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Quantum Teleportation and

Entanglement
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of
relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory,
which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for
technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August !"#, the achievement of $fully deterministic$ quantum
teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. %n & 'ay !"(,
scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum
teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with
highly unreliable methods.
)he accelerating electrons e*plain not only the 'a*well +quations and the
,pecial -elativity, but the .eisenberg /ncertainty -elation, the Wave-0article
1uality and the electron2s spin also, building the 3ridge between the 4lassical
and Quantum )heories.
)he 0lanck 1istribution 5aw of the electromagnetic oscillators e*plains the
electron6proton mass rate and the Weak and ,trong Interactions by the
diffraction patterns. )he Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by
moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction
pattern, which violates the 40 and )ime reversal symmetry.
)he diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining
electromagnetic potential e*plains also the Quantum +ntanglement, giving it
as a natural part of the -elativistic Quantum )heory and making possible to
build the Quantum 4omputer with the help of Quantum Information.
Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................... 2
How to Win at Bridge Using Quantum Physics ............................................................................ 3
Quantum Information .............................................................................................................. 3
Quantum Teleportation ........................................................................................................... 4
Quantum omputing ............................................................................................................... 4
Quantum !ntanglement ........................................................................................................... 4
The Bridge .............................................................................................................................. "
#ccelerating charges ............................................................................................................ "
$elati%istic effect ................................................................................................................. "
Heisen&erg Uncertainty $elation ............................................................................................... "
Wa%e ' Particle (uality ............................................................................................................ "
#tomic model ......................................................................................................................... )
The $elati%istic Bridge .............................................................................................................. )
The wea* interaction ............................................................................................................... )
The +eneral Wea* Interaction ............................................................................................... ,
-ermions and Bosons ............................................................................................................... .
/an (er Waals force ................................................................................................................ .
!lectromagnetic inertia and mass .............................................................................................. .
!lectromagnetic Induction .................................................................................................... .
$elati%istic change of mass .................................................................................................... .
The fre0uency dependence of mass ....................................................................................... .
!lectron ' Proton mass rate .................................................................................................. 1
+ra%ity from the point of %iew of 0uantum physics ..................................................................... 1
The +ra%itational force ......................................................................................................... 1
The Higgs &oson .....................................................................................................................23
Higgs mechanism and Quantum +ra%ity ....................................................................................23
What is the 4pin5 ................................................................................................................22
The +ra%iton ......................................................................................................................22
onclusions ...........................................................................................................................22
$eferences ............................................................................................................................22

#uthor6 +eorge $a7na
Preface
While physicists are continually loo*ing for ways to unify the theory of relati%ity8 which descri&es
large9scale phenomena8 with 0uantum theory8 which descri&es small9scale phenomena8 computer
scientists are searching for technologies to &uild the 0uantum computer:
#ustralian engineers detect in real9time the 0uantum spin properties of a pair of atoms inside a
silicon chip8 and disclose new method to perform 0uantum logic operations &etween two atoms: ;"<
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are
generated or interact in ways such that the 0uantum state of each particle cannot &e descri&ed
independently ' instead8 a 0uantum state may &e gi%en for the system as a whole: ;4<
I thin* that we ha%e a simple &ridge &etween the classical and 0uantum mechanics &y understanding
the Heisen&erg Uncertainty $elations: It ma*es clear that the particles are not point li*e &ut ha%e a
d= and dp uncertainty:

How to Win at Bridge Using Quantum Physics
ontract &ridge is the chess of card games: >ou might *now it as some stuffy old game your
grandparents play8 &ut it re0uires ma7or &rainpower8 and prefera&ly an o&session with rules and
strategy: 4o how to ma*e it e%en gee*ier5 Throw in some 0uantum mechanics to try to gain a
competiti%e ad%antage: The idea here is to use the 0uantum magic of entangled photons'which are
essentially twins8 sharing e%ery property'to transmit two &its of information to your &ridge partner
for the price of one: Understanding how to do this is not an easy tas*8 &ut it will help elucidate some
&asic &uilding &loc*s of 0uantum information theory: It?s also *ind of fun to consider whether or not
such tactics could e%er &e allowed in professional sports: ;)<

Quantum Information
In 0uantum mechanics8 0uantum information is physical information that is held in the @state@ of a
0uantum system: The most popular unit of 0uantum information is the 0u&it8 a two9le%el 0uantum
system: Howe%er8 unli*e classical digital states Awhich are discreteB8 a two9state 0uantum system can
actually &e in a superposition of the two states at any gi%en time:
Quantum information differs from classical information in se%eral respects8 among which we note
the following6
Howe%er8 despite this8 the amount of information that can &e retrie%ed in a single 0u&it is e0ual to
one &it: It is in the processing of information A0uantum computationB that a difference occurs:
The a&ility to manipulate 0uantum information ena&les us to perform tas*s that would &e
unachie%a&le in a classical conte=t8 such as unconditionally secure transmission of information:
Quantum information processing is the most general field that is concerned with 0uantum
information: There are certain tas*s which classical computers cannot perform @efficiently@ Athat is8
in polynomial timeB according to any *nown algorithm: Howe%er8 a 0uantum computer can compute
the answer to some of these pro&lems in polynomial timeC one well9*nown e=ample of this is 4horDs
factoring algorithm: Ether algorithms can speed up a tas* less dramatically 9 for e=ample8 +ro%erDs
search algorithm which gi%es a 0uadratic speed9up o%er the &est possi&le classical algorithm:
Quantum information8 and changes in 0uantum information8 can &e 0uantitati%ely measured &y
using an analogue of 4hannon entropy: +i%en a statistical ensem&le of 0uantum mechanical systems
with the density matri= 48 it is gi%en &y:
Fany of the same entropy measures in classical information theory can also &e generaliGed to the
0uantum case8 such as the conditional 0uantum entropy: ;,<
Quantum Teleportation
Quantum teleportation is a process &y which 0uantum information Ae:g: the e=act state of an atom
or photonB can &e transmitted Ae=actly8 in principleB from one location to another8 with the help of
classical communication and pre%iously shared 0uantum entanglement &etween the sending and
recei%ing location: Because it depends on classical communication8 which can proceed no faster than
the speed of light8 it cannot &e used for superluminal transport or communication of classical &its: It
also cannot &e used to ma*e copies of a system8 as this %iolates the no9cloning theorem: #lthough
the name is inspired &y the teleportation commonly used in fiction8 current technology pro%ides no
possi&ility of anything resem&ling the fictional form of teleportation: While it is possi&le to teleport
one or more 0u&its of information &etween two AentangledB atoms8 this has not yet &een achie%ed
&etween molecules or anything larger: Ene may thin* of teleportation either as a *ind of
transportation8 or as a *ind of communicationC it pro%ides a way of transporting a 0u&it from one
location to another8 without ha%ing to mo%e a physical particle along with it:
The seminal paper first e=pounding the idea was pu&lished &y : H: Bennett8 +: Brassard8 : rHpeau8
$: IoGsa8 #: Peres and W: J: Wootters in 2113: 4ince then8 0uantum teleportation has &een realiGed
in %arious physical systems: Presently8 the record distance for 0uantum teleportation is 243 *m A.1
miB with photons8 and 22 m with material systems: In #ugust 23238 the achie%ement of @fully
deterministic@ 0uantum teleportation8 using a hy&rid techni0ue8 was reported: En 21 Fay 23248
scientists announced a relia&le way of transferring data &y 0uantum teleportation: Quantum
teleportation of data had &een done &efore &ut with highly unrelia&le methods: ;.<
Quantum Computing
# team of electrical engineers at UK4W #ustralia has o&ser%ed the uni0ue 0uantum &eha%ior of a
pair of spins in silicon and designed a new method to use them for @29&it@ 0uantum logic operations:
These milestones &ring researchers a step closer to &uilding a 0uantum computer8 which promises
dramatic data processing impro%ements:
Quantum &its8 or 0u&its8 are the &uilding &loc*s of 0uantum computers: While many ways to create
a 0u&its e=ist8 the #ustralian team has focused on the use of single atoms of phosphorus8 em&edded
inside a silicon chip similar to those used in normal computers:
The first author on the e=perimental wor*8 Ph( student Iuan Pa&lo (ehollain8 recalls the first time
he realiGed what he was loo*ing at:
@We clearly saw these two distinct 0uantum states8 &ut they &eha%ed %ery differently from what we
were used to with a single atom: We had a real D!ure*aLD moment when we realiGed what was
happening ' we were seeing in real time the MentangledD 0uantum states of a pair of atoms:@ ;"<
Quantum Entanglement
Feasurements of physical properties such as position8 momentum8 spin8 polariGation8 etc:
performed on entangled particles are found to &e appropriately correlated: -or e=ample8 if a pair of
particles is generated in such a way that their total spin is *nown to &e Gero8 and one particle is
found to ha%e cloc*wise spin on a certain a=is8 then the spin of the other particle8 measured on the
same a=is8 will &e found to &e countercloc*wise: Because of the nature of 0uantum measurement8
howe%er8 this &eha%ior gi%es rise to effects that can appear parado=ical6 any measurement of a
property of a particle can &e seen as acting on that particle Ae:g: &y collapsing a num&er of
superimposed statesBC and in the case of entangled particles8 such action must &e on the entangled
system as a whole: It thus appears that one particle of an entangled pair @*nows@ what
measurement has &een performed on the other8 and with what outcome8 e%en though there is no
*nown means for such information to &e communicated &etween the particles8 which at the time of
measurement may &e separated &y ar&itrarily large distances: ;4<
The Bridge
The accelerating electrons e=plain not only the Fa=well !0uations and the 4pecial $elati%ity8 &ut the
Heisen&erg Uncertainty $elation8 the wa%e particle duality and the electron?s spin also8 &uilding the
&ridge &etween the lassical and Quantum Theories: ;2<

Accelerating charges
The mo%ing charges are self maintain the electromagnetic field locally8 causing their mo%ement and
this is the result of their acceleration under the force of this field: In the classical physics the charges
will distri&uted along the electric current so that the electric potential lowering along the current8 &y
linearly increasing the way they ta*e e%ery ne=t time period &ecause this accelerated motion:
The same thing happens on the atomic scale gi%ing a dp impulse difference and a d= way difference
&etween the different part of the not point li*e particles:
elati!istic effect
#nother &ridge &etween the classical and 0uantum mechanics in the realm of relati%ity is that the
charge distri&ution is lowering in the reference frame of the accelerating charges linearly6 dsNdt O at
Atime coordinateB8 &ut in the reference frame of the current it is para&olic6 s O aN2 t
2
Ageometric
coordinateB:

Heisen"erg Uncertainty elation
In the atomic scale the Heisen&erg uncertainty relation gi%es the same result8 since the mo%ing
electron in the atom accelerating in the electric field of the proton8 causing a charge distri&ution on
delta = position difference and with a delta p momentum difference such a way that they product is
a&out the half Planc* reduced constant: -or the proton this delta = much less in the nucleon8 than in
the or&it of the electron in the atom8 the delta p is much higher &ecause of the greater proton mass:
This means that the electron and proton are not point li*e particles8 &ut has a real charge
distri&ution:
Wa!e # Particle $uality
The accelerating electrons e=plains the wa%e ' particle duality of the electrons and photons8 since
the elementary charges are distri&uted on delta = position with delta p impulse and creating a wa%e
pac*et of the electron: The photon gi%es the electromagnetic particle of the mediating force of the
electrons electromagnetic field with the same distri&ution of wa%elengths:
Atomic model
The constantly accelerating electron in the Hydrogen atom is mo%ing on the e0uipotential line of the
proton and itDs *inetic and potential energy will &e constant: Its energy will change only when it is
changing its way to another e0uipotential line with another %alue of potential energy or getting free
with enough *inetic energy: This means that the $utherford9Bohr atomic model is right and only that
changing acceleration of the electric charge causes radiation8 not the steady acceleration: The steady
acceleration of the charges only creates a centric para&olic steady electric field around the charge8
the magnetic field: This gi%es the magnetic moment of the atoms8 summing up the proton and
electron magnetic moments caused &y their circular motions and spins:

The elati!istic Bridge
ommonly accepted idea that the relati%istic effect on the particle physics it is the fermionsD spin 9
another unresol%ed pro&lem in the classical concepts: If the electric charges can mo%e only with
accelerated motions in the self maintaining electromagnetic field8 once upon a time they would
reach the %elocity of the electromagnetic field: The resolution of this pro&lem is the spinning
particle8 constantly accelerating and not reaching the %elocity of light &ecause the acceleration is
radial: Ene origin of the Quantum Physics is the Planc* (istri&ution Paw of the electromagnetic
oscillators8 gi%ing e0ual intensity for 2 different wa%elengths on any temperature: #ny of these two
wa%elengths will gi%e e0ual intensity diffraction patterns8 &uilding different asymmetric
constructions8 for e=ample proton 9 electron structures AatomsB8 molecules8 etc: 4ince the particles
are centers of diffraction patterns they also ha%e particle ' wa%e duality as the electromagnetic
wa%es ha%e: ;2<

The wea% interaction
The wea* interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the
other side8 causing an electric dipole momentum change8 which %iolates the P and time re%ersal
symmetry: The !lectrowea* Interaction shows that the Wea* Interaction is &asically electromagnetic
in nature: The arrow of time shows the entropy grows &y changing the temperature dependent
diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators:
#nother important issue of the 0uar* model is when one 0uar* changes its fla%or such that a linear
oscillation transforms into plane oscillation or %ice %ersa8 changing the charge %alue with 2 or 92: This
*ind of change in the oscillation mode re0uires not only parity change8 &ut also charge and time
changes APT symmetryB resulting a right handed anti9neutrino or a left handed neutrino:
The right handed anti9neutrino and the left handed neutrino e=ist only &ecause changing &ac* the
0uar* fla%or could happen only in re%erse8 &ecause they are different geometrical constructions8 the
u is 2 dimensional and positi%ely charged and the d is 2 dimensional and negati%ely charged: It needs
also a time re%ersal8 &ecause anti particle Aanti neutrinoB is in%ol%ed:
The neutrino is a 2N2spin creator particle to ma*e e0ual the spins of the wea* interaction8 for
e=ample neutron decay to 2 fermions8 e%ery particle is fermions with Q spin: The wea* interaction
changes the entropy since more or less particles will gi%e more or less freedom of mo%ement: The
entropy change is a result of temperature change and &rea*s the e0uality of oscillator diffraction
intensity of the Fa=well'BoltGmann statistics: This way it changes the time coordinate measure and
ma*es possi&le a different time dilation as of the special relati%ity:
The limit of the %elocity of particles as the speed of light appropriate only for electrical charged
particles8 since the accelerated charges are self maintaining locally the accelerating electric force:
The neutrinos are P symmetry &rea*ing particles compensated &y time in the PT symmetry8 that is
the time coordinate not wor*s as in the electromagnetic interactions8 conse0uently the speed of
neutrinos is not limited &y the speed of light:
The wea* interaction T9asymmetry is in con7unction with the T9asymmetry of the second law of
thermodynamics8 meaning that locally lowering entropy Aon e=tremely high temperatureB causes the
wea* interaction8 for e=ample the Hydrogen fusion:
Pro&a&ly &ecause it is a spin creating mo%ement changing linear oscillation to 2 dimensional
oscillation &y changing d to u 0uar* and creating anti neutrino going &ac* in time relati%e to the
proton and electron created from the neutron8 it seems that the anti neutrino fastest then the
%elocity of the photons created also in this wea* interaction5


# 0uar* fla%or changing shows that it is a reflection changes mo%ement and the P9 and T9 symmetry
&rea*ingLLL This fla%or changing oscillation could pro%e that it could &e also on higher le%el such as
atoms8 molecules8 pro&a&ly &ig &iological significant molecules and responsi&le on the aging of the
life:

Important to mention that the wea* interaction is always contains particles and antiparticles8 where
the neutrinos AantineutrinosB present the opposite side: It means &y -eynman?s interpretation that
these particles present the &ac*ward time and pro&a&ly &ecause this they seem to mo%e faster than
the speed of light in the reference frame of the other side:

-inally since the wea* interaction is an electric dipole change with Q spin creatingC it is limited &y the
%elocity of the electromagnetic wa%e8 so the neutrino?s %elocity cannot e=ceed the %elocity of light:

The &eneral Wea% Interaction
The Wea* Interactions T9asymmetry is in con7unction with the T9asymmetry of the 4econd Paw of
Thermodynamics8 meaning that locally lowering entropy Aon e=tremely high temperatureB causes for
e=ample the Hydrogen fusion: The arrow of time &y the 4econd Paw of Thermodynamics shows the
increasing entropy and decreasing information &y the Wea* Interaction8 changing the temperature
dependent diffraction patterns: # good e=ample of this is the neutron decay8 creating more particles
with less *nown information a&out them:
The neutrino oscillation of the Wea* Interaction shows that it is a general electric dipole change and
it is possi&le to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction
pattern of atoms8 molecules and e%en complicated &iological li%ing structures:
We can generaliGe the wea* interaction on all of the decaying matter constructions8 e%en on the
&iological too: This gi%es the limited lifetime for the &iological constructions also &y the arrow of
time: There should &e a new research space of the Quantum Information 4cience the Dgeneral
neutrino oscillationD for the greater then su&atomic matter structures as an electric dipole change:
There is also connection &etween statistical physics and e%olutionary &iology8 since the arrow of
time is wor*ing in the &iological e%olution also:
The -luctuation Theorem says that there is a pro&a&ility that entropy will flow in a direction opposite
to that dictated &y the 4econd Paw of Thermodynamics: In this case the Information is growing that
is the matter formulas are emerging from the chaos: 4o the Wea* Interaction has two directions8
samples for one direction is the Keutron decay8 and Hydrogen fusion is the opposite direction:

'ermions and Bosons
The fermions are the diffraction patterns of the &osons such a way that they are &oth sides of the
same thing:
(an $er Waals force
Kamed after the (utch scientist Iohannes (ideri* %an der Waals ' who first proposed it in 2.,3 to
e=plain the &eha%iour of gases ' it is a %ery wea* force that only &ecomes rele%ant when atoms and
molecules are %ery close together: -luctuations in the electronic cloud of an atom mean that it will
ha%e an instantaneous dipole moment: This can induce a dipole moment in a near&y atom8 the
result &eing an attracti%e dipole'dipole interaction:
Electromagnetic inertia and mass
Electromagnetic Induction
4ince the magnetic induction creates a negati%e electric field as a result of the changing acceleration8
it wor*s as an electromagnetic inertia8 causing an electromagnetic mass: ;2<
elati!istic change of mass
The increasing mass of the electric charges the result of the increasing inducti%e electric force acting
against the accelerating force: The decreasing mass of the decreasing acceleration is the result of the
inducti%e electric force acting against the decreasing force: This is the relati%istic mass change
e=planation8 especially importantly e=plaining the mass reduction in case of %elocity decrease:
The fre)uency dependence of mass
4ince E = h and E = mc
2
8 m = h /c
2
that is the m depends only on the fre0uency: It means that the
mass of the proton and electron are electromagnetic and the result of the electromagnetic
induction8 caused &y the changing acceleration of the spinning and mo%ing chargeL It could &e that
the m
o
inertial mass is the result of the spin8 since this is the only accelerating motion of the electric
charge: 4ince the accelerating motion has different fre0uency for the electron in the atom and the
proton8 they masses are different8 also as the wa%elengths on &oth sides of the diffraction pattern8
gi%ing e0ual intensity of radiation:
Electron # Proton mass rate
The Planc* distri&ution law e=plains the different fre0uencies of the proton and electron8 gi%ing
e0ual intensity to different lam&da wa%elengthsL #lso since the particles are diffraction patterns
they ha%e some closeness to each other ' can &e seen as a gra%itational force: ;2<
There is an asymmetry &etween the mass of the electric charges8 for e=ample proton and electron8
can understood &y the asymmetrical Planc* (istri&ution Paw: This temperature dependent energy
distri&ution is asymmetric around the ma=imum intensity8 where the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high pro&a&ility e%ent: The asymmetric sides are creating different fre0uencies of
electromagnetic radiations &eing in the same intensity le%el and compensating each other: Ene of
these compensating ratios is the electron ' proton mass ratio: The lower energy side has no
compensating intensity le%el8 it is the dar* energy and the corresponding matter is the dar* matter:

&ra!ity from the point of !iew of )uantum physics
The &ra!itational force
The gra%itational attracti%e force is &asically a magnetic force:
The same electric charges can attract one another &y the magnetic force if they are mo%ing parallel
in the same direction: 4ince the electrically neutral matter is composed of negati%e and positi%e
charges they need 2 photons to mediate this attracti%e force8 one per charges: The Bing Bang caused
parallel mo%ing of the matter gi%es this magnetic force8 e=perienced as gra%itational force:
4ince gra%iton is a tensor field8 it has spin O 28 could &e 2 photons with spin O 2 together:
>ou can thin* a&out photons as %irtual electron ' positron pairs8 o&taining the necessary %irtual
mass for gra%ity:
The mass as seen &efore a result of the diffraction8 for e=ample the proton ' electron mass rate
FpO2.43 Fe: In order to mo%e one of these diffraction ma=imum Aelectron or protonB we need to
inter%ene into the diffraction pattern with a force appropriate to the intensity of this diffraction
ma=imum8 means its intensity or mass:

The Big Bang caused acceleration created radial currents of the matter8 and since the matter is
composed of negati%e and positi%e charges8 these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting
forces &etween the parallel mo%ing electric currents: This is the gra%itational force e=perienced &y
the matter8 and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces &etween the charged particles:
The positi%e and negati%e charged currents attracts each other or &y the magnetic forces or &y the
much stronger electrostatic forcesL5

The gra%itational force attracting the matter8 causing concentration of the matter in a small space
and lea%ing much space with low matter concentration6 dar* matter and energy:
There is an asymmetry &etween the mass of the electric charges8 for e=ample proton and electron8
can understood &y the asymmetrical Planc* (istri&ution Paw: This temperature dependent energy
distri&ution is asymmetric around the ma=imum intensity8 where the annihilation of matter and
antimatter is a high pro&a&ility e%ent: The asymmetric sides are creating different fre0uencies of
electromagnetic radiations &eing in the same intensity le%el and compensating each other: Ene of
these compensating ratios is the electron ' proton mass ratio: The lower energy side has no
compensating intensity le%el8 it is the dar* energy and the corresponding matter is the dar* matter:


The Higgs "oson
By Farch 23238 the particle had &een pro%en to &eha%e8 interact and decay in many of the e=pected
ways predicted &y the 4tandard Fodel8 and was also tentati%ely confirmed to ha%e R parity and Gero
spin8 two fundamental criteria of a Higgs &oson8 ma*ing it also the first *nown scalar particle to &e
disco%ered in nature8 although a num&er of other properties were not fully pro%en and some partial
results do not yet precisely match those e=pectedC in some cases data is also still awaited or &eing
analyGed:
4ince the Higgs &oson is necessary to the W and S &osons8 the dipole change of the Wea* interaction
and the change in the magnetic effect caused gra%itation must &e conducted: The Wien law is also
important to e=plain the Wea* interaction8 since it descri&es the T
ma=
change and the diffraction
patterns change: ;2<
Higgs mechanism and Quantum &ra!ity
The magnetic induction creates a negati%e electric field8 causing an electromagnetic inertia: Pro&a&ly
it is the mysterious Higgs field gi%ing mass to the charged particles5 We can thin* a&out the photon
as an electron9positron pair8 they ha%e mass: The neutral particles are &uilt from negati%e and
positi%e charges8 for e=ample the neutron8 decaying to proton and electron: The wa%e ' particle
duality ma*es sure that the particles are oscillating and creating magnetic induction as an inertial
mass8 e=plaining also the relati%istic mass change: Higher fre0uency creates stronger magnetic
induction8 smaller fre0uency results lesser magnetic induction: It seems to me that the magnetic
induction is the secret of the Higgs field:
In particle physics8 the Higgs mechanism is a *ind of mass generation mechanism8 a process that
gi%es mass to elementary particles: #ccording to this theory8 particles gain mass &y interacting with
the Higgs field that permeates all space: Fore precisely8 the Higgs mechanism endows gauge &osons
in a gauge theory with mass through a&sorption of Kam&u'+oldstone &osons arising in spontaneous
symmetry &rea*ing:
The simplest implementation of the mechanism adds an e=tra Higgs field to the gauge theory: The
spontaneous symmetry &rea*ing of the underlying local symmetry triggers con%ersion of
components of this Higgs field to +oldstone &osons which interact with Aat least some ofB the other
fields in the theory8 so as to produce mass terms for Aat least some ofB the gauge &osons: This
mechanism may also lea%e &ehind elementary scalar Aspin93B particles8 *nown as Higgs &osons:
In the 4tandard Fodel8 the phrase @Higgs mechanism@ refers specifically to the generation of masses
for the W
T
8 and S wea* gauge &osons through electrowea* symmetry &rea*ing: The Parge Hadron
ollider at !$K announced results consistent with the Higgs particle on Iuly 48 2322 &ut stressed
that further testing is needed to confirm the 4tandard Fodel:
What is the *pin+
4o we *now already that the new particle has spin Gero or spin two and we could tell which one if we
could detect the polariGations of the photons produced: Unfortunately this is difficult and neither
#TP#4 nor F4 are a&le to measure polariGations: The only direct and sure way to confirm that the
particle is indeed a scalar is to plot the angular distri&ution of the photons in the rest frame of the
centre of mass: # spin Gero particles li*e the Higgs carries no directional information away from the
original collision so the distri&ution will &e e%en in all directions: This test will &e possi&le when a
much larger num&er of e%ents ha%e &een o&ser%ed: In the mean time we can settle for less certain
indirect indicators:
The &ra!iton
In physics8 the gra%iton is a hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gra%itation in
the framewor* of 0uantum field theory: If it e=ists8 the gra%iton is e=pected to &e massless A&ecause
the gra%itational force appears to ha%e unlimited rangeB and must &e a spin92 &oson: The spin
follows from the fact that the source of gra%itation is the stress9energy tensor8 a second9ran* tensor
Acompared to electromagnetismDs spin92 photon8 the source of which is the four9current8 a first9ran*
tensorB: #dditionally8 it can &e shown that any massless spin92 field would gi%e rise to a force
indistinguisha&le from gra%itation8 &ecause a massless spin92 field must couple to Ainteract withB the
stress9energy tensor in the same way that the gra%itational field does: This result suggests that8 if a
massless spin92 particle is disco%ered8 it must &e the gra%iton8 so that the only e=perimental
%erification needed for the gra%iton may simply &e the disco%ery of a massless spin92 particle: ;3<
Conclusions
In #ugust 23238 the achie%ement of @fully deterministic@ 0uantum teleportation8 using a hy&rid
techni0ue8 was reported: En 21 Fay 23248 scientists announced a relia&le way of transferring data
&y 0uantum teleportation: Quantum teleportation of data had &een done &efore &ut with highly
unrelia&le methods: ;.<
Ene of the most important conclusions is that the electric charges are mo%ing in an accelerated way
and e%en if their %elocity is constant8 they ha%e an intrinsic acceleration anyway8 the so called spin8
since they need at least an intrinsic acceleration to ma*e possi&le they mo%ement :
The accelerated charges self9maintaining potential shows the locality of the relati%ity8 wor*ing on
the 0uantum le%el also: ;2<
The &ridge &etween the classical and 0uantum theory is &ased on this intrinsic acceleration of the
spin8 e=plaining also the Heisen&erg Uncertainty Principle: The particle ' wa%e duality of the electric
charges and the photon ma*es certain that they are &oth sides of the same thing:
The 4ecret of Quantum !ntanglement that the particles are diffraction patterns of the
electromagnetic wa%es and this way their 0uantum states e%ery time is the result of the 0uantum
state of the intermediate electromagnetic wa%es: ;2<
The *ey &rea*through to arri%e at this new idea to &uild 0u&its was to e=ploit the a&ility to control
the nuclear spin of each atom: With that insight8 the team has now concei%ed a uni0ue way to use
the nuclei as facilitators for the 0uantum logic operation &etween the electrons: ;"<
Basing the gra%itational force on the accelerating Uni%erse caused magnetic force and the Planc*
(istri&ution Paw of the electromagnetic wa%es caused diffraction gi%es us the &asis to &uild a Unified
Theory of the physical interactions also:
eferences
;2< The Fagnetic field of the !lectric current and the Fagnetic induction
http6NNacademia:eduN3.3333"NTheUFagneticUfieldUofUtheU!lectricUcurrent
;2< 3 (imensional 4tring Theory
http6NNacademia:eduN3.344"4N3U(imensionalU4tringUTheory
;3< +ra%iton Production By Two Photon and !lectron9Photon Processes In JaluGa9Jlein Theories With
Parge !=tra (imensions
http6NNar=i%:orgNa&sNhep9phN1131312
;4< Quantum !ntanglement
http6NNen:wi*ipedia:orgNwi*iNQuantumUentanglement
;"< Pairing up single atoms in silicon for 0uantum computing
http6NNphys:orgNnewsN232493)9pairing9atoms9silicon90uantum:htmlVnwlt
;)< How to Win at Bridge Using Quantum Physics
http6NNwww:wired:comN2324N3)N&ridge90uantum9mechanicsN
;,< Information !ntropy9Theory of Physics
https6NNwww:academia:eduN3.3)3.4NInformationU9U!ntropyUTheoryUofUPhysics
;.< Quantum Teleportation
http6NNen:wi*ipedia:orgNwi*iNQuantumUteleportation