
forces are
composite
the details
6
e
e
o
y
e
s
e
s
e
d
d
.
e
e
s
57

The structure shall contain one complete load path for Life Safety for seismic force
effects from any horizontal direction that serves to transfer the inertial forces from the
mass to the foundation.

There must be a complete lateral-force-resisting system that forms a continuous load
path between the foundation, all diaphragm levels, and all portions of the building for
proper seismic performance.

The general load path is as follows: seismic forces originating throughout the building
are delivered through structural connections to horizontal diaphragms; the diaphragms
distribute these forces to vertical lateral-force-resisting elements such as shear walls
and frames; the vertical elements transfer the forces into the foundation; and the
foundation transfers the forces into the supporting soil.

If there is a discontinuity in the load path, the building is unable to resist seismic
forces regardless of the strength of the existing elements. Mitigation with elements or
connections needed to complete the load path is necessary to achieve the selected
performance level. The design professional should be watchful for gaps in the load
path. Examples would include a shear wall that does not extend to the foundation, a
missing shear transfer connection between a diaphragm and vertical element, a
discontinuous chord at a diaphragm notch, or a missing collector.

In cases where there is a structural discontinuity, a load path may exist but it may be a
very undesirable one. At a discontinuous shear walls, for example, the diaphragm may
transfer the forces to frames not intended to be part of the lateral-force-resisting
system. While not ideal, it may be possible to show that the load path is acceptable.

Within every building, there are multiple elements that are used to transmit and resist
lateral forces. These transmitting and resisting elements define the buildings lateral-
and conne
An appre
everyone
resist eart

There are
such as sh
horizontal

The roof a
force-tran
stories at
immediate
method of
depends o

Shear wa
perform f
an upper-
therefore
a shear w
elements t

. This path
ection, to t
eciation of
involved
thquakes.
two orien
hear walls
l, such as
and floor
nsmitting o
and abo
ely below
f distribut
on that cla
alls and fr
force-trans
-story inte
must tran
wall, forces
that partic
Fi
h extends
the founda
f the criti
in the de
ntations of
s, braced f
the roof, f
elements
or force-d
ve their l
w. Diaphra
ting earthq
assification
rames are
smitting fu
erior shear
nsmit its fo
s are trans
cipate in th
igure (2.2
from the u
ation.
ical impor
esign, cons
f primary
frames, an
floors, and
are known
distributing
level and
agms are
quake forc
n. Concre
primarily
unctions. F
r wall ma
orces to a
smitted in
he earthqu
8): Primar
uppermos
rtance of
struction,
elements
nd momen
d foundati
n as diaph
g element
deliver t
classified
ces from t
ete diaphra
y lateral f
For examp
ay not con
floor diap
nto a found
ry structur
t roof or p
a comple
and inspe
nt frames,
ion.
hragms. D
ts that tak
them to w
d as eithe
the diaphr
agms are c
force- res
ple and wh
ntinue to
phragm. A
dation ele
path are sh
parapet, th
ection of
d path: tho
and those
Diaphragm
ke horizon
walls or f
er flexible
agm to th
considered
isting elem
hile not ne
the base o
Also, at the
ement. The
hown in F

ath elemen
hrough eac
path is ess
buildings
ose that ar
e that are e
ms serve pr
ntal forces
frames in
e or rigid
he resisting
d rigid.
ments but
ecessarily
of the bui
e base of a
e primary
Figure (2.2
nts
58
ch elemen
sential for
that mus
re vertical
essentially
rimarily as
s from the
the story
d, and the
g elements
t can also
desirable
ilding and
a frame or
y structura
28).
8
t
r
t
,
y
s
e
y
e
s
o
,
d
r
l

Foundatio
transmitti
of friction
of soil in w
Foundatio
forces fro

Secondar
Within th
needed to
forces ar
between h
Two impo
member a
forces. A
walls or fr

In the cas
because th
perimeter
ons form
ng it to th
nal resista
which the
ons must
om shear w
he primar
o resist sp
e transmi
horizontal
ortant sec
along the
collector
frames. Fig
Figu
se of floor
hey form
r is typic
the final
he ground
ance along
ey are emb
also supp
walls and f
Path Elem
pecific for
itted. Par
seismic e
ondary el
e boundary
is a struc
gure (2.29
ure (2.29):
rs and roof
the interfa
ally the
d. Foundat
g their low
bedded.
frame colu
ments:
ath eleme
rces or to
ticular at
elements (d
ements ar
y of a di
ctural mem
9) depicts t
: Function
fs, the per
face betwe
location f
tions resis
wer surfac
tional vert
umns.
ents, ther
provide
ttention m
diaphragm
re chords
iaphragm
mber that
the overal
n of diagra
rimeter ed
een the dia
for vertic
path by co
st lateral f
e and late
re are ind
specific p
must be g
ms) and ve
and colle
that resis
transmits
ll function
am chords
dges or bou
aphragms
cal seismi
ollecting
forces thro
eral bearin
s caused
dividual s
pathways a
given to
ertical seis
ctors. A c
sts tension
diaphragm
n of chords

and collec
undaries a
and the p
ic elemen
the base
ough a co
ng against
by the ov
secondary
along wh
transmitti
smic elem
chord is a
n and co
gm forces
s and colle
ctors
are critical
perimeter w
nts, althou
59
shear and
ombination
t the depth
verturning
elements
ich latera
ing forces
ents.
structura
mpression
into shear
ectors.
l locations
walls. The
ugh many
9
d
n
h
g
s
l
s
l
n
r
s
e
y
buildings
resistance
Boundary
depending
As shown
tend to be
and comp
greatest b
vertical re
which the
side is in
forces re
compressi

In concret
plane ben
frame in
diaphragm
walls are
frames ar
boundary

also hav
e also crea
y element
g on the ax
n in Figur
end the di
pression. S
bending str
esisting s
e forces ar
tension. T
everse. Th
ion.
te walls, r
nding in t
the story
m boundar
often inte
re normal
.
Figure
e shear w
ates a diaph
ts in diap
xis along w
re (2.30), t
iaphragm
Similar to
ress and l
eismic ele
re being a
These tens
herefore,
reinforcing
the wall. C
y immedia
ry (See Fig
errupted b
lly located
e (2.30): U
walls or fr
hragm bou
phragms u
which late
the forces
and the c
o a uniform
argest def
ements. T
applied is
sion and c
each cho
g steel is p
Collectors
ately belo
gure 3.12)
y opening
d in only
Use of coll
frames at
undary.
usually s
s acting pe
chord mem
flection at
The chord
in compr
compressi
ord must
placed at t
s are need
ow the di
). This is a
gs for win
y a few o
lector elem
interior lo
serve as b
are consid
erpendicu
mber must
ed beam,
t or near th
d on the s
ression, an
on forces
be desig
the diaphra
ded when
aphragm
a very com
ndows and
of the fram
ment at int
ocations.
both chor
dered to b
ular to the
t resist the
a diaphrag
he center
side of th
nd the cho
reverse w
gned for
agm level
an indiv
is not co
mmon situ
d doors, an
me bays

terior shea
An interi
rds and
e applied.
boundary
e associate
gm exper
of its span
he diaphra
ord on the
when the e
both ten
l to resist t
vidual shea
ontinuous
uation bec
nd becaus
along a d
ar wall
60
ior line of
collectors

y elements
ed tension
riences the
n between
agm along
e opposite
earthquake
nsion and
the out-of-
ar wall or
along the
ause shear
e resisting
diaphragm
0
f
,
s
n
e
n
g
e
e
d
f-
r
e
r
g
m
61

The following statements contained in the 1997 UBC clearly require that a complete
load path be provided throughout a building to resist lateral forces. All parts of a
structure shall be interconnected and connections shall be capable of transmitting the
seismic force induced by the parts being connected.
Any system or method of construction shall be based on a rational analysis... Such
analysis shall result in a system that provides a complete load path capable of
transferring all loads and forces from their point of origin to the load-resisting
elements.

To fulfill these requirements, connections must be provided between every element in
the load path. When a building is shaken by an earthquake, every connection in the
lateral-force load path is tested. If one or more connections fail because they were not
force, which may cause them to become overstressed and to fail. If this progression of
individual connection failures continues, it can result in the failure of a complete
resisting seismic element and, potentially, the entire lateral-force-resisting system.
Consequently, connections are essential for providing adequate resistance to
earthquakes and must be given special attention by both designers and inspectors.

Connections are details of construction that perform the work of force transfer
between the individual primary and secondary structural elements discussed above.
They include a vast array of materials, products, and methods of construction.

In concrete construction, diaphragm-reinforcing steel resists forces in the diaphragm
and chord tension stresses, and reinforcing dowels are generally used to transfer forces
from the diaphragm boundaries to concrete walls or frames.

62

EVOLUTION OF UBC AND IBC STATIC LATERAL FORCE
PROCEDURE

Introduction:

A model building code is a document containing standardized building requirements
applicable throughout the United States. Model building codes set up minimum
requirements for building design and construction with a primary goal of assuring
public safety, and a secondary goal of minimizing property damage and maintaining
function during and following an earthquake. Since the risk of severe seismic ground
motion varies from place to place, seismic code provisions vary depending on
location.

The three model building codes in the United States were: the Uniform Building
Code (predominant in the west), the Standard Building Code (predominant in the
southeast), and the BOCA National Building Code (predominant in the northeast),
were initiated between 1927 and 1950.

The US Uniform Building Code was the most widely used seismic code in the world,
with its last edition published in 1997. Up to the year 2000, seismic design in the
United States has been based on one these three model building codes.
Representatives from the three model codes formed the International Code Council
(ICC) in 1994, and in April 2000, the ICC published the first edition of the
International Building Code, IBC-2000. In 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012 the second,
third, fourth and fifth editions of the IBC followed suit. The IBC was intended to, and
has been replacing the three independent codes throughout the United States.

Initiation of the Static Lateral Force Procedure:

The work done after the 1908 Reggio-Messina Earthquake in Sicily by a committee
of nine practicing engineers and five engineering professors appointed by the Italian
government may be the origin of the equivalent static lateral force method, in which a
seismic coefficient is applied to the mass of the structure, or various coefficients at
different levels, to produce the lateral force that is approximately equivalent in effect
to the dynamic loading of the expected earthquake. The J apanese engineer Toshikata
Sano independently developed in 1915 the idea of a lateral design force V
proportional to the buildings weight W. This relationship can be written as
W C F =
, where C is a lateral force coefficient, expressed as some percentage of
gravity. The first official implementation of Sanos criterion was the specification
C
= 10 percent of gravity, issued as a part of the 1924 J apanese Urban Building
Law Enforcement Regulations in response to the destruction caused by the great 1923

63

Kanto earthquake. In California, the Santa Barbara earthquake of 1925 motivated
several communities to adopt codes with
C
as high as 20 percent of gravity.

Evolution of the Equivalent Static Lateral Force Method:

The equivalent lateral seismic force on a structures V was firstly taken as a percentage
of the building weight, as stated above. Secondly it was based on the seismic zone
factor, building period, building weight and system type. Thirdly, it was based on site
specific ground motion maps, building period, importance factors, soil site factors
and building response modification factors, as shown in Table (1).
The first edition of the U.S. Uniform Building Code (UBC) was published in 1927 by
the Pacific Coast building Officials (PCBO), contained an optional seismic appendix,
also adopted Sanos criterion, allowing for variations in
C
depending on the region
and foundation material. For building foundations on soft soil in earthquake-prone
regions, the UBCs optional provisions corresponded to a lateral force coefficient
equal to the J apanese value. For buildings on hard ground, the lateral force coefficient
is 7.5 percent.
While not the most advanced analytical technique, the equivalent static lateral force
analysis method has been and will remain for some considerable time the most often
used lateral force analysis method.

The 1937 UBC stipulated a lateral force coefficient, which is dependent on soil

The 1943 UBC introduced a lateral force coefficient in terms of number of stories and
limited this number to 13. In subsequent code editions the equation was modified for
number of stories in excess of 13.

UBC 1949 edition contained the first USA seismic hazard map, which was published
in 1948 by US Coast and Geodetic Survey and was adopted in 1949 by UBC, as well
as subsequent editions until 1970.
The seismic design provisions remained in an appendix to the UBC until the
publication of the 1961 UBC.

The 1961 UBC Code introduced the use of four factors to categorize building system
types. The 1970 UBC used a zoning map which divided the United States into four
zones numbered 0 through 3. The 1973 UBC contained many modern enhancements
including the V = ZKCW equation for seismic design, which was revised in the
aftermath of San Fernando earthquake. Also, UBC 1973 introduced the impact of
irregular parameters in estimating the seismic force levels.

The concept of soil factor was first acknowledged by recognizing the importance of
local site effects in the 1976 edition of UBC. In addition to this, UBC 1976 Added
zone 4 to California, and included new seismic provisions especially those related to

64

the importance of local site effects. The lateral force structural factor,
w
R
was
increased to take advantage of ductility of lateral force resisting systems.

The 1985 UBC used a Z factor that was roughly indicative of the peak acceleration
on rock corresponding to a 475-year return period earthquake.

The 1988 UBC introduced the use of twenty- nine response modification factors plus
three additional for inverted pendulum systems. Also, the base shear equation was
changed from the 1985 UBC edition, and six seismic risk zones 0, 1, 2a, 2b, 3 and 4
are used.

Until 1997 edition of UBC, seismic provisions have been based on allowable stress
design. In UBC 1997 revised base shear and based it on ultimate strength design.
Added to this, a new set of seismic-zone dependent soil profile categories
A
S

through
F
S
, has been adopted and replaced the four site coefficients
1
S
to
4
S
of
the UBC 1994, which are independent of the level of ground shaking. Also, old
w
R

factor has been replaced by a new R factor, which is based on strength design, and
two new structural system classifications were introduced: cantilevered column
systems and shear wall-frame interaction systems.
Moreover, the 1997 edition of UBC included a reliability factor for redundant lateral
force systems, and the earthquake load (E) is a function of both the horizontal and
vertical components of the ground motion.

In response to an appeal for more unified design procedures across regional
boundaries, the International Building Code was developed and the first edition
introduced in 2000. Subsequent IBC code editions were introduced in 2003, 2006 and
2009. The 2000 IBC has established the concept of Seismic Design Category (SDC),
which is based on the location, the building use and the soil type, as the determinant
for seismic detailing requirement. One of the most significant improvements in the
2000 IBC over the 1997 UBC is the ground parameters used for seismic design. In
2000 IBC, the 1997 UBC seismic zones were replaced by contour maps giving MCE
spectral response accelerations at short period and 1-second for class B soil. The IBC
Code versions 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 reference to ASCE 7-05, contain up-to-date
seismic provisions, including eighty-three building system response modification
factors. The 2006 IBC and 2009 IBC reference ASCE 7-05 for virtually all of its
seismic design requirements.

65

Table (1): Development of seismic base shear formulas based on UBC and IBC
codes
UBC/IBC Code Editions Lateral Force Specific Notes
UBC 1927- UBC 1946
W C F

=

- Seismic design provisions included
in an appendix, for optional use.
- C , which is dependent on soil
bearing capacity, is in % of weight.
UBC 1949- UBC 1958
W C F =

- C is dependent on number of
stories.
- First USA seismic hazard map
included.
UBC 1961- UBC 1973
W C K Z V =

- Seismic design provisions moved
to the main body of the code.
- Seismic zones introduced.
- Lateral force system structural
factors included.
- Fundamental period of vibration
included.
UBC 1976- UBC 1979 W S C K I Z V = - Seismic zone 4 introduced.
- Soil profiles introduced.
- Building importance factors
included.
UBC 1982- UBC 1985 W S C K I Z V = - Soil profiles expanded.
UBC 1988- UBC 1994
w
R W C I Z V / = - Soil profiles expanded.
- Seismic zones modified.
UBC 1997 T R W I C V
v
/ = - Soil profiles expanded, and
dependent on soil dynamics.
- System redundancy factor
introduced.
introduced.
- Vertical component of ground
shaking included.
- Seismic provisions are based on
strength-level design.
IBC- 2000- IBC-2012 W C V
s
=
- Spectral accelerations introduced.
- Safety concept redefined.
- Seismic design categories, SDC
introduced.
- System response modification
factors expanded.

66

Seismic Code Provisions Are Based on Earthquake Historical Data:

The equations used to determine Seismic Design Forces throughout the United States
as well as the rest of the world are based on historical data that has been collected
during past earthquakes.
The 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake led to the first introduction of simple Newtonian
concepts in the 1927 Uniform Building Code. As the level of knowledge and data
collected increases, these equations are modified to better represent these forces.

In response to the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, a fourth soil profile type,
4
S
, for
very deep soft soils was added to the 1988 UBC, with the factor
4
S
equal to 2.0.
The heavily instrumented San Francisco (1989-Loma Prieta) and Las Angeles (1994-
Northridge) earthquakes increased this knowledge dramatically.

The 1994 Northridge Earthquake resulted in addition of near-fault factor to base shear
equation, and prohibition on highly irregular structures in near fault regions. Also,
redundancy factor added to design forces.

The 1997 UBC incorporated a number of important lessons learned from the 1994
Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquake, where four site coefficients use in the
earlier 1994 UBC has been extended to six soil profiles, which are determined by
shear wave velocity, standard penetration test, and undrained shear strength.

Safety Concepts:

Structures designed in accordance with the UBC provisions should generally be able
to:
1. Resist minor earthquakes without damage.
2. Resist moderate earthquakes without structural damage, but possibly some
nonstructural damage.
3. Resist major earthquakes without collapse, but possibly some structural and
nonstructural damage.

The code is intended to safeguard against major failures and loss of life; the
protection of property is not its purpose. While it is believed that the code provides
reasonably for protection of life, even that cannot be completely assured.
The UBC intended that structures be designed for life-safety in the event of an
earthquake with a 10-percent probability of being exceeded in 50 years (475-year
return period). The IBC intends design for collapse prevention in a much larger
earthquake, with a 2-percent probability of being exceeded in 50 years (2,475-year
return period).

67

Detailing Requirements of ACI 318-08:

Based on R1.1.1.9.1 of ACI 318-08, for UBC 1991 through 1997, Seismic Zones 0
and 1 are classified as classified as zones of low seismic risk. Thus, provisions of
chapters 1 through 19 and chapter 22 are considered sufficient for structures located
in these zones.
Seismic Zone 2 is classified as a zone of moderate seismic risk, and zones 3 and 4 are
classified as zones of high seismic risk. Structures located in these zones are to be
detailed as per chapter 21 of ACI 318-08 Code.

For Seismic Design Categories A and B of IBC 2000 through 2006, detailing is done
according to provisions of chapters 1 through 19 and chapter 22 of ACI 318-08.
Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F are detailed as per the provisions of chapter
21.

68

Earthquake Resistant Design According To 1994 UBC

The Static Lateral Force Procedure

Applicability:
The static lateral force procedure may be used for the following structures:

A. All structures, regular or irregular (see Tables 1.a and 1.b) in seismic zone no. 1 and in
standard occupancy- structures in seismic zone no. 2 (see Table 2 for zone
classification and Table 4 for occupancy factors).

B. Regular structures less than 73 m in height with lateral force resistance provided by
systems given in Tables 5.a and 5.b except for structures located in soil profile type S4
which have a period greater than 0.70 sec. (see Table 3 for soil profiles).

C. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 m in height.

D. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower portion where
both portions of the structure considered separately can be classified as being regular,
the average story stiffness of the lower portion is at least ten times the average
stiffness of the upper portion and the period of the entire structure is not greater than
1.10 times the period of the upper portion considered as a separate structure fixed at
the base.

Regular Structures:

Regular structures are structures having no significant physical discontinuities in plan or
vertical configuration or in their lateral force resisting.

Irregular Structures:

Irregular structures are structures having significant physical discontinuities in
configuration or in their lateral force resisting systems (See Table 1.a and 1.b for detailed
description of such structures).

The total design forces are calculated from the following cases of loading.

) ( 4 . 1 E L D U + = (1)

E D U 4 . 1 9 . 0 = (2)
Where

69

U =Ultimate design force

Concept of Method:

The 1994 UBC equivalent static method considers only horizontal movement and
neglects effects of vertical ground movement.

Statically models the inertial effects using Newtons 2
nd
Law of Motion given by
Eqn. (3).

a M F = (3)
Where
F =resulting force on structure
M =building mass
a =acceleration of ground

but
g
W
M = and Eqn. (3) can be written as

=
g
a
W F (4)

Minimum Design Lateral Forces:

The design seismic forces may be assumed to act non-concurrently in the direction of
each principal axis of the structure.

The total design base shear in a given direction is to be determined from the following
Eqn.

w
R
W C I Z
V = (5)
Where

V =total seismic lateral force at the base of the structure

- In storage and warehouse occupancies, a minimum of 25 % of floor live load is to
be considered.

70

-
Total weight of permanent equipment is to be included.

-
Where a partition load is used in floor design, a load of not less than 50 kg/m
2
to be
included.

w
R
C I Z
=seismic base shear coefficient, somewhat equivalent to g a / but accounts
for additional factors that affect building response like: underlying soil, the
structural configuration, the type of structure and occupancy of the building.

Z =seismic zone factor given in Table (2) and is related to the seismicity of the zone.
It is the effective peak ground acceleration with 10 % probability of being
exceeded in 50 years.

I =Building importance factor given in Table (4), which accounts for building use
and importance

w
R
=structural factor, accounting for building ductility and damping, given in Tables
(5.a) and (5.b). A larger
w
R value means a better seismic performance.

C
=dynamic response value, and accounts for how the building and soil can amplify the
basic ground acceleration

( )
w
R C
T
S
C 075 . 0 75 . 2
25 . 1
3 / 2
= (6)
S
=site Coefficient depending on the soil characteristics given in Table (4.3).
T
= structural fundamental period in seconds in the direction under consideration
evaluated from the following equations.

For moment-resisting frames,
( )
4 / 3
073 . 0
n
h T = (7)

For shear walls,
( )
c
n
A
h
T
4 / 3
0743 . 0 = (8)
For other buildings,

( )
4 / 3
048 . 0
n
h T = (9)

Where

n
h =total height of building in meters

71

c
A =effective cross-sectional area of shear walls

+ =

2
2 . 0
n
e
i c
h
D
A A 9 . 0 /
n e
h D (10)
i
A =cross-sectional area of individual shear walls in the direction of loads in m
2
e
D =length of each shear wall in the direction of loads

Ductility is defined as the ability to deform in the inelastic range prior to fracture, while
damping is resistance to motion provided by material friction

Vertical Distribution of Force:

The base shear evaluated from Eqn. (5) is distributed to the various stories of the building
according to the following Eqn.

( )

=
n
i
i i
x x t
x
h w
h w F V
F
1
(11)

Figure (1): Vertical distribution of force

Where

0 =
t
F for 7 . 0 T sec.

V V T F
t
25 . 0 07 . 0 = for 7 . 0 > T sec.

The shear force at each story is given by Eqn. (12)

=
+ =
n
x i
i t x
F F V (12)
Where

72

n =number of stories above the base of the building
t
F =the portion of the base shear, concentrated at the top of the structure to account for
whiplash effects
x n i
F F F , , =lateral forces applied at levels x or n i , , , respectively
x n i
h h h , , =height above the base to levels x or n i , , , respectively

x
V =design shear in story x

Horizontal Distribution of Force:

The design story shear in any direction,
x
V , is distributed to the various elements of the
lateral force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities.

Horizontal Torsional Moment:

To account for the uncertainties in locations of loads, the mass at each level is assumed to
be displaced from the calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal to 5 %
of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of the force under
consideration. The torsional design moment at a given story is given by moment resulting
from eccentricities between applied design lateral forces applied through each storys
center of mass at levels above the story and the center of stiffness of the vertical elements
of the story, in addition to the accidental torsion.

Overturning Moments:

The overturning moments are to be determined at each level of the structure.

The overturning moment
x
M at level x is given by Eqn. (13).

( ) ( )

+ =
+ =
n
x i
x i i x n t x
h h F h h F M
1
(13)

Overturning moments are distributed to the various elements of the vertical lateral force-
resisting system in proportion to their rigidities.

P Effects:

The resulting member forces, moments and story drifts induced by P effects are to be
considered in the evaluation of overall structural frame stability. P effects are
neglected when the ratio given by Eqn. (14) is . 1 . 0
x x
x x
primary
ondary
h V
P
M
M

=
sec
(14)

73

x
P =total seismic weight at level x and above
=drift of story x
x
V =shear force of story x
x
h =height of story x

In seismic zones no. 3 and 4, P effects are neglected when the story drift
w
R / 02 . 0
times the story height.

Design of Cantilevers:

Horizontal cantilever components are to be designed for a net upward force of
p
w 2 . 0 ,
where
p
w is the weight of the cantilevered element.

Story Drift Limitations:

Story drift is the displacement of one level relative to the level above or below due to the
design lateral forces. Calculated drift is to include translational and torsional
deformations. Calculated story drift shall not exceed
w
R / 04 . 0 or 005 . 0 times the story
height for buildings with periods 7 . 0 < second. For structures with periods 7 . 0 sec., the
calculated story drift is not to exceed
w
R / 03 . 0 or 004 . 0 the story height.

Design of Diaphragms:

Floor and roof diaphragms are to be designed to resist the forces determined from the
following formula

px n
x i
i
n
x i
i t
px
w
w
F F
F

+
=

=
=
(15)

The force
px
F
need not exceed 0.75
px
w I Z , but shall not be less than 0.35
px
w I Z

Where

px
w =weight of the diaphragm at level x
px
F =diaphragm lateral design force at level x

74

Table (1.a) Vertical Structural Irregularities (illustrated in Fig. 2)
Irregularity Type and Definition How to Deal with
A- Stiffness Irregularity- - -Soft Story
A soft story is one in which the lateral
stiffness is less than 70 percent of that in the
story above or less than 80 percent of the
average stiffness of the three stories above.
Use the dynamic lateral force
procedure.
B- Mass Irregularity
Mass irregularity is considered to exist where
the effective mass of any story is more than
150 percent of the effective mass of an
Use the dynamic lateral force
procedure.
C- Vertical Geometric Irregularity
Vertical geometric irregularity shall be
considered to exist where the horizontal
dimension of the lateral force-resisting
system in any story is more than 130 percent
of that in an adjacent story.
Use the dynamic lateral force
procedure.
D- In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical
Lateral Force-resisting Element
An in-plane offset of the lateral load-resisting
elements greater than the length of these
elements.
The Structure is to be designed
to resist the overturning effects
caused by seismic forces, down
to the foundations level.
E- Discontinuity in Capacity-Weak Story
A weak story is one in which the story
strength is less than 80 percent of that in the
story above. The story strength is the total
strength of all seismic-resisting elements
sharing the story shear for the direction under
consideration.
Structures are not to be over
two stories or 9 m in height
where the weak story has
calculated strength of less than
65 % of the story above.

75

Figure (2): Vertical irregularities

76

Table (1.b) Plan Structural Irregularities (illustrated in Fig. 3)
Irregularity Type and Definition How to Deal with
A- Torsional Irregularity
Torsional irregularity is to be considered to
exist when the maximum story drift,
computed including accidental torsion, at
one end of the structure transverse to an
axis is more than 1.2 times the average of
the story drifts of the two ends of the
structure.
The one-third increase usually
permitted in allowable stresses
for elements resisting earthquake
B- Re-entrant Corners
Plan configurations of a structure and its
lateral force-resisting system contain re-
entrant corners, where both projections of
the structure beyond a re-entrant corner are
greater than 15 % of the plan dimension of
the structure in the given direction.
The one-third increase usually
permitted in allowable stresses
for elements resisting earthquake
C- Diaphragm Discontinuity
Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or
variations in stiffness, including those
having cutout or open areas greater than 50
% of the gross enclosed area of the
diaphragm, or changes in effective
diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 %
from one story to the next.
The one-third increase usually
permitted in allowable stresses
for elements resisting earthquake
D- Out-of-plane Offsets
Discontinuities in a lateral force path, such
as out-of-plane offsets of the vertical
elements.
Structures are to be designed to
resist the overturning effects
caused by earthquake forces and
are these effects are to be carried
down to the foundation.
E- Nonparallel Systems
are not parallel to or symmetric about the
major orthogonal axes of the lateral force-
resisting system.
The requirement that orthogonal
effects be considered may be
satisfied by designing such
elements for 100 % of the
prescribed seismic forces in one
direction plus 30 % of the
prescribed forces in the
perpendicular direction.
Alternately, the effects of the two
orthogonal directions may be
combined on a square root of the
sum of the squares basis.

77

Figure (3): Plan irregularities

78

Table (2) Seismic Zone Factor
Zone 1 2A 2B 3 4
Z 0.075 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40

Table (3) Site Coefficients
Type Description S Factor
S1 - Rock-like material characterized by a shear wave
velocity greater than 750 m/s or by other means of
classification.
- Stiff or dense soil condition where the soil depth is
less than 60 m.
1.0
S2 A soil profile with dense or stiff soil conditions,
where the soil depth exceeds 60 m.
1.20
S3 A soil profile 20 m or more in depth and containing
more than 6 m of soft to medium stiff clay but not
more than 12 m of soft clay.
1.50
S4 A soil profile containing more than 12 m of soft clay
characterized by a shear wave velocity less than 150
m/s.
2.0

Table (4) Occupancy Importance Factors
Occupancy
Category
Functions of Structure Importance
Factor I
Essential Facilities Hospitals, fire stations, police
stations, water tanks, garages,
shelters, disaster control centers,
and communications centers.
1.25
Hazardous Facilities Structures containing toxic,
atomic, and explosive substances.
1.25
Special Occupancy Public assembly, schools, jails,
power-generating stations.
1.0
Standard Occupancy Structures not listed above. 1.0

79

Table (5.a) Structural Factors (building structures)
Basic Structural
System
w

Height (m)
Zones 3 &
4
Building Frame

8
6
73
73
Moment-Resisting
Frame
SMRF
IMRF
OMRF
12
8
5
No Limit
Not Used
Not Used
Dual Systems Shear Walls +SMRF
Shear Walls +IMRF
12
9
No Limit
48

Table (5.b) Structural Factor (non-building structures)
No. Structure Type R
w
1- Tanks, vessels or pressurized spheres on braced or
unbraced legs.
3
2- Cast-in-place concrete soils and chimneys having walls
continuous to the foundation.
5
3- Inverted pendulum-type structures. 3
4- Cooling towers. 5

80

Figure (4): Seismic map of Palestine

81

7
x
3

=

2
1
m

Example 1:
A seven-story building frame system (residential) with shear walls has the dimensions
shown in the Figure 5. The total sustained dead load is 800 kg/m
2
. This building is
located in Gaza Strip and lies on top of a deep clayey deposit. Eight shear walls, each 3 m
long and 0.2 m thick are used as a lateral force resisting system. Determine the seismic
loads at the floor levels of the building in a direction perpendicular to axis 1-1, 2-2, 3-3,
and 4-4 using the 1994 UBC.

Figure (5): Building layout

A B
C D
E F
G H
6m 6m 6m
4
.
5
m

4
.
5
m

4
.
5
m

4
.
5
m

1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4

82

Solution:
8 , 0 . 2 , 1 , 075 . 0 = = = =
w
R S I Z

Weight of floor =
( )( ) tons 2 . 259 18 18 8 . 0 =

Total seismic weight =
( ) tons 4 . 1814 7 2 . 259 =

Building natural period, T
( )
c
n
A
h
T
4
3
0743 . 0
=

+ =

2
2 . 0
n
e
i c
h
D
A A

9 . 0 /
n e
h D

( )( )
2
4
1
2
529 . 0
21
3
2 . 0 2 . 0 3 m A
i
c
=

+ =

=
,
9 . 0 142 . 0
21
3
< =
O.K
( ) ( )
sec 002 . 1
529 . 0
21
0743 . 0 0743 . 0
4 / 3 4 / 3
= = =
c
n
A
h
T

( )
( )
75 . 2 sec 5 . 2
002 . 1
2 25 . 1 25 . 1
3 / 2 3 / 2
< = = =
T
S
C
and
( ) 8 075 . 0 >

The base shear V is given by
( )( )( )
tons V
R
ZICW
V
w
52 . 42
8
4 . 1814 5 . 2 0 . 1 075 . 0
= =
=

( )( )
( ) K O t F
TV F forT
t
t
. 52 . 42 25 . 0 97 . 2
52 . 42 1 07 . 0 07 . 0 sec, 7 . 0
< =
= = >

Vertical Distribution of Force:
( )

=
7
1 i
i
x x t
x
F
h w F V
F

Story shears:

=
+ =
7
1 i
i t x
F F V

83

Overturning moment:
( ) ( )
x i
n
x i
i x n t x
h h F h h F M + =

+ = 1

Lateral displacement:
( )
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
w
F
w
F
w
F T g
248 . 0 1
4
81 . 9
4
2
2
2
2
=

= =

Story drift:
w
n
n i i i
R
h
h
03 . 0
004 . 0
1
=

P effects:
When
1 . 0 <

x x
i x
h V
P
, P effects are to be neglected.
Lateral force distribution:

level
i
w

x
h

x x
h w

x
F
x
V

x
M

( ) mm
i

x
P

x x
i x
h V
P

7 259.2 21 5443.2 9.89 12.86 - 12.33 4.21 259.2 0.028
6 259.2 18 4665.6 8.48 21.33 38.57 8.12 1.35 518.4 0.011
5 259.2 15 3888 7.06 28.40 102.57 6.77 1.35 777.6 0.012
4 259.2 12 3110.4 5.65 34.05 187.76 5.42 1.36 1036.8 0.014
3 259.2 9 2332.8 4.24 38.28 289.89 4.06 1.36 1296 0.015
2 259.2 6 1555.2 2.83 41.11 404.74 2.70 1.35 1555.2 0.017
1 259.2 3 777.6 1.41 42.52 528.06 1.36 1.35 1814.4 0.019
0 0 42.52 655.62 0

21772.8

84

Example 2:
A seven-story reinforced concrete special moment-resisting frame (SMRF) has the
dimensions shown in Figure 6. The total sustained dead load is 800 kg/m
2
and the live
2
. The building which is characterized as a residential building is located
in Gaza City and lies on top of a deep clayey deposit. Evaluate the seismic loads at the
floor levels of the building in a direction perpendicular to axis 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, and 4-4
using the 1994 UBC.

Figure (6): Building layout

85

Solution:

12 , 0 . 2 , 1 , 075 . 0 = = = =
w
R S I Z

Since the building is residential, no live load is to be used in seismic weight calculation
Weight of floor =
( )( ) tons 324 5 . 22 18 8 . 0 =

Total seismic weight =
( ) tons 2268 7 324 =

Building natural period, T
( )
4 / 3
073 . 0
n
h T =

( ) sec 716 . 0 21 073 . 0
4 / 3
= = T

( )
( )
75 . 2 sec 12 . 3
716 . 0
2 25 . 1 25 . 1
3 / 2 3 / 2
> = = =
T
S
C
N.O.K
075 . 0 229 . 0
12
75 . 2
> = =
w
R
C
O.K

The base shear V is given by

( )( )( )
tons
R
W C I Z
V
w
98 . 38
12
2268 75 . 2 0 . 1 075 . 0
= = =
( )( ) tons TV F T
t
95 . 1 98 . 38 716 . 0 07 . 0 07 . 0 sec, 7 . 0 = = = >
V 5 . 0 <
O.K
Vertical Distribution of Force:
( )

=
7
1 i
i
x x t
x
F
h w F V
F

86

Lateral force distribution:

level
i
w

x
h
x x
h w

x
F
x
V

x
M

7 324 21 6804 9.26 11.21 -
6 324 18 5832 7.93 19.14 33.63
5 324 15 4860 6.61 25.75 91.05
4 324 12 3888 5.29 31.04 168.3
3 324 9 2916 3.97 35.01 261.42
2 324 6 1944 2.64 37.65 366.45
1 324 3 972 1.32 38.97 479.40
0 0 38.97 596.31

27216

87

Horizontal Distribution of Forces to Individual Shear Walls

Interaction of Shear Walls with Each Other

In the shown figure the slabs act as horizontal diaphragms extending between
cantilever walls and they are expected to ensure that the positions of the walls,
relative to each other, don't change during lateral displacement of the floors.
The flexural resistance of rectangular walls with respect to their weak axes
may be neglected in lateral load analysis.

The distribution of the total seismic load,
x
F or
y
F among all cantilever walls
may be approximated by the following expressions.

ix ix ix
F F F + =
iy iy iy
F F F + =

w wh he er re e: :

ix
F
= = load induced in wall by inter-story translation only, in x-direction
iy
F
=load induced in wall by inter-story translation only, in y-direction
ix
" F =load induced in wall by inter-story torsion only, in x-direction
iy
" F =load induced in wall by inter-story torsion only, in y-direction
ix
F
=total external load to be resisted by a wall, in x-direction
iy
F =total external load to be resisted by a wall, in y-direction
To obtain
ix
F and
iy
F' , the forces
x
F and
y
F are distributed to the individual
shear walls in proportion to their rigidities.

88

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story translation, in x-direction, is
given by

=
iy
iy x
ix
I
I F
F

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story translation, in y-direction, is
given by

=
ix
ix y
iy
I
I F
F
where:
x
F =total external load to be resisted by all walls, in x-direction
y
F =total external load to be resisted by all walls, in y-direction
ix
I =second moment of area of a wall section about x axis
iy
I =second moment of areas of a wall section about y axis

ix
I =total second moment of areas of all walls in x-direction

iy
I =total second moment of area of all walls in y-direction

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story torsion, in x-direction, is given
by

( )
( )

+
=
iy i ix i
iy i y x
ix
I y I x
I y e F
F
2 2

The force resisted by wall i due to inter-story torsion, in y-direction, is given
by
( )
( )

+
=
iy i ix i
ix i x y
iy
I y I x
I x e F
F
2 2

where:

i
x =x-coordinate of a wall with respect to the center of rigidity C.R of the
i
y =y-coordinate of a wall with respect to the center of rigidity C.R of the
x
e =eccentricity resulting from non-coincidence of center of gravity C.G and
center of rigidity C.R, in x-direction
y
e =eccentricity resulting from non-coincidence of center of gravity C.G and
center of rigidity C.R, in y-direction

89

Example (3): In Example (1), determine the forces acting on shear wall G.

Neglecting moments of inertia about weak axes, second moments of area of
each of the shear walls about y-axis are given by
( )
4
3
45 . 0
12
3 2 . 0
m I I I I
Hy Gy By Ay
= = = = =

Total second moments of area about y-axis are given by
( )
4
4
1
8 . 1 4 45 . 0 m I
i
iy
= =

=

Second moments of area of each of the shear walls about x-axis are given by

( )
4
3
45 . 0
12
3 2 . 0
m I I I I
Fx Ex Dx Cx
= = = = =
Total second moments of area about x-axis are given by

( )
4
4
1
8 . 1 4 45 . 0 m I
i
ix
= =

=

To locate the center of rigidity C.R, the distance from the origin to the C.R
y
in the y-direction is given by
( )( ) ( )( )
m
I
y I
y
i
iy
i
i iy
25 . 11
8 . 1
5 . 4 45 . 0 2 18 2 45 . 0
4
1
4
1
=
+
= =

=
=

The distance from the origin to the C.R in the x-direction
x
is given by

90

( )( )( )
m
I
x I
x
i
ix
i
i ix
0 . 9
8 . 1
18 45 . 0 2
4
1
4
1
= = =

=
=

Thus, the eccentricity in y-direction m e
y
25 . 2 0 . 9 25 . 11 = =

And the eccentricity in x-direction m e
x
0 . 0 0 . 9 0 . 9 = =

Torsion caused by eccentricity
y
e ,
1
T
x
F 25 . 2 =
Torsion caused by accidental eccentricity ,
2
T ( )( )
x x
F F 9 . 0 18 05 . 0 = =
Total torsion,
2 1
T T ( )
x x
F F 9 . 0 25 . 2 =

=
iy
iy x
ix
I
I F
F

x
x
Hx Gx Bx Ax
F
F
F F F F 25 . 0
8 . 1
45 . 0
= = = = =
( )
( )

+
=
iy i ix i
iy i y x
ix
I y I x
I y e F
F
2 2

( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
( )
x x
x x
Hx Gx Bx Ax
F F
F F
F F F F
9 . 0 25 . 2 0133 . 0
9 45 . 0 2 9 45 . 0 2 75 . 6 45 . 0 2 75 . 6 45 . 0 2
45 . 0 75 . 6 9 . 0 25 . 2
2 2 2 2
=
+ + +

= = = =

x
F 042 . 0 =

The forces acting on shear wall G are given by the following expression
x
x x
F
F F
292 . 0
042 . 0 25 . 0
=
+ =

Using the story forces evaluated in Example (1), the forces acting on shear
wall G at each of floor level are shown in the next figure.

Distribution of forces at each floor level (Shear wall G)

91

Classification of Structural Walls According To Seismic Risk

According to Chapters 2 and 21 of ACI 318-08, structural walls are defined as being
walls proportioned to resist combinations of shears, moments, and axial forces
induced by earthquake motions. A shear wall is a structural wall.

Reinforced concrete structural walls are categorized as follows:

1- Ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls: They are walls complying
with the requirements of Chapters 1 through 18.

2- Special reinforced concrete structural walls: They are cast-in-place walls
complying with the requirements of 21.2 and 21.7 in addition to the
requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls.

Special Provisions for Earthquake Resistance

According to Clause 1.1.9.1 of ACI 318-08, the seismic risk level of a region
is regulated by the legally adopted general building code of which ACI 318-08
forms a part, or determined by local authority.

Correlation between Seismic-Related Terminologies In Model Codes

Code/ Standard Level of seismic risk as defined in the code section
Low
(21.1.2)
Moderate/Intermediate
(21.1.2 and 21.1.8)
High
(21.1.2 through
21.1.8) and (21.11
through 21.13)
International Building
Code 2000, 2003, 2006
SDC A, B SDC C SDC D, E, F
Uniform Building
Code 1991, 1994, 1997
Seismic
Zone 0, 1
Seismic Zone 2 Seismic Zone 3, 4
SDC =Seismic Design Category

According to Clauses 1.1.9.2 and 21.1.1.7 of ACI 318-08, in regions of low
and intermediate seismic risk, provisions of Chapter 21 are not to be applied.
(Chapter 1 through 18 are applicable)

According to ACI 318-08, in regions of high seismic risk, special structural
walls complying with 21.9 are to be used for resisting forces induced by
earthquake motions.

92

Classification of Shear Walls According To Their Height-to-Length Ratios

Shear walls are classified as short or long according to their aspect ratios (the ratio of
its height
w
w
l ), as follows:

1- For 2 / <
w w
l h , they are called short or squat shear walls. Their design is
dominated by shear, rather than flexure.
Aspect ratios below 2 mark the transition from slender to short behavior, and
walls with such dimensions require considerable care in design if a ductile failure
mode is required. Without this attention, shear walls are likely to fail in brittle
failure modes such as diagonal tension or sliding shear rather than undergoing the
more ductile flexural failure possible in slender walls. Short shear walls may need
increased strength or special detailing, including diagonal steel to overcome these
problems.

2- For 2 /
w w
l h , they are called long or slender shear walls. Their design is
dominated by flexure. Aspect ratios are normally restricted to 7; higher ratios
may result in inadequate stiffness, problems in anchoring the tension side of
the shear wall and possibly significant amplifications due to P effects.

The above stated classification is not explicitly stated in ACI 318-08 Code.

93

Design of Ordinary Shear Walls

The shear wall is designed as a cantilever beam fixed at the base, to transfer load to
the foundation. Shear forces, bending moments and axial loads are maximums at the
base of the wall.

Types of Reinforcement:

To control cracking, shear reinforcement is required in the horizontal and vertical
directions, to resist in plane shear forces.

The vertical reinforcement in the wall serves as flexural reinforcement. If large
moment capacity is required, additional reinforcement can be placed at the ends of
the wall within the section itself, or within enlargements at the ends. The heavily
reinforced or enlarged sections are called boundary elements.

Shear Strength:

According to ACI 11.1.1, design of cross sections subject to shear are based on

u n
V V
(1)

where
u
V is the factored force at the section considered and
n
V is the nominal shear
strength computed by

s c n
V V V + =
(2)

where
c
V is nominal shear strength provided by concrete and
s
V is nominal shear
strength provided by shear reinforcement.

94

Based on ACI 11.9.3,
max , n
V
at any horizontal section for shear in plane of the wall is
not to be taken greater than

d h f V
c n
= 65 . 2
max ,
(3)

where h is thickness of wall, and d is the effective depth in the direction of
bending, may be taken as
w
l 8 . 0 , where
w
l is length of wall considered in direction of
shear force, as stated in ACI 11.9.4. A larger value of d , equal to the distance from
extreme compression fiber to center of force of all reinforcement in tension, be
permitted to be used when determined by a strain compatibility analysis.

Based on ACI 11.9.5, the shear strength provided by concrete
c
V
is given by any of
the following equations, as applicable.

For axial compression, Eqn. (4) is applicable

d h f V
c c
= 53 . 0
(4)

For axial tension, Eqn. (5) is applicable

d h f
A
N
V
c
g
u
c

=
35
1 53 . 0
(5)

where
g
A is the gross area of wall section and
u
N is the factored axial tension force
in Eqn. (5).
ACI 11.9.6 specifies that a more detailed analysis is permitted to evaluate
c
V as
follows, where
c
V is the lesser of the two values shown in Eqns. (6) and (7).

w
u
c c
l
d N
d h f V
4
' 88 . 0 + =
(6)

hd
l
V
M
h l
N
f l
f V
w
u
u
w
u
c w
c c

+
+ =
2
2 . 0
' 33 . 0
' 16 . 0
(7)

Where
u
N is positive for compression and negative for tension. If ( ) 2 / /
w u u
l V M is
negative, Eqn. (7) is not applicable.

95

Shear Reinforcement:

A- When the factored shear force
u
V is less than 2 /
c
V , minimum wall
reinforcement according to ACI 11.9.9 or in accordance with Chapter 14 of
ACI code.

A-1 Minimum Horizontal Reinforcement Ratio:

Ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of vertical section,

t

## , shall not be less than 0.0025. Spacing of this reinforcement

2
S
is not to exceed the
smallest of cm h l
w
45 , 3 , 5 / .

A-2 Minimum Vertical Reinforcement Ratio:
Ratio of vertical reinforcement area to gross concrete area of horizontal section,
l
is
not to be taken less than the larger of
( ) 0025 . 0 5 . 2 50 . 0 0025 . 0

+ =
t
w
w
l
l
h

(8)

and 0.0025, but need not be greater than
t
required by Eqn. (9). Spacing of this
reinforcement
1
S is not to exceed the smallest of cm h l
w
45 , 3 , 3 / .

Chapter 14 Provisions:
Minimum ratio of vertical reinforcement area to gross concrete area,
l

, shall be
0.0012 for deformed bars up to 16 mm in diameter, with
y
f
not less than
4200 kg/cm
2
.
0.0015 for other deformed bars.
Minimum ratio of horizontal reinforcement area to gross concrete area,
t

, shall be
0.0020 for deformed bars up to 16 mm in diameter, with
y
f
not less than
4200 kg/cm
2
.
0.0025 for other deformed bars.

B- When the factored shear force exceeds 2 /
c
V , minimum wall reinforcement for
resisting shear, according to ACI 11.9.9, must be provided.

C- According to ACI 11.9.9.1 when the factored shear force
u
V exceeds
c
V ,
horizontal shear reinforcement must be provided according to the following equation.

2
S
d f A
V
y v
s
=
(9)

where
v
A is area of horizontal shear reinforcement within a distance
2
S . Vertical
shear reinforcement is provided using Eqn. (8), shown above.

96

The critical section for shear is taken at a distance equal to half the wall length 2 /
w
l ,
or half the wall height 2 /
w
h , whichever is less. Sections between the base of the wall
and the critical section are to be designed for the shear at the critical section, as
specified in ACI 11.9.7.

Shear wall Reinforcement

Design for Flexure:

The wall must be designed to resist the bending moment at the base and the axial
force produced by the wall weight or the vertical loads it carries. Thus, it is
considered as a beam-column.

For rectangular shear walls containing uniformly distributed vertical reinforcement
and subjected to an axial load smaller than that producing balanced failure, the
following equation, developed by Cardenas and Magura in ACI SP-36 in 1973, can
be used to determine the approximate moment capacity of the wall.

+ =
w y s
u
w y s u
l
C
f A
P
l f A M 1 1 5 . 0

Where:

97

1
85 . 0 2

+
+
=
w
l
C

c w
y s
f h l
f A

= and
c w
u
f h l
P

=

= C distance from the extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis
s
A =total area of vertical reinforcement
w
l =horizontal length of wall
u
y
f =yield strength of reinforcement
=strength reduction factor for bending

Lateral Ties for Vertical Reinforcement:

Based on ACI 14.3.6, vertical reinforcement need not be enclosed by lateral
ties if vertical reinforcement is not greater than 0.01 times the gross concrete
area, or where vertical reinforcement is not required as compression
reinforcement.

In addition to the required horizontal and vertical reinforcement explained
earlier, ACI 14.3.7 states that not less than mm 16 2 bars are provided around
all window and door openings. Such bars are to be extended to develop
y
f
in
tension at the corners of the openings.

98

Example (4):

For shear wall 'G' in example (3), design the reinforcement required for
shear and flexure using UBC-94 load combinations and ACI 318-02 for
reinforced concrete design.
Use
2 2
/ 4200 and / 300 cm kg f cm kg f
y c
= =
.
Solution:

( )
E D U
E L D U
4 . 1 9 . 0
4 . 1
=
=

Critical section for shear is located at a distance not more than the smaller
of {
2 / h
2 / l
w
w
, i.e., at 1.5 m from the base of the wall.

1- Design for shear:

Check for maximum nominal shear force

d h ' f 65 . 2 V
c max , n
=
( ) ( )( ) tons 32 . 220 1000 / 300 8 . 0 20 300 65 . 2 = =
( ) K . O tons 374 . 17 tons 24 . 165 32 . 220 75 . 0 V
max , u
= =

d h ' f 53 . 0 V
c c
=

( )( )( ) tons 06 . 44 1000 / 300 8 . 0 20 300 53 . 0 V
c
= =

( ) tons 045 . 33 06 . 44 75 . 0 V
c
= =

( ) tons 523 . 16 2 / 045 . 33 2 / V
c
= =
In zones 1, 2, 3 and 4 2 / V V
c u
<

and in zones 5, 6 and 7
c u
V V

99

1-1 Horizontal shear reinforcement:

0025 . 0
t
=
of smaller the
2
= S

cm
cm h
cm l
w
45
60 3
60 5 /
=
=
or cm S 45
max , 2
=

( ) cm / cm 05 . 0
S
A
and 20 0025 . 0 h 0025 . 0
S
A
2
2
t
2
t
= = =

For two curtains of reinforcement and trying 10 mm bars
( )
max , 2 2
2
S cm 4 . 31 S , 05 . 0
S
785 . 0 2
< = = O.K
Use 10 mm bars @ 30cm.

1-2 Vertical shear reinforcement:
[ ] 0025 . 0 0025 . 0
3
21
5 . 2 5 . 0 0025 . 0
l

+ =
t l
0025 . 0 =

of smaller the
1
= S

cm
cm h
cm l
w
45
60 3
100 3 /
=
=

or cm S 45
max , 1
=
For two curtains of reinforcement, and trying 10 mm bars
( )
( )
1 1
l
S
0.785 2
20 0025 . 0 h 0025 . 0
S
A
= = =
And
max , 1 1
40 . 31 S cm S < =
Use 10mm bars @ 30cm.

2- Design for flexure and axial loads:

+ =
w y s
u
w y s u
l
c
1
f A
P
1 l f A 5 . 0 M
Where:
1 w
85 . 0 2 l
c
+
+
= ,
' f h l
f A
c w
y s
= and
' f h l
p
c w
u
=
For the vertical shear reinforcement of 10 mm @ 30cm,
2
s
cm 28 . 17 A = ,

( ) 836 . 0 280 300
70
05 . 0
85 . 0 = = ,
( )
( )( )
04032 . 0
300 20 300
4200 28 . 17
' f h l
f A
c w
y s
= = =

100

,
( )
( )( )
u
u
c w
u
P 00055 . 0
300 20 300
1000 P
' f h l
P
= = = ,

( ) ( ) 79124 . 0
P 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
836 . 0 85 . 0 04032 . 0 2
P 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
u u
w
+
=
+
+
=

For zone 7:
( )( )( )( ) tons 35 . 28 5 . 2 21 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u
= =

( )
07066 . 0
79124 . 0
35 . 28 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 002 . 268 m . t 70 . 126 M
u
= , i.e. boundary elements are required at wall ends
m . t 302 . 141 70 . 126 002 . 268 ' M
u
= =

( )
( )( )
( )
2
cm 62 . 15 785 . 0 2
266 4200 9 . 0
100000 302 . 141
A = + =
Use 8 16 mm bars in each of the two boundary elements.
For zone 6:
( )( )( )( ) tons 30 . 24 5 . 2 18 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u
= =

( )
06785 . 0
79124 . 0
30 . 24 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 88 . 215 m . t 98 . 121 M
u
= , i.e. boundary elements are required at wall ends
m . t 90 . 93 98 . 121 88 . 215 ' M
u
= =

( )
( )( )
( )
2
cm 91 . 10 785 . 0 2
266 4200 9 . 0
100000 90 . 93
A = + =
Use 8 14 mm bars in each of the two boundary elements.

101

For zone 5:
( )( )( )( ) tons 25 . 20 5 . 2 15 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u
= =

( )
06503 . 0
79124 . 0
25 . 20 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 48 . 165 m . t 23 . 117 M
u
= i.e., boundary elements are required at wall ends
m . t 25 . 48 23 . 117 48 . 165 ' M
u
= =

( )
( )( )
( )
2
cm 37 . 6 785 . 0 2
266 4200 9 . 0
100000 25 . 48
A = + =
Use 6 12 mm bars in each of the two boundary elements.
For zone 4:
( )( )( )( ) tons 20 . 16 5 . 2 12 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u
= =

( )
0622 . 0
79124 . 0
20 . 16 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 524 . 18 m . t 46 . 112 M
u
= , i.e. boundary elements are required at wall ends
m . t 064 . 6 46 . 112 524 . 118 ' M
u
= =

( )
( )( )
( )
2
cm 17 . 2 785 . 0 2
266 4200 9 . 0
100000 064 . 6
A = + =
Use 2 12 mm bars in each of the two boundary elements.

For Zone 3
( )( )( )( ) tons 15 . 12 5 . 2 9 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u
= =

( )
05940 . 0
79124 . 0
15 . 12 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

102

m . t 776 . 76 m . t 65 . 107 M
u
= , i.e. no boundary elements are required at wall
ends
For Zone 2
( )( )( )( ) tons 10 . 8 5 . 2 6 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u
= =

( )
05659 . 0
79124 . 0
1 . 8 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 958 . 41 m . t 81 . 102 M
u
= , i.e. no boundary elements are required at wall
ends
For Zone 1
( )( )( )( ) tons 05 . 4 5 . 2 3 3 2 . 0 9 . 0 P
u
= =

( )
05377 . 0
79124 . 0
05 . 4 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 792 . 15 m . t 94 . 97 M
u
= , i.e. no boundary elements are required at wall
ends

103

Special Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls

The requirements of this section apply to special reinforced concrete
structural walls serving as part of the earthquake force-resisting system.

Shear Strength:

Based on ACI 21.9.4.1, nominal shear strength
n
V of structural walls is
not to exceed

( )
y t c c cv n
f ' f A V + =

Where
c
is a coefficient defining the relative contribution of concrete
strength to wall strength, given as follows.

c
=0.80 for 5 . 1 /
w w
l h ;

c
=0.53 for 0 . 2 /
w w
l h ;

c
=0.53 to 0.80 (linear variation) for
w w
l h / between 1.5 and
2.0.
cv
A =gross area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length
of section in the direction of shear force considered, cm
2
.

Shear Reinforcement:

At least two curtains of reinforcement shall be used in a wall if the in-plane
factored shear force assigned to the wall exceeds
c cv
f A

53 . 0 , as
specified by ACI 21.9.2.2.

Based on ACI 21.9.2.1, the distributed web reinforcement ratios,
l

and
t

## for structural walls shall not be less than 0.0025, except if

u
V
does
not exceed
c cv
f A

265 . 0 ,
l

and
t

shall be permitted to be
reduced to the values required in 14.3. Reinforcement spacing each way in
structural walls shall not exceed 45 cm. reinforcement contributing to
u
V

shall be continuous and shall be distributed a cross the shear plane.

According to ACI 21.9.4.3, walls are to be reinforced with shear
reinforcement in two orthogonal directions in the plane of the wall.

104

If 0 . 2 /
w w
l h , reinforcement ratio
l

## shall not be less than

reinforcement ratio
t

.

Design for Flexure and Axial Loads:

Based on ACI 21.9.5.1, structural walls and portions of such walls subject
to combined flexural and axial loads shall be designed in accordance with
10.2 and 10.3 except that 10.3.6 and the nonlinear strain requirements of
10.2.2 shall not apply.

In ACI 10.3.2, balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when the
tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its specified yield
strength
y
f just as concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate
strain of 0.003.
In ACI 10.3.3, sections are compression-controlled when the strain in the
extreme tension steel,
t
, is equal to or less than
y

## when the concrete in

compression reaches its crushing strain of 0.003.
In ACI 10.3.4, sections are tension-controlled when the net tensile strain in
the extreme tension steel is equal to or greater than 0.005, just as the
concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003. Sections
with net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel between the compression
controlled strain limit and 0.005 constitute a transition region between
compression-controlled and tension-controlled sections.
In ACI 10.3.5, for flexural members with axial loads less than
g c
A f

1 . 0 ,
the net tensile strain
t
at nominal strength shall not be less than 0.004.

Boundary Elements:

Two design approaches for evaluating the need of boundary elements at
the edges of structural walls are provided in ACI 21.9.6 and explained
below.

A- For walls or wall piers that are effectively continuous from the base of
the structure to top of wall and designed to have a single critical section for
flexure and axial loads, ACI 21.9.6.2 requires that compression zones be
reinforced with special boundary elements where:

( )
w u
w
h
l
c
/ 600

105

And c corresponds to the largest neutral axis depth calculated for the
factored axial force and nominal moment strength consistent with the
design displacement
u

.
The quantity
w u
h / in the previous equation shall not be taken less than
0.007.
Special boundary element reinforcement shall extend vertically from the
critical section a distance not less than the larger of
w
l or
u u
V M 4 / .
The above stated design approach uses a displacement-based model. In this
method, the wall is displaced an amount equal to the expected design
displacement, and boundary elements are required to confine the concrete
when the strain at the extreme compression fiber of the wall exceeds a
critical value. Confinement is required over a horizontal length equal to at
least the length where the compressive strain exceeds the critical value.

B- Structural walls not designed to the provisions of ACI 21.9.6.2, shall
have special boundary elements at boundaries and edges around openings
of structural walls where the maximum extreme fiber compressive stress,
corresponding to factored forces including earthquake effect, exceeds
c
f

2 . 0 . The special boundary element shall be permitted to be
discontinued where the calculated compressive stress is less than
c
f

15 . 0 .

Stresses are calculated for the factored forces using a linearly elastic model
and gross section properties, as given here

( )
g
w u
g
u
I
l M
A
P
f
2 /
=

Boundary Element Dimensions:

As required by ACI 21.9.6.4, boundary elements are to extend horizontally
from the extreme compression fiber a distance not less than the larger of
w
l c 1 . 0 and . 2 / c

106

Boundary Element Requirements
(ACI 21.9.6.2)

Boundary Element Requirements
(ACI 21.9.6.3)

Boundary Element Transverse Reinforcement:

Special boundary element transverse reinforcement shall satisfy the
requirements of ACI 21.6.4.2 through 21.6.4.34, except ACI Eqn. (21-4)
need not be satisfied and the transverse reinforcement spacing limit of
21.6.4.3 (a) shall be one-third of the least dimension of the boundary
element.

In ACI 21.4.4.1, transverse reinforcement as required below shall be
provided.
The total cross-sectional area of rectangular hoop reinforcement shall not
be less than that required by the following Equation.

yt
c c
sh
f
' f b s 09 . 0
A =
ACI (21-5)
where:
s
=spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the longitudinal
axis of the structural member.
c
b
=dimension of core perpendicular to the tie legs that constitute
sh
A .

107

yt
f
=specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement.

Based on ACI 21.6.4.2, transverse reinforcement shall be provided by
either single or overlapping hoops. Crossties of the same bar size and
spacing as the hoops shall be permitted. Each end of the crossties shall
engage a peripheral long reinforcing bar. Consecutive crossties shall be
alternated end for end and along the longitudinal reinforcement. Spacing of
crossties or legs of rectangular hoops,
x
h
within a cross section of the
member shall not exceed 35 cm on center.

Based on ACI 21.6.4.3, transverse reinforcement shall be spaced at a
distance not exceeding (a) one-quarter of the minimum member dimension,
(b) six times the diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement, and (c)
o
s
as
defined by

+ =
3
h 35
10 s
x
o
, where
x
h
is maximum horizontal spacing
of ties or cross ties.

In ACI 21.9.6.5, where special boundary elements are not required by
21.9.6.2 or 21.9.6.3, (a) and (b) shall be satisfied.
(a) If the longitudinal reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is
greater than
y
f / 28
, boundary transverse reinforcement shall
satisfy 21.6.4.2 and 21.9.6.4 (a). The maximum longitudinal
spacing of transverse reinforcement in the boundary shall not
exceed 20 cm;
(b) Except when
u
V in the plane of the wall is less than
c cv
f A

265 . 0 , horizontal reinforcement terminating at the
edges of structural walls without boundary elements shall have a
standard hook engaging the edge reinforcement or the edge
reinforcement shall be enclosed in U-stirrups having the same
size and spacing as and spliced to the horizontal displacement.

108

Reinforcement Details for Boundary Elements (US system)
Anchorage and Splicing of Reinforcement:

In ACI 21.7.5.1, the development length
dh
l for a bar with a standard 90
degree hook shall not be less than the largest of
b
d 8 , 15 cm, and the
length required by the following equation, which is applicable to bar
diameters ranging from 10 mm to 36 mm.

c
y b
dh
' f 2 . 17
f d
l =

The 90-degree hook shall be located within the confined core of a boundary
element.

In ACI 21.7.5.2, for bar diameters 10 mm through 36 mm, the development
length , in tension, for a straight bar shall not be less than (a) and (b):

109

(a) 2.5 times the length required by the above-mentioned equation if
the depth of the concrete cast in one lift beneath the bar does not
exceed 30 cm, and
(b) 3.5 times the length provided by the same equation if the depth of
the concrete cast in one lift beneath the bar exceeds 30 cm.

In ACI 21.7.5.3, straight bars terminated at a joint shall pass through the
confined core of a boundary element. Any portion of
d
l not within the
confined core shall be increased by a factor of 1.6.

Based on ACI 21.6.4.4, specified boundary element transverse
reinforcement at the wall base shall extend into the support at least
d
l
of the largest longitudinal reinforcement in the specified
boundary element unless the special boundary element terminates on
a footing or mat, where special boundary element transverse
reinforcement shall extend at least 30 cm into the footing or mat.

110

Example (5):

Redesign shear wall 'G' in example (4) as a special shear wall using UBC-
94 load combinations and ACI 318-08 for reinforced concrete design.
Use
2 2
/ 4200 and / 300 cm kg f cm kg f
y c
= =
.
Solution:
Design for shear: - 1

At least two curtains of reinforcement shall be used in a wall if the in-plane
factored shear force exceeds
c cv
' f A 53 . 0
( )( ) tons 374 . 17 tons 08 . 55 1000 / 300 300 20 53 . 0 ' f A 53 . 0 V
c cv n
> = = =

Thus, one curtain of reinforcement is required. Nevertheless, two curtains
of reinforcement are to be used here.

1-3 Horizontal shear reinforcement:

0025 . 0
t
=
cm 45 S
max , 2
=

( ) cm / cm 05 . 0
S
A
and 20 0025 . 0 h 0025 . 0
S
A
2
2
t
2
t
= = =

For two curtains of reinforcement and trying 10 mm bars
( )
max , 2 2
2
S cm 4 . 31 S , 05 . 0
S
785 . 0 2
< = = . Use 10 mm bars @ 30cm.
( ) ( ) tons 374 . 17 tons 06 . 28 1000 / 300 300 20 27 . 0 ' f A 27 . 0
c cv
> = =
Thus
t
and
l
may be reduced based on ACI 14.3.

1-2 Vertical shear reinforcement:

cm 45 S
max , 1
=
For two curtains of reinforcement, and trying 10 mm bars

111

( )
( )
1 1
l
S
0.785 2
20 0025 . 0 h 0025 . 0
S
A
= = =
And
max , 1 1
S cm 40 . 31 S < = . Use 10mm bars @ 30cm.

Check for shear reinforcement capacity

( )
y t c c cv n
f ' f A V + =

2 7 l / h
w w
= ,i.e.

53 . 0
c
=

( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) K . O tons 75 . 0 / 374 . 17 tons 08 . 118 4200 0025 . 0 300 53 . 0
1000
20 300
V
n
= + =

2- Design for flexure and axial loads:

Boundary elements are required where the maximum fiber compression
stress >
c
' f 2 . 0 , calculated from the following equation:

( )
g
w u
g
u
I
2 / l M
A
P
f =
The boundary elements may be disconnected where the compressive stress
<
c
' f 15 . 0
The load combinations to be considered are shown below

) E L D ( 4 . 1 U + =
E 4 . 1 D 9 . 0 U =

+ =
w y s
u
w y s u
l
c
1
f A
P
1 l f A 5 . 0 M
Where:
1 w
85 . 0 2 l
c

+
+
= ,
' f h l
f A
c w
y s
= and
' f h l
p
c w
u
=

For the vertical shear reinforcement of

10 mm
@30cm,
2
s
cm 28 . 17 A = ( ) 836 . 0 280 300
70
05 . 0
85 . 0 = = ,
( )
( )( )
04032 . 0
300 20 300
4200 28 . 17
' f h l
f A
c w
y s
= = =
,
( )
( )( )
u
u
c w
u
P 00055 . 0
300 20 300
1000 P
' f h l
p
= = = ,

( ) ( ) 79124 . 0
P 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
836 . 0 85 . 0 04032 . 0 2
P 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
u u
w
+
=
+
+
=
For zone 7:
( )( )( )( ) tons 1 . 44 5 . 2 21 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

112

( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2 2
3
cm / Kg 300 2 . 0 cm / Kg 684 . 96
12 / 300 20
2 / 300 100000 002 . 268
300 20
1000 1 . 44
f > = =

i.e., special boundary elements are required at wall ends.

Flexural capacity at section of maximum moment:

( )( )( )( ) tons 1 . 44 5 . 2 21 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

( )
081065 . 0
79124 . 0
1 . 44 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

( ) cm 32 . 24 300 081065 . 0 c = = , and length of boundary element is not less than
the larger of
w
l 1 . 0 c and cm 16 . 12 , 2 / c

m . t 002 . 268 m . t 744 . 144 M
u
< =
and
m . t 258 . 123 744 . 144 002 . 268 ' M
u
= =

For a boundary element 35 cm in length, additional reinforcement in each
of the two boundaries is given as follows
( )
( )( )
( )
2
cm 44 . 15 785 . 0 4
265 4200 9 . 0
100000 258 . 123
A = + = (tension-controlled)
Use 8 16 mm bars in each of the two boundary elements.
Boundary element transverse reinforcement:

yt
c c
sh
f
' f b s 09 . 0
A =
( )
cm 15 cm 67 . 16
3
15 35
10 s
cm 6 . 9 6 . 1 6
cm 5 4 / 20
of smallest the S
max
=

+ =
=
=

o

For the longer direction of boundary,
( ) ( ) hoops mm 8 cm 2 . 11 8 . 0 4 2 20 b
c
= =
( )( )( )
2
sh
cm 36 . 0
4200
300 2 . 11 5 09 . 0
A = =
Use 2-legged mm 8 ties @ 5 cm

For the shorter direction of boundary,
( ) hoops mm 8 cm 2 . 30 8 . 0 4 35 b
c
= =
( )( )( )
2
sh
cm 97 . 0
4200
300 2 . 30 5 09 . 0
A = =
Use 2-legged mm 8 ties @ 5 cm
Anchorage of horizontal shear reinforcement:
For 10 mm bars hooked at 180 degree,
( )( )
) K . O ( cm 15 as taken cm 10 . 14
300 2 . 17
1 4200
' f 2 . 17
d f
l
c
b y
dh
= = =

113

For straight bars
( ) ) K . O . N ( cm 50 as taken cm 21 . 49 06 . 14 5 . 3 l
d
= =

For zone 6:
( )( )( )( ) tons 8 . 37 5 . 2 18 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2 2
3
cm / Kg 300 2 . 0 cm / Kg 26 . 78
12 / 300 20
2 / 300 100000 88 . 215
300 20
1000 8 . 37
f > = =
i.e., special boundary elements are required at wall ends.

Flexural Capacity at section of maximum moment:

( )( )( )( ) tons 8 . 37 5 . 2 15 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

( )
076688 . 0
79124 . 0
8 . 37 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

length of boundary element is not less than the larger of
w
l 1 . 0 c and
cm 150 . 11 , 2 / c

m . t 88 . 215 m . t 58 . 137 M
u
< =
and
m . t 30 . 78 58 . 137 88 . 215 ' M
u
= =

For a boundary element 35 cm in length, additional reinforcement in each
of the two boundaries is given as follows
( )
( )( )
( )
2
cm 96 . 10 785 . 0 4
265 4200 9 . 0
100000 3 . 78
A = + =
Use 8 14 mm bars in each of the two boundary elements.
Boundary element transverse reinforcement:

yt
c c
sh
f
' f b s 09 . 0
A =
( )
cm 15 cm 67 . 16
3
15 35
10 s
cm 4 . 8 4 . 1 6
cm 5 4 / 20
of smallest the S
max
=

+ =
=
=

o

For the longer direction of boundary,
( ) ( ) hoops mm 8 cm 2 . 11 8 . 0 4 2 20 b
c
= =
( )( )( )
2
sh
cm 36 . 0
4200
300 2 . 11 5 09 . 0
A = =

114

Use 2-legged mm 8 ties @ 5 cm

For the shorter direction of boundary,
( ) hoops mm 8 cm 2 . 30 8 . 0 4 35 b
c
= =
( )( )( )
2
sh
cm 97 . 0
4200
300 2 . 30 5 09 . 0
A = =
Use 2-legged mm 8 ties @ 5 cm

For zone 5:
( )( )( )( ) tons 5 . 31 5 . 2 15 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2 2
3
cm / Kg 300 2 . 0 cm / Kg 41 . 60
12 / 300 20
2 / 300 100000 48 . 165
300 20
1000 5 . 31
f > = =
i.e., special boundary elements are required at wall ends.

Flexural Capacity at section of maximum moment:

( )( )( )( ) tons 5 . 31 5 . 2 15 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

( )
072311 . 0
79124 . 0
8 . 37 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

length of boundary element is not less than the larger of
w
l 1 . 0 c and
cm 85 . 10 , 2 / c

m . t 48 . 165 m . t 34 . 130 M
u
> =
and
m . t 14 . 35 34 . 130 48 . 165 ' M
u
= =

For a boundary element 35 cm in length, additional reinforcement in each
of the two boundaries is given as follows
( )
( )( )
( )
2
cm 65 . 6 785 . 0 4
265 4200 9 . 0
100000 14 . 35
A = + =
Use 6 12 mm bars in each of the two boundary elements.
Boundary element transverse reinforcement:

yt
c c
sh
f
' f b s 09 . 0
A =
( )
cm 15 cm 67 . 16
3
15 35
10 S
cm 2 . 7 2 . 1 6
cm 5 4 / 20
of smallest the S
max
< =

+ =
=
=

o

115

For the longer direction of boundary,
( ) ( ) hoops mm 8 cm 2 . 11 8 . 0 4 2 20 b
c
= =
( )( )( )
2
sh
cm 36 . 0
4200
300 2 . 11 5 09 . 0
A = =
Use 2-legged mm 8 ties @ 5 cm

For the shorter direction of boundary,
( ) hoops mm 8 cm 2 . 30 8 . 0 4 35 b
c
= =
( )( )( )
2
sh
cm 97 . 0
4200
300 2 . 30 5 09 . 0
A = =
Use 2-legged mm 8 ties @ 5 cm

For zone 4:
( )( )( )( ) tons 2 . 25 5 . 2 12 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2 2
3
cm / Kg 300 2 . 0 cm / Kg 71 . 43
12 / 300 20
2 / 300 100000 524 . 118
300 20
1000 2 . 25
f < = =
i.e., no special boundary elements are required at wall ends.

Flexural Capacity at section of maximum moment:

( )( )( )( ) tons 2 . 25 5 . 2 12 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

( )
067934 . 0
79124 . 0
8 . 37 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 524 . 118 m . t 03 . 123 M
u
> =
Thus, no additional reinforcement required at wall ends.

For zone 3:
( )( )( )( ) tons 9 . 18 5 . 2 9 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =
( )
2
cm / Kg 300 2 . 0 f <
i.e., no special boundary elements are required at wall ends.
Flexural Capacity at section of maximum moment:

( )( )( )( ) tons 9 . 18 5 . 2 9 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

( )
0635567 . 0
79124 . 0
8 . 37 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 776 . 76 m . t 64 . 115 M
u
> =
Thus, no additional reinforcement required at wall ends.

116

For zone 2:
( )( )( )( ) tons 6 . 12 5 . 2 6 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =
( )
2
cm / Kg 300 2 . 0 f <
i.e., no special boundary elements are required at wall ends.

Flexural Capacity at section of maximum moment:

( )( )( )( ) tons 6 . 12 5 . 2 6 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

( )
0591796 . 0
79124 . 0
8 . 37 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 958 . 41 m . t 18 . 108 M
u
> =
Thus, no additional reinforcement required at wall ends.

For zone 1:
( )( )( )( ) tons 3 . 6 5 . 2 3 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =
( )
2
cm / Kg 300 2 . 0 f <
i.e., no special boundary elements are required at wall ends.

Flexural Capacity at section of maximum moment:

( )( )( )( ) tons 3 . 6 5 . 2 3 3 2 . 0 4 . 1 P
u
= =

( )
0548024 . 0
79124 . 0
8 . 37 00055 . 0 04032 . 0
l
c
w
=
+
=

m . t 792 . 15 m . t 65 . 100 M
u
> =
Thus, no additional reinforcement required at wall ends.

117

Earthquake Resistant Design According To 1997 UBC

Major Changes from UBC 1994

(1) Soil Profile Types:
The four site coefficients S
1
to S
4
of the UBC 1994, which are independent of the level
of ground shaking, were expanded to six soil profile types, which are dependent on the
seismic zone factors, in the 1997 UBC (S
A
to S
F
) based on previous earthquake records.

The new soil profile types were based on soil characteristics for the top 30 m of the soil.
The shear wave velocity, standard penetration test and undrained shear strength are used
to identify the soil profile types.

(2) Structural Framing Systems:
In addition to the four basic framing systems (bearing wall, building frame, moment-
resisting frame, and dual), two new structural system classifications were introduced:
cantilevered column systems and shear wall-frame interaction systems.

The 1997 UBC seismic design provisions are based on strength-level design rather than
service-level design.

In the 1997 UBC, the earthquake load (E) is a function of both the horizontal and
vertical components of the ground motion.

(5) Design Base Shear:
The design base shear in the 1997 UBC varies in inverse proportion to the period T,
rather than T
2/3
prescribed previously. Also, the minimum design base shear limitation
for Seismic Zone 4 was introduced as a result of the ground motion that was observed at
sites near the fault rupture in 1994 Northridge earthquake.

(6) Simplified Design Base Shear:
In the 1997 UBC, a simplified method for determining the design base shear (V) was
introduced for buildings not more than three stories in height (excluding basements).

(7) Displacement and Drift:
In the 1997 UBC, displacements are determined for the strength-level earthquake forces.

(8) Lateral Forces on Elements of Structures:
New equations for determining the seismic forces (F
p
) for elements of structures,
nonstructural components and equipment are given.

118

The Static Lateral Force Procedure

Applicability:

The static lateral force procedure may be used for the following structures:

A. All structures, regular or irregular (Table A-1), in Seismic Zone no. 1 (Table A-2)
and in Occupancy Categories 4 and 5 (Table A-3) in Seismic Zone 2.

B. Regular structures under 73 m in height with lateral force resistance provided by
systems given in Table (A-4) except for structures located in soil profile type S
F
, that
have a period greater than 0.70 sec. (see Table A-5 for soil profiles).

C. Irregular structures not more than five stories or 20 m in height.

D. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a rigid lower portion where
both portions of the structure considered separately can be classified as being regular,
the average story stiffness of the lower portion is at least ten times the average
stiffness of the upper portion and the period of the entire structure is not greater than
1.10 times the period of the upper portion considered as a separate structure fixed at
the base.

Regular Structures:

Regular structures are structures having no significant physical discontinuities in plan or
vertical configuration or in their lateral force resisting systems.

Irregular Structures:

Irregular structures are structures having significant physical discontinuities in
configuration or in their lateral force resisting systems (See Table A-1.a and A-1.b for
detailed description of such structures).

Design Base Shear:

The total design base shear in a given direction is to be determined from the following
formula.

T R
W I C
V
v
= (A-1)
The total design base shear need not exceed the following:

R
W I C
V
a
5 . 2
= (A-2)

119

The total design base shear shall not be less than the following:

W I C V
a
11 . 0 = (A-3)

In addition, for Seismic Zone 4, the total base shear shall not be less than the following:

R
W I N Z
V
v
8 . 0
= (A-4)

The minimum design base shear limitation for Seismic Zone 4 was introduced as a result
of the ground motion effects observed at sites near fault rupture in 1994 Northridge
earthquake.

Where

V =total design lateral force or shear at the base.

- In storage and warehouse occupancies, a minimum of 25 % of floor live load is to
be considered.
-
Total weight of permanent equipment is to be included.

-
Where a partition load is used in floor design, a load of not less than 50 kg/m
2
is to
be included.

I =Building importance factor given in Table (A-3).

Z =Seismic Zone factor, shown in Table (A-2).

R =response modification factor for lateral force resisting system, shown in Table
(A-4).

a
C =acceleration-dependent seismic coefficient, shown in Table (A-6).

v
C =velocity-dependent seismic coefficient, shown in Table (A-7).

a
N =near source factor used in determination of
a
C in Seismic Zone 4, shown in
Table (A-8).

v
N =near source factor used in determination of
v
C in Seismic Zone 4, shown in
Table (A-9).

120

T
=elastic fundamental period of vibration, in seconds, of the structure in the direction
under consideration evaluated from the following equations:

For reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames,

( )
4 / 3
073 . 0
n
h T = (A-5)
For other buildings,

( )
4 / 3
0488 . 0
n
h T = (A-6)

Alternatively, for shear walls,
( )
c
n
A
h
T
4 / 3
0743 . 0 = (A-7)
Where

n
h =total height of building in meters

c
A =combined effective area, in m
2
, of the shear walls in the first story of the
structure, given by

+ =

2
2 . 0
n
e
i c
h
D
A A 9 . 0 /
n e
h D (A-8)
Where

e
D is the length, in meters, of each shear wall in the first story in the direction parallel
to the applied forces.

i
A =cross-sectional area of individual shear walls in the direction of loads in m
2

Based on section 1612 of UBC, structures are to resist the most critical effects from the
L D 7 . 1 4 . 1 + (A-9)
) 7 . 1 7 . 1 4 . 1 ( 75 . 0 W L D + + (A-10)
W D 3 . 1 9 . 0 +
(A-11)
E L f D 1 . 1 1 . 1 32 . 1
1
+ +
(A-12)
E D 1 . 1 99 . 0 + (A-13)
Where

121

1
f
=1.0 for floors in public assembly, live loads in excess of 500 kg/m
2
and for garage
1
f

Based on UBC 1630.1.1, horizontal earthquake loads to be used in the above-stated load
combinations are determined as follows:

v h
E E E + = (A-14)

h m
E E
o
= (A-15)

Where:
E =earthquake load resulting from the combination of the horizontal component
h
E ,
and the vertical component,
v
E

E
h
=the earthquake load due to the base shear, V

E
m
=the estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the structure

E
v
=the load effects resulting from the vertical component of the earthquake ground
motion and is equal to the addition of D I C
a

=
o
seismic force amplification factor as given in Table (A-4), and accounts for
structural over-strength
= redundancy factor, to increase the effects of earthquake loads on structures with
few lateral force resisting elements, given by

g
A r
max
10 . 6
2 = (A-16)
=
g
A the minimum cross-sectional area in any horizontal plane in the first story of a
shear wall in m
2

=
max
r the maximum element-story shear ratio
For a given direction of loading, the element story shear ratio is the ratio of design story
shear in the most heavily loaded single element divided by the total design story shear.
max
r is defined as the largest of the element story shear ratio,
i
r , which occurs in any
of the story levels at or below two-thirds height level of the building.

122

For moment-resisting frames,
i
r is taken as the maximum of the sum of the
shears in any two adjacent columns in a moment-resisting frame bay divided by
the story shear
For shear walls,
i
r is taken as the maximum of the product of the wall shear
multiplied by
w
l / 05 . 3 and divided by the total story shear, where
w
l is the
length of the wall in meters.
For dual 80 % of the values calculated above.
When calculating drift, or when the structure is located in Seismic Zones 0, 1, or
2, shall be taken as 1.0.
can't be smaller than 1.0 and can't be grater than 1.5.

Vertical Distribution of Force:

The base shear evaluated from Eqn. (A-17) is distributed over the height of the building
according to the following Eqn.

( )

=
n
i
i i
x x t
x
h w
h w F V
F
1
(A-17)

Fig. (A-1) Vertical Distribution of Force

Where

0 =
t
F for 7 . 0 T sec.

123

V V T F
t
25 . 0 07 . 0 = for 7 . 0 > T sec.

The shear force at each story is given by Eqn. (A-18)

=
+ =
n
x i
i t x
F F V (A-18)
Where

n =number of stories above the base of the building
t
F =the portion of the base shear, concentrated at the top of the structure to account for
higher mode effects
x n i
F F F , , =lateral forces applied at levels x or n i , , , respectively
x n i
h h h , , =height above the base to levels x or n i , , , respectively

x
V =design shear in story x

Horizontal Distribution of Force:

The design story shear in any direction
x
V , is distributed to the various elements of the
lateral force-resisting system in proportion to their rigidities, considering the rigidity of
the diaphragm.

Horizontal Torsional Moment:

To account for the uncertainties in locations of loads, the mass at each level is assumed
to be displaced from the calculated center of mass in each direction a distance equal to 5
% of the building dimension at that level perpendicular to the direction of the force
under consideration. The torsional design moment at a given story is given by moment
resulting from eccentricities between applied design lateral forces applied through each
storys center of mass at levels above the story and the center of stiffness of the vertical
elements of the story, in addition to the accidental torsion.

Overturning Moments:

Buildings must be designed to resist the overturning effects caused by the earthquake
forces.

The overturning moment
x
M at level x is given by Eqn. (A-19).

( ) ( )

+ =
+ =
n
x i
x i i x n t x
h h F h h F M
1
(A-19)

124

Overturning moments are distributed to the various elements of the vertical lateral force-
resisting system in proportion to their rigidities.

Displacement and Drift:

The calculated story drifts are computed using the maximum inelastic response
displacement drift (
m
), which is an estimate of the displacement that occurs when the
structure is subjected to the design basis ground motion.
According to UBC 1630.9.2,

s m
R = 7 . 0 (A-20)
Where:
=
s
design level response displacement, which is the total drift or total story drift that
occurs when the structure is subjected to the design seismic forces.
Calculated story drift
m
shall not exceed 0.025 times the story height for
structures having a fundamental period of less than 0.70 seconds.
Calculated story drift
m
shall not exceed 0.020 times the story height for
structures having a fundamental period equal to or greater than 0.70 seconds.

P Effects:

P effects are neglected when the ratio given by Eqn. (A-21) is . 1 . 0
x s x
x
primary
ondary
h V
P
M
M

=
sec
(A-21)

x
P =total unfactored gravity load at and above level x
=seismic story drift by design seismic forces (
s
)
x
V =seismic shear between levels x and 1 x
x s
h =story height below level x

In seismic zones no. 3 and 4, P need not be considered when the story drift
(
s
) R h
x s
/ 02 . 0 times the story height.

125

Simplified Design Base Shear

Applicability:

Buildings of any occupancy and buildings not more than three stories in height,
excluding basements, in standard occupancy structures.
Other buildings not more than two stories in height, excluding basements.

Base Shear:
The total design base shear in a given direction is determined from the following
formula:

R
W C
V
a
0 . 3
= (A-22)
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil
profile type, type
D
S is used in Seismic Zones 3 and 4.
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil
profile type, type
E
S is used in Seismic Zones 1, 2A and 2B.

Vertical Distribution of Force:
The forces at each level are calculated from the following formula:

R
w C
F
i a
x
0 . 3
= (A-23)

126

Table (A-1.a) Vertical Structural Irregularities

Irregularity Type and Definition
1- Stiffness Irregularity- - -Soft Story
A soft story is one in which the lateral stiffness in less than 70 percent
of than in the story above or less than 80 percent of the average stiffness
of the three stories above.
2- Mass Irregularity
Mass irregularity is considered to exist where the effective mass of any
story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story.
A roof that is lighter than the floor below need not be considered.
3- Vertical Geometric Irregularity
Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the
horizontal dimension of the lateral force-resisting system in any story is
more than 130 percent of that in an adjacent story. One-story
penthouses need not be considered.
4- In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Lateral Force-resisting Element
An in-plane offset of the lateral load-resisting elements greater than the
length of these elements.
5- Discontinuity in Capacity-Weak Story
A weak story is one in which the story strength is less than 80 percent
of that in the story above. The story strength is the total strength of all
seismic-resisting elements sharing the story shear for the direction
under consideration.

127

Table (A-1.b) Plan Structural Irregularities

Irregularity Type and Definition
1- Torsional Irregularity
Torsional irregularity is to be considered to exist when the maximum
story drift, computed including accidental torsion, at one end of the
structure transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 times the average of the
story drifts of the two ends of the structure.
2- Re-entrant Corners
Plan configurations of a structure and its lateral force-resisting system
contain re-entrant corners, where both projections of the structure
beyond a re-entrant corner are greater than 15 % of the plan dimension
of the structure in the given direction.
3- Diaphragm Discontinuity
Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations in stiffness,
including those having cutout or open areas greater than 50 % of the
gross enclosed area of the diaphragm, or changes in effective
diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 % from one story to the next.
4- Out-of-plane Offsets
Discontinuities in a lateral force path, such as out-of-plane offsets of the
vertical elements.
5- Nonparallel Systems
The vertical lateral load-resisting elements are not parallel to or
symmetric about the major orthogonal axes of the lateral force-resisting
system.

Table (A-2) Seismic Zone Factor Z

Zone 1 2A 2B 3 4
Z 0.075 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40
Note: The zone shall be determined from the seismic zone map.

128

Table (A-3) Occupancy Importance Factors

Occupancy Category Seismic Importance Factor, I
1-Essential facilities
1.25
2-Hazardous facilities
1.25
3-Special occupancy
structures

1.00
4-Standard occupancy
structures

1.00
5-Miscellaneous structures
1.00

Table (A-4) Structural Systems

Basic Structural
System
Lateral- force resisting system
description
R
o

Height limit
Zones 3 &4.
(meters)
Bearing Wall Concrete shear walls 4.5 2.8 48
Building Frame Concrete shear walls 5.5 2.8 73
Moment-
Resisting Frame
SMRF
IMRF
OMRF
8.5
5.5
3.5
2.8
2.8
2.8
N.L
----
----
Dual Shear wall +SMRF
Shear wall +IMRF

8.5
6.5
2.8
2.8
N.L
48
Cantilevered
Column Building
Cantilevered column elements 2.2 2.0 10
Shear-wall Frame
Interaction
5.5 2.8 48

129

Table (A-5) Spoil Profile Types

Soil
Profile
Type
Soil Profile
Name/Generic
Description
Average Soil Properties For Top 30 m Of Soil
Profile
Shear Wave
Velocity,
s
v
m/s
Standard
Penetration
Test, N
(blows/foot)
Undrained
Shear
Strength,
u
S
kPa
A
S
Hard Rock > 1,500 --- ---
B
S
Rock 760 to 1,500
C
S
Very Dense Soil and
Soft Rock
360 to 760 > 50 > 100
D
S
Stiff Soil Profile 180 to 360 15 to 50 50 to 100
E
S
Soft Soil Profile < 180 < 15 < 50
F
S
Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation

Table (A-6) Seismic Coefficient
a
C

Soil Profile
Type
Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Z =0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
A
S
0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24
0.32
a
N
B
S
0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30
0.40
a
N
C
S
0.09 0.18 0.24 0.33
0.40
a
N
D
S
0.12 0.22 0.28 0.36
0.44
a
N
E
S
0.19 0.30 0.34 0.36
0.36
a
N
F
S
See Footnote
Footnote: Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic response analysis
shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for soil Profile Type
F
S .

130

Table (A-7) Seismic Coefficient
v
C
Soil Profile
Type
Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Z =0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
A
S
0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24
0.32
a
N
B
S
0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30
0.40
a
N
C
S
0.13 0.25 0.33 0.45
0.56
a
N
D
S
0.18 0.32 0.40 0.54
0.64
a
N
E
S
0.26 0.50 0.64 0.84
0.96
a
N
F
S
See Footnote
Footnote: Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic response analysis
shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for soil Profile Type
F
S .

Table (A-8) Near-Source Factor
a
N

Seismic Source
Type
Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source
2 km 5 km 10 km
A 1.5 1.2 1.0
B 1.3 1.0 1.0
C 1.0 1.0 1.0

Table (A-9) Near-Source Factor
v
N

Seismic Source
Type
Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source
2 km 5 km 10 km 15 km
A 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.0
B 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0
C 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

131

Example (6):

Using UBC 97, evaluate the seismic base shear acting on a regular twelve-story building
frame system with reinforced concrete shear walls in the principal directions, as the
main lateral force-resisting system. The building which is located in Gaza City is 31.2 m
by 19 m in plan and 32.8 m in height (Standard Occupancy). It is constructed on a sandy
soil profile with SPT values ranging from 20 to 50 blows/foot.

Solution:

From Table A-2 and for Zone 1, Z =0.075
From Table A-3 and for Standard Occupancy, I =1.0
From Table A-5, Soil Profile Type is
D
S
From Table A-4, R =5.5
From Table A-6,
a
C =0.12
From Table A-7,
v
C =0.18
From Eqn. (A-6),

( )
. sec 75 . 0
28 . 38 0488 . 0
4 / 3
=
= T

From Eq. (A-1), the total base shear is
( )
W
W
T R
W I C
V
v
0436 . 0
75 . 0 5 . 5
18 . 0
= = =

From Eq. (A-2), the total base is not to exceed

( )
W
W
R
W I C
V
a
0545 . 0
5 . 5
12 . 0 5 . 2 5 . 2
= = = O.K

From Eq. (A-3), the total design base is not to be less than

W W W I C V
a
0132 . 0 ) 12 . 0 ( 11 . 0 11 . 0 = = = O.K

132

Earthquake Loads According to IBC 2003

The process of determining earthquake loads according to IBC 2003 Spectral Design
Method can be broken down into the following basic steps:

Determination of the maximum considered earthquake and design spectral
response accelerations.

Determination of the seismic base shear associated with the building or the
structures fundamental period of vibration.

Distribution of the seismic base shear within the building or the structure.

IBC Safety Concept

The IBC intends to design structures for !collapse prevention" in the event of an
earthquake with a 2 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years

133

Introduction

Seismic Response Spectra:

- A response spectrum provides the maximum response of a SDOF system, for a given
damping ratio and a range of periods, for a specific earthquake.
- A design response spectrum is a smoothed spectrum used to calculate the expected
seismic response of a structure

Figure (1) shows six inverted, damped pendulums, each of which has a different
fundamental period of vibration. To derive a point on a response spectrum, one of these
pendulum structures is analytically subjected to the vibrations recorded during a
particular earthquake. The largest acceleration of this pendulum structure during the
entire record of a particular earthquake can be plotted as shown in Figure 1(b).
Repeating this for each of the other pendulum structures shown in Figure 1(a) and
plotting and connecting the peak values for each of the pendulum structures produces an
acceleration response spectrum.

Generally, the vertical axis of the spectrum is normalized by expressing the computed
accelerations in terms of the acceleration due to gravity g .

In Figure (2), displacement, velocity, and acceleration spectra for a given earthquake are
shown. In this figure, structures with short periods of 0.2 to 0.5 seconds are almost rigid
and are most affected by ground accelerations. Structures with medium periods ranging
from 0.5 to 2.5 seconds are affected most by velocities. Structures with long periods
greater than 2.5 seconds, such as tall buildings or long span bridges, are most affected
by displacements.

134

Viscous damping
(a) Damped pendulums of varying natural
frequencies
0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
0.5% Damping
2% Damping
5% Damping
4
3
2
1
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

S
a

Natural period of vibration, T (sec)
Acceleration response spectrum
Figure (1): Earthquake Response
Spectrum
Reference:
MacGregor, J and Wight, J., "Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design"
4
th
Edition, Prentice Hall, NJ, 2005.

135

136

Analysis Procedure

1- Determination of maximum considered earthquake and design spectral response
accelerations:

Determine the mapped maximum considered earthquake MCE spectral response
accelerations,
s
S for short period (0.2 sec.) and
1
S for long period (1.0 sec.) using
the spectral acceleration maps in IBC Figures 1615(1) through 1615(10). Straight-
line interpolation is allowed for sites in between contours or the value of the
higher contour shall be used. Acceleration values obtained from the maps are
given in % of g , where g is the gravitational acceleration.

Determine the site class, which is based on the types of soils and their engineering
properties, in accordance with IBC Section 1615.1.1. Site classes A, B, C, D, E,
and F, obtained from Table 1615.1.1, are based on the average shear velocity,
s
v ,
average standard penetration resistance, N , or the average undrained shear
strength,
u
s . These parameters represent average values for the top 30 m of soil.
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site
class, site class D shall be used. Unless the building official determines that the
site class E or F is likely to be present at the site.

Determine the maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations
MS
S at short period and
1 M
S at long period in
accordance with IBC 1615.1.2.

137

138

s a MS
S F S =
1 1
S F S
v M
=
where:

a
F = short-period site coefficient, given in Table 1615.1.2(1)
v
F = long-period site coefficient, given in Table 1615.1.2(2)

Determine the 5% damped design spectral response accelerations
DS
S at short
period and
1 D
S at long period in accordance with IBC 1615.3.

MS Ds
S S ) 3 / 2 ( =
1 1
) 3 / 2 (
M D
S S =

139

2- Determination of seismic use group and occupancy important factor:

Each structure shall be assigned a seismic use group and a corresponding
occupancy importance factor
E
I
,
in accordance with Table 1604.5. Seismic use
group I are structures not assigned to either seismic use group II or III. Seismic
use group II are structures the failure of which would result in a substantial public
hazard due to occupancy or use as indicated in Table 1604.5. Seismic use group
III are structures required for post earthquake recovery and those containing
substantial quantities of hazardous substances as indicated in Table 1604.5.

140

3- Determination of seismic design category:

All structures shall be assigned to a seismic design category based on the seismic use
group and the design spectral response acceleration coefficients,
DS
S and
1 D
S . Each
building and structure shall be assigned to the worst severe seismic design category in
accordance with Table 1616.3(1) or 1616.3(2), irrespective of the fundamental period of
vibration of the structure.

141

4- Determination of the Seismic Base Shear:

4-1 Simplified Analysis:

A simplified analysis, in accordance with Section 1617.5, shall be determined to
be used for any structure in Seismic Use Group I, subject to the following
limitations, or a more rigorous analysis shall be made:

1- Building of light-framed construction not exceeding three stories in height,
excluding basement.

142

2- Building of any construction other than the light-framed construction, not
exceeding two stories in height, excluding basement, with flexible diaphragm at
every level.
Since the above limitations rule out the use of this method for concrete buildings,
it will not be covered here.

4-2 Index Force Analysis:

Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category A need only comply with the
requirements of Section 1616.4.1 through 1616.4.5, summarized below:

Structures shall be provided with a complete lateral force resisting system
designed to resist the minimum lateral force, x
F
, applied simultaneously at each
floor level according to the following equation:

x x
w F 01 . 0 =

Where:
x
F
= The design lateral force applied at level
x

=
x
w
The portion of the total gravity load of the structure,
W
, located or assigned to
level
x

= W
1- In areas used for storage, a minimum of 25 % of the reduced floor live load.
2- Where an allowance for partition load is reduced in the floor load design, the
actual partition weight or
2
/ 50 m kg
of the floor area, whichever is greater.
3- The total weight of permanent equipment.
4- 20 % of flat roof snow load where flat roof snow load exceeds
2
/ 145 m kg
.
The direction of application of seismic forces used in design shall be such that
which will produce the most critical load effect in each component.
The design seismic forces are permitted to be applied separately in each of the
two orthogonal directions.
Load combinations as per Section 9.2 of ACI Code.

4-3 Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis:

Section 9.5.5 of ASCE 7-02
**
shall be used.

**
ASCE, ASCE Standard Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures,
ASCE 7-02, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2002.

143

The seismic base shear
V
in a given direction is determined in accordance with
the following equation:

W C V
s
=

where:
s
C
= Seismic response coefficient

( ) ( ) T I R
S
I R
S
E
D
E
DS
/ /
1
=

DS
S 044 . 0

R
= Response modification coefficient, given in Table 1617.6.2
E
I
= Seismic occupancy importance factor
T
= Fundamental period of vibration

An approximate value of
a
T
may be obtained from:

75 . 0
n T a
h C T =

where:
T
C
= Building period coefficient
= 0.073 for moment frames resisting 100% of the required seismic force
= 0.049 for all other buildings
n
h
= Height of the building above the base in meters

The calculated fundamental period,
, T
cannot exceed the product of the coefficient,
u
C
,
in the following table times the approximate fundamental period,
a
T
.
The base shear
V
is to be based on a fundamental period,
T
, in seconds, of 1.2 times the
coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated values,
u
C
, taken from the following
table, times the approximate fundamental period,
a
T

144

Vertical Structural Irregularities

Irregularity Type and Description
1a- Stiffness Irregularity- Soft Story
A soft story is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of that
in the story above or less than 80 percent of the average stiffness of the three
stories above.
1b- Stiffness Irregularity- Extreme Soft Story
An extreme soft story is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 60
percent of that in the story above or less than 70 percent of the average
stiffness of the three stories above.
2- Weight (Mass) Irregularity
Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist where the effective mass of any
story is more than 150 percent of the effective mass of an adjacent story. A
roof that is lighter than the floor below need not be considered.
3- Vertical Geometric Irregularity
Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist where the
horizontal dimension of the lateral force-resisting system in any story is more
than 130 percent of that in an adjacent story.
4- In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Lateral Force-Resisting Elements
An in plane offset of the lateral load-resisting elements greater than the length
of these elements or a reduction in stiffness of the resisting element in the story
below.
5- Discontinuity in Capacity-Weak Story
A weak story is one in which the story strength is less than 80 percent of that
in the story above. The story strength is the total strength the story above or
less than 80 percent of that in the story above. The story strength is the total
strength of all seismic-resisting elements sharing the story shear for the
direction under consideration.

145

Plan Structural Irregularities

Irregularity Type and Description
1a- Torsional Irregularity to be considered when diaphragms are not
flexible
Torsional irregularity shall be considered to exist when the maximum story
drift, computed including accidental torsion, at one end of the structure
transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 times the average of the story drifts at the
two ends of the structure.
1b- Extreme Torsional Irregularity to be considered when diaphragms
are not flexible
Extreme torsional irregularity shall be considered to exist when the maximum
story drift, computed including accidental torsion, at one end of the structure
transverse to an axis is more than 1.4 times the average of the story drifts at the
two ends of the structure.
2- Re-entrant Corners
Plan configurations of a structure and its lateral force-resisting system contain
re-entrant corners, where both projections of the structure beyond a reentrant
corner are greater than 15 % of the plan dimension of the structure in the given
direction.
3- Diaphragm Discontinuity
Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations in stiffness, including
those having cutout or open areas greater than 50 % of the gross enclosed area
of the diaphragm, or changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more than 50
% from one story to the next.
4- Out-of-plane Offsets
Discontinuities in a lateral force path, such as out-of-plane offsets of the
vertical elements.
5- Nonparallel Systems
The vertical lateral load-resisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric
about the major orthogonal axes of the lateral force-resisting system.

146

147

148

149

150

Coefficient for Upper Limit on Calculated Period

Design Spectral Response,
1 D
S Coefficient
u
C
4 . 0
0.3
0.2
0.15
1 . 0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.7

In cases where moment resisting frames do not exceed twelve stories in height and
having a minimum story height of 3 m, an approximate period
a
T in seconds in the
following form can be used:

N T
a
1 . 0 =

where N = number of stories

151

5- Vertical Distribution of Forces: The vertical distribution of seismic forces is
determined from:

V C F
vx x
=
and

=
=
n
i
i
k
i
k
x x
vx
h w
h w
C
1

where:
x
F = Lateral force at level x
vx
C = Vertical distribution factor
V = total design lateral force or shear at the base of the building
x
w and
i
w = the portions of W assigned to levels x and i
x
h and
i
h = heights to levels xand i
k = a distribution exponent related to the building period as follows:
k = 1 for buildings with T less than or equal to 0.5 seconds
k = 2 for buildings with T more than or equal to 2.5 seconds
Interpolate between k = 1 and k = 2 for buildings with T between 0.5 and 2.5

6- Horizontal Distribution of Forces and Torsion:

Horizontally distribute the shear
x
V

=
=
x
i
i x
F V
1

where:
i
F = Portion of the seismic base shear, V , introduced at level i

Accidental Torsion,
ta
M
ta
M = ( ) B V
x
05 . 0
Total Torsion,
T
M
ta t T
M M M + =

F
F
F
w
n
w
x
w
1
h
h
h

152

7- Overturning Moments:

The overturning moment
x
M is given by the following equation:

( )
x i
n
x i
i x
h h F M =

=

where:

i
F = Portion of the seismic base shear, V , introduced at level i
= Overturning moment reduction factor
= 1.0 for the top 10 stories
= 0.8 from the 20
th
story from the top and below
= Values between 1.0 and 0.8 determined by a straight linear interpolation for
stories between the 20
th
and 10
th
stories below the top

8- Story Drift:

The story drift, , is defined as the difference between the deflection of the center of
mass at the top and bottom of the story being considered.
E
xe d
x
I
C
=
Where:

d
C = Deflection amplification factor, given in Table 1617.6.2
xe
= Deflection determined by elastic analysis

The allowable story drifts, , are shown in Table 1617.3.1.

9- P-delta Effect:

The P-delta effects can be ignored if the stability coefficient, , from the following
expression is equal to or less than 0.10.
25 . 0
5 . 0

d d sx x
x
C C h V
P

Where:

x
P = Total unfactored vertical design load at and above level x

153

x
V = Seismic shear force acting between level x and 1 x
sx
h = Story height below level x
= Design story drift occurring simultaneously with
x
V
= Ratio of shear demand to shear capacity for the story between level x and
1 x . Where the ratio is not calculated, a value of = 1.0 shall be
used.

When the stability coefficient, , is greater than 0.10 but less than or equal to
max
, P-
delta effects are to be considered. To obtain the story drift for including the P-delta
effects, the design story drift shall be multiplied by ) 1 /( 0 . 1 .
When is greater than
max
, the structure is potentially unstable and has to be
redesigned.

The value of seismic load E for use in ACI 318-08 load combinations is defined by the
following equations for load combinations in which the effects of gravity loads and

D S Q E
DS E
2 . 0 + =
D S Q E
DS E
2 . 0 + =
o
(Need not apply to SDC A)
where:
E = the effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces
DS
S = the design spectral response acceleration at short period
= the reliability factor related to the extent of structural redundancy of the lateral
force resisting system
E
Q = the effect of horizontal seismic forces
o
= the system over strength factor given in Table 1617.6.2.

The value of seismic load E for use in ACI 318-08 load combinations is defined by the
following equations for load combinations in which the effects of gravity loads and

D S Q E
DS E
2 . 0 =

D S Q E
DS E
2 . 0 =
o
(Need not apply to SDC A)

154

Redundancy:

Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C:
For structures in seismic design categories A, B and C, the value of may be taken as
1.0.

Seismic Design Category D: For structures in seismic design category D, shall be
taken as the largest of the values of
x
calculated at each story of the structure !x" in
accordance with this equation

x
x
A r
x
max
10 . 6
2 =
where:
x
A = the floor area in square meters of the diaphragm level immediately above the story.
x
r
max
= the ratio of the design story shear resisted by the single element carrying the
most shear force in the story to the total story shear for a given direction of loading.
For moment frames,
x
r
max
shall be taken as the maximum of the sum of the shears in any
two adjacent columns in the plane of a moment frame divided by the story shear.
For columns common to two bays with moment resisting connections on opposite sides
at the level under consideration, 70 percent of the shear in that column may be used in
the column shear summation.
For shear walls,
x
r
max
shall be taken equal to the maximum ratio,
ix
r , calculated as the
shear in each wall or wall pier multiplied by 3.3/
w
l , where
w
l is the wall or wall pier
length in meters divided by the story shear and where the ratio 3.3/
w
l need not be taken
greater than 1.0 for buildings of light frame construction.
For dual systems,
x
r
max
shall be taken as the maximum value as defined above
considering all lateral-load-resisting elements in the story. The lateral loads shall be
distributed to elements based on their relative rigidities considering the interaction of
the dual system. For dual systems, the value of need not exceed 80 percent of the
value calculated above.
The value of need not exceed 1.5, which is permitted to be used for any structure.
The value of shall not be taken as less than 1.0.
11- Diaphragm Forces:

Diaphragms are designed to resist design seismic forces determined in accordance with
the following equation:

155

px n
x i
i
n
x i
i
px
w
w
F
F

=
=
= ranges from
px E DS
w I S ) 4 . 0 2 . 0 (
Where:
i
F = The design force applied to level i
px
F = The diaphragm design force
i
w = The weight tributary to level i
px
w = The weight tributary to the diaphragm at level x

12- Seismic Detailing Requirements

Level of detailing required depends on the level of seismic risk:

- Low Seismic Risk: SDC
*
A, B
- Medium Seismic Risk: SDC C
- High Seismic Risk: SDC D, E, F

*
SDC= Seismic Design Category

156

157

Example (7):
For the building shown in Example (1) and using IBC-03 evaluate the forces at the floor
levels perpendicular to axes 1-1, 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4.
Note that site class is D, g 25 . 0 S
s
= and g 10 . 0 S
1
= .

Solution:
Using Tables 1615.1.2(1) and 1615.1.2(2), short-period site coefficient 60 . 1 F
a
=
and long-period site coefficient 40 . 2 F
v
= .
Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations adjusted for site
class effects are evaluated.
( ) g 4 . 0 g 25 . 0 60 . 1 S F S
s a MS
= = =
and
( ) g 24 . 0 g 10 . 0 40 . 2 S F S
1 v 1 M
= = =
The 5% damped design spectral response accelerations
DS
S at short period and
1 D
S at long period in accordance are evaluated.
( ) g 267 . 0 g 40 . 0
3
2
S
3
2
S
MS DS
= = =

( ) g 16 . 0 g 24 . 0
3
2
S
3
2
S
1 M 1 D
= = =
Occupancy importance factor, 0 . 1 I
E
= as evaluated from Table 1604.5.
From Table 16136.3(1) and for g 267 . 0 S
DS
= , Seismic Design Category (SDC) is
B. For g 16 . 0 S
1 D
= and using Table 1616.3(2), SDC is C. Therefore, seismic
design category (SDC) is !C".
For ordinary shear walls and using Table 1617.6.2, response modification
coefficient 0 . 5 R= .
The seismic base shear V in a given direction is determined in accordance with
the following equation:

W C V
s
=

( ) ( ) T I / R
S
I / R
S
C
E
1 D
E
DS
s
=

DS
S 044 . 0
Approximate period ( ) . sec 48 . 0 21 049 . 0 T
75 . 0
a
= =
( ) . sec 676 . 0 48 . 0 408 . 1 T C
a u
= =
( ) K . O . sec 676 . 0 . sec 576 . 0 48 . 0 2 . 1 T < = =

158

< = = 0534 . 0
0 . 5
267 . 0
C
s
( )
( ) 267 . 0 044 . 0 0555 . 0
576 . 0 ) 0 . 5 (
16 . 0
> = O.K
i.e., 0534 . 0 C
s
=
The seismic base shear
( ) tons 89 . 96 4 . 1814 0534 . 0 V = =

Vertical distribution of forces:
V C F
vx x
= and

=
=
n
1 i
i
k
i
k
x x
vx
h w
h w
C
K = 1.038 (from linear interpolation).
Shear forces =
=
x
1 i
i
x
F V
Overturning moment ( )
x i
n
x i
i x
h h F M =
=
,
where 0 . 1 =

Vertical Distribution of Forces:

Level
i
w
x
h

( )
038 . 1
x x
h w

vx
C
x
F
7 259.2 21 495.09 0.35 34.26
6 259.2 18 361.61 0.26 25.02
5 259.2 15 249.39 0.18 17.26
4 259.2 12 158.26 0.11 10.95
3 259.2 9 88.05 0.06 6.09
2 259.2 6 38.54 0.03 2.67
1 259.2 3 9.38 0.01 0.65
0
1814.4
0 1400.32 1.00 96.89

160

Seismic Loads Based on IBC 2012/ASCE 7-10

Based on Section 1613.1 of IBC 2012, Every structure, and portion thereof, including
nonstructural components that are permanently attached to structures and their supports
and attachments, shall be designed and constructed to resist the effects of earthquake
motions in accordance with ASCE 7, excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 11A. The
seismic design category for a structure is permitted to be determined in accordance with
Section 1613 or ASCE 7.
Exceptions:

1. Detached one- and two-family dwellings, assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B
or C, or located where the mapped short-period spectral response acceleration, S
S
, is less
than 0.4 g.
2. The seismic force-resisting system of wood-frame buildings that conform to the
provisions of Section 2308 are not required to be analyzed as specified in this section.
3. Agricultural storage structures intended only for incidental human occupancy.
4. Structures that require special consideration of their response characteristics and
environment that are not addressed by this code or ASCE 7 and for which other
regulations provide seismic criteria, such as vehicular bridges, electrical transmission
towers, hydraulic structures, buried utility lines and their

161

Analysis Procedure

1- Determination of maximum considered earthquake and design spectral response
accelerations:

Determine the mapped maximum considered earthquake MCE spectral response
accelerations,
s
S for short period (0.2 sec.) and
1
S for long period (1.0 sec.) using
the spectral acceleration maps in IBC Figures 1613.3.1(1) through 1613.3.1(6).
Where
1
S is less than or equal to 0.04 and
s
S is less than or equal to 0.15, the
structure is permitted to be assigned to Seismic Design Category A.

Determine the site class based on the soil properties. The site shall be classified as
Site Class A, B, C, D, E or F in accordance with Chapter 20 of ASCE 7. Where
the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site class,
Site Class D shall be used unless the building official or geotechnical data
determines Site Class E or F soils are present at the site.

Determine the maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations
MS
S at short period and
1 M
S at long period in
accordance with IBC 1613.3.3.

s a MS
S F S =
1 1
S F S
v M
=
where:
a
F = Site coefficient defined in IBC Table 1613.3.3(1).
v
F = Site coefficient defined in IBC Table 1613.3.3(2).

162

Determine the 5% damped design spectral response accelerations
DS
S at short
period and
1 D
S at long period in accordance with IBC 1613.3.4.

MS DS
S S ) 3 / 2 ( =
1 1
) 3 / 2 (
M D
S S =

where:
MS
S = The maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations for
short period as determined in section 1613.3.3.
1 M
S = The maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations for
long period as determined in section 1613.3.3.

2- Determination of seismic design category and Importance factor:

Risk categories of buildings and other structures are shown in IBC Table 1604.5.
Importance factors, Ie , are shown in ASCE 7-10 Table 1.5-2. Structures classified as
Risk Category I, II or III that are located where the mapped spectral response
acceleration parameter at 1-second period,
1
S , is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be
assigned to Seismic Design Category E. Structures classified as Risk Category IV that
are located where the mapped spectral response acceleration parameter
at 1-second period,
1
S , is greater than or equal to 0.75 shall be assigned to Seismic
Design Category F. All other structures shall be assigned to a seismic design category
based on their risk category and the design spectral response acceleration parameters,

163

DS
S and
1 D
S , determined in accordance with Section 1613.3.4 or the site-specific
procedures of ASCE 7. Each building and structure shall be assigned to the more severe
seismic design category in accordance with Table 1613.3.5(1) or 1613.5.5(2),
irrespective of the fundamental period of vibration of the structure.

164

3- Determination of the Seismic Base Shear:

The structural analysis shall consist of one of the types permitted in ASCE 7-10 Table
12.6-1, based on the structures seismic design category, structural system, dynamic
properties, and regularity, or with the approval of the authority having jurisdiction, an
alternative generally accepted procedure is permitted to be used. The analysis procedure
selected shall be completed in accordance with the requirements of the corresponding
section referenced in Table 12.6-1.

165

166

3.1 Equivalent Lateral Force Analysis:

Section 12.8 of ASCE 7-10

shall be used.

The seismic base shear V in a given direction is determined in accordance with
the following equation:

W C V
s
=
where:
W = effective seismic weight

The effective seismic weight, W, of a structure shall include the dead load above the
base and other loads above the base as listed below:
1. In areas used for storage, a minimum of 25 percent of the floor live load shall be
included.
Exceptions
a. Where the inclusion of storage loads adds no more than 5% to the effective seismic
weight at that level, it need not be included in the effective seismic weight.
b. Floor live load in public garages and open parking structures need not be included.
2. Where provision for partitions is required in the floor load design, the actual
partition weight or a minimum weight of 0.48 kN/m
2
of floor area, whichever is
greater.
3. Total operating weight of permanent equipment.

s
C = Seismic response coefficient

( )
e
DS
I R
S
/
=

R = response modification factor, given in ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1
e
I = importance factor

The value of
s
C shall not exceed the following:
( )
e
D
s
I R T
S
C
/
1
= for
L
T T

167

( )
e
L D
s
I R T
T S
C
/
2
1
= for
L
T T >

The value of
s
C shall not be less than:
01 . 0 044 . 0 =
e DS s
I S C

For structures located where
1
S is equal to or greater than 0.6g,
s
C shall not be less than

( )
e
s
I R
S
C
/
5 . 0
1
=
where:
T = fundamental period of the structure
L
T = long-period transition period, (given in ASCE 7-10 Figure 22), which is the
transition period between the velocity and displacement-controlled portions of the
design spectrum (about 5 seconds for Gaza Strip).

An approximate value of
a
T may be obtained from:

x
n t a
h C T =
where:
n
h = height of the building above the base in meters
t
C = building period coefficient given in Table 12.8-2
x = constant given in Table 12.8-2

The calculated fundamental period, , T cannot exceed the product of the coefficient,
u
C ,
in Table 12.8-1 times the approximate fundamental period,
a
T .

168

Table 12.8-1: Coefficient for upper limit on calculated period

Design Spectral Response,
1 D
S Coefficient
u
C
4 . 0

0.3
0.2
0.15
1 . 0

1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

In cases where moment resisting frames do not exceed twelve stories in height and
having a minimum story height of 3 m, an approximate period
a
T in seconds in the
following form can be used:

N T
a
1 . 0 =

where N = number of stories above the base

169

3.2 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces:

V C F
vx x
=
and

=
=
n
i
i
k
i
k
x x
vx
h w
h w
C
1

where:
x
F = Lateral force at level x
vx
C = Vertical distribution factor
V = total design lateral force or shear at the base of the building
x
w and
i
w = the portions of W assigned to levels x and i
x
h and
i
h = heights to levels x and i
k = a distribution exponent related to the building period as follows:
k = 1 for buildings with T less than or equal to 0.5 seconds
k = 2 for buildings with T more than or equal to 2.5 seconds
Interpolate between k = 1 and k = 2 for buildings with T between 0.5 and 2.5

3.3 Horizontal Distribution of Forces and Torsion:

Horizontally distribute the shear
x
V

=
=
x
i
i x
F V
1

where:
i
F = portion of the seismic base shear, V , introduced at level i

Accidental Torsion,
ta
M
ta
M = ( ) B V
x
05 . 0
Total Torsion,
T
M
ta t T
M M M + =

F
F
F
w
n
w
x
w
1
h
h
h

170

3.4 Story Drift:

The story drift, , is defined as the difference between the deflection of the center of
mass at the top and bottom of the story being considered.
e
xe d
x
I
C
=
Where:

d
C = deflection amplification factor, given in Table 12.2-1
xe
= deflection determined by elastic analysis

171

172

173

174

175

176

4- Seismic Load Effects and Combinations:

Use D S Q E
DS E
2 . 0 + = for these combinations

Use D S Q E
DS E
2 . 0 = for these combinations

DS
S , is permitted to be taken as zero when SDs is equal
to or less than 0.125.

4.2 Load Effect with Over-strength Factor

177

4.3 Redundancy:

The value of is permitted to equal 1.0 for the following:
1. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category B or C.
2. Drift calculation and P-delta effects.
3. Design of collector elements.
4. Design of members or connections where the seismic load effects including over-
strength factor are required for design.

For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E, or F, shall equal 1.3
unless one of the following two conditions is met, whereby is permitted to be
taken as 1.0:
a. Each story resisting more than 35 percent of the base shear in the direction of interest
shall comply with Table 12.3-3.
b. Structures that are regular in plan at all levels provided that the seismic force-resisting
systems consist of at least two bays of seismic force-resisting perimeter framing on each
side of the structure in each orthogonal direction at each story resisting more than 35
percent of the base shear. The number of bays for a shear wall shall be calculated as the
length of shear wall divided by the story height or two times the length of shear wall
divided by the story height, hsx , for light-frame construction.

178

Example (8):
For the building shown in Example (1), using IBC 2012/ASCE 7-10, evaluate the forces
at the floor levels perpendicular to axes 1-1, 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4.
Note that site class is D, g S
s
25 . 0 = and g S 10 . 0
1
= .

Solution:
Using Tables 1613.3.3(1) and 1613.3.3(2), short-period site coefficient 60 . 1 =
a
F
and long-period site coefficient 40 . 2 =
v
F .
Maximum considered earthquake spectral response accelerations adjusted for site
class effects are evaluated.
( ) g g S F S
s a MS
4 . 0 25 . 0 60 . 1 = = =
and
( ) g g S F S
v M
24 . 0 10 . 0 40 . 2
1 1
= = =
The 5% damped design spectral response accelerations
DS
S at short period and
1 D
S at long period in accordance are evaluated.
( ) g g S S
MS DS
267 . 0 40 . 0
3
2
3
2
= = =
( ) g g S S
M D
16 . 0 24 . 0
3
2
3
2
1 1
= = =
Occupancy importance factor, 0 . 1 =
e
I as evaluated from IBC 2012 Table 1604.5
and ASCE 7-10 Table 1604.5.
From Table 1613.3.5(1) and for g S
DS
267 . 0 = , Seismic Design Category (SDC) is
B. For g S
D
16 . 0
1
= and using Table 1613.3.5(2), SDC is C. Therefore, seismic
design category (SDC) is C.
For ordinary shear walls and using ASCE 7-10 Table 12.2-1, response
modification coefficient 0 . 5 = R .
The seismic base shear V in a given direction is determined in accordance with
the following equation:

W C V
s
=

( ) ( )
e
D
e
DS
s
I R T
S
I R
S
C
/ /
1
=

01 . 0 044 . 0
e DS
I S
Approximate period ( ) . sec 48 . 0 21 049 . 0
75 . 0
= =
a
T
( ) . sec 758 . 0 48 . 0 58 . 1 = =
a u
T C > 0.48 sec.

179

< = = 0534 . 0
0 . 5
267 . 0
s
C
( )
( ) 267 . 0 044 . 0 0667 . 0
48 . 0 ) 0 . 5 (
16 . 0
> = O.K
i.e., 0534 . 0 =
s
C
The seismic base shear ( ) tons V 89 . 96 4 . 1814 0534 . 0 = =

Vertical distribution of forces:
V C F
vx x
= and

=
=
n
i
i
k
i
k
x x
vx
h w
h w
C
1

K = 1.038 (from linear interpolation).
Shear forces

=
=
x
i
i x
F V
1

Vertical Distribution of Forces:

Level
i
w x
h

( )
038 . 1
x x
h w

vx
C
x
F

7 259.2 21 495.09 0.35 34.26
6 259.2 18 361.61 0.26 25.02
5 259.2 15 249.39 0.18 17.26
4 259.2 12 158.26 0.11 10.95
3 259.2 9 88.05 0.06 6.09
2 259.2 6 38.54 0.03 2.67
1 259.2 3 9.38 0.01 0.65
0

## 1814.4 0 1400.32 1.00 96.89

180

Calculation of Wind Loads on Structures according to ASCE 7-10

Permitted Procedures

The design wind loads for buildings and other structures, including the MWFRS
and component and cladding elements thereof, shall be determined using one of the
procedures as specified in the following section. An outline of the overall process
for the determination of the wind loads, including section references, is provided in
Figure (1).

Main Wind-Force Resisting System (MWFRS)
Wind loads for MWFRS shall be determined using one of the following
procedures:
(1) Directional Procedure for buildings of all heights as specified in Chapter 27 for
buildings meeting the requirements specified therein;
(2) Envelope Procedure for low-rise buildings as specified in Chapter 28 for
buildings meeting the requirements specified therein;
(3) Directional Procedure for Building Appurtenances (rooftop structures and
rooftop equipment) and Other Structures (such as solid freestanding walls and solid
freestanding signs, chimneys, tanks, open signs, lattice frameworks, and trussed
towers) as specified in Chapter 29;
(4) Wind Tunnel Procedure for all buildings and all other structures as specified in
Chapter 31.

181

Figure (1): Dtermination of Wind Loads

182

Directional Procedure

Step 1: Determine risk category of building or other structure, see Table 1.5-1.

Step 2: Determine the basic wind speed, V, for the applicable risk category, see
Figure 26.5-1A, B or C (United States). Basic wind speed is a three-second gust
speed at 10 m above the ground in Exposure C.

Step 3: Determine wind load parameters:
Wind directionality factor,
!
, see Table 26.6.1
Table 26.6.1: Wind directionality factor, "
#

183

The directionality factor used in the ASCE 7 wind load provisions for
into account the less than 100% probability that the design event wind
direction aligns with the worst case building aerodynamics.

Exposure category, for each wind direction considered, the upwind
exposure shall be based on ground surface roughness that is
determined from natural topography, vegetation, and constructed
facilities.
Surface Roughness B: Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or
other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the
size of single-family dwellings or larger.

Surface Roughness C: Open terrain with scattered obstructions having
heights generally less than 9.1 m. This category includes flat open
country and grasslands.

Surface Roughness D: Flat, unobstructed areas and water surfaces.
This category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats, and unbroken ice.

Topographic factor, \$
%&
, see Figure 26.8-1.
'
()
= (1+*
+
,
-
.
/
)
0
, where 1
2
, 3
4
and 5
6
are given in Fig. 26.8-1.
For flat terrains, 8
9:
= .; .
184

Gust factor, G:
The gust effect factor for a rigid building is permitted to be taken as 0.85.
Enclosure classification:
Open Building: A building having each wall at least 80 percent open.
This condition is expressed for each wall by the equation Ao 0.8 Ag
where

Ao = total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external
pressure
Ag = the gross area of that wall in which Ao is identified

185

Partially Enclosed Building: A building that complies with both of the
following conditions:
1. The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external
pressure exceeds the sum of the areas of openings in the balance of the
building envelope (walls and roof) by more than 10 percent.
2. The total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external
pressure exceeds (0.37 m2) or 1 percent of the area of that wall,
whichever is smaller, and the percentage of openings in the balance of
the building envelope does not exceed 20 percent.

Enclosed Building: It is a building that is not classified as open or
partially enclosed.
Internal pressure coefficient, <=
>?
, see Table 26.11-1.

Table 26.11-1; Internal Pressure Coefficient

Step 4: Determine velocity pressure exposure coefficient, @
A
BC D
E
, see Table
27.3-1. Note that F
G
is constant and calculated for mean height of the building,
while H
I
varies with heights measured from the base of the building.
186

Step 5: Determine velocity pressure, J
K
LM N
O
, see equation below.

P
Q
=0.613 R
S
T
UV
W
X
Y
Z

where:
[
\
= velocity pressure calculated at height z, (N/m
2
)
]
^
= velocity pressure calculated at mean roof height h, (N/m
2
)
_
`
= wind directionality factor
a
b
= velocity pressure exposure coefficient
c
de
= topographic factor
f = basic wind speed, in m/s
187

Step 6: Determine external pressure coefficients, g
h
(Figure 27.4-1)

188

Step 7: Determine wind pressure, p, on each building surface (enclosed and
partially enclosed).

i =jk l
m
n o
p
(q r
st
)
Design wind load cases are shown in Figure 27.4-8.

189

190

Example:
It is required to calculate the lateral wind loads acting on the 8-story building,
considering that the wind acts in the North-South direction. The building which is
used as headquarter for police operation, is 30 m x 15 m in plan as shown in the
figure (enclosed), and located right on the Gaza Beach (flat terrain).
Note: Use a basic wind speed of 100 Km/hr and ASCE 7-10 Directional Procedure.

Plan

Elevation

191

Step 1: Building risk category:
Based on Table 1.5-1, building risk category is IV.

Step 2: Basic wind speed:
It is given as 100 km/hr.

Step 3: Building wind load parameters:
85 . 0 =
d
K (wind directionality factored evaluated from Table 26.6.1)
Exposure category is D
0 . 1 =
zt
K (Topographic factor for flat terrain)
Gust factor, G , is 0.85 for rigid buildings
Building is enclosed
Internal pressure coefficient for enclosed buildings, uv
wx
, is 18 . 0

Step 4: Velocity pressure coefficients,
h
K and
z
K :
384 . 1 =
h
K (Interpolating from Table 27.3-1) and
z
K varies with
height

Step 5: Determine velocity pressure,
h
q and
z
q :

2
613 . 0 V K K K q
d zt h h
=

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
/ 43 . 556
60 60
000 , 100
85 . 0 0 . 1 384 . 1 613 . 0 m N =

=

2
613 . 0 V K K K q
d zt z z
=

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
/ 05 . 402
60 60
000 , 100
85 . 0 0 . 1 613 . 0 m N K K
z z
=

=

Step 6: External pressure coefficients,
p
C :
For 5 . 0
30
15
B / L = = and using Figure 27.4.1, the external pressure coefficients are
shown in the figure.

192

Step 7: Wind pressure,
p
:
For the windward walls,
( )
pi i p z
C G q C G q p =
( )( ) ( )( ) 18 . 0 85 . 0 43 . 556 8 . 0 85 . 0 =
z
q

( ) (max) / 13 . 85 68 . 0
2
m N q
z
=

For the leeward walls,
( )
pi i p h
C G q C G q p =
( )( ) ( )( ) 18 . 0 85 . 0 43 . 556 5 . 0 85 . 0 43 . 556 =

(max) / 62 . 321
2
m N =

For the side walls,
( )
pi i p h
C G q C G q p =
( )( ) ( )( ) 18 . 0 85 . 0 43 . 556 7 . 0 85 . 0 43 . 556 =

(max) / 21 . 416
2
m N =

Height, meters
z
K

z
q

p

0 to 4.6 m 1.03 414.17 366.76
4.6 to 6.1m 1.08 434.17 380.36
6.1 to 7.6 m 1.12 450.28 391.32
7.6 to 9.1 m 1.16 466.39 402.27
9.1 to 12.2 m 1.22 490.56 418.71
12.2 to 15.2 m 1.27 510.56 432.31
15.2 to 18 m 1.31 526.67 443.26
18 to 21.3 m 1.34 538.89 451.57
21.3 to 24.4 m 1.38 554.72 462.34
24.4 to 25 m 1.40 562.78 467.82

193

Moment Frames

Based on ACI 2.2, Moment Frames are defined as frames in which members and
joints resist forces through flexure, shear, and axial force. Moment frames are
categorized as follows:

Ordinary Moment Frames Concrete frames complying with the
requirements of Chapters 1 through 18 of the ACI Code. They are used in
regions of low-seismic risk.

Intermediate Moment Frames Concrete frames complying with the
requirements of 21.3 in addition to the requirements for ordinary moment
frames. They are used in regions of moderate-seismic risk.

Special Moment Frames Concrete frames complying with the
requirements of 21.5 through 21.8, in addition to the requirements for
ordinary moment frames. They are used in regions of moderate and high-
seismic risks.

194

Beam-Column Joints

A- Corner Joints:

A-1 Opening:
If a corner joint of a rigid frame tends to be opened by the applied moments it is
called !opening joint".

Measured Efficiency of Opening Joints

195

A-2 Closing:
If a corner joints tends to be closed by the applied moments it is called !closing
joints".

B- T- Joints:

196

Exterior Beam Column Joint

C- Cross- Joints:

(a) Forces due to gravity loads (b) Forces due to lateral loads

197

Design Of Non-seismic Beam-Column Joints According To ACI 352

The ACI committee 352R-02 report on the design of reinforced concrete beam-
column joints (Recommendations for Design of Design of Beam-column Joints in
Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Structures) divides joints into two groups
depending on the deformation of the joints.

(a) Non-seismic joints, which are joints not subjected to large inelastic
deformations and need not be designed according to ACI Chapter 21.
(b) Seismic joints, which are joints designed to sustain large inelastic
deformations, according to ACI Chapter 21.

In the following section, design of non-seismic joints is to be dealt with.

Shear Forces at the Joint:

Consider the equilibrium of the upper half of the joint as shown in the figure. The
horizontal shear at mid-height of an exterior beam-column joint
int jo , u
V is given by

. int , col n jo u
V T V =

Where:

n
T = normal force in the top steel in the joint =
y s
f A and 0 . 1 =
. col
V = column shear, which can be evaluated from frame analysis or from the free
body diagram assuming the points of inflection at mid-height of each story.
For an interior beam-column joint, the horizontal shear at mid-height of the joint
int jo , u
V is given by

. 2 1 int , col n n jo u
V C T V + =

Where:
1 n
T = normal force in the top steel in the joint =
y s
f A and 0 . 1 =
2 n
C = compressive force in concrete to the other side of the joint

198

Shear Strength of the Joint:
The nominal shear strength on a horizontal plane at mid-height of the joint is given
by

.
' 265 . 0
col j c n
h b f T =

The factored shear force on a horizontal plane at mid-height of the joint is to satisfy
the following equation.
n u
V V =

Where:
beam-column joint
int jo , u
V is given by
= constant related to the confinement of the joint
. col
h = column dimension parallel to the shear force direction
j
b = effective width of the joint
=
. col b
. col b
h b
2
b b
+
+

b
b = width of the beam parallel to the applied force
c
b = dimension of the column perpendicular to the applied force
= strength reduction factor for shear = 0.75

If the previous equation is not satisfied, either the size of the column needs to be
increased or the shear force transferred to the joint needs to be decreased.

199

Width of Joint,
j
b

Values of Type-I joints,

200

201

Values of

(ACI 352R-02)
Anchorage requirements at the Joint:

Beam reinforcement terminating in a non-seismic joint should have 90-deg hooks
with
c
b
dh
f
d
l

=
318
where
dh
l is not to be less than
db
8 nor less than 15 cm.
The critical section for developing tension in the beam reinforcement is taken at the
face of the joint. If the development length for hooked bars
dh
l is not satisfied,
either the size of the column will need to be increased or the amount of shear being
transferred to the joint will need to be decreased.

Transverse Reinforcement at the Joint:

ACI committee 352 recommends that non-seismic joints be provided with at least
two layers of transverse reinforcement (ties) between the top and bottom levels of
longitudinal reinforcement in the deepest beam framing into the joint. For gravity
load only maximum spacing is kept to 30 cm and to 15 cm for non-seismic lateral

202

Example (8):
Check the adequacy of Joint "B" in terms of shear resistance.
Note that story height is 3.0 m,
2
c
cm / Kg 300 ' f = and
2
y
cm / Kg 4200 f = .

Solution:
Shear force at centreline of joint
. col n int jo , u
V T V =
Where
y s n
f A T = and 0 . 1 = for non-seismic joints
( )( )
tons 922 . 131
1000
4200 41 . 31 0 . 1
T
n
= =
From equilibrium of forces,
n n
T C = and
( )( )( ) ( ) 1000 922 . 131 40 a 300 85 . 0 = and a = 12.93 cm

203

cm 75 . 71 25 . 1 2 1 4 80 d = =
( )
( )( )
[ ] m . t 125 . 86 2 / 93 . 12 75 . 71
10
4200 41 . 31
2 / a d f A M
5
y s n
= = =
( )
n pc . col
M l V = and tons 708 . 28 3 / 125 . 86 3 / M V
n . col
= = =
tons 214 . 103 708 . 28 922 . 131 V
int jo , u
= =
K . O cm ) 60 40 ( cm 40
2
40 40
b
j
+ =
+
=
( ) ( )( )
tons 32 . 220
1000
60 40 300 20 265 . 0
h b ' f 265 . 0 V
. col j c n
= = =
( ) tons 214 . 103 tons 24 . 165 32 . 220 75 . 0 V
n
> = =
i.e., joint is adequate in terms of resisting shear
Two ties, as a minimum, are to be provided at the joint, where
y
w
v
f
S b
A
5 . 3
min ,
=
For mm 10 bars (3-legged)
( )( )
( )
cm S 65 . 70
40 5 . 3
4200 785 . 0 3
= =
Provide two sets of mm 10 ties (3-legged) spaced at 30 cm (S
max
= 30 cm)

204

Anchorage of top reinforcement in girder:
( )
cm
f
d
l
c
b
dh
72 . 36
300
2 318
'
318
= = =
Available development length = 60 - 4 - 1 - 2 - 2.5 = 50.50 cm > 36.72 cm O.K

205

A- Flexural Members (Beams) of Special Moment Frames

Requirements of ACI 21.5 are applicable for special moment frame members
proportioned primarily to resist flexure with factored axial forces
g c
A f 1 . 0 . If such
members are subjected to axial forces
g c
A f > 1 . 0 , they are treated as beam-columns.

1- General Requirements:
Clear span for the member,
n
l , shall not be less than four times the
effective span.
Width of member,
w
b , is not to be less than the smaller of 0.3 h and 25
cm, where
w
b is web width and h is overall thickness of member.
Width of member is not to be more than the width of supporting member
plus distances on each side of the supporting member equal to the smaller
of (a) and (b):
(a) Width of supporting member in the direction of the span,
C
2
, and
(b) 0.75 times width of the supporting member in direction
perpendicular to C
2
.

2- Longitudinal Reinforcement:
Minimum amounts of top as well as bottom reinforcement,
min , s
A
, is not
to be less than the larger of

y
w c
f
d b f ' 80 . 0
and
y
w
f
d b 14

This requirement needs not be satisfied if the tension reinforcement provided
at every section is 1/3 larger than required by analysis.
Maximum reinforcement ratio is not to exceed 0.025.
At least two bars are to be provided continuously both top and bottom.
Positive moment strength at joint face is not to be less than \$ of the
negative moment strength provided at the face of the joint.
The negative or positive moment at any section along the member is not
to be less than % the maximum moment strength provided at face of either
joint.

206

Lap splices of flexural reinforcement are permitted only if hoop or spiral
reinforcement is provided over the lap length. Maximum spacing of the
transverse reinforcement in the lap region is not to exceed the smaller of
d/4 or 10 cm.
Lap splices are not to be used within the joints, within a distance of twice
the member depth from the face of the joint, and at locations where
analysis indicates flexural yielding caused by inelastic lateral
displacements of the frame.

Reinforcement Requirements for Flexural Members of Special Moment
Frames

3- Transverse Reinforcement:

Hoops are to be provided in the following regions of frame members:
(a) Over a length equal to twice the member depth measured from the face of
the supporting member toward mid span, at both end of the flexural
member;
(b) Over lengths equal to twice the member depth on both sides of a section
where flexural yielding is likely to occur in connection with inelastic
lateral displacements of the frame.
The first hoop is to be located at a distance not more than 5 cm from the face
of the supporting member. Spacing of such reinforcement is not to exceed the
smallest of: d/4,
b
d 8
where
b
d
is the diameter of the smallest longitudinal
bars, 24 times the diameter of hoop bars and 30 cm.

207

Where hoops are required, they are arranged in away similar to that of
column ties.
Where hoops are not required, stirrups with seismic hooks at both ends are to
spaced at a distance not more than d/2 throughout the length of the member.
Hoops in flexural members are permitted to be made up of two pieces of
reinforcement: a stirrup having seismic hooks at both ends and closed by a
crosstie. Consecutive crossties engaging the same longitudinal bar shall have
their 90 deg hooks at opposite sides of a flexural member. If the longitudinal
reinforcing bars secured by the crossties are confined by a slab on only one
side of the flexural frame member, the 90-degree hooks of the crossties shall
be placed on that side.

Transverse Reinforcement for Flexural Members of Special Moment Frames

208

Splices and Hoop Reinforcement for Flexural Members of Special Moment
Frames

3- Shear Strength Reinforcement:

The design shear force,
e
V , is to be determined from consideration of the
static forces on the portion of the member between faces of the joint. It is
assumed that moments of opposite sign corresponding to probable flexural
moment strength,
pr
M , act at the joint faces and that the member is loaded
with the factored tributary gravity load along its span. For calculation of
pr
M
it is assumed that tensile strength in the longitudinal bars is 1.25
y
f and a
strength reduction factor of 1.0.

( )( ) 2 / 25 . 1 a d f A M
y s pr
=

209

where
( )
b f
f A
a
c
y s
' 85 . 0
25 . 1
=

Transverse reinforcement over the lengths identified in 3(a) and 3(b) shall be
proportioned to resist shear assuming 0 =
c
V when both of the following
conditions occur:
(a) The design shear force,
e
V , represents \$ or more of the maximum
required shear strength within these lengths;
(b) The factored axial compressive force,
u
P , including earthquake
effects is less than

c g
f A ' 05 . 0 .

Design Shear Forces For Flexural Members of Special Moment Frames

210

Example (8):

Design the transverse reinforcement for the potential hinge regions of the
earthquake resisting beam in a monolithic reinforced concrete frame shown in the
figure. The beam which is part of a special moment resisting frame is subjected to a
Note that
2
c
cm / Kg 300 ' f = and
2
y
cm / Kg 4200 f = .

Solution:

In this example requirements of section 21.5 of ACI 318-08 are to be satisfied.

A- ACI 21.5.1 "Scope":

Based on ACI 21.5.1.1, factored axial compressive force acting on the
member
g c
A ' f 1 . 0 < . (O.K)

211

Based on ACI 21.5.1.2, clear span of beam is not to be less than four times its
effective depth.

cm 75 . 53 25 . 1 1 4 60 d = =
0 . 4 3 . 17
75 . 53
930
> = (O.K)
Based on ACI 21.5.1.3, the width-to-depth ratio is not to be less than 0.30.
Based on ACI 21.5.1.3, width of beam is not to be less than 25 cm. (O.K)
30 . 0 75 . 0
60
45
> = (O.K).
- Width of beam is not to be more than column width plus three-fourths depth
of beam on each side of the column.
Width of beam = width of column. (O.K)

B- ACI 21.5.2 "Longitudinal Reinforcement":

Based on ACI 21.5.2.1, minimum ratio of top as well as bottom
reinforcement is not to be less than the larger of:
0033 . 0
4200
06 . 14
= and 00327 . 0
4200
300 792 . 0
=
( )
( )
0033 . 0 00406 . 0
75 . 53 45
817 . 9
provided
min
> = = (O.K)
- Maximum reinforcement ratio is not to exceed 0.025.
( )
( )
025 . 0 01217 . 0
75 . 53 45
452 . 29
provided
max
< = = (O.K)
- At least two bars are to be provided continuously top and bottom.
mm 25 2 bars are provided throughout the length of the beam on the top side,
while mm 25 4 bars are provided continuously on the bottom side. (O.K)

Based on ACI 21.5.2.2, positive moment strength at joint face is not to be
less than 1/2 of the negative moment strength provided at the face of the
joint.

Positive moment strength at face of joint is evaluated as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 / a d f A ve M
y ve , s n
= +
+

From equilibrium of forces, ( ) ( ) ve T ve C
n n
+ = + and
( )( )( ) ( ) 4200 63 . 19 45 a 300 85 . 0 = and cm 18 . 7 a =

212

( )
( )( )
[ ] m . t 35 . 41 2 / 18 . 7 75 . 53
10
4200 63 . 19
ve M
5
n
= = +
Negative moment strength at face of joint is evaluated as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 / a d f A ve M
y ve , s n
=

From equilibrium of forces, ( ) ( ) ve T ve C
n n
= and
( )( )( ) ( ) 4200 45 . 29 45 a 300 85 . 0 = and cm 78 . 10 a =
( )
( )( )
[ ] m . t 82 . 59 2 / 78 . 10 75 . 53
10
4200 45 . 29
ve M
5
n
= = +
Thus, ( )
( )
2
ve M
ve M
n
n

> + at face of joint. (O.K)
- The negative or positive moment at any section along the member is not to
be less than 1/4 the maximum moment strength provided at face of either
joint.

At section of least reinforcement moment strength is evaluated as follows:
From equilibrium of forces,
n n
T C = and
( )( )( ) ( ) 4200 817 . 9 45 a 300 85 . 0 = and cm 59 . 3 a =
( )( )
[ ] m . t
4
82 . 59
m . t 42 . 21 2 / 59 . 3 75 . 53
10
4200 817 . 9
M
5
n
> = = (O.K)
Based on ACI 21.5.2.3, lap splices of flexural reinforcement are permitted
only if hoop or spiral reinforcement is provided over the lap length.
Maximum spacing of the transverse reinforcement in the lap region is not to
exceed the smaller of d/4 or 10 cm. Thus, maximum spacing is not to exceed
10 cm within the lap length.

- Lap splices are not to be used (a) within the joints; (b) within a distance of
twice the member depth from the face of the joint and (c) at locations where
analysis indicates flexural yielding caused by inelastic lateral displacements
of the frame.

213

Development length of top bars (in tension):

b
c
b
tr b
s e t y
d
d
f
d
K c
f
l

+
=
' 5 . 3

3 . 1 =
t
, 1 =
e
, 1 =
s
, and 1 =
b
c = 4.0 + 1.0 + 1.25 = 6.25 cm
or
b
c = [(45 & 4 (2) & 2 (1) & 2.5]/ (2) = 16.25 cm
i.e.,
b
c is taken as 6.25 cm

( )
cm
n s
A
K
tr
tr
14 . 3
2 ) 10 (
) 785 . 0 )( 2 ( 40 40
= = =

5 . 2 756 . 3
5 . 2
14 . 3 25 . 6
> =
+
=
+
b
tr b
d
K c
, taken as 2.5.

( )
( )
( ) 07 . 90 5 . 2
300 5 . 2 5 . 3
3 . 1 4200
=

=
d
l

Required development length cm 90 l
d
=

Development length of bottom bars (in tension):
b
c
b
tr b
s e t y
d
d
f
d
K c
f
l

+
=
' 5 . 3

1 =
t
, 1 =
e
, 1 =
s
, and 1 =
b
c = 4.0 + 1.0 + 1.25 = 6.25 cm
or
b
c = [(45 & 4 (2) & 2 (1) & 2.5]/ (6) = 5.42cm
i.e.,
b
c is taken as 5.42 cm

( )
cm
n s
A
K
tr
tr
57 . 1
4 ) 10 (
) 785 . 0 )( 2 ( 40 40
= = =

214

5 . 2 79 . 2
5 . 2
57 . 1 42 . 5
> =
+
=
+
b
tr b
d
K c
, taken as 2.5.
( )
( ) 28 . 69 5 . 2
300 5 . 2 5 . 3
4200
=

=
d
l

Required development length cm 70 l
d
=

C- ACI 21.5.3 "Transverse Reinforcement":

Based on ACI 21.5.3.1, hoops are to be provided in the following regions of
frame members:
(c) Over a length equal to twice the member depth measured from the face of
the supporting member toward mid span, at both end of the member;
(d) Over lengths equal to twice the member depth on both sides of a section
where flexural yielding is likely to occur in connection with inelastic
lateral displacements of the frame.
Based on ACI 21.5.3.2, the first hoop is to be located at a distance not more
than 5 cm from the face of the supporting member. Maximum spacing of
such reinforcement is not to exceed the smallest of: d/4,
b
d 8 where
b
d is the
diameter of the smallest longitudinal bars; 24 times the diameter of hoop
bars, and 30 cm.

Hoops are to be provided over a distance of 2 h = 120 cm from faces of
joints.

Maximum hoop spacing
( )
( )
cm 30
cm 24 1 24 d 24
cm 20 5 . 2 8 d 8
cm 44 . 13 4 / 75 . 53 4 / d
h
b
=
= =
= =
= =
, taken as 12.5 cm.

Based on ACI 21.5.3.3, where hoops are required they are arranged in away
similar to that of column ties.

215

Based on ACI 21.5.3.4, where hoops are not required, stirrups with seismic
hooks at both ends are to spaced at a distance not more than d/2 throughout
the length of the member.
Maximum spacing = d/2 = 53.75/2 = 26.875 cm, taken as 25 cm.

D- ACI 21.5.4 "Shear Strength Requirements":

Based on ACI 21.5.4.1, the design shear force
e
V is to be determined from
consideration of the static forces on the portion of the member between faces
of the joint. It is assumed that moments of opposite sign corresponding to
probable flexural moment strength
pr
M act at the joint faces and that the
member is loaded with the factored tributary gravity load along its span. For
calculation of
pr
M it is assumed that tensile strength in the longitudinal bars
is 1.25
y
f and a strength reduction factor of 1.0.

216

( ) ( ) m / t 6 . 4 2 5 . 0 3 2 . 1 w
u
= + =
( ) t 39 . 21 2 / 3 . 9 6 . 4
2
w
c
l u
= =
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 / a d f ve A 25 . 1 ve M
y s pr
+ = +
( )( )( ) ( )( ) 4200 63 . 19 25 . 1 45 a 300 85 . 0 = and cm 98 . 8 a =
( )
( )( )
[ ] m . t 77 . 50 2 / 98 . 8 75 . 53
10
4200 63 . 19 25 . 1
ve M
5
pr
= = +

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 / a d f ve A 25 . 1 ve M
y s pr
=
( )( )( ) ( )( ) 4200 45 . 29 25 . 1 45 a 300 85 . 0 = and cm 47 . 13 a =
( )
( )( )
[ ] m . t 69 . 72 2 / 47 . 13 75 . 53
10
4200 45 . 29 25 . 1
ve M
5
pr
= =

( ) ( )
t 27 . 13
3 . 9
69 . 72 77 . 50
l
M
c
ve M ve pr
pr
=
+
=

+ +

t 66 . 34 39 . 21 27 . 13 V
max , e
= + =
For sway to the right
max , e
V occurs at the right side, while it occurs at the left
side for sway to the left.

Based on ACI 21.5.4.2, transverse reinforcement over the lengths identified
in 3(a) and 3(b) shall be proportioned to resist shear assuming 0 V
c
= when
both of the following conditions occur:
(b) The design shear force represents \$ or more of the maximum required
shear strength within these lengths;
(c) The factored axial compressive force including earthquake effects is
less than
c g
' f A 05 . 0 .

Seismic induced shear tons 2 / 66 . 34 tons 27 . 13 < = and the above-mentioned
requirement is not applicable.

( )( ) tons 20 . 22 1000 / 75 . 53 45 300 53 . 0 d b ' f 53 . 0 V
c c
= = =
c n s
V V V = and
c
u
s
V
V
V

=
tons 01 . 24 20 . 22
75 . 0
66 . 34
V
s
= =

For two-legged 10 mm transverse reinforcement,

217

( )( )( )
) 1000 ( 01 . 24
S
75 . 53 4200 785 . 0 2
S
d f A
V
y v
s
= = = and cms 76 . 14 S=
Use two-legged 10 mm stirrups @ 12.5 cm, cms 12 . 14 S=

Stirrups at other locations:

At the end of the hoop region,
3 . 9
1 . 8
12 . 8 66 . 34
12 . 8 V
u
=
+
+
and tons 14 . 29 V
u
=
c n s
V V V = and
c
u
s
V
V
V

=
tons 65 . 16 20 . 22
75 . 0
14 . 29
V
s
= =
For two-legged 10 mm transverse reinforcement,
( )( )( )
) 1000 ( 65 . 16
S
75 . 53 4200 785 . 0 2
S
d f A
V
y v
s
= = = and cms 28 . 21 S= < 53.75/2
cm
Use 10 mm stirrups @ 20 cm.

218

219

B- Special Moment Frame Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Load

Requirements of ACI 21.6 are applicable for special moment frame members
proportioned to resist axial forces
g c
A f > 1 . 0 .
1- General Requirements:

The shortest cross-sectional dimension, measured on a straight line passing
through the geometric centroid, shall not be less than 30 cm.
The ratio of shortest cross-sectional dimension to the perpendicular
dimension shall not be less than 0.40.

2- Minimum Flexural Strength of Columns:
The flexural strengths of the columns shall satisfy the following equation:

nb nc
M 2 . 1 M

Where

nc
M
= sum of nominal flexural strengths of columns framing into the joint,
evaluated at the faces of the joint. Column flexural strength shall be calculated
for the factored axial force, consistent with the direction of the lateral forces
considered, resulting in the lowest flexural strength.

nb
M
= sum of nominal flexural strengths of the beams framing into the
joint, evaluated at the faces of the joint. Flexural strengths shall be summed
such that the column moments oppose the beam moments.
The intent of the above equation is to reduce the likelihood of inelastic action.
If columns are not stronger than beams framing into a joint, flexural yielding
can occur at both ends of all columns in a given story, resulting in a column
failure mechanism that can lead to collapse.

Columns not satisfying the previous equation shall be ignored in
determining the calculated strength and stiffness of the structure, and shall
conform to ACI 21.13 (frame members not proportioned to resist forces
induced by earthquake motions).

220

Strong column-weak beam requirements for special moment frames

3- Longitudinal Reinforcement:
The reinforcement ratio
g
shall not be less than 0.01 and shall not
exceed 0.06.
Lap splices are permitted only within the center half of the member
length, and shall be designed as tension lap splices and enclosed within
transverse reinforcement conforming to ACI 21.6.4.2 and 21.6.4.3.

Typical lap splice details of columns in special moment frames

221

4- Transverse Reinforcement:
Transverse reinforcement shall be provided over a length
o
l from each joint
face and on both sides of any section where flexural yielding is likely to
occur as a result of inelastic lateral displacements of the frame. The length
o
l
shall not be less than the largest of:
(a) The depth of the member at the joint face or that section where flexural
yielding is likely to occur;
(b) 1/6 of the clear span of the member; and
(c) 45 cm.

Transverse reinforcement shall be provided by either single or overlapping
hoops, spirals, circular hoops or rectilinear hoops, with or without crossties.
Crossties of the same or smaller bar size as the hoops shall be permitted.
Each end of the crossties shall engage a peripheral long reinforcing bar.
Consecutive crossties shall be alternated end for end and along the
longitudinal reinforcement. Spacing of cross ties or legs of rectilinear hoops,
x
h
, within a cross section of the member shall not exceed 35 cm on center.

Example of transverse reinforcement in columns
Spacing of transverse reinforcement along the length
o
l
of the member shall
not exceed the smallest of (a), (b) and (c):
(a) one-quarter of the minimum member dimension;

222

(b) six times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar, and
(c)

,
_

+
3
35
10
x
h
s
o , where
o
s
shall not exceed 15 cm and need not be
taken less than 10 cm. In the same expression
x
h is maximum horizontal spacing
of hoop or crosstie legs on all faces of the column.

The volumetric ratio of spiral or circular hoop reinforcement
s

shall not
be less than the larger value evaluated from the following equations:

yt
c
s
f
f ' 12 . 0

yt
c
ch
g
s
f
f
A
A
'
1 45 . 0

,
_

where
yt
f
= yield stress of the transverse reinforcement
g
A = gross cross-sectional area of concrete section
ch
A
= cross-sectional area of a structural member measured to the outside
edges of transverse reinforcement.

The total cross-sectional area of rectangular hoop reinforcement shall
not be less than that required by the following equations:

1
]
1

,
_

1
'
30 . 0
ch
g
yt
c c
sh
A
A
f
f b s
A

yt
c c
sh
f
f b s
A
' 09 . 0

Where
s
center-to-center spacing of transverse reinforcement measured along the
longitudinal axis of the structural member

c
b
cross-sectional dimension of column core measured to the outside
edges of the transverse reinforcement composing
sh
A

ch
A cross-sectional area of a structural member measured to the outside
edges of transverse reinforcement

223

Beyond the length
o
l
, the column shall contain spiral or hoop reinforcement
with center-to-enter spacing, s , not exceeding the smaller of six times the
diameter of the smallest longitudinal column bars and 15 cm.

Columns supporting reactions from discontinued stiff members, such as
walls, shall satisfy (a) and (b):
(a) Transverse reinforcement as required in 4 shall be provided over their full
height at all levels beneath the discontinuity if the factored axial compressive
force in these members, related to earthquake effect, exceeds
g c
A f ' 1 . 0
. Where
design forces have been magnified to account for the over strength of the
vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting system, the limit of
g c
A f ' 1 . 0
shall be increased to
g c
A f ' 25 . 0
.
(b) The transverse reinforcement shall extend into the discontinued member
at least
d
l
of the largest longitudinal column bar, where
d
l
is determined in
accordance with ACI 21.7.5. Where the lower end of the column terminates
on a wall, the required transverse reinforcement shall extend into the wall at
least
d
l
of the largest longitudinal column bar at the point of termination.
Where the column terminates on a footing or mat, the required transverse
reinforcement shall extend at least 30 cm into the footing or mat.

Confinement requirements at column ends
(a) Spiral hoop reinforcement

224

Confinement requirements at column ends
(b) Rectangular hoop reinforcement

Columns supporting discontinued stiff members

225

5- Shear Strength Requirements:
The design shear force,
e
V , is to be determined from consideration of
maximum forces that can be generated at the faces of the joint at each end of
the member. These joint forces shall be determined using the maximum
probable moment strengths,
pr
M , of the member associated with the range of
u
P
, acting on the member. The member shears need not
exceed those determined from joint strengths based on the probable moment
strength
pr
M of the transverse members framing into the joint. In no case
shall
e
V be less than the factored shear determined by analysis of the
structure.

Transverse reinforcement over the length
o
l shall be proportioned to resist
shear assuming 0
c
V when both (a) and (b) occur:
i. The earthquake-induced shear force represents or more of the maximum
required shear strength within
o
l ;
ii. The factored axial compressive force,
u
P
, including earthquake effects is
less than
c g
f A ' 05 . 0 .

moment frames

226

Example (9):

For the column shown in the figure, check the requirements of ACI 21.6 in relation
to columns which are part of special moment frames.
Note that design column loads are: tons 337 P
u
and tons 4 . 84 M
u
.
Use
2
c
cm / Kg 300 ' f and
2
y
cm / Kg 4200 f .

227

Solution:
A- ACI 21.6.1 "Scope":

Based on ACI 21.6.1, ( )( )( ) tons 337 tons 5 . 94 1000 / 70 45 300 1 . 0 A ' f 1 . 0
g c
< .
Thus, requirements of section ACI 21.6 apply.
Based on ACI 21.6.2, the shortest cross-sectional dimension, measured on a
straight line passing through the geometric centroid shall not be less than 30
cm. This requirement is satisfied since shortest cross-sectional dimension =
45 cm.
The ratio of the shortest cross-sectional dimension to the perpendicular
dimension shall not be less than 0.40.
Ratio = 40 . 0 64 . 0
70
45
> (O.K)

B- ACI 21.6.2 "Minimum Flexural Strengths of Columns":

Based on ACI 21.6.2.2, the flexural strengths of the columns shall satisfy
the following equation:

g c
M 2 . 1 M

Considering the columns on both sides of the joint are of equal flexural
strengths, the flexural strength of each of the columns is determined using
strength interaction diagrams.

228

01558 . 0
g
, ksi 4 ' f
c
,
( ) ( )
821 . 0
70
5 . 2 1 2 4 2 70

, tons 337 P
u

( )
( )( )( )
55 . 0
45 70 300 65 . 0
1000 337
/

g c
n
n
A f
P
K
Using nominal load-moment strength interaction diagram, L4-
60.80, 165 . 0
'

h A f
M
g
c
n
and m t M
n
. 15 . 109

From example (8),
( ) ( ) m . t 35 . 41 ve M ve M
nl nr
+ + and ( ) ( ) m . t 82 . 59 ve M ve M
nl nr

m t M
c
. 30 . 218 15 . 109 15 . 109 +

, m . t 17 . 101 82 . 59 35 . 41 M
g
+
2 . 1 16 . 2
17 . 101
3 . 218
>

g
c
M
M
(O.K)

C- ACI 21.6.3 "Longitudinal Reinforcement":

Based on ACI 21.6.3.1, the reinforcement ratio
g
shall not be less than 0.01
and shall not exceed 0.06.
( )( )
01558 . 0
70 45
087 . 49
g
(O.K)
Based on ACI 21.6.3.2, lap splices are only permitted within the center half
of the member length and shall be designed as tension lap splices enclosed
within transverse reinforcement conforming to ACI 21.6.4.2 and 21.6.4.3.

Length of lap splice of longitudinal bars (in tension):

For Class "B" lap splice,
d sp
l 3 . 1 l

b
c
b
tr b
s e t y
d
d
f
d
K c
f
l

,
_

,
_

' 5 . 3

1
t
, 1
e
, 1
s
, and 1
b
c = 4.0 + 1.0 + 1.25 = 6.25 cm
or
b
c = [(45 ! 4 (2) ! 2 (1) ! 2.5]/ (8) = 4.0625 cm
i.e.,
b
c is taken as 4.0625 cm

229

Ignoring the effect of transverse reinforcement, 0 K
tr

5 . 2 625 . 1
5 . 2
0 0625 . 4
<
+

+
b
tr b
d
K c

( )
( )
( ) 59 . 106 5 . 2
300 625 . 1 5 . 3
0 . 1 4200

,
_

d
l

Required splice length ( ) cm l
sp
57 . 138 59 . 106 3 . 1 , taken as 140 cm.

Based on ACI 21.6.4.2, transverse reinforcement shall be spaced at a distance
not exceeding (a) one-quarter of the minimum member dimension, (b) six
times the diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement, and (c)

,
_

+
3
35
10
x
h
s
o
, where
o
S is maximum longitudinal spacing of transverse
reinforcement, shall not exceed 15 cm and need not be taken less than 10 cm.
In the same expression
x
h is maximum horizontal spacing of hoop or
crosstie legs on all faces of the column.

Maximum vertical spacing of transverse reinforcement is not to exceed the
smallest of :
i. 45/4 = 11.25 cm
ii. 6 (2.5) = 15 cm
iii.
,
_

+
3
35
10
x
h
s
o
= 10 cm
( )
cm 5 . 30
2
1 4 2 70
h
x

. Thus maximum spacing is limited to 10 cm
(based on the minimum of a, b and c).
Based on ACI 21.6.4.3, crossties or legs of overlapping hoops shall not be
spaced more than 35 cm on center-to-center in the direction perpendicular to
the longitudinal axis of a structural member.
Two cross ties are added to the present mm 10 hoops to satisfy this
requirement (maximum spacing of 35 cm).

D- ACI 21.6.4 "Transverse Reinforcement":
Based on ACI 21.6.4.1 (b), the total cross-sectional area of rectangular hoop
reinforcement shall not be less than that required by ACI equations (21-4) and
(21-5).

For shear in the direction of longer side of the column:

230

( )( )( ) ( )
( )
2
1
96 . 2 1
62 37
70 45
4200
300 37 10 3 . 0
cm A
sh

1
]
1

( )( )( )
2
' 1
38 . 2
4200
300 37 10 09 . 0
cm A
sh

i.e.,
2
1
96 . 2 cm A
sh

Use mm 12 tie plus one mm 10 cross tie (
2
04 . 3 cm A
sh
)

For shear in the direction of shorter side of the column:
( )( )( ) ( )
( )
2
2
96 . 4 1
62 37
70 45
4200
300 62 10 3 . 0
cm A
sh

1
]
1

( )( )( )
2
' 2
98 . 3
4200
300 62 10 09 . 0
cm A
sh

i.e.,
2
2
96 . 4 cm A
sh

Use mm 12 tie plus three mm 12 cross ties ( ( )
2
sh
cm 65 . 5 13 . 1 5 A )

Based on ACI 21.6.4.4, transverse reinforcement in amount specified before
shall be provided over a length
o
l from each joint face and on both sides of
any section where flexural yielding is likely to occur as a result of inelastic
lateral displacements of the frame. The length
o
l shall not be less than the
largest of:
(d) The depth of the member at the joint face = 70 cm
(e) 1/6 of the clear span of the member= 400/6 = 66.67 cm
(f) 45 cm.
i.e.,
o
l = 70 cm.

Based on ACI 21.6.4.6, where transverse reinforcement as specified before is
not provided throughout the full length of the column, the remainder of the
column length shall contain spiral or hoop reinforcement with center-to-

231

center spacing not exceeding the smaller of six times the diameter of the
longitudinal column bars or 15 cm.
S
max
= the larger of 6 (2.5) cm and 15 cm = 15 cm

E- ACI 21.6.5 "Shear Strength Reinforcement":

The design shear force
e
V is to be determined from consideration of
maximum forces that can be generated at the faces of the joint at each end of
the member. These joint forces shall be determined using the maximum
probable moment strengths
pr
M of the member associated with the range of
factored axial loads on the member. The member shears need not exceed
those determined from joint strengths based on the probable moment strength
pr
M of the transverse members framing into the joint. In no case shall
e
V be
less than the factored shear determined by analysis of the structure.

( ) ( )
tons 865 . 30
4
77 . 50 69 . 72 77 . 50 69 . 72 2 / 1
V
e

+ + +
(see Example 8 for
pr
M
values)

cm 55 . 63 25 . 1 2 . 1 4 70 d
( )( ) tons 25 . 26 1000 / 55 . 63 45 300 53 . 0 V
c
(neglecting effect of axial force)
c n s
V V V and
c
u
s
V
V
V

tons 90 . 14 25 . 26
75 . 0
865 . 30
V
s

S
d f A
V
y v
s
and
( )
( )
0558 . 0
55 . 63 4200
1000 9 . 14
d f
V
S
A
y
s v

232

( )
0558 . 0 0375 . 0
4200
45 5 . 3
S
A
min
v
<
,
_

(O.K)
For cms 10 S ,
2
v
cm 558 . 0 A
Available
v
A (within the length
o
l ) = 3.04

cm
2
> 0.558 (O.K) .

233

234

C- Joints of Special Moment Frames

Requirements of ACI 21.7 are applicable for joints of special moment frames.

1- General Requirements:
Forces in longitudinal beam reinforcement at the joint face shall be
determined by assuming that the stress in the flexural tensile
reinforcement is
y
f 25 . 1 .
Beam longitudinal reinforcement terminated in a column shall be
extended to the far face the confined column core and anchored in tension
according to 21.7.5 and in compression according to chapter 12.
Where longitudinal beam reinforcement extends through abeam-column
joint, the column dimension parallel to the beam reinforcement shall not
be less than 20 times the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar.

1- Transverse Reinforcement:
Transverse reinforcement as discussed in B shall be provided
within the joint, unless the joint is confined by structural members
as shown below.
Within the depth of the shallowest framing member, transverse
reinforcement equal to at least the amount shown in B shall be
provided where members frame into all four sides of the joint and
where each member width is at least the column width. At these
locations spacing is permitted to be increased to 15 cm.
Transverse reinforcement as required in B shall be provided
through the joint to provide confinement for longitudinal beam
reinforcement outside the column core if such confinement is not
provided by a beam framing into the joint.

Effective area of joint

235

2- Shear Strength:
The nominal shear strength of the joint shall not be taken greater
than the values specified below:
- For joints confined on all four sides
j c
A f 3 . 5
- For joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces
j c
A f 4
- For others
j c
A f 2 . 3

A member that frames into a face is considered to provide confinement
to the joint if at least of the face of the joint is covered by the
framing member. A joint is considered to be confined if such members
frame into all faces of the joint.

j
A is the effective cross-sectional area within a joint computed from
joint depth times effective joint width. J oint depth shall be the overall
depth of the column, h. Effective joint width shall be the overall width
of the column, except where a beam frames into a wider column,
effective joint width shall not exceed the smaller of (a) and (b):
(a) Beam width plus joint depth
(b) Twice the smaller perpendicular distance from longitudinal axis of
beam to column side.

3- Development length of bars in tension:

The development length
dh
l for a bar with a standard 90 degree
hook shall not be less than the largest of
b
d 8
, 15 cm, and the length
required by the following equation which is applicable to bar
diameters ranging from 10 mm to 36 mm.

c
b y
dh
f
d f
l

=
2 . 17

The 90-degree hook shall be located within the confined core of a
column.

For bar diameters 10 mm through 36 mm, the development length
d
l for a straight bar shall not be less than (a) and (b):
(a) 2.5 times the length required by the previous equation if the
depth of the concrete cast in one lift beneath the bar does not exceed
30 cm, and

236

(b) 3.5 times the length provided by the same equation if the depth
of the concrete cast in one lift beneath the bar exceeds 30 cm.

Horizontal shear in beam-column connection

237

Example (10):
Determine the transverse reinforcement and shear strength requirements for the
interior beam-column connection shown in Example (9).
Solution:
A- ACI 21.7.1 "General Requirements"
Based on ACI 21.7.2.1, forces in longitudinal beam reinforcement at the joint
face shall be determined as assuming that the stress in the flexural tensile
reinforcement is
y
f 25 . 1 .

Based on ACI 21.7.2.3, where longitudinal beam reinforcement extends
through a beam-column joint, the column dimension parallel to the beam
reinforcement shall not be less than 20 times the diameter of the larger
longitudinal bar.
( ) cm 70 cm 50 5 . 2 20 d 20
b
< = = (O.K)
B- ACI 21.7.4 "Transverse Reinforcement":
Based on ACI 21.7.3.1, transverse reinforcement shall be provided within the joint.
2
sh
cm 88 . 2 A =

238

C- ACI 21.7.4 "Shear Strength":
tons 84 . 26
6 . 4
77 . 50 69 . 72
V
. col
=
+
=
. col 2 1 int jo , u
V C T V + =
tons 83 . 230 84 . 26 06 . 103 61 . 154 = + =
cm ) 70 45 ( cm 45 x 2 b b
b j
+ = + =
( )( )
2
col j j
cm 3150 45 70 h b A = = =
( ) tons V
n
24 . 218 1000 / 3150 300 4 = =
( ) tons V
n
68 . 163 24 . 218 75 . 0 = =
n u
V V > and column dimension in the direction of shear force needs to be
increased.
For
n u
V V = , ( ) ( )( ) tons h
col
83 . 230 1000 / 45 300 4 75 . 0 = and 72 . 98 =
col
h
Increase column cross sectional dimension to 45 cm x 100 cm.

Plan

239

Requirements for Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames

A- Beams

1- General Requirements:
Requirements of ACI 21.3.2 are applicable for intermediate moment frame
members proportioned primarily to resist flexure with factored axial forces
g c
A f 1 . 0 . If such members are subjected to axial forces
g c
A f > 1 . 0 , they are
treated as beam-columns.

2- Longitudinal Reinforcement:

Positive moment strength at joint face is not to be less than 1/3 of
the negative moment strength provided at the face of the joint.
The negative or positive moment at any section along the member
is not to be less than 1/5 the maximum moment strength provided
at the face of either joint.

3- Transverse Reinforcement:

At both ends of the member, hoops shall be provided over lengths
equal to twice the member depth measured from the face of the
supporting member toward midspan.
The first hoop is to be located at a distance not more than 5 cm
from the face of the supporting member. Maximum hoop spacing
is not to exceed the smallest of: d/4,
b
d 8 where
b
d is the diameter
of the smallest longitudinal bar, 24 times the diameter of hoop bar,
and 30 cm.
Where hoops are not required, stirrups are spaced at not more than
d/2 throughout the length of the member.

4- Shear Strength Reinforcement:

n
V
of beams resisting earthquake effect, E, shall not be less than
the smaller of (a) or (b):
(a) The sum of the shear associated with development of nominal
moment strengths of the member at each restrained end of the clear
span and the shear calculated for factored gravity loads;

240

(b) The maximum shear obtained from design load combinations that
include earthquake effect E, with E assumed to be twice that
prescribed by the legally adopted general building code for
earthquake resistant design.

Design Shear, ACI 318-2008

241

B- Beam-Columns

1- General Requirements:

Requirements of ACI 21.3.5 are applicable for intermediate moment frame
members proportioned to resist axial forces
g c
A f > 1 . 0 .

2- Transverse Reinforcement::

At both ends of the member, hoops shall be provided at spacing
o
s
over a length
o
l measured from the face of the joint.
The length
o
l shall not be less than the largest of:

(a) 1/6 of the clear span of the member
(b) Maximum cross-sectional dimension of the column
(c) 45 cm.

The spacing
o
s shall not exceed the smallest of:
(b)
b
d 8

(c) 24 diameter of the hoop bar
(c) One-half of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the column
(d) 30 cm.

The first hoop shall be located at not more than spacing 2 /
o
s from
the joint face.

Outside the length
o
l spacing of the transverse reinforcement shall
conform to ACI 7.10 (ordinary column ties) and ACI 11.4.5.1 (beam
shear reinforcement spacing limits).

Columns supporting reactions from discontinuous stiff members, such
as walls, shall be provided with transverse reinforcement at the
spacing,
o
s , as defined in 2 over the full height beneath the level at
which the discontinuity occurs if the portion of factored axial
compressive force in these members related to earthquake effects
exceeds
g c
A f ' 1 . 0
. Where design forces have been magnified to
account for the overstrength of the vertical elements of the
seismicforce- resisting system, the limit of
g c
A f ' 1 . 0
shall be

242

increased to
g c
A f ' 25 . 0
. This transverse reinforcement shall extend
above and below the columns as required in 21.6.4.6(b).

3- Shear Strength Requirements:

Design shear strength of columns resisting earthquake effect shall not
be less than the smaller of (a) or (b):
(a) The sum of the shear associated with development of
nominal moment strengths of the member at each restrained
end of the clear span and;

(b) The maximum shear obtained from design load
combinations that include earthquake effect E, with E
assumed to be twice that prescribed by the legally adopted
general building code for earthquake resistant design.

Design Shear, ACI 318-2008

C- Joints

J oints of intermediate moment resisting frames are designed in a way
similar to ordinary moment resisting frame joints.

243

Requirements for Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames

These provisions were introduced in the 2008 Code and apply only to
ordinary moment frames assigned to SDC B.

A- Beams

Based on 21.2.2, beams shall have at least two of the longitudinal bars
continuous along both the top and bottom faces. These bars shall be
developed at the face of support.

B- Columns

Based on 21.2.3, columns having clear height less than or equal to five times
the dimension c
1
(in the direction of the span for which moments are being
determined) shall be designed for shear in accordance with 21.3.3
(requirements for intermediate moment resisting frames.

Requirements for Structural Integrity

A structure is said to have structural integrity if localized damage does not
spread progressively to other parts of the structure. Experience has shown
that the overall integrity of a structure can be substantially enhanced by
minor changes in detailing of reinforcement.
The 1989 ACI Code introduced section 7.13. which provides details to
improve the integrity of joist construction, beams without stirrups and
perimeter beams. These requirements were updated in the 2002 ACI Code.

In detailing of reinforcement and connections, members of a structure
shall be effectively tied together to improve integrity of the overall
structure.
In joist construction, at least one bottom bar shall be continuous and at
non-continuous supports shall be terminated with a standard hook.
Beams along the perimeter of the structure shall have continuous
reinforcement consisting of:
(a) at least 1/6 of the tension reinforcement required for negative
moment at the support, but not less than 2 bars;
(b) at least of the tension reinforcement required for positive
moment at mid span , but not less than 2 bars.

244

- The above reinforcement shall be enclosed by the corners of U-stirrups
having not less than 135-deg hooks around the continuous top bars, or by
one piece closed stirrup with not less than 135-deg hooks around one of
the continuous bars.
- Where splices are needed to provide the required continuity, top
reinforcement shall be spliced at or near mid span and bottom
reinforcement shall be spliced at or near the support. Splices shall be
Class B tension splices or mechanical or welded splices.

245

Diaphragm Key Components

Diaphragm Slab (Sheathing):

It is the component of the diaphragm which acts primarily to resist shear
forced developed in the plane of the diaphragm.

Diaphragm Chords:

They are components along the diaphragm edges with increased longitudinal
and transverse reinforcement, acting primarily to resist tension and
compression forces generated by bending in the diaphragm.

Diaphragm Collectors:

They are components that serve to transmit the internal forces within the
diaphragm to elements of the lateral force resisting system. They shall be
monolithic with the slab, occurring either within the slab thickness or being
thickened.

Diaphragm Struts:

They are components of a structural diaphragm used to provide continuity
around an opening in the diaphragm. They shall be monolithic with the slab,
occurring either within the slab thickness or being thickened.

Distribution of Forces:

For rigid diaphragms the distribution of forces to vertical elements will be
essentially in proportion to their relative stiffness with respect to each other.

246

17
Di aphr agm Chor d / Beam Anal ogy
Tensile Stress
Compressive Stress
Support Support
shearwall
shearwall
Compression
Tension

247

12
Hor i zont al Di aphr agm Boundar i es
Boundaries
Boundaries
Interior shear
wall
Boundary
Boundaries
Diaphragm boundaries may not just
occur at the perimeter of the
diaphragm. Interior shear walls and
drag members create diaphragm
boundaries.
Boundaries
Boundaries

248

Requirements for Structural Diaphragms

Floor and roof slabs acting as structural diaphragms to transmit forces
induced by earthquake ground motions in structures assigned to SDC D, E,
or F shall be designed in accordance with this section
21.11 of ACI Code.

1- Scope:

Diaphragms are used in building construction are structural elements such as
floors and roofs that provide some or all of the following actions:
Support for building elements such as walls, partitions, and
cladding resisting horizontal forces but not acting as part of the
building vertical lateral force resisting system.
Transfer of lateral forces from the point of application to the
building vertical lateral force resisting system.
Connection of various components of the building lateral force
resisting system with appropriate stiffness so the building responds
as intended in the design.

2- Minimum Thickness of Slab:

Concrete slabs serving as structural diaphragms used to transmit
earthquake forces shall not be less than 5 cm thick.

3- Reinforcement:

The minimum reinforcement ratio for structural diaphragms shall
not be less than the shrinkage and temperature reinforcement ratio.
Reinforcement spacing each way shall not exceed 45 cm
Diaphragm chord members and collector elements with
compressive stresses exceeding
c
f 2 . 0 at any section shall have
transverse reinforcement over the length of the element as per
transverse reinforcement of boundary elements of special shear
walls. The special transverse reinforcement is allowed to be
discontinued at a section where the calculated compressive stress is
less than
c
f 15 . 0 . Stresses are calculated for the factored forces
using a linearly elastic model and gross-section properties of the
elements considered.

249

4- Design Forces:

The seismic design forces for structural diaphragms shall be obtained from

5- Shear Strength:

Nominal shear strength
n
V of structural diaphragms shall not exceed

( ) ' 12 . 2 ' 53 . 0
c cv y t c cv n
f A f f A V + =

where
cv
A
is gross area of concrete section in the direction of shear force
considered and
t

## is ratio of transverse reinforcement.

Example (11):

Determine the diaphragm forces for the building shown in Example (1).

Solution:

px px
n
x i i
n
x i
i t
Px
w Z I 35 . 0 w
W
F F
F

+
=
=
=

px
w Z I 75 . 0

Diaphragm Forces:

level
i
F

=
n
x i
i
F

i
w

=
n
x i
i
w

Px
F
min , Px
F
max , Px
F

used , Px
F
7 12.86 12.86 259.2 259.2 12.86 6.804 14.58 12.86
6 8.47 21.33 259.2 518.4 10.67 6.804 14.58 10.67
5 7.06 28.39 259.2 777.6 9.46 6.804 14.58 9.46
4 5.65 34.04 259.2 1036.8 8.51 6.804 14.58 8.51
3 4.24 38.28 259.2 1296 7.66 6.804 14.58 7.66
2 2.82 41.10 259.2 1555.2 6.85 6.804 14.58 6.85
1 1.41 42.51 259.2 1814.4 6.07 6.804 14.58 6.80

Maximum forces occur at the seventh floor, where
tons 86 . 12 F
Px
=

Chord forces:

( ) ( ) m . t 55 . 40 8 / 18 714 . 0 87 . 1 75 . 0 M
2
u
= =

250

tons 253 . 2
18
55 . 40
T C = = =
( )
2
required , s
cm 596 . 0
2 . 4 9 . 0
253 . 2
A = = (use minimum reinforcement)
For a beam 40 cm x 25 cm in cross section,
( )
( )
( ) 300 2 . 0 cm / Kg 253 . 2
25 40
1000 253 . 2
f
2
< = = , i.e., no special transverse reinforcement
required.

Collector Forces:
( )( ) tons 02 . 9 87 . 1 75 . 0
2
86 . 12
V
u
= =
( )
c cv y n c cv n
' f A 12 . 2 f ' f 53 . 0 A V + =
For a topping slab 5 cm in thickness,
( )( )
tons 47 . 330 300
1000
5 1800
12 . 2 ' f A 12 . 2
c cv
= =
( )( )
( ) [ ] tons 47 . 330 tons 66 . 150 4200 0018 . 0 300 53 . 0
1000
5 1800
V
n
< = + = O.K
For seismic forces in the other orthogonal direction, chords and collectors
trade places. For this condition, the same forces are evaluated.

251

Requirements For Foundations

Requirements for foundations supporting buildings assigned to high seismic
performance or design categories were added to the 1999 Code. They
represent a consensus of a minimum level of good practice in designing and
detailing concrete foundations including piles, drilled piers, and caissons.
The requirements for foundations are given in ACI 21.12, presented below.

Longitudinal reinforcement of columns and structural walls resisting
seismic forces shall extend into the footing, mat, or pile cap, and shall
be developed for tension at the interface.
Columns designed assuming fixed-end conditions at the foundation,
and if hooks are required, longitudinal reinforcement resisting flexure
shall have 90 deg hooks near the bottom of the foundation with the
free end of the bars oriented toward the center of the column.
Columns or boundary elements of special structural walls that have an
edge within one-half the footing depth from the edge of the footing
shall have transverse reinforcement provided below the top of the
footing. This reinforcement shall extend into the footing a distance no
less than the smaller of the depth of the footing, mat, or pile cap, or
the development length in tension of the longitudinal reinforcement.
Where earthquake effects create uplift forces in boundary elements of
special structural walls or columns, flexural reinforcement shall be
provided in the top of the footing, mat, or pile cap to resist the design
load combination, and shall not be less than minimum reinforcement
in beams.
Grade beams designed to act as horizontal ties between pile caps and
footings shall have continuous longitudinal reinforcement developed
within or beyond the supported column or anchored within the pile
cap or footing at all discontinuities.
Grade beams designed to act as horizontal ties between pile caps or
footings shall be proportioned such that the smallest cross-sectional
dimension shall be equal or greater than the clear spacing between
connected columns divided by 20, but not greater than 45 cm. closed
ties shall be provided at a spacing not to exceed the lesser of one-half
the smallest orthogonal cross-sectional dimension or 30 cm.
Piles, piers, or caissons resisting tension loads shall have continuous
longitudinal reinforcement over the length resisting design tension

252

forces. The longitudinal reinforcement shall be detailed to transfer
tension forces within the pile cap to supported structural members.
Piles, piers, or caissons shall have transverse reinforcement in
accordance with 21.12.2 at locations (a) and (b):
(a) At the top of the member for at least 5 times the member cross-
sectional dimension, but not less than 1.80 m below the bottom of
the pile cap;
(b) For the portion of piles in soil that is not capable of providing
lateral support, or in air and water, along the entire unsupported
length plus the length required in (a).