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School of the Built Environment [Civil Engineering]



D27CB- Introduction to Engineering Design

Year of Study :- 2013-2014
Lecturer :- Eur. Ing. Abdul Ghaffar Chaudhry
Project :- Site Visit Report
Names of the students in the group :-

Ronak.P.Kandachia
Walid Wazir
Alex Cheriyan Vaidhyan
Igwebuike Emmanuel











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Table of Content

Introduction..3
Health & Safety Measures.4
Risk Assessment.5
Process.6
Materials Found On Site........8
Innovation13
Quality Control..14
Conclusion15
References16
Plan View Of Site..18


































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Introduction

The site visit took place on 9
th
March 2014. The site visit was very
informative.The health & safety measures that should to be taken at the site were
informed to the students before the tour started.
Company:- CEMEX
Location:- Mina Jebel Ali.

The organization likewise makes & disperses concrete through its state of the
craftsmanship pounding factory in Dubai. The pounding factory has a handling
limit 1.6 million tons for every year. Cemex has 1 Cement Grinding Mill & 9
Ready Mix Plants in UAE

Cement is the development material of decision in the UAE. The Company works
in the two fundamental urban markets of Dubai, and the capital Abu Dhabi. The
organization upholds a reliable and complex client base in both markets. Our
granulating factory, while encouraging a vertically incorporated operation,
likewise permits us to offer concrete and different cementitious items (e.g. GGBS
and Eco-cem) to outsiders, principally in mass to prepared blend cement and
precast producers.
CEMEX is one of the world's biggest building materials suppliers & bond makers.
Established in Mexico in 1906. CEMEX has operations stretching out all far and
wide, with processing offices crossing 50 nations in North America, the
Caribbean, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.

World's heading supplier of primed blend cement, and one of the world's biggest
suppliers of aggregates





















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Health and Safety Measures

A site brimming with chemicals & crude materials, has a firm technique towards the
wellbeing of its staff & the guests of their site. To keep a track of the individuals
going by the site the guests were made to compose their individual details [like
name,mobile n.o]. For safety precautionary measures, one must have the PPE
accessible with him/her.

Safety helmets
Safety goggles
High visibility vests
Safety shoes
Incase of a visitor who is not aware of PPE, the company provides the following to
ensure the safety of the visitors




























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Risk assessment

HAZARDS EFFECTS PREVENTION OF
HAZARDS
Concrete Prolonged skin contact
with cement can cause
burns
1. Avoid contact with skin.
Remove product using
appropriate equipment.
2. Hand protection wear
googles and gloves.
Head bumps Headaches, and head
injuries.
Application of sign boards.
Fall of bulky materials on
feet.
Crushing of toe, or severe
or fatal injury to the feet.
Everyone should safety
boots in the site including
the security guards.

In the site there are safety implements applied that must be carried out. Example are
safety boots and hard hats which must be on at all time. There are also safety signs
which are useful in directions and prevention from accidents. In the site, safety is
highly valued, seeing from the picture below.












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Process


The lime stone, gypsum, clinker are brought in by the trucks and stored in the
silos. The silos are large storage tanks for storing the products before mixing.
There are 10 trucks of limestone, gypsum, clinker transferred to the silos. The
products are transferred to the weigh bin and then put into the Weigh feeder.
The limestone, gypsum, clinker are put into the vertical grinding mill and then
the substances are grinded. The substances are put into the grinding mill by the
cart that is moved by continuous transportation to the grinding mill. The slag
formed by the mixture of the substances is made to go through hot air to remove
the moisture and water is sprayed at regular intervals for stabilization. The
Portland cement formed of raw materials, lime stone and clay is formed after
being put into the kiln. The cylindrical rotary kilns are covered with special fire
bricks. The OPC that is formed is placed in the cement silos and the physical and
the chemical tests of the cement are taken regularly. Then it is transferred in
tankers for bulk transportation. The Portland cement is the widely used
construction materials. The clinker comes out of the kiln as grey balls; the clinker
consists of lime stone and alumina silicate.
The types of hydraulic cements are:
1. Portland cement
2. Slag cement
3. Pozzolanic cement (Portland pulverized fuel ash)
4. Calcium aluminates cements (CAC)
The calcium alumina cement is made by melting a mixture of limestone and
bauxite at high temperatures and grinding it to cement with the composition
different from Portland cement.
The GBFS is stored and the chemical test is conducted and it is transferred into
the weigh bin and weigh feeder. The GBFS is transferred into the vertical
grinding mill from the weigh feeder. The hot gas generator gives hot air to
remove moisture from the mixture and water is sprayed to maintain stability.
The auto sampler takes regular samples of the GGBS that is formed after
grinding. The GGBS is good for giving durability for concrete. The micro silica
and GGBS is put into concrete for better durability.
Silos -
The silos are huge storage tanks for storing products before mixing.
There were 8 cylindrical silos in the site.
GGBS -1silo
GBFS-1silo
Slag -1silo
Clinker-1silo
Clinker propotional-1 silo
Raw materials -1 silo
OPC- 2 silo




Clicker Silo
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Grinding Mill








Production Plants: Cement & GGBFS


In 2007, CEMEX invested $60m to build this state of the art, environmentally
friendly grinding mill in Jebel Ali Industrial Area.
This facility has an annual cement production capacity of 1.6 MT, equivalent to
1.3 MT of GGBFS.
As a result of this strategic investment, CEMEX is the only vertically integrated
operation of its kind in UAE. In addition, CEMEX also has the capacity to provide
cement and other cementitious products (e.g. GGBS and Eco-cem) to third
parties, mainly in bulk to ready-mix concrete and precast manufacturers.
Through its Jebel Ali grinding mill and global trade network, CEMEX is the only
company in the UAE that can offer its clients a continuously secure supply of
low-carbon cement.








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Materials found on site:

OPC- (Ordinary Portland cement) is the most common type of cement used
all around the world. It is used as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar
and most non-specialty Grout(Grout is a construction material used to
embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of pre-cast concrete, fill
voids, and seal joints (like those between tiles). It usually originates from
limestone.

Clinker- In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker is lumps or
nodules, usually 325 mm in diameter, produced by sintering limestone
and alumina-silicate (clay) during the cement kiln stage. Therefore, we can
say it is a product used in the manufacture of Portland cement.










Gypsum- Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate
dehydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO42H2O. Agriculture wise it can
be used as a means of fertilizer.
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GBFS- GBFS is made when molten blast furnace slag (BFS) is rapidly
quenched from the furnace. After separating molten blast furnace slag
from the molten iron, the slag will be transported to ground bays to air-
cool. There it solidifies and becomes rock, or crystalline BFS. Alternatively,
the molten slag can be quenched rapidly by moving it through a trim of
high pressure which then forms GBFS.









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GGBS



Ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS or GGBFS) is obtained by
extinguishing liquid iron slag (a by-product of iron and steel-making) from a
blast furnace in water or steam, to transform a lustrous, granular item that is
then dried and ground into a fine powder.
GGBS is used to make durable concrete structures in combination with ordinary
portland cement and/or other pozzolanic materials example fly ash, silica fume
The advantage of using Pozzolanic materials its environment friendly , cheaper
Concrete containing GGBS cement has a higher ultimate strength than concrete
made with Portland cement







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Limestone- these are sedimentary rocks which are used as building
materials and aggregates for the base of roads.



Cement

Cement is the main basic ingredient of ready-mix concrete. Cement is a fine
powder, obtained from the calcination at 1,450C of a mix of limestone, clay, and
iron ore. The product of the calcination process is clinkerthe main ingredient
of cementthat is finely ground with gypsum and other chemical additives to
produce cement.
Cement is the most widely used construction material worldwide. It provides
beneficial as well as desirable properties, such as compressive strength,
durability, and aesthetics to a variety of construction applications.


Types of Cement


White Portland Cement
CEMEX is one of the world's largest producers of White Portland Cement. We
manufacture this type of cement with limestone, low iron content kaolin clay,
and gypsum. This type of cement is usually used in architectural works that
require great brightness and a artistic finish, to create mosaics and for sculptural
casts

Blended Cement
Blended hydraulic cements are produced by intergrinding or blending Portland
cement and supplementary cementitious materials or SCM such as ground
granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume, calcined clay, hydrated lime,
and other pozzolans. The use of blended cements in ready-mix concrete reduces
mixing water and bleeding, improves workability and finishing, inhibits sulfate
attack and the alkali-aggregate reaction, and reduces the heat of hydration.
CEMEX offers an array of blended cements which have a lower CO2 footprint
resulting from their lower clinker content due to the addition of supplementary
cementitious materials.


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Aggregates

Aggregates are composed of geological materials such as stone, sand, and gravel
and are used in virtually all forms of construction. They can be used in their
natural state or can be crushed into smaller pieces.
The aggregates used for building are called construction aggregates
Aggregates are an indispensable ingredient in ready-mix concrete, asphalt, and
mortar. Accounting for approximately 60% to 75% of ready-mix concretes
volume, aggregates strongly influence concretes freshly mixed and hardened
properties.
Aggregates not only increase concretes strength, but also can make the mix
more compact, enabling applications such as weatherproofing and heat
retention.


Types of Aggregates
CEMEX offers a wide variety of aggregates to suit our customers needs: -

Crushed Stone and Manufactured Sand
These products are obtained by mining rock and breaking it down to a preferred
size. In the case of manufactured sand, the product is obtained by crushing rock
to the selected shape or texture, ensuring product and project specifications are
met. Sources of crushed stone can be igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic.


Gravel
Gravel deposits are produced through a natural process of weathering and
erosion. It can be used for roads, for concrete manufacturing, or for decorative
purposes.

Sand
Sand occurs naturally and is composed of fine rock material and mineral
particles. Its composition is variable depending on the source. It can be used for
roads, for concrete manufacturing, or sanitation.

Recycled Concrete
Recycled concrete is created by breaking, removing, and crushing existing
concrete to a preferred size. It is commonly used as a base layer for other
construction materials because it compacts to form a firm surface.








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Innovation







Central control room and computerized mill control system



A control room or operations center or operations control center (OCC) is a room
serving as a central space where a large physical facility can be monitored and
controlled. In the CEMEX factory, the machines are controlled and monitored by
the system you see above. The name of the system is called GINCO. Which is a
Spanish name. The system controls everything in the site, technically. A separate
person comes to do that. What happens is that buttons are pushed in, to control
the machines for mixing the materials. He does that with the control box which is
seen above in the picture. These codes are the requirements for the Dubai
government. While the GINCO system monitors and checks it.









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Quality Control


Process Quality Control

1. Analysis of chemical composition with a special X-ray Spectrometer.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or
fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with
high-energy X-rays usually gamma rays. The phenomenon is widely used for
elemental analysis & chemical analysis, particularly in the investigation of
metals, glass, ceramics & building materials

Physical Testing Laboratory

1. Preparation of test prisms.
2. Prisms for flexural & compressive strength test.
3. Compressive testing machines.

4. Alpine air jet sieve for residue determination.
5. Blaine apparatus.
6. Planetary ball mill for sample pulverization.

Chemical Laboratory

1. Wet chemical analyses.
2. Flame photo metre for alkali determination.
3. Spectrometer for CR +6 determination.
4. Acid alkali titration.


Focused on severe controls of raw materials & nonstop testing of the final
product is a key area to ensure good performance of our products.
Each of our locations is under the observation of experienced quality control
managers who lead a complete team for testing and confirming concrete quality.
Our structure allows for 24 hour supervision, in case immediate actions are
necessary.
Efficient quality control is further promoted through well established
communication channels between the quality control department and raw
materials suppliers.

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Conclusion

The CEMEX is a broadly known multi-national organization distinguished for the
dissemination of ready-mix concrete. The organization offers a mixture of
alternatives for different organizations to select between the materials they
have, and the strategy by which the material is to be changed. This was the first
visit which was directed to a concrete batch plant & it was a great experience
and gave us quiet a lot of exposure regarding the manufacturing of concrete and
the usage of raw materials inside the plant, and each of the inquiries asked by the
students were replied by the regarded staff of the organization.







































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Reference


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CEMEX, 2014. About Us - UAE. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cemex.com/AboutUs/UnitedArabEmirates.aspx
[Accessed 15 March 2014].

CEMEX, 2014. Aggregates. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cemex.com/ProductsServices/Aggregates.aspx
[Accessed 15 March 2014].

CEMEX, 2014. Cement Types. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cemex.com/ProductsServices/CementTypes.aspx
[Accessed 15 March 2014].

CEMEX, 2014. Cemet. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cemex.com/ProductsServices/Cement.aspx
[Accessed 15 March 2014].
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CEMEX, 2014. Company Profile. [Online]
Available at: http://www.cemex.com/AboutUs/CompanyProfile.aspx
[Accessed 15 March 2014].