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Criminal Law A branch of municipal law which defines crimes, treats of their nature

and provides for their punishment.


Limitations on the power of Congress to enact penal laws (ON)
1. Must be general in application.
2. Must not partake of the nature of an ex post facto law.
3. Must not partake of the nature of a bill of attainder.
4. Must not impose cruel and unusual punishment or excessive fines.
Characteristics of Criminal Law:
1. General the law is binding to all persons who reside in the !hilippines
2. Territorial the law is binding to all crimes committed within the "ational #erritor$ of
the !hilippines
Exception to Territorial Application% &nstances enumerated under Article 2.
3. Prospective the law does not have an$ retroactive effect.
Exception to Prospective Application% when new statute is favorable to the accused.
Effect of repeal of penal law to liabilit of offen!er
Total or absolute, or partial or relative repeal. -- As to the effect of repeal of penal law to the
liability of offender, qualify your answer by saying whether the repeal is absolute or total or
whether the repeal is partial or relative only.
A repeal is absolute or total when the crime punished under the repealed law has been
decriminalied by the repeal. !ecause of the repeal, the act or omission which used to be a
crime is no longer a crime. An example is "epublic Act #o. $%&%, which decriminalied
subversion.
A repeal is partial or relative when the crime punished under the repealed law continues to be a
crime inspite of the repeal. This means that the repeal merely modified the conditions affecting
the crime under the repealed law. The modification may be pre'udicial or beneficial to the
offender. (ence, the following rule)
Conse"#ences if repeal of penal law is total or absol#te
*+, &f a case is pending in court involving the violation of the repealed law, the same shall be
dismissed, even though the accused may be a habitual delinquent.
*-, &f a case is alread$ decided and the accused is alread$ serving sentence b$ final
'udgment, if the convict is not a habitual delin(uent, then he will be entitled to a release
unless there is a reservation clause in the penal law that it will not apply to those serving
sentence at the time of the repeal. )ut if there is no reservation, those who are not
habitual delinquents even if they are already serving their sentence will receive the
benefit of the repealing law. They are entitled to release.
&f the$ are not discharged from confinement, a petition for habeas corpus should be filed
to test the legality of their continued confinement in 'ail.
&f the convict, on the other hand, is a habitual delin(uent , he will continue serving the
sentence in spite of the fact that the law under which he was convicted has already been
absolutely repealed. This is so because penal laws should be given retroactive
application to favor only those who are not habitual delinquents.
Conse"#ences if repeal of penal law is partial or relative
*+, &f a case is pending in court involving the violation of the repealed law, and the repealing
law is more favorable to the accused, it shall be the one applied to him. .o whether he is
a habitual delinquent or not, if the case is still pending in court, the repealing law will be
the one to apply unless there is a saving clause in the repealing law that it shall not apply
to pending causes of action.
*2+ &f a case is alread$ decided and the accused is alread$ serving sentence b$ final
'udgment, even if the repealing law is partial or relative, the crime still remains to be a
crime. #hose who are not habitual delin(uents will benefit on the effect of that repeal, so
1
that if the repeal is more lenient to them, it will be the repealing law that will henceforth
appl$ to them.
/nder Article --, even if the offender is already convicted and serving sentence, a law
which is beneficial shall be applied to him unless he is a habitual delinquent in
accordance with "ule 0 of Article &-.
Consequences if repeal of penal law is express or implied
*+, &f a penal law is impliedl$ repealed, the subsequent repeal of the repealing law will revive
the original law. .o the act or omission which was punished as a crime under the original
law will be revived and the same shall again be crimes although during the implied repeal
they may not be punishable.

*-, &f the repeal is express, the repeal of the repealing law will not revive the first law, so the
act or omission will no longer be penalied.
These effects of repeal do not apply to self-repealing laws or those which have automatic
termination. An example is the "ent 1ontrol 2aw which is revived by 1ongress every two years.
Theories of Criminal Law
1. Classical Theor Man is essentiall$ a moral creature with an absolute free will to
choose between good and evil and therefore more stress is placed upon the result of
the felonious act than upon the criminal himself.
2. Positivist Theor Man is subdued occasionall$ b$ a strange and morbid
phenomenon which conditions him to do wrong in spite of or contrar$ to his volition.
Eclectic or $i%e! Philosoph
This combines both positivist and classical thin3ing. 1rimes that are economic and social and
nature should be dealt with in a positivist manner4 thus, the law is more compassionate. (einous
crimes should be dealt with in a classical manner4 thus, capital punishment
&'()C $'*)$( )N C+)$)N'L L',
-octrine of Pro +eo
5henever a penal law is to be construed or applied and the law admits of two interpretations 6
one lenient to the offender and one strict to the offender 6 that interpretation which is lenient or
favorable to the offender will be adopted.
N#ll#m crimen. n#lla poena sine lege
There is no crime when there is no law punishing the same. This is true to civil law countries, but
not to common law countries.
!ecause of this maxim, there is no common law crime in the Philippines. #o matter how
wrongful, evil or bad the act is, if there is no law defining the act, the same is not considered a
crime.
'ct#s non facit re#m. nisi mens sit rea
The act cannot be criminal where the mind is not criminal. This is true to a felony characteried
by dolo, but not a felony resulting from culpa. This maxim is not an absolute one because it is
not applied to culpable felonies, or those that result from negligence.
/tilitarian Theor or Protective Theor
The primary purpose of the punishment under criminal law is the protection of society from actual
and potential wrongdoers. The courts, therefore, in exacting retribution for the wronged society,
should direct the punishment to potential or actual wrongdoers, since criminal law is directed
against acts and omissions which the society does not approve. 1onsistent with this theory, the
mala prohibita principle which punishes an offense regardless of malice or criminal intent, should
not be utilied to apply the full harshness of the special law.
2
(o#rces of Criminal Law
1. #he ,evised !enal -ode
2. .pecial !enal /aws Acts enacted of the !hilippine /egislature punishing offenses
or omissions.
Constr#ction of Penal Laws
1. -riminal .tatutes are liberall$ construed in favor of the offender. #his means that no
person shall be brought within their terms who is not clearl$ within them, nor should
an$ act be pronounced criminal which is not clearl$ made so b$ statute.
2. #he original text in which a penal law is approved in case of a conflict with an official
translation.
3. &nterpretation b$ analog$ has no place in criminal law
$'L' )N (E 'N- $'L' P+O0)&)T'
7iolations of the "evised Penal 1ode are referred to as malum in se, which literall$ means, that
the act is inherentl$ evil or bad or per se wrongful. 0n the other hand, violations of special laws
are generall$ referred to as malum prohibitum.
"ote, however, that not all violations of special laws are mala prohibita. 1hile intentional felonies
are alwa$s mala in se, it does not follow that prohibited acts done in violation of special laws are
alwa$s mala prohibita. 2ven if the crime is punished under a special law, if the act punished is
one which is inherentl$ wrong, the same is malum in se, and, therefore, good faith and the lack of
criminal intent is a valid defense3 unless it is the product of criminal negligence or culpa.
/ikewise when the special laws re(uires that the punished act be committed knowingl$ and
willfull$, criminal intent is re(uired to be proved before criminal liabilit$ ma$ arise.
1hen the act penali4ed is not inherentl$ wrong, it is wrong onl$ because a law punishes the
same.
-istinction between crimes p#nishe! #n!er the +evise! Penal Co!e an! crimes p#nishe!
#n!er special laws
1. As to moral trait of the offender
&n crimes punished under the ,evised !enal -ode, the moral trait of the offender is
considered. #his is wh$ liabilit$ would onl$ arise when there is dolo or culpa in the
commission of the punishable act.
&n crimes punished under special laws, the moral trait of the offender is not considered3 it
is enough that the prohibited act was voluntaril$ done.
2. As to use of good faith as defense
&n crimes punished under the ,evised !enal -ode, good faith or lack of criminal intent is
a valid defense3 unless the crime is the result of culpa
&n crimes punished under special laws, good faith is not a defense
3. As to degree of accomplishment of the crime
&n crimes punished under the ,evised !enal -ode, the degree of accomplishment of the
crime is taken into account in punishing the offender3 thus, there are attempted,
frustrated, and consummated stages in the commission of the crime.
&n crimes punished under special laws, the act gives rise to a crime onl$ when it is
consummated3 there are no attempted or frustrated stages, unless the special law
expressl$ penali4e the mere attempt or frustration of the crime.
4. As to mitigating and aggravating circumstances
&n crimes punished under the ,evised !enal -ode, mitigating and aggravating
circumstances are taken into account in imposing the penalt$ since the moral trait of the
offender is considered.
3
&n crimes punished under special laws, mitigating and aggravating circumstances are not
taken into account in imposing the penalt$.
5. As to degree of participation
&n crimes punished under the ,evised !enal -ode, when there is more than one
offender, the degree of participation of each in the commission of the crime is taken into
account in imposing the penalt$3 thus, offenders are classified as principal, accomplice
and accessor$.
&n crimes punished under special laws, the degree of participation of the offenders is not
considered. All who perpetrated the prohibited act are penali4ed to the same extent.
#here is no principal or accomplice or accessor$ to consider.
Test to !etermine if violation of special law is mal#m prohibit#m or mal#m in se
Analye the violation) 8s it wrong because there is a law prohibiting it or punishing it as such9 8f
you remove the law, will the act still be wrong9
8f the wording of the law punishing the crime uses the word :willfully;, then malice must be
proven. 5here malice is a factor, good faith is a defense.
8n violation of special law, the act constituting the crime is a prohibited act. Therefore culpa is not
a basis of liability, unless the special law punishes an omission.
5hen given a problem, ta3e note if the crime is a violation of the "evised Penal 1ode or a
special law.
'rt1 21 This Co!e shall ta3e effect on 4an#ar 2. 25671
'rt1 71 E%cept as provi!e! in the treaties an! laws of preferential
application. the provisions of this Co!e shall be enforce! not onl within
the Philippine 'rchipelago incl#!ing its atmosphere. its interior waters an!
$aritime 8one. b#t also o#tsi!e of its 9#ris!iction. against those who:
21 (ho#l! commit an offense while on a Philippine ship or airship:
71 (ho#l! forge or co#nterfeit an coin or c#rrenc note of the
Philippine )slan!s or obligations an! sec#rities iss#e! b the Government
of the Philippine )slan!s:
61 (ho#l! be liable for acts connecte! with the intro!#ction into
these islan!s of the obligations an! sec#rities mentione! in the prece!ing
n#mber:
;1 ,hile being p#blic officers or emploees. sho#l! commit an
offense in the e%ercise of their f#nctions: or *.ome of these crimes are bribery,
fraud against national treasury, malversation of public funds or property, and illegal use
of public funds4 e.g., A 'udge who accepts a bribe while in <apan.,
<1 (ho#l! commit an crimes against the national sec#rit an! the
law of nations. !efine! in Title One of &oo3 Two of this Co!e1 *These crimes
include treason, espionage, piracy, mutiny, and violation of neutrality,
Rules as to crimes committed aboard foreign merchant vessels%
1. =rench +#le .uch crimes are not triable in the courts of that countr$, unless
their commission affects the peace and securit$ of the territor$ or the safet$ of
the state is endangered.
2. English +#le .uch crimes are triable in that countr$, unless the$ merel$ affect
things within the vessel or the$ refer to the internal management thereof. *#his is
applicable in the !hilippines+
two situations where the foreign country may not apply its criminal law even if a crime was
committed on board a vessel within its territorial waters and these are)
4
*+, 5hen the crime is committed in a war vessel of a foreign country, because war vessels
are part of the sovereignty of the country to whose naval force they belong4
*-, 5hen the foreign country in whose territorial waters the crime was committed adopts the
French Rule, which applies only to merchant vessels, except when the crime committed
affects the national security or public order of such foreign country.
Requirements of an offense committed while on a Philippine Ship or Airship6
1. ,egistered with the !hilippine )ureau of -ustoms
2. .hip must be in the high seas or the airship must be in international airspace.
/nder international law rule, a vessel which is not registered in accordance with the laws of any
country is considered a pirate vessel and piracy is a crime against humanity in general, such that
wherever the pirates may go, they can be prosecuted.
/. v. !ull
A crime which occurred on board of a foreign vessel, which began when the ship was
in a foreign territor$ and continued when it entered into !hilippine waters, is considered
a continuing crime. 7ence within the 'urisdiction of the local courts.
As a general rule, the "evised Penal 1ode governs only when the crime committed pertains to
the exercise of the public official=s functions, those having to do with the discharge of their duties
in a foreign country. The functions contemplated are those, which are, under the law, to be
performed by the public officer in the >oreign .ervice of the Philippine government in a foreign
country.
Exception) The "evised Penal 1ode governs if the crime was committed within the Philippine
Embassy or within the embassy grounds in a foreign country. This is because embassy grounds
are considered an extension of sovereignty.
Paragraph 0 of Article -, use the phrase :as defined in Title ?ne of !oo3 Two of this 1ode.;
This is a very important part of the exception, because Title 8 of !oo3 - *crimes against national
security, does not include rebellion.
'rt 61 'cts an! omissions p#nishable b law are felonies1
Acts an overt or external act
Omission failure to perform a dut$ re(uired b$ law. Example of an omission%
failure to render assistance to an$one who is in danger of d$ing or is in an
uninhabited place or is wounded 8 abandonment.
Felonies 8 acts and omissions punishable b$ the ,evised !enal -ode
Crime 8 acts and omissions punishable b$ an$ law
1hat re(uisites must concur before a felon$ ma$ be committed9
There must be *+, an act or omission4 *-, punishable by the "evised Penal 1ode4 and *%,
the act is performed or the omission incurred by means of dolo or culpa.
How felonies are committed%
1. b means of !eceit (dolo) 8 #here is deceit when the act is performed with
deliberate intent.
Requisites:
a. freedom
b. intelligence
c. intent
Examples% murder, treason, and robber$.
1riminal intent is not necessary in these cases)
*+, 5hen the crime is the product of culpa or negligence, rec3less imprudence, lac3
of foresight or lac3 of s3ill4
5
*-, 5hen the crime is a prohibited act under a special law or what is called malum
prohibitum.
8n criminal law, intent is categoried into two)
*+, @eneral criminal intent4 and
*-, .pecific criminal intent.
@eneral criminal intent is presumed from the mere doing of a wrong act. This does not require
proof. The burden is upon the wrong doer to prove that he acted without such criminal intent.

.pecific criminal intent is not presumed because it is an ingredient or element of a crime, li3e
intent to 3ill in the crimes of attempted or frustrated homicideAparricideAmurder. The prosecution
has the burden of proving the same.
Bistinction between intent and discernment
8ntent is the determination to do a certain thing, an aim or purpose of the mind. 8t is the design to
resolve or determination by which a person acts.
?n the other hand, discernment is the mental capacity to tell right from wrong. 8t relates to the
moral significance that a person ascribes to his act and relates to the intelligence as an element
of dolo, distinct from intent.
Bistinction between intent and motive
8ntent is demonstrated by the use of a particular means to bring about a desired result 6 it is not a
state of mind or a reason for committing a crime.
?n the other hand, motive implies motion. 8t is the moving power which impels one to do an act.
5hen there is motive in the commission of a crime, it always comes before the intent. !ut a
crime may be committed without motive.
8f the crime is intentional, it cannot be committed without intent. 8ntent is manifested by the
instrument used by the offender. The specific criminal intent becomes material if the crime is to
be distinguished from the attempted or frustrated stage.
2. by means of fault (culpa 8 #here is fault when the wrongful act results from
imprudence, negligence, lack of foresight, or lack of skill.
a. !mprudence 8 deficienc$ of action3 e.g. A was driving a truck along a road. 7e
hit ) because it was raining 8 reckless imprudence.
b. "egligence # deficienc$ of perception3 failure to foresee impending danger,
usuall$ involves lack of foresight
c$ Requisites:
1. :reedom
2. &ntelligence
3. &mprudence, negligence, lack of skill or foresight
4. /ack of intent
The concept of criminal negligence is the inexcusable lac3 of precaution on the part of
the person performing or failing to perform an act. 8f the danger impending from that situation is
clearly manifest, you have a case of rec3less imprudence. !ut if the danger that would result
from such imprudence is not clear, not manifest nor immediate you have only a case of simple
negligence.
$ista3e of fact 8 is a misapprehension of fact on the part of the person who caused
in'ur$ to another. 7e is not criminall$ liable.
a. Requisites%
1. that the act done would have been lawful had the facts been as the accused
believed them to be3
2. intention of the accused is lawful3
3. mistake must be without fault of carelessness.
2xample) /nited .tates v. Ah 1hong.
Ah -hong being afraid of bad elements, locked himself in his room b$
placing a chair against the door. After having gone to bed, he was awakened b$
;
somebod$ who was tr$ing to open the door. 7e asked the identit$ of the person,
but he did not receive a response. :earing that this intruder was a robber, he
leaped out of bed and said that he will kill the intruder should he attempt to enter.
At that moment, the chair struck him. )elieving that he was attacked, he sei4ed
a knife and fatall$ wounded the intruder.
Cista3e of fact would be relevant only when the felony would have been intentional or through
dolo, but not when the felony is a result of culpa. 5hen the felony is a product of culpa, do not
discuss mista3e of fact.
'rt1 ;1 Criminal liabilit shall be inc#rre!:
21 & an person committing a felon. altho#gh the wrongf#l act
!one be !ifferent from that which he inten!e!1
Article 4, paragraph 1 presupposes that the act done is the proximate cause of the resulting
felon$. &t must be the direct, natural, and logical conse(uence of the felonious act.
-auses which produce a different result%
a. %ista&e in identity of the victim in'uring one person who is mistaken for another
*this is a complex crime under Art. 4<+ e.g., A intended to shoot ), but he instead
shot - because he *A+ mistook - for ).
8n error in personae, the intended victim was not at the scene of the crime. 8t was the
actual victim upon whom the blow was directed, but he was not really the intended victim.
(ow does error in personae affect criminal liability of the offender9
Error in personae is mitigating if the crime committed is different from that which was intended. 8f
the crime committed is the same as that which was intended, error in personae does not affect
the criminal liability of the offender.
8n mista3e of identity, if the crime committed was the same as the crime intended, but on a
different victim, error in persona does not affect the criminal liability of the offender. !ut if the
crime committed was different from the crime intended, Article DE will apply and the penalty for
the lesser crime will be applied. 8n a way, mista3e in identity is a mitigating circumstance where
Article DE applies. 5here the crime intended is more serious than the crime committed, the error
in persona is not a mitigating circumstance
b. %ista&e in blow hitting somebod$ other than the target due to lack of skill or
fortuitous instances *this is a complex crime under Art. 4<+ e.g., ) and - were
walking together. A wanted to shoot ), but he instead in'ured -.
8n aberratio ictus, a person directed the blow at an intended victim, but because of poor
aim, that blow landed on somebody else. 8n aberratio ictus, the intended victim as well as the
actual victim are both at the scene of the crime.
aberratio ictus, generally gives rise to a complex crime. This being so, the penalty for the
more serious crime is imposed in the maximum period.
c. !n'urious result is greater than that intended causing in'ur$ graver than intended
or expected *this is a mitigating circumstance due to lack of intent to commit so
grave a wrong under Art. 13+ e.g., A wanted to in'ure ). 7owever, ) died.
praeter intentionem is mitigating, particularly covered by paragraph % of Article +%. 8n order
however, that the situation may qualify as praeter intentionem, there must be a notable disparity
between the means employed and the resulting felony
&n all these instances the offender can still be held criminall$ liable, since he is
motivated b$ criminal intent.
Requisites%
a. the felon$ was intentionall$ committed
b. the felon$ is the proximate cause of the wrong done
=
(octrine of Pro)imate *ause such ade(uate and efficient cause as, in the natural
order of events, and under the particular circumstances surrounding the case, which
would necessaril$ produce the event.
Requisites%
a. the direct, natural, and logical cause
b. produces the in'ur$ or damage
c. unbroken b$ an$ sufficient intervening cause
d. without which the result would not have occurred
Proximate 1ause is negated by)
a. Active force, distinct act, or fact absolutel$ foreign from the felonious act of
the accused, which serves as a sufficient intervening cause.
b. ,esulting in'ur$ or damage is due to the intentional act of the victim.
proximate cause does not require that the offender needs to actually touch the body of the
offended party. 8t is enough that the offender generated in the mind of the offended party the
belief that made him ris3 himself.
"equisite for Presumption blow was cause of the death 1here there has been an
in'ur$ inflicted sufficient to produce death followed b$ the demise of the person, the
presumption arises that the in'ur$ was the cause of the death. !rovided%
a. victim was in normal health
b. death ensued within a reasonable time
The one who caused the proximate cause is the one liable. The one who caused the
immediate cause is also liable, but merely contributory or sometimes totally not liable.
71 & an person performing an act which wo#l! be an offense
against persons or propert. were it not for the inherent impossibilit of its
accomplishment or on acco#nt of the emploment of ina!e"#ate or
ineffect#al means1
,e(uisites% (IMPOSSIBLE CRIME)
a. Act would have been an offense against persons or propert$
b. Act is not an actual violation of another provision of the -ode or of a special
penal law
c. #here was criminal intent
d. Accomplishment was inherentl$ impossible3 or inade(uate or ineffectual means
were emplo$ed.
"otes%
a. 0ffender must believe that he can consummate the intended crime, a man
stabbing another who he knew was alread$ dead cannot be liable for an
impossible crime.
b. #he law intends to punish the criminal intent.
c. #here is no attempted or frustrated impossible crime.
>elonies against persons% parricide, murder, homicide, infanticide, ph$sical in'uries,
etc.
>elonies against property) robber$, theft, usurpation, swindling, etc.
8nherent impossibility% A thought that ) was 'ust sleeping. ) was alread$ dead. A
shot ). A is liable. &f A knew that ) is dead and he still shot him, then A is not liable.
5hen we say inherent impossibility, this means that under any and all circumstances, the
crime could not have materialied. 8f the crime could have materialied under a different set of
facts, employing the same mean or the same act, it is not an impossible crime4 it would be an
attempted felony.
Employment of inadequate means% A used poison to kill ). 7owever, ) survived
because A used small (uantities of poison 8 frustrated murder.
8neffectual means% A aimed his gun at ). 1hen he fired the gun, no bullet came out
because the gun was empt$. A is liable.
5henever you are confronted with a problem where the facts suggest that an impossible
crime was committed, be careful about the question as3ed. 8f the question as3ed is) :8s an
<
impossible crime committed9;, then you 'udge that question on the basis of the facts. 8f really
the facts constitute an impossible crime, then you suggest than an impossible crime is
committed, then you state the reason for the inherent impossibility.
8f the question as3ed is :8s he liable for an impossible crime9;, this is a catching question.
Even though the facts constitute an impossible crime, if the act done by the offender constitutes
some other crimes under the "evised Penal 1ode, he will not be liable for an impossible crime.
(e will be prosecuted for the crime constituted so far by the act done by him.
this idea of an impossible crime is a one of last resort, 'ust to teach the offender a lesson
because of his criminal perversity. 8f he could be taught of the same lesson by charging him with
some other crime constituted by his act, then that will be the proper way. 8f you want to play safe,
you state there that although an impossible crime is constituted, yet it is a principle of criminal law
that he will only be penalied for an impossible crime if he cannot be punished under some other
provision of the "evised Penal 1ode.
'rt <1 ,henever a co#rt has 3nowle!ge of an act which it ma !eem
proper to repress an! which is not p#nishable b law. it shall ren!er the
proper !ecision an! shall report to the Chief E%ec#tive. thro#gh the
-epartment of 4#stice. the reasons which in!#ce the co#rt to believe that
sai! act sho#l! be ma!e s#b9ect of legislation1
)n the same wa the co#rt shall s#bmit to the Chief E%ec#tive. thro#gh
the -epartment of 4#stice. s#ch statement as ma be !eeme! proper.
witho#t s#spen!ing the e%ec#tion of the sentence. when a strict
enforcement of the provisions of this Co!e wo#l! res#lt in the imposition
of a clearl e%cessive penalt. ta3ing into consi!eration the !egree of
malice an! the in9#r ca#se! b the offense1
5hen a person is charged in court, and the court finds that there is no law applicable, the
court will acquit the accused and the 'udge will give his opinion that the said act should be
punished.
!aragraph 2 does not appl$ to crimes punishable b$ special law, including
profiteering, and illegal possession of firearms or drugs. #here can be no executive
clemenc$ for these crimes.
'rt1 >1 Cons#mmate! felonies. as well as those which are fr#strate! an!
attempte!. are p#nishable1
' felon is cons#mmate! when all the elements necessar for its
e%ec#tion an! accomplishment are present: an! it is fr#strate! when the
offen!er performs all the acts of e%ec#tion which wo#l! pro!#ce the felon
as a conse"#ence b#t which. nevertheless. !o not pro!#ce it b reason of
ca#ses in!epen!ent of the will of the perpetrator1
There is an attempt when the offen!er commences the commission of a
felon !irectl b overt acts. an! !oes not perform all the acts of e%ec#tion
which sho#l! pro!#ce the felon b reason of some ca#se or acci!ent
other than his own spontaneo#s !esistance1
Bevelopment of a crime
1. &nternal acts intent and plans3 usuall$ not punishable
2. 2xternal acts
a. !reparator$ Acts acts tending toward the crime
b. Acts of 2xecution acts directl$ connected the crime
Stages of Commission of a Crime
Attempt +rustrated *onsummated
0vert acts of execution All acts of execution are All the acts of execution
>
are started
"ot all acts of execution
are present
?ue to reasons other than
the spontaneous
desistance of the
perpetrator
present
-rime sought to be
committed is not achieved
?ue to intervening causes
independent of the will of
the perpetrator
are present
#he result sought is
achieved
.tages of a 1rime does not apply in%
1. 0ffenses punishable b$ .pecial !enal /aws, unless the otherwise is provided for.
2. :ormal crimes *e.g., slander, adulter$, etc.+
3. &mpossible -rimes
4. -rimes consummated b$ mere attempt. Examples: attempt to flee to an enem$
countr$, treason, corruption of minors.
5. :elonies b$ omission
;. -rimes committed b$ mere agreement. Examples: betting in sports *endings in
basketball+, corruption of public officers.
-esistance
Besistance on the part of the offender negates criminal liability in the attempted stage.
Besistance is true only in the attempted stage of the felony. 8f under the definition of the felony,
the act done is already in the frustrated stage, no amount of desistance will negate criminal
liability.
The spontaneous desistance of the offender negates only the attempted stage but not
necessarily all criminal liability. Even though there was desistance on the part of the offender, if
the desistance was made when acts done by him already resulted to a felony, that offender will
still be criminally liable for the felony brought about his act
8n deciding whether a felony is attempted or frustrated or consummated, there are three
criteria involved)
*+, The manner of committing the crime4
*-, The elements of the crime4 and
*%, The nature of the crime itself.
Applications)
a. A put poison in )@s food. ) threw awa$ his food. A is liable 8 attempted murder.
1
b. A stole )@s car, but he returned it. A is liable 8 *consummated, theft.
c. A aimed his gun at ). - held A@s hand and prevented him from shooting ) 8
attempted murder.
d. A inflicted a mortal wound on ). ) managed to survive 8 frustrated murder.
e. A intended to kill ) b$ shooting him. A missed 8 attempted murder.
f. A doused )@s house with kerosene. )ut before he could light the match, he was
caught 8 attempted arson.
g. A cause a bla4e, but did not burn the house of ) 8 frustrated arson.
h. )@s house was set on fire b$ A 8 *consummated, arson.
i. A tried to rape ). ) managed to escape. #here was no penetration 8 attempted
rape.
'. A got hold of )@s painting. A was caught before he could leave )@s house 8
frustrated robbery.
-
The attempted stage is said to be within the sub'ective phase of execution of a felony. ?n
the sub'ective phase, it is that point in time when the offender begins the commission of an overt
act until that point where he loses control of the commission of the crime already. 8f he has
reached that point where he can no longer control the ensuing consequence, the crime has
1
The difference between murder and homicide will be discussed in Criminal Law II. These crimes
are found in Articles 248 and 249, Boo II of the !e"ised #enal Code.

2
The difference between theft and robber$ will be discussed in Criminal Law II. These crimes are
found in Title Ten, Cha%ters &ne and Three, Boo II of the !e"ised #enal Code.
1A
already passed the sub'ective phase and, therefore, it is no longer attempted. The moment the
execution of the crime has already gone to that point where the felony should follow as a
consequence, it is either already frustrated or consummated. 8f the felony does not follow as a
consequence, it is already frustrated. 8f the felony follows as a consequence, it is consummated.
although the offender may not have done the act to bring about the felony as a
consequence, if he could have continued committing those acts but he himself did not proceed
because he believed that he had done enough to consummate the crime, .upreme 1ourt said
the sub'ective phase has passed
#?TE. ?# A".?#4
The weight of the authority is that the crime of arson cannot be committed in the frustrated
stage. The reason is because we can hardly determine whether the offender has performed all
the acts of execution that would result in arson, as a consequence, unless a part of the premises
has started to burn. ?n the other hand, the moment a particle or a molecule of the premises has
blac3ened, in law, arson is consummated. This is because consummated arson does not require
that the whole of the premises be burned. 8t is enough that any part of the premises, no matter
how small, has begun to burn.

E.TA>A 7.. T(E>T
8n estafa, the offender receives the property4 he does not ta3e it. !ut in receiving the
property, the recipient may be committing theft, not estafa, if what was transferred to him was
only the physical or material possession of the ob'ect. 8t can only be estafa if what was
transferred to him is not only material or physical possession but 'uridical possession as well.
5hen you are discussing estafa, do not tal3 about intent to gain. 8n the same manner that
when you are discussing the crime of theft, do not tal3 of damage.
Nat#re of the crime itself
8n crimes involving the ta3ing of human life 6 parricide, homicide, and murder 6 in the
definition of the frustrated stage, it is indispensable that the victim be mortally wounded. /nder
the definition of the frustrated stage, to consider the offender as having performed all the acts of
execution, the acts already done by him must produce or be capable of producing a felony as a
consequence. The general rule is that there must be a fatal in'ury inflicted, because it is only then
that death will follow.
8f the wound is not mortal, the crime is only attempted. The reason is that the wound
inflicted is not capable of bringing about the desired felony of parricide, murder or homicide as a
consequence4 it cannot be said that the offender has performed all the acts of execution which
would produce parricide, homicide or murder as a result.
An exception to the general rule is the so-called sub'ective phase. The .upreme 1ourt has
decided cases which applied the sub'ective standard that when the offender himself believed that
he had performed all the acts of execution, even though no mortal wound was inflicted, the act is
already in the frustrated stage.
The common notion is that when there is conspiracy involved, the participants are punished
as principals. This notion is no longer absolute. 8n the case of People v. ierra, the .upreme
1ourt ruled that even though there was conspiracy, if a co-conspirator merely cooperated in the
commission of the crime with insignificant or minimal acts, such that even without his
cooperation, the crime could be carried out as well, such co-conspirator should be punished as
an accomplice only.
'rt1 ?1 Light felonies are p#nishable onl when the have been
cons#mmate! with the e%ception of those committe! against persons or
propert1
Examples of light felonies% slight ph$sical in'uries3 theft3 alteration of boundar$ marks3
malicious mischief3 and intriguing against honor.
&n commission of crimes against properties and persons, ever$ stage of execution is
punishable but onl$ the principals and accomplices are liable for light felonies,
accessories are not.
'rt1 @1 Conspirac an! proposal to commit felon are p#nishable onl in
the cases in which the law speciall provi!es a penalt therefore1
11
' conspirac e%ists when two or more persons come to an
agreement concerning the commission of a felon an! !eci!e to commit it1
There is proposal when the person who has !eci!e! to commit a
felon proposes its e%ec#tion to some other person or persons1
1onspiracy is punishable in the following cases% treason, rebellion or insurrection,
sedition, and monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade.
1onspiracy to commit a crime is not to be confused with conspiracy as a means of
committing a crime. &n both cases there is an agreement but mere conspirac$ to
commit a crime is not punished 2B-2!# in treason, rebellion, or sedition. 2ven then,
if the treason is actuall$ committed, the conspirac$ will be considered as a means of
committing it and the accused will all be charged for treason and not for conspirac$
to commit treason.

-onspirac$ and !roposal to -ommit a -rime
-onspirac$ !roposal
2lements Agreement among 2 or more
persons to commit a crime
#he$ decide to commit it
A person has decided to commit a crime
7e proposes its commission to another
-rimes 1. -onspirac$ to commit sedition
2. -onspirac$ to commit rebellion
3. -onspirac$ to commit treason
1. !roposal to commit treason
2. !roposal to commit rebellion

Mere conspirac$ in combination in restraint of trade *Art. 1<;+, and brigandage *Art.
3A;+.
Two ways for conspiracy to exist)
*+, There is an agreement.
*-, The participants acted in concert or simultaneously which is indicative of a meeting of the
minds towards a common criminal goal or criminal ob'ective. 5hen several offenders act
in a synchronied, coordinated manner, the fact that their acts complimented each other
is indicative of the meeting of the minds. There is an implied agreement.
Two 3inds of conspiracy)
*+, 1onspiracy as a crime4 and
*-, 1onspiracy as a manner of incurring criminal liability
5hen conspiracy itself is a crime, no overt act is necessary to bring about the criminal
liability. The mere conspiracy is the crime itself. This is only true when the law expressly
punishes the mere conspiracy4 otherwise, the conspiracy does not bring about the commission of
the crime because conspiracy is not an overt act but a mere preparatory act. Treason, rebellion,
sedition, and coup d=etat are the only crimes where the conspiracy and proposal to commit to
them are punishable.
5hen the conspiracy is only a basis of incurring criminal liability, there must be an overt act
done before the co-conspirators become criminally liable. >or as long as none of the conspirators
has committed an overt act, there is no crime yet. !ut when one of them commits any overt act,
all of them shall be held liable, unless a co-conspirator was absent from the scene of the crime or
he showed up, but he tried to prevent the commission of the crime
As a general rule, if there has been a conspiracy to commit a crime in a particular place,
anyone who did not appear shall be presumed to have desisted. The exception to this is if such
person who did not appear was the mastermind.
>or as long as none of the conspirators has committed an overt act, there is no crime yet.
!ut when one of them commits any overt act, all of them shall be held liable, unless a co-
12
conspirator was absent from the scene of the crime or he showed up, but he tried to prevent the
commission of the crime
As a general rule, if there has been a conspiracy to commit a crime in a particular place,
anyone who did not appear shall be presumed to have desisted. The exception to this is if such
person who did not appear was the mastermind.

5hen the conspiracy itself is a crime, this cannot be inferred or deduced because there is
no overt act. All that there is the agreement. ?n the other hand, if the co-conspirator or any of
them would execute an overt act, the crime would no longer be the conspiracy but the overt act
itself
conspiracy as a crime, must have a clear and convincing evidence of its existence. Every
crime must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. it must be established by positive and
conclusive evidence, not by con'ectures or speculations.

5hen the conspiracy is 'ust a basis of incurring criminal liability, however, the same may be
deduced or inferred from the acts of several offenders in carrying out the commission of the
crime. The existence of a conspiracy may be reasonably inferred from the acts of the offenders
when such acts disclose or show a common pursuit of the criminal ob'ective.
mere 3nowledge, acquiescence to, or approval of the act, without cooperation or at least,
agreement to cooperate, is not enough to constitute a conspiracy. There must be an intentional
participation in the crime with a view to further the common felonious ob'ective.
5hen several persons who do not 3now each other simultaneously attac3 the victim, the act
of one is the act of all, regardless of the degree of in'ury inflicted by any one of them. All will be
liable for the consequences. A conspiracy is possible even when participants are not 3nown to
each other. Bo not thin3 that participants are always 3nown to each other.
1onspiracy is a matter of substance which must be alleged in the information, otherwise, the
court will not consider the same.
Proposal is true only up to the point where the party to whom the proposal was made has
not yet accepted the proposal. ?nce the proposal was accepted, a conspiracy arises. Proposal
is unilateral, one party ma3es a proposition to the other4 conspiracy is bilateral, it requires two
parties.
.2?&#&0"3
Proposal to commit sedition is not a crime. !ut if /nion ! accepts the proposal, there will be
conspiracy to commit sedition which is a crime under the "evised Penal 1ode.
Composite crimes
1omposite crimes are crimes which, in substance, consist of more than one crime but in
the eyes of the law, there is only one crime. >or example, the crimes of robbery with homicide,
robbery with rape, robbery with physical in'uries.
8n case the crime committed is a composite crime, the conspirator will be liable for all the
acts committed during the commission of the crime agreed upon. This is because, in the eyes of
the law, all those acts done in pursuance of the crime agreed upon are acts which constitute a
single crime.
As a general rule, when there is conspiracy, the rule is that the act of one is the act of all.
This principle applies only to the crime agreed upon.
The exception is if any of the co-conspirator would commit a crime not agreed upon. This
happens when the crime agreed upon and the crime committed by one of the co-conspirators are
distinct crimes.
Exception to the exception) 8n acts constituting a single indivisible offense, even though the
co-conspirator performed different acts bringing about the composite crime, all will be liable for
such crime. They can only evade responsibility for any other crime outside of that agreed upon if
it is proved that the particular conspirator had tried to prevent the commission of such other act
13
'rt1 51 Grave felonies are those to which the law attaches the capital
p#nishment or penalties which in an of their are afflictive. in accor!ance
with 'rticle 7< of this Co!e1
Less grave felonies are those which the law p#nishes with penalties
which in their ma%im#m perio! are correctional. in accor!ance with the
aboveAmentione! article1
Light felonies are those infractions of law for the commission of
which he penalt of arresto ma!or or a fine not e%cee!ing 7BB pesos. or
both is provi!e!1
-apital punishment 8 death penalt$.
!enalties *imprisonment+% Crave 8 six $ears and one da$ to reclusion perpetua *life+3
/ess grave 8 one month and one da$ to six $ears3 /ight 8 arresto menor *one da$ to
3A da$s+.
CL'(()=)C'T)ON O= =ELON)E(
This question was as3ed in the bar examination) (ow do you classify felonies or how are felonies
classified9
5hat the examiner had in mind was Articles %, & and E. Bo not write the classification of felonies
under !oo3 - of the "evised Penal 1ode. That was not what the examiner had in mind because
the question does not require the candidate to classify but also to define. Therefore, the
examiner was after the classifications under Articles %, & and E.
:elonies are classified as follows%
*1+ According to the manner of their commission
/nder Article %, they are classified as, intentional felonies or those committed with
deliberate intent4 and culpable felonies or those resulting from negligence, rec3less
imprudence, lac3 of foresight or lac3 of s3ill.
*-, According to the stages of their execution
/nder Article &., felonies are classified as attempted felony when the offender
commences the commission of a felony directly by overt acts, and does not perform all
the acts of execution which should produce the felony by reason of some cause or
accident other than his own spontaneous desistance4 frustrated felony when the offender
commences the commission of a felony as a consequence but which would produce the
felony as a consequence but which nevertheless do not produce the felony by reason of
causes independent of the perpetrator4 and, consummated felony when all the elements
necessary for its execution are present.
*3+ According to their gravity
/nder Article E, felonies are classified as grave felonies or those to which attaches the
capital punishment or penalties which in any of their periods are afflictive4 less grave
felonies or those to which the law punishes with penalties which in their maximum period
was correccional4 and light felonies or those infractions of law for the commission of
which the penalty is arresto menor.
5hy is it necessary to determine whether the crime is grave, less grave or light9
To determine whether these felonies can be complexed or not, and to determine the prescription
of the crime and the prescription of the penalty. 8n other words, these are felonies classified
according to their gravity, stages and the penalty attached to them. Ta3e note that when the
"evised Penal 1ode spea3s of grave and less grave felonies, the definition ma3es a reference
specifically to Article -0 of the "evised Penal 1ode. Bo not omit the phrase :8n accordance with
Article -0; because there is also a classification of penalties under Article -& that was not applied.
8f the penalty is fine and exactly P-FF.FF, it is only considered a light felony under Article E.
8f the fine is imposed as an alternative penalty or as a single penalty, the fine of P-FF.FF is
considered a correctional penalty under Article -&.
14
8f the penalty is exactly P-FF.FF, apply Article -&. 8t is considered as correctional penalty and it
prescribes in +F years. 8f the offender is apprehended at any time within ten years, he can be
made to suffer the fine.
This classification of felony according to gravity is important with respect to the question of
prescription of crimes.
8n the case of light felonies, crimes prescribe in two months. 8f the crime is correctional, it
prescribes in ten years, except arresto mayor, which prescribes in five years.
'rt1 2B1 Offenses which are or in the f#t#re ma be p#nishable #n!er
special laws are not s#b9ect to the provisions of this Co!e1 This Co!e shall
be s#pplementar to s#ch laws. #nless the latter sho#l! speciall provi!e
the contrar1
:or .pecial /aws% !enalties should be imprisonment, and not reclusion perpetua,
etc.
0ffenses that are attempted or frustrated are not punishable, unless otherwise
stated.
!lea of guilt$ is not mitigating for offenses punishable b$ special laws.
"o minimum, medium, and maximum periods for penalties.
"o penalt$ for an accessor$ or accomplice, unless otherwise stated.
Provisions of "P1 applicable to special laws)
a. Art. 1; !articipation of Accomplices
b. Art. 22 ,etroactivit$ of !enal laws if favorable to the accused
c. Art. 45 -onfiscation of instruments used in the crime
(/PPLETO+C 'PPL)C'T)ON O= T0E +ED)(E- PEN'L CO-E
8n Article +F, there is a reservation :provision of the "evised Penal 1ode may be applied
suppletorily to special laws;. Gou will only apply the provisions of the "evised Penal 1ode as a
supplement to the special law, or simply correlate the violated special law, if needed to avoid an
in'ustice. 8f no 'ustice would result, do not give suppletorily application of the "evised Penal
1ode to that of special law.
>or example, a special law punishes a certain act as a crime. The special law is silent as to the
civil liability of one who violates the same. (ere is a person who violated the special law and he
was prosecuted. (is violation caused damage or in'ury to a private party. Cay the court
pronounce that he is civilly liable to the offended party, considering that the special law is silent
on this point9 Ges, because Article +FF of the "evised Penal 1ode may be given suppletory
application to prevent an in'ustice from being done to the offended party. Article +FF states that
every person criminally liable for a felony is also civilly liable. That article shall be applied
suppletory to avoid an in'ustice that would be caused to the private offended party, if he would not
be indemnified for the damages or in'uries sustained by him.
8n People v. Rodri"ue#, it was held that the use of arms is an element of rebellion, so a rebel
cannot be further prosecuted for possession of firearms. A violation of a special law can never
absorb a crime punishable under the "evised Penal 1ode, because violations of the "evised
Penal 1ode are more serious than a violation of a special law. !ut a crime in the "evised Penal
1ode can absorb a crime punishable by a special law if it is a necessary ingredient of the crime in
the "evised Penal 1ode.
8n the crime of sedition, the use of firearms is not an ingredient of the crime. (ence, two
prosecutions can be had) *+, sedition4 and *-, illegal possession of firearms.
!ut do not thin3 that when a crime is punished outside of the "evised Penal 1ode, it is already a
special law. >or example, the crime of cattle-rustling is not a mala prohibitum but a modification
of the crime theft of large cattle. .o Presidential Becree #o. 0%%, punishing cattle-rustling, is not
a special law. 8t can absorb the crime of murder. 8f in the course of cattle rustling, murder was
committed, the offender cannot be prosecuted for murder. Curder would be a qualifying
circumstance in the crime of qualified cattle rustling. This was the ruling in People v. $artinada.
15
The amendments of Presidential Becree #o. &D-0 *The Bangerous Brugs Act of +E$-, by
"epublic Act #o. $&0E, which adopted the scale of penalties in the "evised Penal 1ode, means
that mitigating and aggravating circumstances can now be considered in imposing penalties.
Presidential Becree #o. &D-0 does not expressly prohibit the suppletory application of the
"evised Penal 1ode. The stages of the commission of felonies will also apply since suppletory
application is now allowed.
Circ#mstances affecting criminal liabilit
There are fi"e circumstances affectin' criminal liabilit$(
*1+ Dustif$ing circumstances3
*2+ 2xempting circumstances3
*3+ Mitigating circumstances3
*4+ Aggravating circumstances3 and
*5+ Alternative circumstances.
#here are two others which are found elsewhere in the provisions of the ,evised !enal -ode%
*1+ Absolutor$ cause3 and

*2+ 2xtenuating circumstances.
8n 'ustifying and exempting circumstances, there is no criminal liability. 5hen an accused invo3es
them, he in effect admits the commission of a crime but tries to avoid the liability thereof. The
burden is upon him to establish beyond reasonable doubt the required conditions to 'ustify or
exempt his acts from criminal liability. 5hat is shifted is only the burden of evidence, not the
burden of proof.
<ustifying circumstances contemplate intentional acts and, hence, are incompatible with dolo.
Exempting circumstances may be invo3ed in culpable felonies.
'bsol#tor ca#se
The effect of this is to absolve the offender from criminal liability, although not from civil liability. 8t
has the same effect as an exempting circumstance, but you do not call it as such in order not to
confuse it with the circumstances under Article +-.
Article -F provides that the penalties prescribed for accessories shall not be imposed upon those
who are such with respect to their spouses, ascendants, descendants, legitimate, natural and
adopted brothers and sisters, or relatives by affinity within the same degrees with the exception
of accessories who profited themselves or assisting the offender to profit by the effects of the
crime.
Then, Article HE provides how criminal liability is extinguished)
Beath of the convict as to the personal penalties, and as to pecuniary penalties, liability therefor
is extinguished if death occurs before final 'udgment4
.ervice of the sentence4
Amnesty4
Absolute pardon4
Prescription of the crime4
Prescription of the penalty4 and
Carriage of the offended woman as provided in Article %DD.
1;
/nder Article -D$, a legally married person who 3ills or inflicts physical in'uries upon his or her
spouse whom he surprised having sexual intercourse with his or her paramour or mistress in not
criminally liable.
/nder Article -+E, discovering secrets through seiure of correspondence of the ward by their
guardian is not penalied.
/nder Article %%-, in the case of theft, swindling and malicious mischief, there is no criminal
liability but only civil liability, when the offender and the offended party are related as spouse,
ascendant, descendant, brother and sister-in-law living together or where in case the widowed
spouse and the property involved is that of the deceased spouse, before such property had
passed on to the possession of third parties.
/nder Article %DD, in cases of seduction, abduction, acts of lasciviousness, and rape, the
marriage of the offended party shall extinguish the criminal action.
Absolutory cause has the effect of an exempting circumstance and they are predicated on lac3 of
voluntariness li3e instigation. 8nstigation is associated with criminal intent. Bo not consider culpa
in connection with instigation. 8f the crime is culpable, do not tal3 of instigation. 8n instigation, the
crime is committed with dolo. 8t is confused with entrapment.
Entrapment is not an absolutory cause. Entrapment does not exempt the offender or mitigate his
criminal liability. !ut instigation absolves the offender from criminal liability because in instigation,
the offender simply acts as a tool of the law enforcers and, therefore, he is acting without criminal
intent because without the instigation, he would not have done the criminal act which he did upon
instigation of the law enforcers.
%ifference between insti"ation and entrapment
8n instigation, the criminal plan or design exists in the mind of the law enforcer with whom the
person instigated cooperated so it is said that the person instigated is acting only as a mere
instrument or tool of the law enforcer in the performance of his duties.
?n the other hand, in entrapment, a criminal design is already in the mind of the person
entrapped. 8t did not emanate from the mind of the law enforcer entrapping him. Entrapment
involves only ways and means which are laid down or resorted to facilitate the apprehension of
the culprit.
The element which ma3es instigation an absolutory cause is the lac3 of criminal intent as an
element of voluntariness.
8f the instigator is a law enforcer, the person instigated cannot be criminally liable, because it is
the law enforcer who planted that criminal mind in him to commit the crime, without which he
would not have been a criminal. 8f the instigator is not a law enforcer, both will be criminally
liable, you cannot have a case of instigation. 8n instigation, the private citien only cooperates
with the law enforcer to a point when the private citien upon instigation of the law enforcer
incriminates himself. 8t would be contrary to public policy to prosecute a citien who only
cooperated with the law enforcer. The private citien believes that he is a law enforcer and that is
why when the law enforcer tells him, he believes that it is a civil duty to cooperate.
8f the person instigated does not 3now that the person is instigating him is a law enforcer or he
3nows him to be not a law enforcer, this is not a case of instigation. This is a case of inducement,
both will be criminally liable.
8n entrapment, the person entrapped should not 3now that the person trying to entrap him was a
law enforcer. The idea is incompatible with each other because in entrapment, the person
entrapped is actually committing a crime. The officer who entrapped him only lays down ways
and means to have evidence of the commission of the crime, but even without those ways and
means, the person entrapped is actually engaged in a violation of the law.
8nstigation absolves the person instigated from criminal liability. This is based on the rule that a
person cannot be a criminal if his mind is not criminal. ?n the other hand, entrapment is not an
absolutory cause. 8t is not even mitigating.
8n case of somnambulism or one who acts while sleeping, the person involved is definitely acting
without freedom and without sufficient intelligence, because he is asleep. (e is moving li3e a
robot, unaware of what he is doing. .o the element of voluntariness which is necessary in dolo
and culpa is not present. .omnambulism is an absolutory cause. 8f element of voluntariness is
1=
absent, there is no criminal liability, although there is civil liability, and if the circumstance is not
among those enumerated in Article +-, refer to the circumstance as an absolutory cause.
Cista3e of fact is an absolutory cause. The offender is acting without criminal intent. .o in
mista3e of fact, it is necessary that had the facts been true as the accused believed them to be,
this act is 'ustified. 8f not, there is criminal liability, because there is no mista3e of fact anymore.
The offender must believe he is performing a lawful act.
E%ten#ating circ#mstances

The effect of this is to mitigate the criminal liability of the offender. 8n other words, this has the
same effect as mitigating circumstances, only you do not call it mitigating because this is not
found in Article +%.
Illustrations:
An unwed mother 3illed her child in order to conceal a dishonor. The concealment of dishonor is
an extenuating circumstance insofar as the unwed mother or the maternal grandparents is
concerned, but not insofar as the father of the child is concerned. Cother 3illing her new born
child to conceal her dishonor, penalty is lowered by two degrees. .ince there is a material
lowering of the penalty or mitigating the penalty, this is an extenuating circumstance.
The concealment of honor by mother in the crime of infanticide is an extenuating circumstance
but not in the case of parricide when the age of the victim is three days old and above.
8n the crime of adultery on the part of a married woman abandoned by her husband, at the time
she was abandoned by her husband, is it necessary for her to see3 the company of another man.
Abandonment by the husband does not 'ustify the act of the woman. 8t only extenuates or
reduces criminal liability. 5hen the effect of the circumstance is to lower the penalty there is an
extenuating circumstance.
A 3leptomaniac is one who cannot resist the temptation of stealing things which appeal to his
desire. This is not exempting. ?ne who is a 3leptomaniac and who would steal ob'ects of his
desire is criminally liable. !ut he would be given the benefit of a mitigating circumstance
analogous to paragraph E of Article +%, that of suffering from an illness which diminishes the
exercise of his will power without, however, depriving him of the consciousness of his act. .o this
is an extenuating circumstance. The effect is to mitigate the criminal liability.
-istinctions between 9#stifing circ#mstances an! e%empting circ#mstances
8n 'ustifying circumstances 6
*+, The circumstance affects the act, not the actor4
*-, The act complained of is considered to have been done within the bounds of law4 hence,
it is legitimate and lawful in the eyes of the law4
*%, .ince the act is considered lawful, there is no crime, and because there is no crime,
there is no criminal4
*D, .ince there is no crime or criminal, there is no criminal liability as well as civil liability.
8n exempting circumstances 6
*+, The circumstances affect the actor, not the act4
*-, The act complained of is actually wrongful, but the actor acted without voluntariness. (e
is a mere tool or instrument of the crime4
*%, .ince the act complained of is actually wrongful, there is a crime. !ut because the actor
acted without voluntariness, there is absence of dolo or culpa. There is no criminal4
*D, .ince there is a crime committed but there is no criminal, there is civil liability for the
wrong done. !ut there is no criminal liability. (owever, in paragraphs D and $ of Article
+-, there is neither criminal nor civil liability.
1<
5hen you apply for 'ustifying or exempting circumstances, it is confession and avoidance and
burden of proof shifts to the accused and he can no longer rely on wea3ness of prosecution=s
evidence
'rt1 22: 4#stifing Circ#mstances A those wherein the acts of the actor are in
accor!ance with law. hence. he is 9#stifie!1 There is no criminal an! civil liabilit
beca#se there is no crime1
&elf'defense
A. ,eason for lawfulness of self8defense% because it would be impossible for the
.tate to protect all its citi4ens. Also a person cannot 'ust give up his rights
without an$ resistance being offered.
). ,ights included in self8defense%
1. ?efense of person
2. ?efense of rights protected b$ law
3. ?efense of propert$%
a. #he owner or lawful possessor of a thing has a right to exclude an$
person from the en'o$ment or disposal thereof. :or this purpose, he ma$ use
such force as ma$ be reasonabl$ necessar$ to repel or prevent an actual or
threatened unlawful ph$sical invasion or usurpation of his propert$. *Art. D-E,
#ew 1ivil 1ode+
b. defense of chastit$
-. 2lements%
21 /nlawf#l 'ggression 8 is a ph$sical act manifesting danger to life or limb3 it
is either actual or imminent.
a. ActualEreal aggression 8 ,eal aggression presupposes an act positivel$
strong, showing the wrongful intent of the aggressor, which is not merel$
threatening or intimidating attitude, but a material attack. #here must be
real danger to life a personal safet$.
b. &mminent unlawful aggression 8 it is an attack that is impending or on the
point of happening. &t must not consist in a mere threatening attitude, nor
must it be merel$ imaginar$. #he intimidating attitude must be offensive
and positivel$ strong.
c. 1here there is an agreement to fight, there is no unlawful aggression.
2ach of the protagonists is at once assailant and assaulted, and neither
can invoke the right of self8defense, because aggression which is an
incident in the fight is bound to arise from one or the other of the
combatants. 2xception% 1here the attack is made in violation of the
conditions agreed upon, there ma$ be unlawful aggression.
d. Fnlawful aggression in self8defense, to be 'ustif$ing, must exist at the
time the defense is made. &t ma$ no longer exist if the aggressor runs
awa$ after the attack or he has manifested a refusal to continue fighting.
&f the person attacked allowed some time to elapse after he suffered the
in'ur$ before hitting back, his act of hitting back would not constitute self8
defense, but revenge.
A light push on the head with the hand is not unlawful aggression, but a
slap on the face is, because his dignit$ is in danger.
A police officer exceeding his authorit$ ma$ become an unlawful
aggressor.
#he nature, character, location, and extent of the wound ma$ belie claim
of self8defense.
2 71 +easonable necessit of the means emploe! to prevent or repel it:
a. ,e(uisites%
Means were used to prevent or repel
Means must be necessar$ and there is no other wa$ to prevent or
repel it
Means must be reasonable depending on the circumstances, but
generall$ proportionate to the force of the aggressor.
1>
b. #he rule here is to stand $our ground when in the right which ma$
invoked when the defender is unlawfull$ assaulted and the aggressor is
armed with a weapon.
c. #he rule is more liberal when the accused is a peace officer who, unlike a
private person, cannot run awa$.
d. #he reasonable necessit$ of the means emplo$ed to put up the defense.
#he gauge of reasonable necessit$ is the instinct of self8preservation,
i.e. a person did not use his rational mind to pick a means of defense
but acted out of self8preservation, using the nearest or onl$ means
available to defend himself, even if such means be disproportionatel$
advantageous as compared with the means of violence emplo$ed b$
the aggressor.
,easonableness of the means depends on the nature and the (ualit$
of the weapon used, ph$sical condition, character, si4e and other
circumstances.
2A
61 Lac3 of s#fficient provocation on the part of the person !efen!ing
himself1
a. 1hen no provocation at all was given to the aggressor b$ the person
defending himself.
b. 1hen even if provocation was given b$ the person defending himself,
such was not sufficient to cause violent aggression on the part of the
attacker, i.e. the amount of provocation was not sufficient to stir the
aggressor into the acts which led the accused to defend himself.
c. 1hen even if the provocation were sufficient, it was not given b$ the
person defending himself.
d. 1hen even if provocation was given b$ the person defending himself, the
attack was not proximate or immediate to the act of provocation.
e. .ufficient means proportionate to the damage caused b$ the act, and
ade(uate to stir one to its commission.
?. Ginds of .elf8?efense
1. .elf8defense of chastit$ 8 to be entitled to complete self8defense of chastit$,
there must be an attempt to rape, mere imminence thereof will suffice.
2. ?efense of propert$ 8 an attack on the propert$ must be coupled with an
attack on the person of the owner, or of one entrusted with the care of such
propert$.
3. .elf8defense in libel 8 ph$sical assault ma$ be 'ustified when the libel is aimed
at a person@s good name, and while the libel is in progress, one libel deserves
another.
H)urden of proof 8 on the accused *sufficient, clear and convincing evidence3
must rel$ on the strength of his own evidence and not on the weakness of the
prosecution+
-efense of +elative
A. 2lements%
1. unlawful aggression
2. reasonable necessit$ of the means emplo$ed to prevent or repel the attack3
3. in case provocation was given b$ the person attacked, that the person
making the defense had no part in such provocation.
). ,elatives entitled to the defense%
1. spouse
2. ascendants
3. descendants
4. legitimate, natural or adopted brothers or sisters
5. relatives b$ affinit$ in the same degree
;. relatives b$ consanguinit$ within the 4th civil degree.
#he third element need not take place. #he relative defended ma$ even be the
original aggressor. All that is re(uired to 'ustif$ the act of the relative defending
is that he takes no part in such provocation.
Ceneral opinion is to the effect that all relatives mentioned must be legitimate,
except in cases of brothers and sisters who, b$ relatives b$ nature, ma$ be
illegitimate.
#he unlawful aggression ma$ depend on the honest belief of the person making
the defense.
-efense of (tranger
A. 2lements
1. unlawful aggression
2. reasonable necessit$ of the means emplo$ed to prevent or repel the attack3
3. the person defending be not induced b$ revenge, resentment or other evil
motive.
). A relative not included in defense of relative is included in defense of stranger.
21
-. )e not induced b$ evil motive means that even an enem$ of the aggressor who
comes to the defense of a stranger ma$ invoke this 'ustif$ing circumstances so
long as he is not induced b$ a motive that is evil.
(tate of Necessit
A. Art. ++, Par. a provides)
'n person who. in or!er to avoi! an evil or in9#r. !oes an act which ca#ses
!amage to another. provi!e! that the following re"#isites are present:
=irst1 That the evil so#ght to be avoi!e! act#all e%ists:
(econ!1 That the in9#r feare! be greater than that !one to avoi! it: an!
Thir!1 That there be no other practical an! less harmf#l means of
preventing it1
). A state of necessit$ exists when there is a clash between une(ual rights, the
lesser right giving wa$ to the greater right. Aside from the 3 re(uisites stated in
the law, it should also be added that the necessit$ must not be due to the
negligence or violation of an$ law b$ the actor.
-. #he person for whose benefit the harm has been prevented shall be civill$ liable
in proportion to the benefit which ma$ have been received. #his is the onl$
'ustif$ing circumstance which provides for the pa$ment of civil indemnit$. Fnder
the other 'ustif$ing circumstances, no civil liabilit$ attaches. #he courts shall
determine, in their sound discretion, the proportionate amount for which law one
is liable.
=#lfillment of -#t or Lawf#l E%ercise of a +ight or Office
A. 2lements%
1. that the accused acted in the performance of a dut$, or in the lawful exercise
of a right or office3
2. that the in'ur$ caused or offense committed be the necessar$ conse(uence of
the due performance of the dut$, or the lawful exercise of such right or office.
). A police officer is 'ustified in shooting and killing a criminal who refuses to stop
when ordered to do so, and after such officer fired warning shots in the air.
shooting an offender who refused to surrender is 'ustified, but not a thief who
refused to be arrested.
-. #he accused must prove that he was dul$ appointed to the position he claimed
he was discharging at the time of the commission of the offense. &t must be
made to appear not onl$ that the in'ur$ caused or the offense committed was
done in the fulfillment of a dut$, or in the lawful exercise of a right or office, but
that the offense committed was a necessar$ conse(uence of such fulfillment of
dut$, or lawful exercise of a right or office.
?. A mere securit$ guard has no authorit$ or dut$ to fire at a thief, resulting in the
latter@s death.
Obe!ience to a (#perior Or!er
A. 2lements%
1. there is an order3
2. the order is for a legal purpose3
3. the means used to carr$ out said order is lawful.
). #he subordinate who is made to compl$ with the order is the part$ which ma$
avail of this circumstance. #he officer giving the order ma$ not invoke this.
-. #he subordinate@s good faith is material here. &f he obe$ed an order in good
faith, not being aware of its illegalit$, he is not liable. 7owever, the order must
not be patentl$ illegal. &f the order is patentl$ illegal this circumstance cannot be
validl$ invoked.
?. #he reason for this 'ustif$ing circumstance is the subordinate@s mistake of fact in
good faith.
2. 2ven if the order be patentl$ illegal, the subordinate ma$ $et be able to invoke
the exempting circumstances of having acted under the compulsion of an
irresistible force, or under the impulse of an uncontrollable fear.
E*E$PT)NG C)+C/$(T'NCE(
22
2xempting circumstances *non8imputabilit$+ are those ground for exemption from
punishment because there is wanting in the agent of the crime of an$ of the
conditions which make the act voluntar$, or negligent.
)asis% #he exemption from punishment is based on the complete absence of
intelligence, freedom of action, or intent, or on the absence of negligence on the part
of the accused.
A person who acts 1&#70F# MA/&-2 *without intelligence, freedom of action or
intent+ or 1&#70F# "2C/&C2"-2 *without intelligence, freedom of action or fault+
is "0# -,&M&"A//I /&A)/2 or is 2B2M!# :,0M !F"&.7M2"#.
#here is a crime committed but no criminal liabilit$ arises from it because of the
complete absence of an$ of the conditions which constitute free will or voluntariness
of the act.
)urden of proof% An$ of the circumstances is a matter of defense and must be proved
b$ the defendant to the satisfaction of the court.
'rt1 271 C)+C/$(T'NCE( ,0)C0 E*E$PT =+O$ C+)$)N'L L)'&)L)TC1 The
following are e%empt from criminal liabilit:
21 'n imbecile or insane person. #nless the latter has acte! !#ring a l#ci!
interval1
1hen the imbecile or an insane person has committed an act which the law defines
as a felon$ *delito+, the court shall order his confinement on one of the hospital or
as$lums established for persons thus afflicted. 7e shall not be permitted to leave
without first obtaining the permission of the same court.
,e(uisites%
a. 0ffender is an imbecile
b. 0ffender was insane at the time of the commission of the crime
&M)2-&/&#I 0, &".A"&#I
a. )asis% complete absence of intelligence, and element of voluntariness.
b. ?efinition % An imbecile is one who while advanced in age has a mental
development comparable to that of children between 2 and = $ears of age. An
insane is one who acts with complete deprivation of intelligenceEreason or
without the least discernment or with total deprivation of freedom of the will.
An imbecile is exempt in all cases from criminal liabilit$. #he insane is not so exempt
if it can be shown that he acted during a lucid interval. &n the latter, loss of
consciousness of ones acts and not merel$ abnormalit$ of mental faculties will
(ualif$ ones acts as those of an insane.
!rocedure% court is to order the confinement of such persons in the hospitals or
as$lums established. .uch persons will not be permitted to leave without permission
from the court. #he court, on the other hand, has no power to order such permission
without first obtaining the opinion of the ?07 that such persons ma$ be released
without danger.
!resumption is alwa$s in favor of sanit$. #he defense has the burden to prove that
the accused was insane at the time of the commission of the crime. :or the
ascertainment such mental condition of the accused, it is permissible to receive
evidence of the condition of his mind during a reasonable period both before and
after that time. -ircumstantial evidence which is clear and convincing will suffice. An
examination of the outward acts will help reveal the thoughts, motives and emotions
of a person and if such acts conform to those of people of sound mind.
&nsanit$ at the time of the commission of the crime and not that at the time of the trial
will exempt one from criminal liabilit$. &n case of insanit$ at the time of the trial, there
will be a suspension of the trial until the mental capacit$ of the accused is restored to
afford him a fair trial.
2vidence of insanit$ must refer to the time preceding the act under prosecution or to
the ver$ moment of its execution. 1ithout such evidence, the accused is presumed
to be sane when he committed the crime. -ontinuance of insanit$ which is
occasional or intermittent in nature will not be presumed. &nsanit$ at another time
must be proved to exist at the time of the commission of the crime. A person is also
presumed to have committed a crime in one of the lucid intervals. -ontinuance of
23
insanit$ will onl$ be presumed in cases wherein the accused has been ad'udged
insane or has been committed to a hospital or an as$lum for the insane.
&nstances of &nsanit$%
a. ?ementia praecox is covered b$ the term insanit$ because homicidal attack is
common in such form of ps$chosis. &t is characteri4ed b$ delusions that he is
being interfered with sexuall$, or that his propert$ is being taken, thus the person
has no control over his acts.
b. Gleptomania or presence of abnormal, persistent impulse or tendenc$ to steal, to
be considered exempting, will still have to be investigated b$ competent
ps$chiatrist to determine if the unlawful act is due to the irresistible impulse
produced b$ his mental defect, thus loss of will8power. &f such mental defect
onl$ diminishes the exercise of his willpower and did not deprive him of the
consciousness of his acts, it is onl$ mitigating.
c. 2pileps$ which is a chronic nervous disease characteri4ed b$ convulsive motions
of the muscles and loss of consciousness ma$ be covered b$ the term insanit$.
7owever, it must be shown that commission of the offense is during one of those
epileptic attacks.
,e$es% :eeblemindedness is not imbecilit$ because the offender can distinguish
right from wrong. An imbecile and an insane to be exempted must not be able to
distinguish right from wrong.
,elova% :eeblemindedness is imbecilit$.
-rimes committed while in a dream, b$ a somnambulist are embraced in the plea of
insanit$. 7$pnotism, however, is a debatable issue.
-rime committed while suffering from malignant malaria is characteri4ed b$ insanit$
at times thus such person is not criminall$ liable.
71 ' person #n!er nine ears of age1
M&"0,&#I
a. ,e(uisite% 0ffender is under > $ears of age at the time of the commission of the
crime. #here is absolute criminal irresponsibilit$ in the case of a minor under >8
$ears of age.
b. )asis% complete absence of intelligence.
Fnder nine $ears to be construed nine $ears or less. .uch was inferred from the
next subse(uent paragraph which does not totall$ exempt those over nine $ears of
age if he acted with discernment.
!resumptions of incapabilit$ of committing a crime is absolute.
Age is computed up to the time of the commission of the crime. Age can be
established b$ the testimonies of families and relatives.
.enilit$ or second childhood is onl$ mitigating.
4 periods of the life of a human being%
Age -riminal ,esponsibilit$
> $ears and below Absolute irresponsibilit$
)etween > and 15
$ears old
-onditional responsibilit$
1ithout discernment no liabilit$ 1ith ?iscernment mitigated liabilit$
)etween 15 and 1<
$ears old
Mitigated responsibilit$
)etween 1< and =A
$ears old
:ull responsibilit$
0ver =A $ears old Mitigated responsibilit$
24
61 ' person over nine ears of age an! #n!er fifteen. #nless he has acte! with
!iscernment. in which case. s#ch minor shall be procee!e! against in accor!ance
with the provisions of article @B of this Co!e1
,hen s#ch minor is a!9#!ge! to be criminall irresponsible. the co#rt. in
conformit with the provisions of this an! the prece!ing paragraph. shall commit
him to the care an! c#sto! of his famil who shall be charge! with his
s#rveillance an! e!#cation: otherwise. he shall be committe! to the care of some
instit#tion or person mentione! in sai! article @B1
JFA/&:&2? M&"0,&#I% )asis% complete absence of intelligence
.uch minor over > $ears and under 15 $ears of age must have acted without
discernment to be exempted from criminal liabilit$. &f with discernment, he is
criminall$ liable.
!resumption is alwa$s that such minor has acted without discernment. #he
prosecution is burdened to prove if otherwise.
?iscernment means the mental capacit$ of a minor between > and 15 $ears of age
to full$ appreciate the conse(uences of his unlawful act. .uch is shown b$% *1+
manner the crime was committed *i.e. commission of the crime during nighttime to
avoid detection3 taking the loot to another town to avoid discover$+, or *2+ the
conduct of the offender after its commission *i.e. elation of satisfaction upon the
commission of his criminal act as shown b$ the accused cursing at the victim+.
:acts or particular facts concerning personal appearance which lead officers or the
court to believe that his age was as stated b$ said officer or court should be stated in
the record.
&f such minor is ad'udged to be criminall$ liable, he is charged to the custod$ of his
famil$, otherwise, to the care of some institution or person mentioned in article <A.
#his is because of the court@s presupposition that the minor committed the crime
without discernment.
Allegation of Kwith intent to kill6 in the information is sufficient allegation of
discernment as such conve$s the idea that he knew what would be the
conse(uences of his unlawful act. #hus is the case wherein the information alleges
that the accused, with intent to kill, willfull$, criminall$ and feloniousl$ pushed a child
of < 1E2 $ears of age into a deep place. &t was held that the re(uirement that there
should be an allegation that she acted with discernment should be deemed ampl$
met.
;1 'n person who. while performing a lawf#l act with !#e care. ca#ses an
in9#r b mere acci!ent witho#t fa#lt or intention of ca#sing it1
A--&?2"#% )asis% lack of negligence and intent.
2lements%
a. A person is performing a lawful act
b. 2xercise of due dare
c. 7e causes in'ur$ to another b$ mere accident
d. 1ithout fault or intention of causing it.
?ischarge of a firearm in a thickl$ populated place in the -it$ of Manila being
prohibited b$ Art. 155 of the ,!- is not a performance of a lawful act when such led
to the accidental hitting and wounding of 2 persons.
?rawing a weaponEgun in the course of self8defense even if such fired and seriousl$
in'ured the assailant is a lawful act and can be considered as done with due care
since it could not have been done in an$ other manner.
1ith the fact dul$ established b$ the prosecution that the appellant was guilt$ of
negligence, this exempting circumstance cannot be applied because application
presupposes that there is no fault or negligence on the part of the person performing
the lawful act.
Accident happens outside the swa$ of our will, and although it comes about some act
of our will, lies be$ond the bounds of humanl$ foreseeable conse(uences.
#he accused, who, while hunting saw wild chickens and fired a shot can be
considered to be in the performance of a lawful act executed with due care and
25
without intention of doing harm when such short recoiled and accidentall$ wounded
another. .uch was established because the deceased was not in the direction at
which the accused fired his gun.
#he chauffeur, who while driving on the proper side of the road at a moderate speed
and with due diligence, suddenl$ and unexpectedl$ saw a man in front of his vehicle
coming from the sidewalk and crossing the street without an$ warning that he would
do so, in effect being run over b$ the said chauffeur, was held not criminall$ liable, it
being b$ mere accident.
<1 'n person who acts #n!er the comp#lsion of an irresistible force1
&,,2.&.#&)/2 :0,-2% )asis% complete absence of freedom, an element of
voluntariness
2lements%
a. #hat the compulsion is b$ means of ph$sical force
b. #hat the ph$sical force must be irresistible.
c. #hat the ph$sical force must come from a third person
:orce, to be irresistible, must produce such an effect on an individual that despite of
his resistance, it reduces him to a mere instrument and, as such, incapable of
committing a crime. &t compels his member to act and his mind to obe$. &t must act
upon him from the outside and b$ a third person.
)aculi, who was accused but not a member of a band which murdered some
American school teachers and was seen and compelled b$ the leaders of the band
to bur$ the bodies, was not criminall$ liable as accessor$ for concealing the bod$ of
the crime. )aculi acted under the compulsion of an irresistible force.
&rresistible force can never consist in an impulse or passion, or obfuscation. &t must
consist of an extraneous force coming from a third person.
>1 'n person who acts #n!er the imp#lse of an #ncontrollable fear of an
e"#al or greater in9#r1
F"-0"#,0//A)/2 :2A,% )asis% complete absence of freedom
2lements
a. that the threat which causes the fear is of an evil greater than, or at least e(ual to
that wEc he is re(uired to commit
b. that it promises an evil of such gravit$ and imminence that the ordinar$ man
would have succumbed to it.
?uress, to be a valid defense, should be based on real, imminent or reasonable fear
for one@s life or limb. &t should not be inspired b$ speculative, fanciful or remote fear.
#hreat of future in'ur$ is not enough. #he compulsion must leave no opportunit$ to
the accused for escape or self8defense in e(ual combat.
?uress is the use of violence or ph$sical force.
#here is uncontrollable fear is when the offender emplo$s intimidation or threat in
compelling another to commit a crime, while irresistible force is when the offender
uses violence or ph$sical force to compel another person to commit a crime.
Kan act done b$ me against m$ will is not m$ act6
?1 'n person who fails to perform an act re"#ire! b law. when prevente! b
some lawf#l or ins#perable ca#se.
/A1:F/ 0, &".F!2,A)/2 -AF.2% )asis% acts without intent, the third condition
of voluntariness in intentional felon$
2lements%
a. #hat an act is re(uired b$ law to be done
b. #hat a person fails to perform such act
c. #hat his failure to perform such act was due to some lawful or insuperable cause
2xamples of lawful cause%
a. !riest can@t be compelled to reveal what was confessed to him
b. "o available transportation officer not liable for arbitrar$ detention
2;
c. Mother who was overcome b$ severe di44iness and extreme debilit$, leaving
child to die not liable for infanticide
#o be an 2B2M!#&"C circumstance &"#2"# &. 1A"#&"C
&"#2"# presupposes the exercise of freedom and the use of intelligence
?istinction between 'ustif$ing and exempting circumstance%
a. 2xempting there is a crime but there is no criminal. Act is not 'ustified but the
actor is not criminall$ liable.
Ceneral ,ule% #here is civil liabilit$
2xception% !ar 4 *causing an in'ur$ b$ mere accident+ and !ar = *lawful cause+
b. Dustif$ing person does not transgress the law, does not commit an$ crime
because there is nothing unlawful in the act as well as the intention of the actor.
?istinction between 2xempting and Dustif$ing -ircumstances
2xempting -ircumstance Dustif$ing -ircumstance
2xistence
of a crime
#here is a crime but there is no
criminal, the actor is exempted
from liabilit$ of his act
#here is no crime, the act is 'ustified
Absolutor$ -auses are those where the act committed is a crime but for some
reason of public polic$ and sentiment, there is no penalt$ imposed.
2xempting and Dustif$ing -ircumstances are absolutor$ causes.
0ther examples of absolutor$ causes%
1+ Art ; spontaneous desistance
2+ Art 2A accessories exempt from criminal liabilit$
3+ Art 1> par 1 profiting one@s self or assisting offenders to profit b$ the effects of
the crime
&nstigation v. 2ntrapment
&".#&CA#&0" 2"#,A!M2"#
&nstigator practicall$ induces the would8be
accused into the commission of the
offense and himself becomes co8principal
#he wa$s and means are resorted to for
the purpose of trapping and capturing the
lawbreaker in the execution of his criminal
plan.
Accused will be ac(uitted "0# a bar to accused@s prosecution and
conviction
Absolutor$ cause "0# an absolutor$ cause
$)T)G'T)NG C)+C/$(T'NCE(
?efinition #hose circumstance which reduce the penalt$ of a crime
2ffect ,educes the penalt$ of the crime but does not erase criminal liabilit$ nor
change the nature of the crime
Ginds of Mitigating -ircumstance%
!rivileged Mitigating 0rdinar$ Mitigating
0ffset b$ an$
aggravating
circumstance
-annot be offset b$ an$ aggravating
circumstance
-an be offset b$ a generic
aggravating circumstance
2ffect on the
penalt$
7as the effect of imposing the
penalt$ b$ 1 or 2 degrees than that
provided b$ law
&f not offset, has the effect of
imposing the penalt$ in the
minimum period
Ginds Minorit$, &ncomplete .elf8defense,
two or more mitigating
circumstances without an$
aggravating circumstance *has the
effect of lowering the penalt$ b$ one
degree+
#hose circumstances
enumerated in paragraph 1 to 1A
of Article 13
'rticle 261
21 Those mentione! in the prece!ing chapter. when all the re"#isites necessar to
9#stif the act or to e%empt from criminal liabilit in the respective cases are not
atten!ant
2=
4#stifing circ#mstances
a. Self#defense,defense of relative,defense of stranger unlawful aggression must be
present for Art 13 to be applicable. 0ther 2 elements not necessar$. &f 2
re(uisites are present considered a privileged mitigating circumstance.
Example) Duan makes fun of !edro. !edro gets pissed off, gets a knife and tries
to stab Duan. Duan grabs his own knife and kills !edro. &ncomplete self8defense
because although there was unlawful aggression and reasonable means to repel
was taken, there was sufficient provocation on the part of Duan. )ut since 2
elements are present, it considered as privileged mitigating.
b. State of "ecessity *par 4+ avoidance of greater evil or in'ur$3 if an$ of the last 2
re(uisites is absent, there@s onl$ an ordinar$ Mitigating -ircumstance.
Example% 1hile driving his car, Duan sees !edro carelessl$ crossing the street.
Duan swerves to avoid him, thus hitting a motorbike with 2 passengers, killing
them instantl$. "ot all re(uisites to 'ustif$ act were present because harm done to
avoid in'ur$ is greater. -onsidered as mitigating.
c. Performance of (uty *par 5+
Example% Duan is supposed to arrest !edro. 7e thus goes to !edro@s hideout.
Duan sees a man asleep. #hinking it was !edro, Duan shot him. Duan ma$ have
acted in the performance of his dut$ but the crime was not a necessar$
conse(uence thereof. -onsidered as mitigating.
E%empting circ#mstance
a. %inority over - and under ./ if minor acted with discernment, considered
mitigating
Example% 13 $ear old stole goods at nighttime. Acted with discernment as shown
b$ the manner in which the act was committed.

b. *ausing in'ury by mere accident if 2
nd
re(uisite *due care+ and 1
st
part of 4
th
re(uisite *without fault thus negligence onl$+ are A).2"#, considered as
mitigating because the penalt$ is lower than that provided for intentional felon$.
Example% !olice officer tries to stop a fight between Duan and !edro b$ firing his
gun in the air. )ullet ricocheted and killed !etra. 0fficer willfull$ discharged his
gun but was unmindful of the fact that area was populated.

c. 0ncontrollable fear onl$ one re(uisite present, considered mitigating
Example% Fnder threat that their farm will be burned, !edro and Duan took turns
guarding it at night. !edro fired in the air when a person in the shadows refused
to reveal his identit$. Duan was awakened and shot the unidentified person.
#urned out to be a neighbor looking for is pet. Duan ma$ have acted under the
influence of fear but such fear was not entirel$ uncontrollable. -onsidered
mitigating.
71 That the offen!er is #n!er 2@ ears of age or over ?B ears1 )n the case of a
minor. he shall be procee!e! against in accor!ance with the provisions of 'rt 257
of P- 5B6
Applicable to%
a. 0ffender over >, under 15 who acted with discernment
b. 0ffender over 15, under 1<
3 c. 0ffender over =A $ears
Age of accused which should be determined as his age at the date of commission of
crime, not date of trial
1arious Ages and their 2egal 3ffects
a. under > exemptive circumstance
b. over >, below 15 exemptive3 except if acted with discernment
c. minor delin(uent under 1< sentence ma$ be suspended *!? ;A3+
2<
d. under 1< privileged mitigating circumstance
e. 1< and above full criminal responsibilit$
f. =A and above mitigating circumstance3 no imposition of death penalt$3 execution
g. of death sentence if alread$ imposed is suspended and commuted.
61 That the offen!er ha! no intention to commit so grave a wrong as that
committe! (praeter intentionam)
4
-an be used onl$ when the facts prove to show that there is a notable and evident
disproportion between means employed to execute the criminal act and its
consequences
&ntention% as an internal act, is 'udged b$ the proportion of the means emplo$ed to
the evil produced b$ the act, and also b$ the fact that the blow was or was not aimed
at a vital part of the bod$.
Dudge b$ considering *1+ the weapon used, *2+ the in'ur$ inflicted and *3+ the attitude
of mind when the accuser attacked the other.
Example% !edro stabbed #omas on the arm. #omas did not have the wound treated,
so he died from loss of blood.
"ot applicable when offender emplo$ed brute force
Example% ,apist choked victim. )rute force of choking contradicts claim that he had
no intention to kill the girl.
Art 13, par 3 addresses itself to the intention of the offender at the particular moment
when he executes or commits the criminal act, not to his intention during the
planning stage.
&n crimes against persons if victim does not die, the absence of the intent to kill
reduces the felon$ to mere ph$sical in'uries. &t is not considered as mitigating.
Mitigating onl$ when the victim dies.
Example% As part of fun8making, Duan merel$ intended to burn !edro@s clothes.
!edro received minor burns. Duan is charged with ph$sical in'uries. 7ad !edro died,
Duan would be entitled to the mitigating circumstance.
"ot applicable to felonies b$ negligence. 1h$9 &n felonies through negligence, the
offender acts without intent. #he intent in intentional felonies is replaced b$
negligence, imprudence, lack of foresight or lack of skill in culpable felonies. #here is
no intent on the part of the offender which ma$ be considered as diminished.
)asis of par 3% intent, an element of voluntariness in intentional felon$, is diminished
;1 That the s#fficient provocation or threat on the part of the offen!e! part
imme!iatel prece!e! the act1
!rovocation an$ un'ust or improper conduct or act of the offended part$, capable of
exciting, inciting or irritating an$one.
)asis% diminution of intelligence and intent
,e(uisites%
a. !rovocation must be sufficient.
1. .ufficient ade(uate enough to excite a person to commit the wrong and must
accordingl$ be proportionate to its gravit$.
2. .ufficienc$ depends on%
the act constituting the provocation
the social standing of the person provoked
time and place provocation took place
3. Example% Duan likes to hit and curse his servant. 7is servant thus killed him.
#here@s mitigating circumstance because of sufficient provocation.
4. 1hen it was the defendant who sought the deceased, the challenge to fight
b$ the deceased is "0# sufficient provocation.
b. &t must originate from the offended part$
1. 1h$9 /aw sa$s the provocation is Kon the part of the offended part$6
2. 2xample% #omas@ mother insulted !etra. !etra kills #omas because of the
insults. "o Mitigating -ircumstance because it was the mother who insulted
her, not #omas.
3. !rovocation b$ the deceased in the first stage of the fight is not Mitigating
2>
-ircumstance when the accused killed him after he had fled because the
deceased from the moment he fled did not give an$ provocation for the
accused to pursue and attack him.
c. !rovocation must be immediate to the act., i.e., to the commission of the crime b$
the person who is provoked
1. 1h$9 &f there was an interval of time, the conduct of the
offended part$ could not have excited the accused to the commission of the
crime, he having had time to regain his reason and to exercise self8control.
2. #hreat should not be offensive and positivel$ strong
because if it was, the threat to inflict real in'ur$ is an unlawful aggression
which ma$ give rise to self8defense and thus no longer a Mitigating
-ircumstance
<1 That the act was committe! in the imme!iate vin!ication of a grave offense to
the one committing the felon (!elito). his spo#se. ascen!ants. !escen!ants.
legitimate. nat#ral or a!opte! brother or sisters. or relatives b affinit within the
same !egree1
1. ,e(uisites%
there@s a grave offense done to the one committing the felon$ etc.
that the felon$ is committed in vindication of such grave offense.
2. /apse of time is allowed between the vindication and the one doing the
offense *proximate time, not 'ust immediatel$ after+
3. Example% Duan caught his wife and his friend in a compromising situation.
Duan kills his friend the next da$ still considered proximate.
!,0L0-A#&0" L&"?&-A#&0"
Made directl$ onl$ to the person
committing the felon$
Crave offense ma$ be also against the
offender@s relatives mentioned b$ law
-ause that brought about the provocation
need not be a grave offense
0ffended part$ must have done a grave
offense to the offender or his relatives
"ecessar$ that provocation or threat
immediatel$ preceded the act. "o time
interval
Ma$ be proximate. #ime interval allowed
More lenient in vindication because offense concerns the honor of the person. .uch
is more worth$ of consideration than mere spite against the one giving the
provocation or threat.
Lindication of a grave offense and passion and obfuscation can@t be counted
separatel$ and independentl$
>1 That of having acte! #pon an imp#lse so powerf#l as nat#rall to have
pro!#ce! passion or obf#scation
!assion and obfuscation is mitigating% when there are causes naturall$ producing in
a person powerful excitement, he loses his reason and self8control. #hereb$
dismissing the exercise of his will power.
!A..&0" A"? 0):F.-A#&0" are Mitigating -ircumstances onl$ when the same
arise from lawful sentiments *not Mitigating -ircumstance when done in the spirit of
revenge or lawlessness+
,e(uisites for !assion M 0bfuscation
a. #he offender acted on impulse powerful enough to produce passion or obfuscation
b. #hat the act was committed not in the spirit of lawlessness or revenge
c. #he act must come from lawful sentiments
Act which gave rise to passion and obfuscation
a. #hat there be an act, both unlawful and un'ust
b. #he act be sufficient to produce a condition of mind
c. #hat the act was proximate to the criminal act
d. #he victim must be the one who caused the passion or obfuscation
2xample% Duan saw #omas hitting his *Duan+ son. Duan stabbed #omas. Duan is
entitled to Mitigating -ircumstance of !M0 as his actuation arose from a natural
instinct that impels a father to rush to the rescue of his son.
3A
#he exercise of a right or a fulfillment of a dut$ is not the proper source of !M0.
Example% A policeman arrested Duan as he was making a public disturbance on the
streets. Duan@s anger and indignation resulting from the arrest can@t be considered
passionate obfuscation because the policeman was doing a lawful act.
#he act must be sufficient to produce a condition of mind. &f the cause of the loss of
self8control was trivial and slight, the obfuscation is not mitigating.
Example% Duan@s boss punched him for not going to work he other da$. -ause is
slight.
#here could have been no Mitigating -ircumstance of !M0 when more than 24
hours elapsed between the alleged insult and the commission of the felon$, or
several hours have passed between the cause of the !M0 and the commission of
the crime, or at least N hours intervened between the previous fight and subse(uent
killing of deceased b$ accused.
"ot mitigating if relationship is illegitimate
#he passion or obfuscation will be considered even if it is based onl$ on the honest
belief of the offender, even if facts turn out to prove that his beliefs were wrong.
!assion and obfuscation cannot co8exist with treacher$ since the means that the
offender has had time to ponder his course of action.
!A..&0" A"? 0):F.-A#&0" arising from one and the same cause should be
treated as onl$ one mitigating circumstance
Lindication of grave offense can@t co8exist wE !A..&0" A"? 0):F.-A#&0"
!A..&0" A"? 0):F.-A#&0" &,,2.&#&)/2 :0,-2
Mitigating 2xempting
"o ph$sical force needed ,e(uires ph$sical force
:rom the offender himself Must come from a 3rd person
Must come from lawful sentiments Fnlawful
!A..&0" A"? 0):F.-A#&0" !,0L0-A#&0"
!roduced b$ an impulse which ma$ be
caused b$ provocation
-omes from in'ured part$
0ffense, which engenders perturbation of
mind, need not be immediate. &t is onl$
re(uired that the influence thereof lasts
until the crime is committed
Must immediatel$ precede the commission
of the crime
2ffect is loss of reason and self8control on
the part of the offender
.ame
?1 That the offen!er ha! vol#ntaril s#rren!ere! himself to a person in a#thorit or
his agents. or that he ha! vol#ntaril confesse! his g#ilt before the co#rt prior to
the presentation of the evi!ence for the prosec#tion1
2 Mitigating -ircumstances present%
a+ voluntaril$ surrendered
b+ voluntaril$ confessed his guilt
&f both are present, considered as 2 independent mitigating circumstances. Mitigate
penalt$ to a greater extent
,e(uisites of voluntar$ surrender%
a+ offender not actuall$ arrested
b+ offender surrendered to a person in authorit$ or the latter@s agent
c+ surrender was voluntar$
.urrender must be spontaneous shows his interest to surrender unconditionall$ to
the authorities
.pontaneous emphasi4es the idea of inner impulse, acting without external
stimulus. #he conduct of the accused, not his intention alone, after the commission
of the offense, determines the spontaneit$ of the surrender.
Example% .urrendered after 5 $ears, not spontaneous an$more.
Example% .urrendered after talking to town councilor. "ot L... because there@s an
external stimulus
31
-onduct must indicate a desire to own the responsibilit$
"ot mitigating when warrant alread$ served. .urrender ma$ be considered mitigating
if warrant not served or returned unserved because accused can@t be located.
.urrender of person re(uired. "ot 'ust of weapon.
!erson in authorit$ one directl$ vested with 'urisdiction, whether as an individual or
as a member of some courtEgovernmentEcorporationEboardEcommission. )arrio
captainEchairman included.
Agent of person in authorit$ person who b$ direct provision of law, or be election,
or b$ appointment b$ competent authorit$ is charged with the maintenance of public
order and the protection and securit$ of life and propert$ and an$ person who comes
to the aid of persons in authorit$.
,!- does not make distinction among the various moments when surrender ma$
occur.
.urrender must be b$ reason of the commission of the crime for which defendant is
charged
,e(uisites for plea of guilt$
a+ offender spontaneousl$ confessed his guilt
b+ confession of guilt was made in open court *competent court+
c+ confession of guilt was made prior to the presentation of evidence for the
prosecution
plea made after arraignment and after trial has begun does not entitle accused to
have plea considered as Mitigating -ircumstance
plea in the ,#- in a case appealed from the M#- is not mitigating 8 must make plea
at the first opportunit$
plea during the preliminar$ investigation is no plea at all
even if during arraignment, accused pleaded not guilt$, he is entitled to Mitigating
-ircumstance as long as withdraws his plea of not guilt$ to the charge before the
fiscal could present his evidence
plea to a lesser charge is not Mitigating -ircumstance because to be voluntar$ plea
of guilt$, must be to the offense charged
plea to the offense charged in the amended info, lesser than that charged in the
original info, is Mitigating -ircumstance
present ,ules of -ourt re(uire that even if accused pleaded guilt$ to a capital
offense, its mandator$ for court to re(uire the prosecution to prove the guilt of the
accused being likewise entitled to present evidence to prove, inter alia, Mitigating
-ircumstance
@1 That the offen!er is !eaf an! !#mb. blin! or otherwise s#ffering from some
phsical !efect wEc th#s restricts his means of action. !efense or comm#nication
wE his fellow beings1
)asis% one suffering from ph$sical defect which restricts him does not have complete
freedom of action and therefore, there is diminution of that element of voluntariness.
"o distinction between educated and uneducated deaf8mute or blind persons
#he ph$sical defect of the offender should restrict his means of action, defense or
communication with fellow beings, this has been extended to cover cripples, armless
people even stutterers.
#he circumstance assumes that with their ph$sical defect, the offenders do not have
a complete freedom of action therefore diminishing the element of voluntariness in
the commission of a crime.
51 (#ch illness of the offen!er as wo#l! !iminish the e%ercise of the willApower of
the offen!er wEo !epriving him of conscio#sness of his acts1
)asis% diminution of intelligence and intent
,e(uisites%
a+ illness of the offender must diminish the exercise of his will8power
b+ such illness should not deprive the offender of consciousness of his acts
32
when the offender completel$ lost the exercise of will8power, it ma$ be an exempting
circumstance
deceased mind, not amounting to insanit$, ma$ give place to mitigation
2B1 'n! an other circ#mstance of a similar nat#re an! analogo#s to those aboveA
mentione!
2xamples of Kan$ other circumstance6%
a+ defendant who is ;A $ears old with failing e$esight is similar to a case of one
over =A $ears old
b+ outraged feeling of owner of animal taken for ransom is analogous to vindication
of grave offense
c+ impulse of 'ealous feeling, similar to !A..&0" A"? 0):F.-A#&0"
d+ voluntar$ restitution of propert$, similar to voluntar$ surrender
e+ extreme povert$, similar to incomplete 'ustification based on state of necessit$
"0# analogous%
a+ killing wrong person
b+ not resisting arrest not the same as voluntar$ surrender
c+ running amuck is not mitigating
M&#&CA#&"C -&,-FM.#A"-2 which arise from%
a+ moral attributes of the offender
Example% Duan and #omas killed !edro. Duan acted wE !A..&0" A"?
0):F.-A#&0". 0nl$ Duan will be entitled to Mitigating -ircumstance
b+ private relations with the offended part$
Example% Duan stole his brother@s watch. Duan sold it to !edro, who knew it was
stolen. #he circumstance of relation arose from private relation of Duan and the
brother. ?oes not mitigate !edro.
c+ other personal cause
Example% Minor, acting with discernment robbed Duan. !edro, passing b$, helped
the minor. -ircumstance of minorit$, mitigates liabilit$ of minor onl$.
.hall serve to mitigate the liabilit$ of the principals, accomplices and accessories to
whom the circumstances are attendant.
-ircumstances which are neither exempting nor mitigating
a+ mistake in the blow
b+ mistake in the identit$ of the victim
c+ entrapment of the accused
d+ accused is over 1< $ears old
e+ performance of a righteous action
Example% Duan saved the lives of >> people but caused the death of the last person,
he is still criminall$ liable
'GG+'D'T)NG C)+C/$(T'NCE(
?efinition #hose circumstance which raise the penalt$ for a crime without
exceeding the maximum applicable to that crime.
)asis% #he greater perversit$ of the offense as shown b$%
a+ the motivating power behind the act
b+ the place where the act was committed
c+ the means and wa$s used
d+ the time
e+ the personal circumstance of the offender
f+ the personal circumstance of the victim
Ginds%
a+ Ceneric generall$ applicable to all crimes
b+ .pecific appl$ onl$ to specific crimes *ignomin$ for chastit$ crimes3 treacher$
for persons crimes+
c+ Jualif$ing those that change the nature of the crime *evident premeditation
becomes murder+
d+ &nherent necessaril$ accompanies the commission of the crime *evident
premeditation in theft, estafa+
33
JFA/&:I&"C ACC,ALA#&"C
-&,-FM.#A"-2
C2"2,&- ACC,ALA#&"C
-&,-FM.#A"-2
Cives the proper and exclusive name,
places the author thereof in such a
situation as to deserve no other penalt$
than that specificall$ prescribed b$ law
&ncrease penalt$ to the maximum, without
exceeding limit prescribed b$ law
-an@t be offset b$ Mitigating -ircumstance Ma$ be compensated b$ Mitigating
-ircumstance
Must be alleged in the information. &ntegral
part of the offense
"eed not be alleged. Ma$ be proved over
the ob'ection of the defense. Jualif$ing if
not alleged will make it generic
Aggravating -ircumstances which ?0 "0# have the effect of increasing the penalt$%
1+ which themselves constitute a crime specificall$ punishable b$ law or which are
included in the law defining a crime and prescribing the penalt$ thereof
Example% breaking a window to get inside the house and rob it
2+ aggravating circumstance inherent in the crime to such degree that it must of
necessit$ accompan$ the commission thereof
Example% evident premeditation inherent in theft, robber$, estafa, adulter$ and
concubinage
Aggravating circumstances are not presumed. Must be proved as full$ as the crime
itself in order to increase the penalt$.
'rt 2;1 'ggravating circ#mstances1 F The following are aggravating
circ#mstances:
21 That a!vantage be ta3en b the offen!er of his p#blic position
,e(uisite%
a. #he offender is a public officer
b. #he commission of the crime would not have been possible without the powers,
resources and influence of the office he holds.
2ssential 8 !ublic officer used the influence, prestige or ascendanc$ which his office
gives him as the means b$ which he reali4ed his purpose.
:ailure in official is tantamount to abusing of office
1earing of uniform is immaterial what matters is the proof that he indeed took
advantage of his position
71 That the crime be committe! in contempt of or with ins#lt to the p#blic
a#thorities
,e(uisites%
a. #he offender knows that a public authorit$ is present
b. #he public authorit$ is engaged in the exercise of his functions
c. #he public authorit$ is not the victim of the crime
d. #he public authorit$@s presence did not prevent the criminal act
Example% Duan and !edro are (uarrelling and the municipal ma$or, upon passing b$,
attempts to stop them. "otwithstanding the intervention and the presence of the
ma$or, Duan and !edro continue to (uarrel until Duan succeeds in killing !edro.
!erson in authorit$ public authorit$ who is directl$ vested with 'urisdiction, has the
power to govern and execute the laws
2xamples of !ersons in Authorit$
a. Covernor
b. Ma$or
c. )aranga$ captain
d. -ouncilors
e. Covernment agents
f. -hief of !olice
,ule not applicable when committed in the presence of a mere agent.
Agent subordinate public officer charged with the maintenance of public order and
protection and securit$ of life and propert$
34
Example% barrio vice lieutenant, barrio councilman
61 That the act be committe!:
(2) with ins#lt or in !isregar! of the respect !#e to the offen!e! part on acco#nt
of his (a) ran3. (b) age. (c) se% or
(7) that it be committe! in the !welling of the offen!e! part. if the latter has not
given provocation1
circumstances *rank, age, sex+ ma$ be taken into account only in crimes against
persons or honor, it cannot be invoked in crimes against propert$
,ank refers to a high social position or standing b$ which to determine one@s pa$
and emoluments in an$ scale of comparison within a position
Age the circumstance of lack of respect due to age applies in case where the
victim is of tender age as well as of old age
.ex refers to the female sex, not to the male sex3 not applicable when
a. #he offender acted wE !A..&0" A"? 0):F.-A#&0"
b. there exists a relation between the offender and the victim *but in cases of
divorce decrees where there is a direct bearing on their child, it is applicable+
c. the condition of being a woman is indispensable in the commission of the crime
*2x. !arricide, rape, abduction+
,e(uisite of disregard to rank, age, or sex
a. -rimes must be against the victim@s person or his honor
b. #here is deliberate intent to offend or insult the respect due to the victim@s rank,
age, or sex
?isregard to rank, age, or sex is absorbed b$ treacher$ or abuse of strength
?welling must be a building or structure exclusivel$ used for rest and comfort
*combination house and store not included+
a. ma$ be temporar$ as in the case of guests in a house or bedspacers
b. basis for this is the sanctit$ of privac$ the law accords to human abode
dwelling includes dependencies, the foot of the staircase and the enclosure under
the house
2lements of the aggravating circumstance of dwelling
a. -rime occurred in the
dwelling of the victim
b. "o provocation on the part of
the victim
,e(uisites for !rovocation% A// MF.# -0"-F,
a. given b$ the owner of the dwelling
b. sufficient
c. immediate to the commission of the crime
35
1hen dwelling ma$ and ma$ not be considered
1hen it ma$ be considered 1hen it ma$ not be considered
although the offender fired the shot from
outside the house, as long as his victim
was inside
even if the killing took place outside the
dwelling, so long as the commission began
inside the dwelling
when adulter$ is committed in the dwelling
of the husband, even if it is also the
dwelling of the wife, it is still aggravating
because she and her paramour committed
a grave offense to the head of the house
&n robber$ with violence against persons,
robber$ with homicide, abduction, or illegal
detention
&f the offended part$ has given
provocation
&f both the offender and the
offended part$ are occupants of the
same dwelling
&n robber$ with force upon things, it
is inherent
;1 That the act be committe! with (2) ab#se of confi!ence or (7) obvio#s
#ngratef#lness
,e(uisites of Abuse of -onfidence ,e(uisite of 0bvious Fngratefulness
a+ 0ffended part$ has trusted the
offender
b+ 0ffender abused such trust
c+ Abuse of confidence facilitated the
commission of the crime
a+ ungratefulness must be obvious, that is,
there must be something which the
offender should owe the victim a debt of
gratitude for
"ote% robber$ or theft committed b$ a visitor
in the house of the offended part$ is
aggravated b$ obvious ungratefulness
Example% A 'ealous lover, alread$ determined to kill his sweetheart, invited her for a
ride and during that ride, he stabbed her
Abuse of confidence is inherent in%
a. malversation
b. (ualified theft
c. estafa b$ conversion
d. misappropriation
e. (ualified seduction
<1 That the crime be committe! in the palace of the Chief E%ec#tive. or in his
presence. or when p#blic a#thorities are engage! in the !ischarge of their !#ties.
or in a place !e!icate! to religio#s worship1
,e(uirements of the aggravating circumstance of public office%
a. #he crime occurred in the public office
b. !ublic authorities are actuall$ performing their public duties
A polling precinct is a public office during election da$
"ature of public office should be taken into account, like a police station which is on
dut$ 24 hrs. a da$
place of the commission of the felon$ *par 5+% if it is MalacaOang palace or a church
is aggravating, regardless of whether .tate or official3 functions are being held.
as regards other places where public authorities are engaged in the discharge of
their duties, there must be some performance of public functions
the offender must have intention to commit a crime when he entered the place
,e(uisites for aggravating circumstances for place of worship%
a. #he crime occurred in a place dedicated to the worship of Cod regardless of
religion
b. 0ffender must have decided to commit the crime when he entered the place of
worship
1hen !aragraph 2 and 5 of Article 14 are applicable
3;
-ommitted in the presence of the -hief
2xecutive, in the !residential !alace or a
place of worship*!ar. 5, Art. 14+
-ommitted in contempt of !ublic Authorit$
*!ar. 2, Art 14+
!ublic authorities are performing of their
duties when the crime is committed
.ame
1hen crime is committed in the public
office, the officer must be performing his
duties, except in the !residential !alace
0utside the office *still performing dut$+
!ublic authorit$ ma$ be the offended part$ !ublic authorit$ is not be the offended
part$

>a1 That the crime be committe! (2) in the nighttime. or (7) in an #ninhabite! place
(6) b a ban!. whenever s#ch circ#mstances ma facilitate the commission of the
offense1
"ighttime, Fninhabited !lace or )$ a )ang Aggravating when%
a. it facilitated the commission of the crime
b. especiall$ sought for b$ the offender to insure the commission of the crime or for
the purpose of impunit$
&mpunit$ means to prevent the accused@s being recogni4ed or to secure
himself against detection or punishment
c. when the offender took the advantage thereof for the purpose of impunit$
d. commission of the crime must have began and accomplished at nighttime
"ighttime begins at the end of dusk and ending at dawn3 from sunset to sunrise
a. commission of the crime must begin and be accomplished in the nighttime
b. when the place of the crime is illuminated b$ light, nighttime is not aggravating
c. absorbed b$ #reacher$
Fninhabited !lace one where there are no houses at all, a place at a considerable
distance from town, where the houses are scattered at a great distance from each
other
,e(uisites%
a. #he place facilitated the commission or omission of the crime
b. ?eliberatel$ sought and not incidental to the commission or omission of the
crime
c. #aken advantage of for the purpose of impunit$
what should be considered here is whether in the place of the commission of the
offense, there was a reasonable possibilit$ of the victim receiving some help
>b1 A ,henever more than 6 arme! malefactors shall have acte! together in the
commission of an offense. it shall be !eeme! to have been committe! b a ban!1
,e(uisites%
a. :acilitated the commission of the crime
b. ?eliberatel$ sought
c. #aken advantage of for the purposes of impunit$
d. #here must be four or more armed men
if one of the four8armed malefactors is a principal b$ inducement, the$ do not form a
band because it is undoubtedl$ connoted that he had no direct participation,
)and is inherent in robber$ committed in band and brigandage
&t is not considered in the crime of rape
&t has been applied in treason and in robber$ with homicide
3=
?1 That the crime be committe! on the occasion of a conflagration. shipwrec3.
earth"#a3e. epi!emic or other calamit or misfort#ne
,e(uisites%
a. -ommitted when there is a calamit$ or misfortune
1. -onflagration
2. .hipwreck
3. 2pidemic
b. 0ffender took advantage of the state of confusion or chaotic condition from such
misfortune
)asis% -ommission of the crime adds to the suffering b$ taking advantage of the
misfortune.
based on time
offender must take advantage of the calamit$ or misfortune
?istinction between !aragraphs = and 12 of Article 14
-ommitted during a calamit$ or misfortune -ommitted with the use of wasteful means
-rime is committed ?F,&"C an$ of the
calamities
-rime is committed )I using fire, inundation,
explosion or other wasteful means
@1 That the crime be committe! with the ai! of (2) arme! men or (7) persons who
ins#re or affor! imp#nit
based on the means and wa$s
,e(uisites%
a. that armed men or persons took part in the commission of the crime, directl$ or
indirectl$
b. that the accused availed himself of their aid or relied upon them when the crime
was committed
2xceptions%
a. when both the attacking part$ and the part$ attacked were e(uall$ armed
b. not present when the accused as well as those who cooperated with him in the
commission of the crime acted under the same plan and for the same purpose.
c. -asual presence, or when the offender did not avail himself of an$ of their aid nor
did not knowingl$ count upon their assistance in the commission of the crime
1&#7 #72 A&? 0: A,M2? M2" )I A )A"?
!resent even if one of the offenders merel$
relied on their aid. Actual aid is not
necessar$
,e(uires more than 3 armed malefactors
who all acted together in the commission
of an offense
if there are more than 3 armed men, aid of armed men is absorbed in the
emplo$ment of a band.
51 That the acc#se! is a reci!ivist
,ecidivist one who at the time of his trial for one crime, shall have been previousl$
convicted b$ final 'udgment of another crime embraced in the same title of the ,!-
)asis% Creater perversit$ of the offender as shown b$ his inclination to commit
crimes
,e(uisites%
a. offender is on trial for an offense
b. he was previousl$ convicted b$ final 'udgment of another crime
c. that both the first and the second offenses are embraced in the same title of the
,!-
d. the offender is convicted of the new offense
1hat is controlling is the time of the trial, not the time of the commission of the
offense. At the time of the trial means from the arraignment until after sentence is
announced b$ the 'udge in open court.
1hen does 'udgment become final9 *,ules of -ourt+
3<
a. after the lapse of a period for perfecting an appeal
b. when the sentence has been partiall$ or totall$ satisfied or served
c. defendant has expressl$ waived in writing his right to appeal
d. the accused has applied for probation
2xample of -rimes embraced in the .ame title of the ,!-
a. robber$ and theft title 1A
b. homicide and ph$sical in'uries title <
J% #he accused was prosecuted and tried for theft, robber$ and estafa. Dudgments
were read on the same da$. &s he a recidivist9
A% "o. )ecause the 'udgment in an$ of the first two offenses was not $et final when
he was tried for the third offense
,ecidivism must be taken into account no matter how man$ $ears have intervened
between the first and second felonies
!ardon does not obliterate the fact that the accused was a recidivist, but amnest$
extinguishes the penalt$ and its effects
#o prove recidivism, it must be alleged in the information and with attached certified
copies of the sentences rendered against the accused
2xceptions% if the accused does not ob'ect and when he admits in his confession and
on the witness stand
2B1 That the offen!er has been previo#sl p#nishe! for an offense to which the
law attaches an e"#al or greater penalt or for two or more crimes to which it
attaches a lighter penalt
,eiteracion or 7abitualit$ it is essential that the offender be previousl$ punished3
that is, he has served sentence.
!ar. 1A speaks of penalt$ attached to the offense, not the penalt$ actuall$ imposed
,2&#2,A-&0" ,2-&?&L&.M
"ecessar$ that offender shall have served
out his sentence for the first sentence
2nough that final 'udgment has been
rendered in the first offense
!revious and subse(uent offenses must
not be embraced in the same title of the
-ode
.ame title
"ot alwa$s an aggravating circumstance Alwa$s aggravating
4 :orms of ,epetition
a. ,ecidivism generic
b. ,eiteracion or 7abitualit$ generic
c. Multiple recidivism or 7abitual delin(uenc$ extraordinar$ aggravating
d. Juasi8,ecidivism special aggravating
7abitual ?elin(uenc$ when a person within a period of 1A $ears from the date of
his release or last conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious ph$sical in'uries,
robber$, theft, estafa or falsification is found guilt$ of an$ of said crimes a third time
or oftener.
Juasi8,ecidivism an$ person who shall commit a felon$ after having been
convicted b$ final 'udgment, before beginning to serve such sentence, or while
serving the same, shall be punished b$ the maximum period of the penalt$
prescribed b$ law for the new felon$
221 That the crime be committe! in consi!eration of a price. rewar! or promise1
,e(uisites%
a. At least 2 principals
1. #he principal b$ inducement
2. #he principal b$ direct participation
b. the price, reward, or promise should be previous to and in consideration of the
commission of the criminal act
Applicable to both principals.
3>
271 That the crime be committe! b means of in#n!ation. fire. poison. e%plosion.
stran!ing a vessel or intentional !amage thereto. or !erailment of a locomotive. or
b #se of an other artifice involving great waste or r#in1
,e(uisite% #he wasteful means were used b$ the offender to accomplish a criminal
purpose
261 That the act be committe! with evi!ent preme!itation
2ssence of premeditation% the execution of the criminal act must be preceded b$ cool
thought and reflection upon the resolution to carr$ out the criminal intent during the
space of time sufficient to arrive at a calm 'udgment
,e(uisites%
a. the time when the offender determined to commit the crime
b. an act manifestl$ indicating that the culprit has clung to his determination
c. a sufficient lapse of time between the determination and execution to allow him to
reflect upon the conse(uences of his act and to allow his conscience to
overcome the resolution of his will
-onspirac$ generall$ presupposes premeditation
1hen victim is different from that intended, premeditation is not aggravating.
Although it is not necessar$ that there is a plan to kill a particular person for
premeditation to exist *e.g. plan to kill first 2 persons one meets, general attack on a
villagePfor as long as it was planned+
#he premeditation must be based upon external facts, and must be evident, not
merel$ suspected indicating deliberate planning
2vident premeditation is inherent in robber$, adulter$, theft, estafa, falsification, and
etc.
2;1 That (2) craft. (7) fra#!. or (6) !isg#ise be emploe!
-raft involves intellectual tricker$ and cunning on the part of the accused.
&t is emplo$ed as a scheme in the execution of the crime *e.g. accused pretended to
be members of the constabular$, accused in order to perpetrate rape, used
chocolates containing drugs+
:raud involves insidious words or machinations used to induce victim to act in a
manner which would enable the offender to carr$ out his design.
as distinguished from craft which involves acts done in order not to arouse the
suspicion of the victim, fraud involves a direct inducement through entrapping or
beguiling language or machinations
?isguise resorting to an$ device to conceal identit$. !urpose of concealing identit$
is a must.
?istinction between -raft, :raud, and ?isguise
-raft :raud ?isguise
&nvolves the use of intellectual
tricker$ and cunning to arouse
suspicion of the victim
&nvolves the use of direct
inducement b$ insidious
words or machinations
&nvolves the use of
devise to conceal
identit$
,e(uisite% #he offender must have actuall$ taken advantage of craft, fraud, or
disguise to facilitate the commission of the crime.
&nherent in% estafa and falsification
4A
2<1 That (2) a!vantage be ta3en of s#perior strength. or (7) means be emploe! to
wea3en the !efense
#o purposel$ use excessive force out of the proportion to the means of defense
available to the person attacked.
a. .uperiorit$ ma$ arise from aggressor@s sex, weapon or number as compared to
that of the victim *e.g. accused attacked an unarmed girl with a knife3 3 men
stabbed to death the female victim+.
b. "o advantage of superior strength when one who attacks is overcome with
passion and obfuscation or when (uarrel arose unexpectedl$ and the fatal blow
was struck while victim and accused were struggling.
c. Ls. b$ a band % circumstance of abuse of superior strength, what is taken into
account is not the number of aggressors nor the fact that the$ are armed but their
relative ph$sical might vis8Q8vis the offended part$
,e(uisite of Means to 1eaken ?efense
a. Means were purposel$ sought to weaken the defense of the victim to resist the
assault
b. #he means used must not totall$ eliminate possible defense of the victim,
otherwise it will fall under treacher$
#o weaken the defense illustrated in the case where one struggling with another
suddenl$ throws a cloak over the head of his opponent and while in the said
situation, he wounds or kills him. 0ther means of weakening the defense would be
intoxication or disabling thru the senses *casting dirt of sand upon another@s e$es+
2>1 That the act be committe! with treacher (alevosia)
#,2A-72,I% when the offender commits an$ of the crime against the person,
emplo$ing means, methods or forms in the execution thereof which tend directl$ and
speciall$ to insure its execution without risk to himself arising from the defense which
the offended part$ might make.
,e(uisites%
a. that at the time of the attack, the victim was not in the position to defend himself
b. that the offender consciousl$ adopted the particular means, method or form of
attack emplo$ed b$ him
#reacher$ can@t be considered when there is no evidence that the accused, prior to
the moment of the killing, resolved to commit to crime, or there is no proof that the
death of the victim was the result of meditation, calculation or reflection.
a. does not exist if the accused gave the deceased chance to prepare or there was
warning given or that it was preceded b$ a heated argument
b. there is alwa$s treacher$ in the killing of child
c. generall$ characteri4ed b$ the deliberate and sudden and unexpected attack of
the victim from behind, without an$ warning and without giving the victim an
opportunit$ to defend himself
2xamples% victim asleep, half8awake or 'ust awakened, victim grappling or being
held, stacks from behind
)ut treacher$ ma$ exist even if attack is face8to8face as long as victim was not
given an$ chance to prepare defense
#,2A-72,I A)F.2 0: .F!2,&0,
.#,2"C#7
M2A". 2M!/0I2? #0
12AG2" ?2:2".2
Means, methods or forms
are emplo$ed b$ the
offender to make it
impossible or hard for the
offended part$ to put an$
sort of resistance
0ffender does not emplo$
means, methods or forms
of attack, he onl$ takes
advantage of his superior
strength
Means are emplo$ed but it
onl$ materiall$ weakens the
resisting power of the
offended part$
1here there is conspirac$, treacher$ is considered against all the offenders
41
#reacher$ absorbs abuse of strength, aid of armed men, b$ a band and means to
weaken the defense
2?1 That the means be emploe! or circ#mstances bro#ght abo#t which a!!
ignomin to the nat#ral effects of the acts
&C"0M&"I is a circumstance pertaining to the moral order, which adds disgrace
and oblo(u$ to the material in'ur$ caused b$ the crime
Applicable to crimes against chastit$ *rape included+, less serious ph$sical in'uries,
light or grave coercion and murder
,e(uisites%
a. -rime must be against chastit$, less serious ph$sical in'uries, light or grave
coercion, and murder
b. #he circumstance made the crime more humiliating and shameful for the victim
2xamples% accused embraced and kissed the offended part$ not out of lust but out of
anger in front of man$ people, raped in front of the husband, raped successivel$ b$
five men
tend to make the effects of the crime more humiliating
&gnomin$ not present where the victim was alread$ dead when such acts were
committed against his bod$ or person
2@1 That the crime be committe! after an #nlawf#l entr
Fnlawful entr$ when an entrance is effected b$ a wa$ not intended for the purpose.
Meant to effect entrance and "0# exit.
1h$ aggravating9 0ne who acts, not respecting the walls erected b$ men to guard
their propert$ and provide for their personal safet$, shows greater perversit$, a
greater audacit$ and hence the law punishes him with more severit$
2xample% ,apist gains entrance thru the window
&nherent in% #respass to dwelling, robber$ with force upon things, and robber$ with
violence or intimidation against persons.
251 That as a means to the commission of the crime. a wall. roof. !oor or win!ow
be bro3en
,e(uisites%
a. A wall, roof, window, or door was broken
b. #he$ were broken to effect entrance
Applicable onl$ if such acts were done b$ the offender to effect entrance.
)reaking is lawful in the following instances%
a. an officer in order to make an arrest ma$ break open a door or window of an$
building in which the person to be arrested is or is reasonabl$ believed to be3
b. an officer if refused admittance ma$ break open an$ door or window to execute
the search warrant or liberate himself,
7B1 That the crime be committe! (2) with the ai! of persons #n!er 2< ears of age.
or (7) b means of motor vehicles. airships or other similar means1
,eason for R1% to repress, so far as possible, the fre(uent practice resorted to b$
professional criminals to avail themselves of minors taking advantage of their
responsibilit$ *remember that minors are given lenienc$ when the$ commit a crime+
Example% Duan instructed a 148$ear old to climb up the fence and open the gate for
him so that he ma$ rob the house
,eason for R2% to counteract the great facilities found b$ modern criminals in said
means to commit crime and flee and abscond once the same is committed.
"ecessar$ that the motor vehicle be an important tool to the consummation of the
crime *bic$cles not included+
Example% Duan and !edro, in committing theft, used a truck to haul the appliances
from the mansion.
42
721 That the wrong !one in the commission of the crime be !eliberatel
a#gmente! b ca#sing other wrong not necessar for its commission
-,F2/#I% when the culprit en'o$s and delights in making his victim suffer slowl$
and graduall$, causing him unnecessar$ ph$sical pain in the consummation of the
criminal act. -ruelt$ cannot be presumed nor merel$ inferred from the bod$ of the
deceased. 7as to be proven.
a. mere pluralit$ of words do not show cruelt$
b. no cruelt$ when the other wrong was done after the victim was dead
,e(uisites%
a. that the in'ur$ caused be deliberatel$ increased b$ causing other wrong
b. that the other wrong be unnecessar$ for the execution of the purpose of the
offender
&C"0M&"I -,F2/#I
Moral suffering sub'ected to humiliation !h$sical suffering
'rt 2<1 'LTE+N'T)DE C)+C/$(T'NCE(1 Their concept1 F 'lternative
circ#mstances are those which m#st be ta3en into consi!eration as aggravating
or mitigating accor!ing to the nat#re an! effects of the crime an! the other
con!itions atten!ing its commission1 The are the relationship. into%ication an!
the !egree of instr#ction an! e!#cation of the offen!er1
The alternative circ#mstance of relationship shall be ta3en into
consi!eration when the offen!e! part in the spo#se. ascen!ant. !escen!ant.
legitimate. nat#ral. or a!opte! brother or sister. or relative b affinit in the same
!egrees of the offen!er1
The into%ication of the offen!er shall be ta3en into consi!eration as a
mitigating circ#mstances when the offen!er has committe! a felon in a state of
into%ication. if the same is not habit#al or s#bse"#ent to the plan to commit sai!
felon b#t when the into%ication is habit#al or intentional. it shall be consi!ere!
as an aggravating circ#mstance1
Alternative -ircumstances those which must be taken into consideration as
aggravating or mitigating according to the nature and effects of the crime and other
conditions attending its commission.
#he$ are%
a. relationship taken into consideration when offended part$ is the spouse,
ascendant, descendant, legitimate, natural or adopted brother or sister, or
relative b$ affinit$ in the same degree of the offender
b. intoxication mitigating when the offender has committed a felon$ in the state of
intoxication, if the same is not habitual or subse(uent to the plan to commit the
said felon$. Aggravating if habitual or intentional
c. degree of instruction and education of the offender
,2/A#&0".7&!
M&#&CA#&"C -&,-FM.#A"-2 ACC,ALA#&"C -&,-FM.#A"-2
&n crimes against propert$ *robber$,
usurpation, fraudulent insolvenc$, arson+
&n crimes against persons in cases
where the offender, or when the offender
and the offended part$ are relatives of the
same level, as killing a brother, adopted
brother or half8brother.
Alwa$s aggravating in crimes against
chastit$.
43
2xception% Art 332 of -- no criminal
liabilit$, civil liabilit$ onl$ for the crimes of
theft, swindling or malicious mischief
committed or caused mutuall$ b$ spouses,
ascendants, descendants or relatives b$
affinit$ *also brothers, sisters, brothers8in8
law or sisters8in8law if living together+. &t
becomes an 2B2M!#&"C circumstance.
,elationship neither mitigating nor aggravating when relationship is an element of
the offense.
2xample% parricide, adulter$, concubinage.
&"#0B&-A#&0"
M&#&CA#&"C -&,-FM.#A"-2 ACC,ALA#&"C -&,-FM.#A"-2
a+ if intoxication is not habitual
b+ if intoxication is not subse(uent to the
plan to commit a felon$
a+ if intoxication is habitual such habit
must be actual and confirmed
b+ if its intentional *subse(uent to the plan
to commit a felon$+
Must show that he has taken such (uantit$ so as to blur his reason and deprive him
of a certain degree of control
A habitual drunkard is given to inebriet$ or the excessive use of intoxicating drinks.
7abitual drunkenness must be shown to be an actual and confirmed habit of the
offender, but not necessaril$ of dail$ occurrence.
?2C,22 0: &".#,F-#&0" A"? 2?F-A#&0"
M&#&CA#&"C -&,-FM.#A"-2 ACC,ALA#&"C -&,-FM.#A"-2
/ow degree of instruction education or the
lack of it. )ecause he does not full$ reali4e
the conse(uences of his criminal act. "ot
'ust mere illiterac$ but lack of intelligence.
7igh degree of instruction and education
offender avails himself of his learning in
committing the offense.
?etermined b$% the court must consider the circumstance of lack of instruction
2xceptions *not mitigating+%
a. crimes against propert$
b. crimes against chastit$ *rape included+
c. crime of treason
'rt 2> ,ho are criminall liable1 F The following are criminall liable for grave
an! less grave felonies:
21 Principals1
71 'ccomplices1
61 'ccessories1
The following are criminall liable for light felonies:
21 Principals
71 'ccomplices1
Accessories not liable for light felonies because the individual pre'udice is so small
that penal sanction is not necessar$
0nl$ natural persons can be criminals as onl$ the$ can act with malice or negligence
and can be subse(uentl$ deprived of libert$. Duridical persons are liable under
special laws.
Manager of a partnership is liable even if there is no evidence of his direct
participation in the crime.
-orporations ma$ be the in'ured part$
Ceneral ,ule% -orpses and animals have no rights that ma$ be in'ured.
2xception% defamation of the dead is punishable when it blackens the memor$ of one
who is dead.
44
'rt 2?1 Principals1 F The following are consi!ere! principals:
21 Those who ta3e a !irect part in the e%ec#tion of the act:
71 Those who !irectl force or in!#ce others to commit it:
61 Those who cooperate in the commission of the offense b another act
witho#t which it wo#l! not have been accomplishe!1
Principals b -irect Participation
,e(uisites for 2 or more to be principals b$ direct participation%
a. participated in the criminal resolution *conspirac$+
b. carried out their plan and personall$ took part in its execution b$ acts
which directl$ tended to the same end
-onspirac$ &s unit$ of purpose and intention.
2stablishment of -onspirac$
a. proven b$ overt act
b. "ot mere knowledge or approval
c. &t is not necessar$ that there be formal agreement.
d. Must prove be$ond reasonable doubt
e. -onspirac$ is implied when the accused had a
common purpose and were united in execution.
f. Fnit$ of purpose and intention in the commission of
the crime ma$ be shown in the following cases%
1. .pontaneous agreement at the moment of the commission of the crime
2. Active -ooperation b$ all the offenders in the perpetration of the crime
3. -ontributing b$ positive acts to the reali4ation of a common criminal intent
4. !resence during the commission of the crime b$ a band and lending moral
support thereto.
g. 1hile conspirac$ ma$ be implied from the
circumstances attending the commission of the crime, it is nevertheless a rule
that conspirac$ must be established b$ positive and conclusive evidence.
-onspirator not liable for the crimes of the other which is not the ob'ect of the
conspirac$ or is not a logical or necessar$ conse(uence thereof
Multiple rape each rapist is liable for another@s crime because each cooperated in
the commission of the rapes perpetrated b$ the others
2xception% in the crime of murder with treacher$ all the offenders must at least
know that there will be treacher$ in executing the crime or cooperate therein.
2xample% Duan and !edro conspired to kill #omas without the previous plan of
treacher$. &n the crime scene, Duan used treacher$ in the presence of !edro and
!edro knew such. )oth are liable for murder. )ut if !edro sta$ed b$ the gate while
Duan alone killed #omas with treacher$, so that !edro didn@t know how it was carried
out, Duan is liable for murder while !edro for homicide.
"o such thing as conspirac$ to commit an offense through negligence. 7owever,
special laws ma$ make one a co8principal. Example) /nder the Pure >ood and Brug
Act, a storeowner is liable for the act of his emplo$ees of selling adulterated coffee,
although he didn@t know that coffee was being sold.
-onspirac$ is negatived b$ the ac(uittal of co8defendant.
#hat the culprits Kcarried out the plan and personall$ took part in the execution, b$
acts which directl$ tended to the same end6%
a. #he principals b$ direct
participation must be at the scene of the crime, personall$ taking part, although
he was not present in the scene of the crime, he is e(uall$ liable as a principal b$
direct participation.
b. 0ne serving as guard
pursuant to the conspirac$ is a principal direct participation.
&f the second element is missing, those who did not participate in the commission of
the acts of execution cannot be held criminall$ liable, unless the crime agreed to be
committed is treason, sedition, or rebellion.
45
Principals b )n!#ction
a. :Those who directly force or induce others to commit it;
b. !rincipal b$ induction liable onl$ when principal b$ direct participation committed
the act induced
c. ,e(uisites%
1. inducement be made directl$ with the intention of procuring the commission
of the crime
2. such inducement be the determining cause of the commission of the crime b$
the material executor
d. :orms of &nducements
1. )$ !rice, reward or promise
1. )$ irresistible force or uncontrollable fear
d. &mprudent advice does not constitute sufficient inducement
e. ,e(uisites for words of command to be considered inducement%
1. -ommander has the intention of procuring the commission of the crime
2. -ommander has ascendanc$ or influence
3. 1ords used be so direct, so efficacious, so powerful
4. -ommand be uttered prior to the commission
5. 2xecutor had no personal reason
f. 1ords uttered in the heat of anger and in the nature of the command that had to
be obe$ed do not make one an inductor.
&"?F-#0, !,0!0.2. #0 -0MM&# A :2/0"I
&nduce others .ame
/iable onl$ when the crime is
executed
!unishable at once when proposes to commit
rebellion or treason. #he person to whom one
proposed should not commit the crime,
otherwise the latter becomes an inductor
-overs an$ crime -overs onl$ treason and rebellion
2ffects of Ac(uittal of !rincipal b$ direct participation on liabilit$ of principal b$
inducement
a. -onspirac$ is negated b$ the ac(uittal of the co8defendant.
b. 0ne can not be held guilt$ of instigating the commission of the crime without first
showing that the crime has been actuall$ committed b$ another. )ut if the one
charged as principal b$ direct participation be ac(uitted because he acted
without criminal intent or malice, it is not a ground for the ac(uittal of the principal
b$ inducement.

Principals b )n!ispensable Cooperation
a. KThose who cooperate in the commission of the offense by another act without
which it would not have been accomplished;
b. ,e(uisites%
1. !articipation in the criminal resolution
2. -ooperation through another act *includes negligence+
Hthere is collective criminal responsibilit$ when the offenders are criminall$ liable in
the same manner and to the same extent. #he penalt$ is the same for all.
there is individual criminal responsibilit$ when there is no conspirac$.
4;
'rt1 2@1 'ccomplices1 F 'ccomplices are those persons who. not being
incl#!e! in 'rt1 2?. cooperate in the e%ec#tion of the offense b previo#s or
sim#ltaneo#s acts1
,e(uisites%
a. there be a communit$ of design *principal originates the design, accomplice onl$
concurs+
b. he cooperates in the execution b$ previous or simultaneous acts, intending to
give material and moral aid *cooperation must be knowingl$ done, it must also be
necessar$ and not indispensable
c. #here be a relation between the acts of the principal and the alleged accomplice
2xamples% a+ Duan was choking !edro. #hen #omas ran up and hit !edro with a
bamboo stick. Duan continued to choke !edro until he was dead. #omas is onl$ an
accomplice because the fatal blow came from Duan. b+ /ending a dagger to a killer,
knowing the latter@s purpose.
An accomplice has knowledge of the criminal design of the principal and all he does
is concur with his purpose.
#here must be a relation between the acts done b$ the principal and those attributed
to the person charges as accomplice
&n homicide or murder, the accomplice must not have inflicted the mortal wound.
'rt1 251 'ccessories1 F 'ccessories are those who. having 3nowle!ge of
the commission of the crime. an! witho#t having participate! therein. either as
principals or accomplices. ta3e part s#bse"#ent to its commission in an of the
following manners:
21 & profiting themselves or assisting the offen!er to profit b the effects
of the crime1
71 & concealing or !estroing the bo! of the crime. or the effects or
instr#ments thereof. in or!er to prevent its !iscover1
61 & harboring. concealing. or assisting in the escape of the principals of
the crime. provi!e! the accessor acts with ab#se of his p#blic f#nctions or
whenever the a#thor of the crime is g#ilt of treason. parrici!e. m#r!er. or an
attempt to ta3e the life of the Chief E%ec#tive. or is 3nown to be habit#all g#ilt of
some other crime1
2xample of !ar 1% person received and used propert$ from another, knowing it was
stolen
2xample of !ar 2% placing a weapon in the hand of the dead who was unlawfull$
killed to plant evidence, or bur$ing the deceased who was killed b$ the principals
2xample of !ar 3% a+ public officers who harbor, conceal or assist in the escape of
the principal of an$ crime *not light felon$+ with abuse of his public functions, b+
private persons who harbor, conceal or assist in the escape of the author of the
crime guilt$ of treason, parricide, murder or an attempt against the life of the
!resident, or who is known to be habituall$ guilt$ of some crime.
Ceneral ,ule% !rincipal ac(uitted, Accessor$ also ac(uitted
2xception% when the crime was in fact committed but the principal is covered b$
exempting circumstances.
2xample% Minor stole a ring and Duan, knowing it was stolen, bought it. Minor is
exempt. Duan liable as accessor$
#rial of accessor$ ma$ proceed without awaiting the result of the separate charge
against the principal because the criminal responsibilities are distinct from each other
/iabilit$ of the accessor$ the responsibilit$ of the accessor$ is subordinate to that
of a principal in a crime because the accessor$@s participation therein is subse(uent
to its commission, and his guilt is directl$ related to the principal. &f the principal was
ac(uitted b$ an exempting circumstance the accessor$ ma$ still be held liable.
?ifference of accessor$ from principal and accomplice%
4=
a. Accessor$ does not take direct part or cooperate in, or induce the commission of
the crime
b. Accessor$ does not cooperate in the commission of the offense b$ acts either
prior thereto or simultaneous therewith
c. !articipation of the accessor$ in all cases alwa$s takes place after the
commission of the crime
d. #akes part in the crime through his knowledge of the commission of the offense.
'rt1 7B1 'ccessories who are e%empt from criminal liabilit1 F The penalties
prescribe! for accessories shall not be impose! #pon those who are s#ch with
respect to their spo#ses. ascen!ants. !escen!ants. legitimate. nat#ral. an!
a!opte! brothers an! sisters. or relatives b affinit within the same !egrees. with
the single e%ception of accessories falling within the provisions of paragraph 2 of
the ne%t prece!ing article1
)asis% #ies of blood and the preservation of the cleanliness of one@s name which
compels one to conceal crimes committed b$ relatives so near as those mentioned.
"ephew and "iece not included
Accessor$ not exempt when helped a relative8principal b$ profiting from the effects of
the crime, or assisted the offender to profit from the effects of the crime.
0nl$ accessories covered b$ par 2 and 3 are exempted.
!ublic officer who helped his guilt$ brother escape does not incur criminal liabilit$ as
ties of blood constitutes a more powerful incentive than the call of dut$.
!2"A/#I suffering inflicted b$ the .tate for the transgression of a law.
3 fold purpose%
a. retribution or expiation penalt$ commensurate with the gravit$ of the offense
b. correction or reformation rules which regulate the execution of penalties
consisting of deprivation of libert$
c. social defense inflexible severit$ to recidivists and habitual delin(uents
Duridical -onditions of !enalt$
a. Must be productive of suffering limited b$ the integrit$ of human personalit$
b. Must be proportionate to the crime
c. Must be personal imposed onl$ upon the criminal
d. Must be legal according to a 'udgment of fact and law
e. Must be e(ual applies to ever$one regardless of the circumstance
f. Must bee correctional to rehabilitate the offender
'rt1 721 Penalties that ma be impose!1 F No felon shall be p#nishable b
an penalt not prescribe! b law prior to its commission1
Cuarantees that no act of a citi4en will be considered criminal unless the .tate has
made it so b$ law and provided a penalt$
2xcept% 1hen the penalt$ is favorable to the criminal
'rt1 771 +etroactive effect of penal laws1 F Penal Laws shall have a
retroactive effect insofar as the favor the persons g#ilt of a felon. who is not a
habit#al criminal. as this term is !efine! in +#le < of 'rticle >7 of this Co!e.
altho#gh at the time of the p#blication of s#ch laws a final sentence has been
prono#nce! an! the convict is serving the same1
Ceneral ,ule% -riminal laws are given prospective effects
2xception% Cive retroactive effect when favorable to the accused. 2x. .pecial law
made the penalt$ less severe but must refer to the same deed or omission
penali4ed b$ the former statute
"ew law ma$ provide that its provisions not to be applied to cases alread$ filed in
court at the time of the approval of such law.
4<
#he favorable retroactive effect of a new law ma$ find the defendant in one of the 3
situations
a. crime has been committed and the prosecution begins
b. sentence has been passed but service has not begun
c. sentence is being carried out.
7abitual criminal *person who within the pd of 1A $ears from date of release or last
conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious ph$sical in'uries, robber$, theft,
estafa or falsification, he is found guilt$ of an$ said crimes a third time or oftener+ is
"0# entitled to the benefit of the provisions of the new favorable law.
-ivil liabilities not covered b$ Art 22 because rights of offended persons are not
within the gift of arbitrar$ disposal of the .tate.
)ut new law increasing civil liabilit$ cannot be given retroactive effect.
,etroactivit$ applicable also to special laws
#he right to punish offenses committed under an old penal law is not extinguished if
the offenses are still punished in the repealing penal law. 7owever, if b$ re8
enactment of the provisions of the former law, the repeal is b$ implication and there
is a saving clause, criminal liabilit$ under the repealed law subsists.
"o retroactive effect of penal laws as regards 'urisdiction of the court. Durisdiction of
the court is determined b$ the law in force at the time of the institution of the action,
not at the time of the commission of the crime.
Durisdiction of courts in criminal cases is determined b$ the allegations of the
complaint or information, and not b$ the findings the court ma$ make after trial.
1hen a law is ex post facto
a Makes criminal an act done before the passage of the law and which was
innocent when done, and punishes such an act.
b Aggravates the crime or makes it greater than it was when committed.
c -hanges the punishment and inflicts a greater punishment than the law annexed
to the crime when committed.
d Alters the legal rules of evidence and authori4es conviction upon less or different
testimon$ than the law re(uired at the time of the commission of the crime.
e Assuming to regulate civil rights and remedies onl$, in effect imposes penalt$ or
deprivation of a right for something which when done was lawful.
f ?eprives a person accused of a crime some lawful protection to which he has
become entitled, such as the protection of a former conviction or ac(uittal or a
proclamation of amnest$.
)ill of Attainder a legislative act which inflicts punishment without trial. &ts essence
is the substitution of a legislative for a 'udicial determination of guilt.
2ffect of change of !enal /aw
a 1ith enactment of a penal law punishing the offense the action is not
dismissed. #he penalt$ in the new law if favorable to the accused.
b 1ithout enactment of a penal law punishing the offense 8 the previous offense is
obliterated and the action is dismissed.
'rt1 761 Effect of par!on b the offen!e! part1 F ' par!on of the offen!e!
part !oes not e%ting#ish criminal action e%cept as provi!e! in 'rticle 6;; of this
Co!e: b#t civil liabilit with regar! to the interest of the in9#re! part is
e%ting#ishe! b his e%press waiver1
2ven if in'ured part$ alread$ pardoned the offender fiscal can still prosecute. "ot
even considered a ground for dismissal of the information. 2xception% Art 344 8
crimes of seduction, abduction, rape or acts of lasciviousness pardon must be
expressed.
)asis% crime is an offense against the .tate. Aggrieved part$ onl$ a witness.
0nl$ -hief 2xecutive can pardon the offenders
-an@t compromise criminal liabilit$, onl$ civil liabilit$ but it still shall not extinguish
the public action for the imposition of the legal penalt$.
0ffended part$ in the crimes of adulter$ and concubinage can@t institute criminal
prosecution if he shall have consented or pardoned the offenders.
4>
!ardon in adulter$ and concubinage ma$ be implied continued inaction after
learning of the offense. Must pardon both offenders.
#he pardon afforded the offenders must come )2:0,2 the institution of the criminal
proceedings. -omplaint for an$ of the above8mentioned crimes in Art 344 will still be
prosecuted b$ the court on the ground that the pardon *basis for the motion to
dismiss+ was given after the filing of the complaint.
#he onl$ act that extinguishes the penal action, after the institution of criminal action,
is the marriage between the offender and the offended part$
!ardon under Art 344 is onl$ a bar to criminal prosecution. &t ?02. "0# extinguish
criminal liabilit$. &t is not one of the causes that totall$ extinguish criminal liabilit$ in
Art <>.
-ivil liabilit$ with regard to the interest of the in'ured part$ is extinguished b$ his
express waiver because personal in'ur$ ma$ be repaired through indemnit$ an$wa$.
.tate has no reason to insist on its pa$ment.
1aiver must be express.
'rt1 7;1 $eas#res of prevention or safet which are nor consi!ere!
penalties1 F The following shall not be consi!ere! as penalties:
21 The arrest an! temporar !etention of acc#se! persons. as well as their
!etention b reason of insanit or imbecilit. or illness re"#iring their confinement
in a hospital1
71 The commitment of a minor to an of the instit#tions mentione! in 'rticle
@B an! for the p#rposes specifie! therein1
61 (#spension from the emploment of p#blic office !#ring the trial or in
or!er to instit#te procee!ings1
;1 =ines an! other corrective meas#res which. in the e%ercise of their
a!ministrative !isciplinar powers. s#perior officials ma impose #pon their
s#bor!inates1
<1 -eprivation of rights an! the reparations which the civil laws ma
establish in penal form1
!ar 1 refers to the Kaccused persons6 who are detained Kb$ reason of insanit$ or
imbecilit$6 not an insane or imbecile who has not been arrested for a crime.
#he$ are not considered penalties because the$ are not imposed as a result of
'udicial proceedings. #hose in par 1, 3 and 4 are merel$ preventive measures before
the conviction of offenders.
-ommitment of a minor is not a penalt$ because it is not imposed b$ the court in a
'udgment. #he imposition of the sentence in such a case is suspended.
:ines in par 4 are not imposed b$ the court because otherwise, the$ constitute a
penalt$
'rt1 7<1 Penalties which ma be impose!1 F The penalties which ma be
impose! accor!ing to this Co!e. an! their !ifferent classes. are those incl#!e! in
the following:
(cale
P+)NC)P'L PEN'LT)E(
Capital p#nishment:
-eath1
'fflictive penalties:
+ecl#sion perpet#a.
+ecl#sion temporal.
Perpet#al or temporar absol#te !is"#alification.
Perpet#al or temporar special !is"#alification.
Prision maor1
Correctional penalties:
Prision correccional.
'rresto maor.
(#spension.
-estierro1
Light penalties:
5A
'rresto menor.
P#blic cens#re1
Penalties common to the three prece!ing classes:
=ine. an!
&on! to 3eep the peace1
'CCE((O+C PEN'LT)E(
Perpet#al or temporar absol#te !is"#alification.
Perpet#al or temporar special !is"#alification.
(#spension from p#blic office. the right to vote an! be vote! for. the
profession or calling1
Civil inter!iction.
)n!emnification.
=orfeit#re or confiscation of instr#ments an! procee!s of the offense.
Pament of costs1
-lassification of penalties%
a !rincipal 8 art 25
b Accessor$ deemed included in the imposition of the principal penalties
According to divisibilit$ *principal+
a divisible those that have fixed duration and are divisible into 3 periods
b indivisible no fixed duration *death, ,!, perpetual or absolute dis(ualification+
According to sub'ect matter
a corporal death
b deprivation of freedom reclusion, prision, arresto
c restriction of freedom destierro
d deprivation of rights dis(ualification and suspension
e pecuniar$ fine
According to gravit$
a capital
b afflictive
c correccional
d light
!ublic censure is a penalt$, and being such, is not proper in ac(uittal. )ut a
competent court, while ac(uitting an accused ma$, with un(uestionable propriet$
express its disapproval or reprehension of those acts to avoid the impression that b$
ac(uitting the accused it approves or admires his conduct.
!ermanent and temporar$ absolute and permanent and temporar$ special
dis(ualification and suspension ma$ be principal or accessor$ penalties because
the$ are found in 2 general classes.
'rt1 7>1 ,hen afflictive. correctional. or light penalt1 F ' fine. whether
impose! as a single of as an alternative penalt. shall be consi!ere! an afflictive
penalt. if it e%cee!s >.BBB pesos: a correctional penalt. if it !oes not e%cee!
>.BBB pesos b#t is not less than 7BB pesos: an! a light penalt if it less than 7BB
pesos1
:ines are imposed either as alternative *Art 144 punishing disturbance of
proceedings with arresto ma$or or fine from 2AA pesos to 1AAA pesos+ or single *fine
of 2AA to ;AAA pesos+
!enalt$ cannot be imposed in the alternative since it@s the dut$ of the court to
indicate the penalt$ imposed definitel$ and positivel$. #hus, the court cannot
sentence the guilt$ person in a manner as such as Kto pa$ fine of 1AAA pesos, or to
suffer an imprisonment of 2 $ears, and to pa$ the costs.6
&f the fine imposed b$ the law for the felon$ is exactl$ 2AA pesos, it is a light felon$.
:ines%
a Afflictive over ;AAA
b -orrectional 2A1 to ;AAA
c /ight 2AA and less
"ote% #he classification applies if the fine is imposed as a single or alternative
penalt$. 7ence, it does not appl$ if the fine imposed together with another penalt$.
51
)ond to keep the peace is b$ analog$%
a Afflictive over ;AAA
b -orrectional 2A1 to ;AAA
c /ight 2AA and less
?istinction between classification of !enalties in Art. > and Art. 2;
Article > Article 2;
Applicable in determining the prescriptive
period of felonies
Applicable in determining the prescriptive
period of penalties
-/+'T)ON 'N- E==ECT O= PEN'LT)E(
'rt1 7?1 +ecl#sion perpet#a1 F 'n person sentence! to an of the
perpet#al penalties shall be par!one! after #n!ergoing the penalt for thirt
ears. #nless s#ch person b reason of his con!#ct or some other serio#s ca#se
shall be consi!ere! b the Chief E%ec#tive as #nworth of par!on1
+ecl#sion temporal1 F The penalt of recl#sion temporal shall be from twelve
ears an! one !a to twent ears1
Prision maor an! temporar !is"#alification1 F The !#ration of the penalties of
prision maor an! temporar !is"#alification shall be from si% ears an! one !a
to twelve ears. e%cept when the penalt of !is"#alification is impose! as an
accessor penalt. in which case its !#ration shall be that of the principal penalt1
Prision correccional. s#spension. an! !estierro1 F The !#ration of the penalties
of prision correccional. s#spension an! !estierro shall be from si% months an!
one !a to si% ears. e%cept when s#spension is impose! as an accessor
penalt. in which case. its !#ration shall be that of the principal penalt1
'rresto maor1 F The !#ration of the penalt of arresto maor shall be from one
month an! one !a to si% months1
'rresto menor1 F The !#ration of the penalt of arresto menor shall be from one
!a to thirt !as1
&on! to 3eep the peace1 F The bon! to 3eep the peace shall be re"#ire! to cover
s#ch perio! of time as the co#rt ma !etermine1
3 fold rule% the maximum duration of the convict@s sentence shall not be more than 3
times the length of time corresponding to the most severe of the penalties imposed
upon him.
the maximum duration of the convict@s sentence shall in no case exceed 4A $ears
#emporar$ dis(ualification and suspension, when imposed as accessor$ penalties,
have different durations the$ follow the duration of the principal penalt$
?estierro is imposed in the following circumstances%
a serious ph$sical in'uries or death under exceptional circumstances *spouse
finding other spouse in pari delicto+
b failure to give bond for good behavior * a person making threat ma$ be re(uired
to give bond not to molest the person threatened, if not destierro+
c penalt$ for the concubine
d in cases where the reduction of the penalt$ b$ one or more degrees results in
destierro
)ond to keep the peace is not specificall$ provided as a penalt$ for an$ felon$ and
therefore cannot be imposed b$ the court. &t is re(uired in Art 2<4 and not to be given
in cases involving other crimes.
.ummar$%
a !erpetual penalties after 3A $ears, can be pardoned, except when he is
unworth$ of pardon b$ reason of his conduct and some other serious cause, it
won@t exceed 4A $ears.
b ,eclusion #emporal 12 $rs and 1 da$ to 2A $rs
c !rision Ma$or and temporar$ dis(ualification ; $rs and 1 da$ to 12 $rs3
dis(ualification if accessor$ follows the duration of the principal penalt$
52
d !rision -orreccional, suspension and destierro ; mos and 1 da$ to 12 $rs3
dis(ualification if accessor$ follows the duration of the principal penalt$
e Arresto Ma$or 1 month and 1 da$ to ; months
f Arresto Menor 1 da$ to 3A da$s
g )ond to keep the peace the period during which the bond shall be effective is
discretionar$ to the court
-apital and Afflictive !enalties
?eath ,eclusion
!erpetua
,eclusion
#emporal
!rison Ma$or
#erm of
&mprison8
ment
"one 2A da$s and 1
da$ to 4A $ears
12 $ears and 1
da$ to 2A $ears
; $ears and 1 da$
to 12 $ears
Accessor$
!enalties
"one, unless
pardoned%
8!erpetual
absolute
dis(ualification
8-ivil
interdiction for
3A $ears
8-ivil &nterdiction
or during his
sentence
8!erpetual
absolute
dis(ualification
8-ivil
&nterdiction or
during his
sentence
8!erpetual
absolute
dis(ualification
8#emporar$
absolute
dis(ualification
8!erpetual special
dis(ualification
from the right of
suffrage which the
offender suffers
although pardoned
-orrectional and /ight !enalties
!rison -orrectional Arresto Ma$or Arresto Menor
&mprison8
ment
; months and 1 da$ to ;
$ears
1 month and 1 da$
to ; months
1 da$ to 3A da$s
Accessor$
!enalties
8.uspension from public
office
8.uspension from the right to
follow a profession or calling
8!erpetual special
dis(ualification on the right
of suffrage
8.uspension of right
to hold office
8.uspension of the
right of suffrage
during the term of
the sentence
8.uspension of right
to hold office
8.uspension of the
right of suffrage
during the term of
the sentence
'rt1 7@1 Comp#tation of penalties1 F )f the offen!er shall be in prison. the
term of the !#ration of the temporar penalties shall be comp#te! from the !a on
which the 9#!gment of conviction shall have become final1
)f the offen!er be not in prison. the term of the !#ration of the penalt
consisting of !eprivation of libert shall be comp#te! from the !a that the
offen!er is place! at the !isposal of the 9#!icial a#thorities for the enforcement of
the penalt1 The !#ration of the other penalties shall be comp#te! onl from the
!a on which the !efen!ant commences to serve his sentence1
?irector of !risonsEwarden to compute based on Art 2<%
a 1hen the offender is in prison the duration of the temporar$ penalties *!A?,
#A?, detention, suspension+ is from the da$ on which the 'udgment of conviction
becomes final.
b 1hen the offender is not in prison the duration of the penalt$ in deprivation of
libert$ is from the da$ that the offender is placed at the disposal of 'udicial
authorities for the enforcement of the penalt$
c #he duration of the other penalties the duration is from the da$ on which the
offender commences to serve his sentence
,eason for rule *a+ because under Art 24, the arrest and temporar$ detention of
the accused is not considered a penalt$
if in custod$, the accused appealed, the service of the sentence should commence
from the date of the promulgation of the decision of the appellate court, not from the
date of the 'udgment of the trial court was promulgated.
53
service of one in prison begins onl$ on the da$ the 'udgment of conviction becomes
final.
&n cases if temporar$ penalties, if the offender is under detention, as when
undergoing preventive imprisonment, rule *a+ applies.
&f not under detention *released on bail+ rule *c+ applies
0ffender under preventive imprisonment, rule *c+ applies not rule *a+
#he offender is entitled to a deduction of full8time or 4E5 of the time of his detention.
'rt1 751 Perio! of preventive imprisonment !e!#cte! from term of
imprisonment1 F Offen!ers who have #n!ergone preventive imprisonment shall
be cre!ite! in the service of their sentence consisting of !eprivation of libert.
with the f#ll time !#ring which the have #n!ergone preventive imprisonment. if
the !etention prisoner agrees vol#ntaril in writing to abi!e b the same
!isciplinar r#les impose! #pon convicte! prisoners. e%cept in the following
cases:
21 ,hen the are reci!ivists or have been convicte! previo#sl twice or
more times of an crime: an!
71 ,hen #pon being s#mmone! for the e%ec#tion of their sentence the
have faile! to s#rren!er vol#ntaril1
)f the !etention prisoner !oes not agree to abi!e b the same !isciplinar
r#les impose! #pon convicte! prisoners. he shall be cre!ite! in the service of his
sentence with fo#rAfifths of the time !#ring which he has #n!ergone preventive
imprisonment1 ('s amen!e! b +ep#blic 'ct >27?. 4#ne 2?. 25?B)1 c! i
,henever an acc#se! has #n!ergone preventive imprisonment for a perio!
e"#al to or more than the possible ma%im#m imprisonment of the offense charge!
to which he ma be sentence! an! his case is not et terminate!. he shall be
release! imme!iatel witho#t pre9#!ice to the contin#ation of the trial thereof or
the procee!ing on appeal. if the same is #n!er review1 )n case the ma%im#m
penalt to which the acc#se! ma be sentence! is !estierro. he shall be release!
after thirt (6B) !as of preventive imprisonment1 ('s amen!e! b E1O1 No1 72;.
4#l 2B. 25@@)
Accused undergoes preventive suspension if%
a offense is non8bailable
b bailable but can@t furnish bail
the full time or 4E5 of the time during which the offenders have undergone preventive
suspension shall be deducted from the penalt$ imposed
preventive imprisonment must also be considered in perpetual penalties. Article does
not make an$ distinction between temporal and perpetual penalties.
duration of ,! is to be computed at 3A $ears, thus, even if the accused is sentenced
to life imprisonment, he is entitled to the full time or 4E5 of the time of preventive
suspension
-redit is given in the service of sentences Kconsisting of deprivation of libert$6
*imprisonment and destierro+. #hus, persons who had undergone preventive
imprisonment but the offense is punishable b$ a fine onl$ would not be given credit.
?estierro is considered a Kdeprivation of libert$6
&f the penalt$ imposed is arresto menor to destierro, the accused who has been in
prison for 3A da$s *arresto menor to 3A da$s+ should be released because although
the maximum penalt$ is destierro *; mos 1 da$ to ; $rs+, the accused sentenced to
such penalt$ does not serve it in prison.
7abitual ?elin(uents not entitled to the full time or 4E5 credit of time under preventive
imprisonment since he is necessaril$ a recidivist or has been convicted previousl$
twice or more times of an$ crime.
2xample% B who was arrested for serious ph$sical in'uries, detained for 1 $ear and
went out on bail but was later on found guilt$. 7e was conse(uentl$ summoned for
the execution of the sentence, but having failed to appear, B will not be credited in
54
the service of his sentence for serious ph$sical in'uries wE one $ear or 4E5 of one
$ear preventive imprisonment.
'rt1 6B1 Effects of the penalties of perpet#al or temporar absol#te
!is"#alification1 F The penalties of perpet#al or temporar absol#te
!is"#alification for p#blic office shall pro!#ce the following effects:
21 The !eprivation of the p#blic offices an! emploments which the
offen!er ma have hel! even if conferre! b pop#lar election1
71The !eprivation of the right to vote in an election for an pop#lar office
or to be electe! to s#ch office1
61 The !is"#alification for the offices or p#blic emploments an! for the
e%ercise of an of the rights mentione!1
)n case of temporar !is"#alification. s#ch !is"#alification as is comprise! in
paragraphs 7 an! 6 of this article shall last !#ring the term of the sentence1
;1 The loss of all rights to retirement pa or other pension for an office
formerl hel!1
#he exclusion is a mere dis(ualification for protection and not for punishment the
withholding of a privilege, not a denial of a right.
!erpetual absolute dis(ualification is effective during the lifetime of the convict and
even after the service of the sentence.
#emporar$ absolute dis(ualification is effective during the term of sentence and is
removed after the service of the same. 2xception% *1+ deprivation of the public office
or emplo$ment3 *2+ loss of all rights to retirement pa$ or other pension for an$ office
formerl$ held.
2ffects of !erpetual and temporar$ absolute dis(ualification%
a ?eprivation of an$ public office or emplo$ment of offender
b ?eprivation of the right to vote in an$ election or to be voted upon
c /oss of rights to retirement pa$ or pension
d All these effects last during the lifetime of the convict and even after the service
of the sentence except as regards paragraphs 2 and 3 of the above in connection
with #emporar$ Absolute ?is(ualification.
'rt1 621 Effect of the penalties of perpet#al or temporar special
!is"#alification1 F The penalties of perpet#al or temporal special !is"#alification
for p#blic office. profession or calling shall pro!#ce the following effects:
21 The !eprivation of the office. emploment. profession or calling affecte!:
71 The !is"#alification for hol!ing similar offices or emploments either
perpet#all or !#ring the term of the sentence accor!ing to the e%tent of s#ch
!is"#alification1
55
'rt1 671 Effect of the penalties of perpet#al or temporar special
!is"#alification for the e%ercise of the right of s#ffrage1 F The perpet#al or
temporar special !is"#alification for the e%ercise of the right of s#ffrage shall
!eprive the offen!er perpet#all or !#ring the term of the sentence. accor!ing to
the nat#re of sai! penalt. of the right to vote in an pop#lar election for an
p#blic office or to be electe! to s#ch office1 $oreover. the offen!er shall not be
permitte! to hol! an p#blic office !#ring the perio! of his !is"#alification1
#emporar$ dis(ualification if imposed is an accessor$ penalt$, its duration is that of
the principal penalt$
2ffects of !erpetual and #emporar$ .pecial ?is(ualification
a. :or public office, profession, or calling
1. ?eprivation of the office, emplo$ment, profession or calling affected
2. ?is(ualification for holding similar offices or emplo$ment during the period of
dis(ualification
b. :or the exercise of the right of suffrage
1. ?eprivation of the right to vote or to be elected in an office.
1. -annot hold an$ public office during the period of dis(ualification.

'rt1 661 Effects of the penalties of s#spension from an p#blic office.
profession or calling. or the right of s#ffrage1 F The s#spension from p#blic
office. profession or calling. an! the e%ercise of the right of s#ffrage shall
!is"#alif the offen!er from hol!ing s#ch office or e%ercising s#ch profession or
calling or right of s#ffrage !#ring the term of the sentence1
The person s#spen!e! from hol!ing p#blic office shall not hol! another having
similar f#nctions !#ring the perio! of his s#spension1
2ffects%
a ?is(ualification from holding such office or the exercise of such profession or
right of suffrage during the term of the sentence.
b -annot hold another office having similar functions during the period of
suspension.
'rt1 6;1 Civil inter!iction1 F Civil inter!iction shall !eprive the offen!er
!#ring the time of his sentence of the rights of parental a#thorit. or g#ar!ianship.
either as to the person or propert of an war!. of marital a#thorit. of the right to
manage his propert an! of the right to !ispose of s#ch propert b an act or
an conveance inter vivos1
2ffects%
a. ?eprivation of the following rights%
1. !arental rights
2. Cuardianship over the ward
3. Martial authorit$
4. ,ight to manage propert$ and to dispose of the same b$ acts inter vivos
b. -ivil &nterdiction is an accessor$ penalt$ to the following principal penalties
1. &f death penalt$ is commuted to life imprisonment
2. ,eclusion perpetua
3. ,eclusion temporal
7e can dispose of such propert$ b$ will or donation mortis causa
5;
'rt1 6<1 Effects of bon! to 3eep the peace1 F )t shall be the !#t of an
person sentence! to give bon! to 3eep the peace. to present two s#fficient
s#reties who shall #n!erta3e that s#ch person will not commit the offense so#ght
to be prevente!. an! that in case s#ch offense be committe! the will pa the
amo#nt !etermine! b the co#rt in the 9#!gment. or otherwise to !eposit s#ch
amo#nt in the office of the cler3 of the co#rt to g#arantee sai! #n!erta3ing1
The co#rt shall !etermine. accor!ing to its !iscretion. the perio! of
!#ration of the bon!1
(ho#l! the person sentence! fail to give the bon! as re"#ire! he shall be
!etaine! for a perio! which shall in no case e%cee! si% months. is he shall have
been prosec#te! for a grave or less grave felon. an! shall not e%cee! thirt !as.
if for a light felon1
)ond to keep the peace is different from bail bond which is posted for the provisional
release of a person arrested for or accused of a crime. )ond to keep the peace or for
good behavior is imposed as a penalt$ in threats.
'rt1 6>1 Par!on: its effect1 F ' par!on shall not wor3 the restoration of the
right to hol! p#blic office. or the right of s#ffrage. #nless s#ch rights be e%pressl
restore! b the terms of the par!on1
' par!on shall in no case e%empt the c#lprit from the pament of the civil
in!emnit impose! #pon him b the sentence1
!ardon b$ the !resident does not restore the right to public office or suffrage except
when both are expressl$ restored in the pardon. "or does it exempt from civil
liabilit$Efrom pa$ment of civil indemnit$.
/imitations to !resident@s power to pardon%
a can be exercised onl$ after final 'udgment
b does not extend to cases of impeachment
c does not extinguish civil liabilit$ onl$ criminal liabilit$
!ardon granted in general terms does not include accessor$ penalties.
2xceptions%
a. if the absolute pardon us granted after the term of imprisonment has expire, it
removes all that is left of the conse(uences of conviction. 7owever, if the penalt$
is life imprisonment and after the service of 3A $ears, a pardon is granted, the
pardon does not remove the accessor$ penalt$ of absolute perpetual
dis(ualification
b. if the facts and circumstances of the case show that the purpose of the !resident
is to precisel$ restore the rights i.e., granting absolute pardon after election to a
post *ma$or+ but before the date fixed b$ law for assuming office to enable him to
assume the position in deference to the popular will
!ardon b$ the offended part$ does not extinguish criminal liabilit$, ma$ include
offended part$ waiving civil indemnit$ and it is done before the institution of the
criminal prosecution and extended to both offenders.
'rt1 6?1 Cost1 F ,hat are incl#!e!1 F Costs shall incl#!e fees an!
in!emnities in the co#rse of the 9#!icial procee!ings. whether the be fi%e! or
#nalterable amo#nts previo#sl !etermine! b law or reg#lations in force. or
amo#nts not s#b9ect to sche!#le1
-osts include%
a. fees
b. indemnities in the course of 'udicial proceedings
-osts *expenses of the litigation+ are chargeable to the accused in vase of
conviction.
&n case of ac(uittal, the costs are de oficio, each part$ bearing is own expense
"o costs allowed against the ,epublic of the !hilippines until law provides the
contrar$
5=
'rt1 6@1 Pec#niar liabilities1 F Or!er of pament1 F )n case the propert of
the offen!er sho#l! not be s#fficient for the pament of all his pec#niar
liabilities. the same shall be met in the following or!er:
21 The reparation of the !amage ca#se!1
71 )n!emnification of conse"#ential !amages1
61 The fine1
;1 The cost of the procee!ings1
Applicable Kin case propert$ of the offender should not be sufficient for the pa$ment
of all his pecuniar$ liabilities.6 7ence, if the offender has insufficient or no propert$,
there is no use for Art 3<.
0rder of pa$ment is mandator$
2xample% Duan inflicted serious ph$sical in'uries against !edro and took the latter@s
watch and ring. 7e incurred 5AA worth of hospital bills and failed to earn 3AA worth of
salar$. Civen that Duan onl$ has 1AAA pesos worth of propert$ not exempt from
execution, it shall be first applied to the pa$ment of the watch and ring which cannot
be returned as such is covered b$ Kreparation of the damage caused6 thus, no. 1 in
the order of pa$ment. #he 5AA and 3AA are covered b$ Kindemnification of the
conse(uential damage6 thus, no. 2 in the order of pa$ment.
'rt1 651 (#bsi!iar penalt1 F )f the convict has no propert with which to
meet the fine mentione! in the paragraph 6 of the nest prece!ing article. he shall
be s#b9ect to a s#bsi!iar personal liabilit at the rate of one !a for each eight
pesos. s#b9ect to the following r#les:
21 )f the principal penalt impose! be prision correccional or arresto an!
fine. he shall remain #n!er confinement #ntil his fine referre! to in the prece!ing
paragraph is satisfie!. b#t his s#bsi!iar imprisonment shall not e%cee! oneAthir!
of the term of the sentence. an! in no case shall it contin#e for more than one
ear. an! no fraction or part of a !a shall be co#nte! against the prisoner1
71 ,hen the principal penalt impose! be onl a fine. the s#bsi!iar
imprisonment shall not e%cee! si% months. if the c#lprit shall have been
prosec#te! for a grave or less grave felon. an! shall not e%cee! fifteen !as. if
for a light felon1
61 ,hen the principal impose! is higher than prision correccional. no
s#bsi!iar imprisonment shall be impose! #pon the c#lprit1
;1 )f the principal penalt impose! is not to be e%ec#te! b confinement in
a penal instit#tion. b#t s#ch penalt is of fi%e! !#ration. the convict. !#ring the
perio! of time establishe! in the prece!ing r#les. shall contin#e to s#ffer the same
!eprivations as those of which the principal penalt consists1
<1 The s#bsi!iar personal liabilit which the convict ma have s#ffere! b
reason of his insolvenc shall not relieve him. from the fine in case his financial
circ#mstances sho#l! improve1 ('s amen!e! b +' <;><. 'pril 72. 25>51)
#here is no subsidiar$ penalt$ for non8pa$ment of reparation, indemnification and
costs in par 1, 2 and 4 of Art 3<. &t is onl$ for fines.
Art 3> applies onl$ when the convict has no propert$ with which to meet the fine in
par 3 of art 3<. #hus, a convict who has propert$ enough to meet the fine and not
exempted from execution cannot choose to serve the subsidiar$ penalt$ instead of
the pa$ment of the fine.
.ubsidiar$ imprisonment is not an accessor$ penalt$. &t is covered b$ Art 4A845 of
this -ode. Accessor$ penalties are deemed imposed even when not mentioned while
subsidiar$ imprisonment must be expressl$ imposed.
,ules%
!2"A/#I &M!0.2? /2"C#7 0: .F).&?&A,I !2"A/#I
!rision correccional or arresto and fine "ot exceed 1E3 of term of sentence, in no case
more than 1 $ear fraction or part of a da$ not
5<
counted.
:ine onl$ "ot to exceed ; months if prosecuted for grave
or less grave felon$, not to exceed 15 da$s if
prosecuted for light felon$
7igher than prision correccional "o subsidiar$ imprisonment
"ot to be executed b$ confinement but
of fixed duration
.ame deprivations as those of the principal
penalt$ under rules 1, 2 and 3 above
&f financial circumstances improve, convict still to pa$ the fine even if he has suffered
subsidiar$ personal liabilit$.
the penalt$ imposed must be !-, AM, Am, suspension, destierro and fine onl$.
other than these *!M, ,#, ,!+ court cannot impose subsidiar$ penalt$.
2ven if the penalt$ imposed is not higher than !-, if the accused is a habitual
delin(uent who deserves an additional penalt$ of 12 $rs and 1 da$ of ,#, there is no
subsidiar$ imprisonment.
'rt1 ;B1 -eath F )ts accessor penalties1 F The !eath penalt. when it is not
e%ec#te! b reason of comm#tation or par!on shall carr with it that of perpet#al
absol#te !is"#alification an! that of civil inter!iction !#ring thirt ears following
the !ate sentence. #nless s#ch accessor penalties have been e%pressl remitte!
in the par!on1
'rt1 ;21 +ecl#sion perpet#a an! recl#sion temporal1 F Their accessor
penalties1 F The penalties of recl#sion perpet#a an! recl#sion temporal shall
carr with them that of civil inter!iction for life or !#ring the perio! of the
sentence as the case ma be. an! that of perpet#al absol#te !is"#alification
which the offen!er shall s#ffer even tho#gh par!one! as to the principal penalt.
#nless the same shall have been e%pressl remitte! in the par!on1
'rt1 ;71 Prision maor F )ts accessor penalties1 F The penalt of prision
maor. shall carr with it that of temporar absol#te !is"#alification an! that of
perpet#al special !is"#alification from the right of s#ffrage which the offen!er
shall s#ffer altho#gh par!one! as to the principal penalt. #nless the same shall
have been e%pressl remitte! in the par!on1
'rt1 ;61 Prision correccional F )ts accessor penalties1 F The penalt of
prision correccional shall carr with it that of s#spension from p#blic office. from
the right to follow a profession or calling. an! that of perpet#al special
!is"#alification from the right of s#ffrage. if the !#ration of sai! imprisonment
shall e%cee! eighteen months1 The offen!er shall s#ffer the !is"#alification
provi!e! in the article altho#gh par!one! as to the principal penalt. #nless the
same shall have been e%pressl remitte! in the par!on1
5>
'rt1 ;;1 'rresto F )ts accessor penalties1 F The penalt of arresto shall
carr with it that of s#spension of the right too hol! office an! the right of s#ffrage
!#ring the term of the sentence1
0utline of accessor$ penalties inherent in principal penalties
a. death if not executed because of commutation or pardon
1. perpetual absolute dis(ualification
2. civil interdiction during 3A $ears *if not expressl$ remitted in the pardon+
b. ,! and ,#
1. civil interdiction for life or during the sentence
2. perpetual absolute dis(ualification *unless expressl$ remitted in the pardon+
c. !M
1. temporar$ absolute dis(ualification
2. perpetual absolute dis(ualification from suffrage *unless expressl$ remitted in
the pardon+
d. !-
1. suspension from public office, profession or calling
2. perpetual special dis(ualification from suffrage if the duration of the
imprisonment exceeds 1< months *unless expressl$ remitted in the pardon+
#he accessor$ penalties in Art 4A844 must be suffered b$ the offender, although
pardoned as to the principal penalties. #o be relieved of these penalties, the$ must
be expressl$ remitted in the pardon.
"o accessor$ penalt$ for destierro
!ersons who served out the penalt$ ma$ not have the right to exercise the right of
suffrage. :or a prisoner who has been sentenced to one $ear of imprisonment or
more for an$ crime, absolute pardon restores to him his political rights. &f the penalt$
is less than one $ear, dis(ualification does not attach except if the crime done was
against propert$.
#he nature of the crime is immaterial when the penalt$ imposed is one $ear
imprisonment or more.
#he accessor$ penalties are understood to be alwa$s imposed upon the offender b$
the mere fact that the law fixes a certain penalt$ for the crime. 1henever the courts
impose a penalt$ which b$ provision of law, carries with it other penalties, it@s
understood that the accessor$ penalties are also imposed.
the accessor$ penalties do not affect the 'urisdiction of the court in which the
information is filed because the$ don@t modif$ or alter the nature of the penalt$
provided b$ law. 1hat determines 'urisdiction in criminal cases is the extent of the
principal penalt$ wEc the law imposes of the crime charged.
the M#- has exclusive 'urisdiction over offenses punishable with imprisonment of not
exceeding 4 $ears and 2 months or a fine of not more than 4AAA or both regardless
of other imposable accessor$ or other penalties.
'rt1 ;<1 Confiscation an! forfeit#re of the procee!s or instr#ments of the
crime1 F Ever penalt impose! for the commission of a felon shall carr with it
the forfeit#re of the procee!s of the crime an! the instr#ments or tools with which
it was committe!1
(#ch procee!s an! instr#ments or tools shall be confiscate! an! forfeite! in
favor of the Government. #nless the be propert of a thir! person not liable for
the offense. b#t those articles which are not s#b9ect of lawf#l commerce shall be
!estroe!1
ever$ penalt$ imposed carries with it the forfeiture of the proceeds of the crime and
the instruments or tools used in the commission of the crime
proceeds and instrumentsEtools of the crime are confiscated in favor of the
government
3
rd
persons@ *not liable for the offense+ propert$ is not sub'ect to confiscation and
forfeiture
;A
propert$ not sub'ect of lawful commerce *whether it belongs to accused or 3
rd
person+ shall be destro$ed.
can@t confiscateEforfeit unless there@s a criminal case filed and tried, and accused is
ac(uitted.
must indict 3
rd
person to order confiscation of his propert$
instruments of the crime belonging to innocent 3
rd
person ma$ be recovered
confiscation can be ordered onl$ if the propert$ is submitted in evidence or placed at
the disposal of the court
articles which are forfeited 8 when the order of forfeiture is alread$ final, can@t be
returned even in case of an ac(uittal
confiscation and ac(uittal are additional penalties. 1here the penalt$ imposed did
not include the confiscation of the goods involved, the confiscation M forfeiture of
said goods would be an additional penalt$ and would amount to an increase of the
penalt$ alread$ imposed, thereb$ placing the accused in double 'eopard$.
when the accused has appealed, confiscation and forfeiture not ordered b$ the trial
court ma$ be imposed b$ the appellate court
the government can@t appeal the modification of a sentence if the defendant did not
appeal. )ut if the defendant appeals, it removes all bars to the review and correction
of the penalt$ imposed b$ the court below, even if an increase thereof should be the
result.
'rt1 ;>1 Penalt to be impose! #pon principals in general1 F The penalt
prescribe! b law for the commission of a felon shall be impose! #pon the
principals in the commission of s#ch felon1
,henever the law prescribes a penalt for a felon is general terms. it shall
be #n!erstoo! as applicable to the cons#mmate! felon1
#he penalt$ prescribed b$ law in general terms shall be imposed%
a upon the principals
b for consummated felon$
2xception% when the law fixes a penalt$ for the frustrated or attempted felon$.
1henever it is believed that the penalt$ lower b$ one or two degrees corresponding
to said acts of execution is not proportionate to the wrong done, the law fixes a
distinct penalt$ for the principal in the frustrated or attempted felon$.
#he graduation of penalties refers to%
a stages of execution *consummated, frustrated, attempted+
b degree of the criminal participation of the offender *principal, accomplice,
accessor$+
the division of a divisible penalt$ *min, med, max+ refers to the proper period of the
penalt$ which should be imposed when aggravating or mitigating circumstances
attend the commission of the crime.
'rt1 ;?1 )n what cases the !eath penalt shall not be impose!1 F The !eath
penalt shall be impose! in all cases in which it m#st be impose! #n!er e%isting
laws. e%cept in the following cases:
21 ,hen the g#ilt person be more than sevent ears of age1
71 ,hen #pon appeal or revision of the case b the (#preme co#rt. all the
members thereof are not #nanimo#s in their voting as to the propriet of the
imposition of the !eath penalt1 =or the imposition of sai! penalt or for the
confirmation of a 9#!gment of the inferior co#rt imposing the !eath sentence. the
(#preme Co#rt shall ren!er its !ecision per c#riam. which shall be signe! b all
9#stices of sai! co#rt. #nless some member or members thereof shall have been
!is"#alifie! from ta3ing part in the consi!eration of the case. in which even the
#nanimo#s vote an! signat#re of onl the remaining 9#stices shall be re"#ire!1
whenever the 'udgment of the lower court imposes the death penalt$, the case shall
be determined b$ 1A 'ustices of the court. 1hen 1A 'ustices fail to reach a decision
;1
*as to the propriet$ of the imposition of the death penalt$+, the penalt$ next lower in
degree than the death penalt$ shall be imposed.
?eath penalt$ not imposed in the ff cases%
a+ when the person is more than =A $ears old at time ,#- sentenced him
b+ when upon appeal or revision of the case b$ the .-, 1A 'ustices are not
unanimous in their voting
c+ when the offender is a minor under 1< $rs of age. 1h$9 )ecause minorit$ is
alwa$s a mitigating circumstance
Dustification for the death penalt$% social defense and exemplarit$. "ot considered
cruel and unusual because does not involve torture or lingering death.
-rimes where death penalt$ is imposed%
a+ treason
b+ certain acts of espionage under -ommonwealth Act ;1;
c+ correspondence wE hostile countr$ when it contains notice or information and the
intention of the offender is to aid the enem$
d+ (ualified pirac$
e+ certain violations of the Anti8subversion act
f+ parricide
g+ murder
h+ kidnapping and serious illegal detention
i+ robber$ wE homicide
'+ rape wE homicide
k+ when death resulted from the commission of arson or other crime involving
destruction
trial court must re(uire the prosecution to present evidence, despite plea of guilt$,
when the crime charged is punished b$ death. A sentence of death is valid onl$ if it is
susceptible of a fair and reasonable examination b$ the court. #his is impossible if no
evidence of guilt was taken after a plea of guilt$.
'rt1 ;@1 Penalt for comple% crimes1 F ,hen a single act constit#tes two or
more grave or less grave felonies. or when an offense is a necessar means for
committing the other. the penalt for the most serio#s crime shall be impose!. the
same to be applie! in its ma%im#m perio!1
#he 2 or more grave or less grave felonies must be the result of a single act, or an
offense must be a necessar$ means to commit the crime.
-omplex crime one crime onl$ as there is onl$ one criminal intent onl$ one
information need be filed
2 kinds of complex crimes%
a+ compound crime single act constitutes 2 or more grave or less grave felonies
,e(uisites%
1+ that onl$ one single act is committed b$ the offender
2+ that the single act produces
a+ 2 or more grave felonies
b+ one or more grave and one or more less grave felonies
c+ 2 or more less grave felonies
;2
b+ complex crime proper when an offense is a necessar$ means for committing
another
,e(uisites%
1+ that at least 2 offenses are committed
2+ that one or some of the offenses must be necessar$ to commit the other
3+ that both or all the offenses must be punished under the same statute
"o single act in the following cases%
a+ 1hen 2 persons are killed one after the other, b$ different acts, although these 2
killings were the result of a single criminal impulse, the different acts must be
considered as distinct crimes.
b+ 1hen the acts are wholl$ different, not onl$ in themselves, but also because the$
are directed against 2 different persons, as when one fires his gun twice in
succession, killing one and in'uring the other.
/ight felonies produced b$ the same act should be treated and punished as separate
offenses or ma$ be absorbed b$ the grave felon$.
2xamples%
a+ several light felonies resulting from one single act not complex
Duan hit !edro@s car, resulting in several light in'uries and light felon$ of damage
to propert$. "o complex crime because the crime of slight ph$sical in'uries and
damage to propert$ are light felonies. #here are as man$ crimes as there are
persons in'ured wE light ph$sical in'uries and as man$ penalties as there are light
felonies committed, even though the$ are produced b$ a single act of the
offender.
b+ when the crime is committed b$ force or violence, slight ph$sical in'uries are
absorbed.
2xamples of complex crimes%
a+ Duan was a baranga$ captain who was killed while discharging his dut$, the crime
is a complex crime of homicide wE assault upon a person of authorit$.
b+ Duan raped !etra, causing her ph$sical in'uries wEc re(uired a month@s worth of
medical attention. #his is a complex crime of rape wE less serious ph$sical
in'uries. #he in'uries were necessar$ to the commission of the rape.
when in obedience to an order, several accused simultaneousl$ shot man$ persons,
without evidence how man$ each killed, there is onl$ a single offense, there being a
single criminal impulse.
when various acts are executed for the attainment of a single purpose wEc
constitutes an offense, such acts must be considered onl$ as one offense.
2xample% Duan falsified 1AA warehouse receipts from April to Dune which enabled
him to swindle the bank of 1AA million. #here@s onl$ one complex crime of estafa
through multiple falsification of documents.
#here is no complex crime of arson wE homicide
Art 4< is applicable to crimes through negligence
2xample% Duan lit a cigarette as he poured gas in the tank of his car in his garage.
#he gas caught fire and the house burned. 7is sister died and the maid suffered
serious ph$sical in'uries. #he crimes of arson, homicide, serious ph$sical in'uries and
damage to propert$ constitute a complex crime. #here is onl$ one penalt$ but there
are 3 civil liabilities.
"o complex crime when one of the offenses is penali4ed b$ a special law
2xample of complex crime proper *at least 2 crimes must be committed+%
Gidnapping the victim to murder him in a secluded place ransom wasn@t paid so
victim was killed. Gidnapping was a necessar$ means to commit murder. )ut where
the victim was taken from his home for the sole purpose of killing him and not for
detaining him illegall$ or for the purpose of ransom, the crime is simple murder.
K"ecessar$ means6 does not mean Kindispensable means6. &ndispensable would
mean it is an element of the crime. #he crime can be committed b$ another mean.
#he means actuall$ emplo$ed *another crime+ was merel$ to facilitate and insure the
consummation of the crime.
1hen in the definition of a felon$, one offense is a means to commit the other, there
is no complex crime.
;3
2x. Murder committed b$ means of fire. Murder can be (ualified b$ the circumstance
of fire so no complex crime even if Art 321 and 324 punishes arson. &t@s plain and
simple murder.
"ot complex crime when trespass to dwelling is a direct means to commit a grave
offense. /ike rape, there is no complex crime of trespass to dwelling with rape.
#respass will be considered as aggravating *unlawful entr$ or breaking part of a
dwelling+
"o complex crime when one offense is committed to conceal another
2xample% Duan set the school on fire after committing homicide. 2 crimes.
1hen the offender had in his possession the funds wEc he misappropriated, the
falsification of a public or official document involving said funds is a separate offense.
)ut when the offender had to falsif$ a public or official document to obtain
possession of the funds wEc he misappropriated, the falsification is a necessar$
means to commit the malversation.
#here is no complex crime of rebellion with murder, arson, robber$ or other common
crimes. #he$ are mere ingredients of the crime of rebellion absorbed alread$.
1hen 2 crimes produced b$ a single act are respectivel$ within the exclusive
'urisdiction of 2 courts of different 'urisdiction, the court of higher 'urisdiction shall tr$
the complex crime.
2xample% Although the forcible abduction which was supposedl$ commenced in
Manila was not proven, and although the rape which was proven was actuall$
committed in -avite, still the ,#- of Manila had 'urisdiction to convict the accused of
rape. #he complex crime of forcible abduction with rape was charged in the
complaint on the basis of which the case was tried.
Art. 4< is intended to favor the culprit.
#he penalt$ for complex crime is the penalt$ for the most serious crime, the same to
be applied in its maximum period. &f the different crimes resulting from one single act
are punished with the same penalt$, the penalt$ for an$ one of them shall be
imposed, the same to be applied in the maximum period. #he same rule shall be
observed when an offense is a necessar$ means to commit the other.
A complex crime of the second form ma$ be committed b$ two persons.
)ut when one of the offenses, as a means to commit the other, was committed b$
one of the accused b$ reckless imprudence, the accused who committed the crime
b$ reckless imprudence is liable for his acts onl$.
2xample% Duan cooperated in the commission of the complex offense of estafa
through falsification b$ reckless imprudence b$ acts without which it could not have
been accomplished, and this being a fact, there would be no reason to exculpate him
from liabilit$. 2ven assuming he had no intention to defraud #omas if his co8
defendants succeeded in attaining the purpose sought b$ the culprits, Duan@s
participation together wE the participation of his co8defendants in the commission of
the offense completed all the elements necessar$ for the perpetration of the complex
crime of estafa through falsification of documents.
1hen two felonies constituting a complex crime are punishable b$ imprisonment and
fine, respectivel$, onl$ the penalt$ of imprisonment shall be imposed.
1hen a single act constitutes two grave or less grave or one grave and another less
grave, and the penalt$ for one is imprisonment while that for the other is fine, the
severit$ of the penalt$ for the more serious crime should not be 'udged b$ the
classification of each of the penalties involved, but b$ the nature of the penalties.
2xample% 2ven if the fine for damage to propert$ through reckless imprudence is
!4A,AAA, an afflictive penalt$, and the penalt$ for the ph$sical in'uries resulting from
the same act is onl$ 4 mos of arresto ma$or, a correccional penalt$ ma$ be imposed.
&n the order of severit$ of the penalties, arresto ma$or and arresto menor are
considered more severe than destierro and arresto menor is higher in degree than
destierro.
:ine is not included in the list of penalties in the order of severit$ and it is the last in
the order.
Art 4< applies onl$ to cases where the -ode doesn@t provide a specific penalt$ for a
complex crime.
;4
Art 4< doesn@t appl$ when the law provides one single penalt$ for single complex
crimes like the ff%
a+ robber$ wE homicide
b+ robber$ wE rape
c+ kidnapping wE serious ph$sical in'uries
d+ rape wE homicide
1hen a complex crime is charged and one offense is not proven, the accused can
be convicted of the other.
!luralit$ of crimes consists in the successive execution b$ the same individual of
different criminal acts upon an$ of wEc no conviction has $et been declared.
Ginds of pluralit$ of crimes%
a+ formal or ideal onl$ one criminal liabilit$
b+ real or material there are different crimes in law as well as in the conscience of
the offender, in such cases, the offender shall be punished for each and ever$
offense that he committed.
2xample% Duan stabbed !edro, then Duan stabbed #omas too. #here are 2
committed as 2 acts were performed.
!/F,A/&#I 0: -,&M2. ,2-&?&L&.M
"o conviction of the crimes committed #here must be conviction b$ final 'udgment of
the first prior offense
:ormalEideal plural crimes are divided into 3 groups% *a person committing multiple
crimes is punished wE one penalt$ in the ff cases+
a+ when the offender commits an$ of the complex crimes defined in art 4<
b+ when the law specificall$ fixes a single penalt$ for 2 or more offenses committed%
robber$ wE homicide, kidnapping wE serious ph$sical in'uires
c+ when the offender commits continued crimes
-ontinued crimes refers to a single crime consisting of a series of acts but all
arising from one criminal resolution. Although there is a series of acts, there is onl$
one crime committed, so onl$ one penalt$ shall be imposed.
2xamples of continued crimes%
a+ a collector of a commercial firm misappropriates for his personal use several
amounts collected b$ him from different persons. #here is onl$ one crime
because the different and successive appropriations are but the different
moments during which one criminal resolution arises.
b+ Duan stole 2 books belonging to 2 different persons. 7e commits onl$ one crime
because there is unit$ of thought in the criminal purpose of the offender.
A continued crime is not a complex crime as offender does not perform a single act
but a series of acts. #herefore%
a+ penalt$ not to be imposed in the maximum
b+ no actual provision punishing a continued crime it@s a principle applied in
connection wE 2 or more crimes committed wE a single intention.
-ontinued crime is different from a transitor$ crime. #ransitor$ crime is Kmoving
crime6.
2xample% kidnapping someone for ransom and moving him to another venue. #he
offenders can be prosecuted and tried in either of the 2 areas.
,2A/EMA#2,A&A/ !/F,A/&#I -0"#&"F2? -,&M2
#here is a series of acts performed b$ the
offender
.ame
2ach act performed constitutes a separate
crime because each act is generated b$ a
criminal impulse
?ifferent acts constitute onl$ one crime
because all of the acts performed arise from
one criminal resolution.
;5
'rt1 ;51 Penalt to be impose! #pon the principals when the crime
committe! is !ifferent from that inten!e!1 F )n cases in which the felon
committe! is !ifferent from that which the offen!er inten!e! to commit. the
following r#les shall be observe!:
21 )f the penalt prescribe! for the felon committe! be higher than that
correspon!ing to the offense which the acc#se! inten!e! to commit. the penalt
correspon!ing to the latter shall be impose! in its ma%im#m perio!1
71 )f the penalt prescribe! for the felon committe! be lower than that
correspon!ing to the one which the acc#se! inten!e! to commit. the penalt for
the former shall be impose! in its ma%im#m perio!1
61 The r#le establishe! b the ne%t prece!ing paragraph shall not be
applicable if the acts committe! b the g#ilt person shall also constit#te an
attempt or fr#stration of another crime. if the law prescribes a higher penalt for
either of the latter offenses. in which case the penalt provi!e! for the attempte!
or the fr#strate! crime shall be impose! in its ma%im#m perio!1
Art 4> has reference to the provision in the 1
st
par of Art 4 which provides that
criminal liabilit$ shall be incurred Kb$ an$ person committing a felon$ although the
wrongful act done be different from that which he intended6
Art 4> applicable onl$ in cases when there is a mistake in identit$ of the victim of the
crime and the penalt$ for the crime committed is different from that for the crime
intended to be committed.
Art 4> also has no application where a more serious conse(uence not intended b$
the offender befalls the same person.
2xample% Duan onl$ wanted to inflict a wound upon !edro but because he lost control
of his right arm, he killed !edro. Art 4> not applicable.
A,# 4> A,# 4<
/esser penalt$ to be imposed in its maximum
pd
!enalt$ for the more serious crime shall be
imposed in its maximum pd
"otes%
1. Art. 4> has reference to Art. 4*1+. &t applies onl$ when there is error in personae1
2. &n Art. 4> *!aragraphs 1 and 2+ the lower penalt$ in its maximum period is alwa$s
imposed.
3. &n !ar. 3 the penalt$ for the attempted or frustrated crime shall be imposed in its
maximum period. #his rule is not necessar$ and ma$ well be covered b$ Art. 4<, in
view of the fact that the same act also constitutes an attempt or a frustration of
another crime.
'rt1 <B1 Penalt to be impose! #pon principals of a fr#strate!
crime1 F The penalt ne%t lower in !egree than that prescribe! b law for the
cons#mmate! felon shall be impose! #pon the principal in a fr#strate! felon1
'rt1 <21 Penalt to be impose! #pon principals of attempte! crimes1 F '
penalt lower b two !egrees than that prescribe! b law for the cons#mmate!
felon shall be impose! #pon the principals in an attempt to commit a felon1
'rt1 <71 Penalt to be impose! #pon accomplices in cons#mmate!
crime1 F The penalt ne%t lower in !egree than that prescribe! b law for the
cons#mmate! shall be impose! #pon the accomplices in the commission of a
cons#mmate! felon1
'rt1 <61 Penalt to be impose! #pon accessories to the commission of a
cons#mmate! felon1 F The penalt lower b two !egrees than that prescribe! b
law for the cons#mmate! felon shall be impose! #pon the accessories to the
commission of a cons#mmate! felon1
;;
'rt1 <;1 Penalt to impose! #pon accomplices in a fr#strate!
crime1 F The penalt ne%t lower in !egree than prescribe! b law for the
fr#strate! felon shall be impose! #pon the accomplices in the commission of a
fr#strate! felon1
'rt1 <<1 Penalt to be impose! #pon accessories of a fr#strate!
crime1 F The penalt lower b two !egrees than that prescribe! b law for the
fr#strate! felon shall be impose! #pon the accessories to the commission of a
fr#strate! felon1
'rt1 <>1 Penalt to be impose! #pon accomplices in an attempte!
crime1 F The penalt ne%t lower in !egree than that prescribe! b law for an
attempt to commit a felon shall be impose! #pon the accomplices in an attempt
to commit the felon1
'rt1 <?1 Penalt to be impose! #pon accessories of an attempte!
crime1 F The penalt lower b two !egrees than that prescribe! b law for the
attempte! felon shall be impose! #pon the accessories to the attempt to commit
a felon1
Application of Article 5A to 5=
!articipation -onsummated :rustrated Attempted
!rincipal !enalt$ imposed b$ law 1 less 2 less
Accomplice 1 less 2 less 3 less
Accessor$ 2 less 3 less 4 less
"otes%
Art 5A85= not applicable when the law specificall$ prescribes the penalt$ for the
frustrated and attempted felon$ or that to be imposed upon the accomplices and
accessories.
?egree one whole penalt$, one entire penalt$ or one unit of the penalties
enumerated in the graduated scales provided for in Art =1
!eriod one of 3 e(ual portions, minEmedEmax of a divisible penalt$. A period of a
divisible penalt$ when prescribed b$ the -ode as a penalt$ for a felon$, is in itself a
degree.
?istinctions between ?egree and !eriod
?egree !eriod
,efers to the penalt$ imposable for a felon$
committed considering the stages of execution
and the degree of participation of the offender
,efers to the duration of the penalt$ consisting
of the maximum, medium, and minimum, after
considering the presence or absence of
aggravating circumstances
Ma$ refer to both divisible and indivisible
penalties
,efers onl$ to divisible penalties
;=
#he rules provided in Arts. 53, 55 and 5= do not appl$ if the felon$ is light because
accessories are not liable for the same
)ases for imposition of the penalt$ under the ,!-
a. .tage of the commission of the crime
1. !articipation of the persons liable
2. !resence of aggravating or mitigating circumstances
'rt1 <@1 '!!itional penalt to be impose! #pon certain
accessories1 F Those accessories falling within the terms of paragraphs 6 of
'rticle 25 of this Co!e who sho#l! act with ab#se of their p#blic f#nctions. shall
s#ffer the a!!itional penalt of absol#te perpet#al !is"#alification if the principal
offen!er shall be g#ilt of a grave felon. an! that of absol#te temporar
!is"#alification if he shall be g#ilt of a less grave felon1
Art is limited onl$ to grave and less grave felonies since it is not possible to have
accessories liable for light felonies. &t is further limited to those whose participation in
the crime is characteri4ed b$ the misuse of public office or authorit$.
2xample% a+ A ma$or aided in friend, a wanted criminal, in escaping
b+ A senator gives protection to his 'ueteng lord friend
Additional !enalties for !ublic 0fficers who are accessories
1. Absolute perpetual dis(ualification, if the principal offender is guilt$ of a grave
felon$.
2. Absolute temporar$ dis(ualification if the principal offender is guilt$ of less grave
felon$
'rt1 <51 Penalt to be impose! in case of fail#re to commit the crime
beca#se the means emploe! or the aims so#ght are impossible1 F ,hen the
person inten!ing to commit an offense has alrea! performe! the acts for the
e%ec#tion of the same b#t nevertheless the crime was not pro!#ce! b reason of
the fact that the act inten!e! was b its nat#re one of impossible accomplishment
or beca#se the means emploe! b s#ch person are essentiall ina!e"#ate to
pro!#ce the res#lt !esire! b him. the co#rt. having in min! the social !anger an!
the !egree of criminalit shown b the offen!er. shall impose #pon him the
penalt of arresto maor or a fine from 7BB to <BB pesos1
)asis for the imposition of proper penalt$ in impossible crimes% sopcial danger and
degree of criminalit$ shown b$ the offender.
2xample% Duan fired a revolver at !edro at the distance of 2 kilometers. #his shoes
stupidit$ rather than danger. Duan should not be punished as there is no social
danger nor degree of criminalit$.
)ut if Duan was a convicted felon, act ma$ be punished.
Article limited to those cases of grave and less grave felonies.
'rt1 >B1 E%ception to the r#les establishe! in 'rticles <B to <?1 F The
provisions containe! in 'rticles <B to <?. incl#sive. of this Co!e shall not be
applicable to cases in which the law e%pressl prescribes the penalt provi!e! for
a fr#strate! or attempte! felon. or to be impose! #pon accomplices or
accessories1
2 cases wherein the accomplice is punished wE the same penalt$ imposed upon the
principal
a+ ascendants, guardians, curators, teachers and an$ person who b$ abuse of
authorit$ or confidential relationship shall cooperate as accomplices in the crimes
of rape, acts of lasciviousness, seduction, corruption of minors, white slave trade
or abduction.
;<
b+ one who furnished the place for the perpetration of the crime of slight illegal
detention.
Accessor$ punished as principal% Art 142 punishes an accessor$ for knowingl$
concealed certain evil practices.
-ases when instead of a penalt$ 2 degrees lower, one degree for accessor$%
a+ knowingl$ using counterfeited seal or forged signature or stamp of the !resident
b+ illegal possession and use of false treasur$ or bank note
c+ using a falsified document
d+ using a falsified dispatch
'rt1 >21 +#les for gra!#ating penalties1 F =or the p#rpose of gra!#ating the
penalties which. accor!ing to the provisions of 'rticles <B to <?. incl#sive. of this
Co!e. are to be impose! #pon persons g#ilt as principals of an fr#strate! or
attempte! felon. or as accomplices or accessories. the following r#les shall be
observe!:
21 ,hen the penalt prescribe! for the felon is single an! in!ivisible. the
penalt ne%t lower in !egrees shall be that imme!iatel following that in!ivisible
penalt in the respective gra!#ate! scale prescribe! in 'rticle ?2 of this Co!e1
71 ,hen the penalt prescribe! for the crime is compose! of two in!ivisible
penalties. or of one or more !ivisible penalties to be impose to their f#ll e%tent. the
penalt ne%t lower in !egree shall be that imme!iatel following the lesser of the
penalties prescribe! in the respective gra!#ate! scale1
61 ,hen the penalt prescribe! for the crime is compose! of one or two
in!ivisible penalties an! the ma%im#m perio! of another !ivisible penalt. the
penalt ne%t lower in !egree shall be compose! of the me!i#m an! minim#m
perio!s of the proper !ivisible penalt an! the ma%im#m perio!s of the proper
!ivisible penalt an! the ma%im#m perio! of that imme!iatel following in sai!
respective gra!#ate! scale1
;1 when the penalt prescribe! for the crime is compose! of several perio!s.
correspon!ing to !ifferent !ivisible penalties. the penalt ne%t lower in !egree
shall be compose! of the perio! imme!iatel following the minim#m prescribe!
an! of the two ne%t following. which shall be ta3en from the penalt prescribe!. if
possible: otherwise from the penalt imme!iatel following in the above
mentione! respective gra!#ate! scale1
<1 ,hen the law prescribes a penalt for a crime in some manner not
especiall provi!e! for in the fo#r prece!ing r#les. the co#rts. procee!ing b
analog. shall impose correspon!ing penalties #pon those g#ilt as principals of
the fr#strate! felon. or of attempt to commit the same. an! #pon accomplices
an! accessories1
#he rules provided in this Art should also appl$ in determining the minimum of the
&ndeterminate .entence /aw *&./+. &t also applies in lowering the penalt$ b$ one or
two degrees b$ reason of the presence of the privileged mitigating circumstance or
when the penalt$ is divisible and there are two or more mitigating circumstances.
Gra!#ate! (cale in 'rt ?2
&ndivisible !enalties%
a+ ?eath
b+ ,eclusion !erpetua
;>
?ivisible !enalties%
a+ ,eclusion #emporal
b+ !rision Ma$or
c+ !rision -orreccional
d+ Arresto Ma$or
e+ ?estierro
f+ Arresto Menor
g+ !ublic -ensure
h+ :ine
"ule #o. +)
1hen the penalt$ is single and indivisible *ex. ,!+, the penalt$ next lower shall be
reclusion temporal.
"ule #o. -)
a+ when the penalt$ is composed of two indivisible penalties
2x. penalt$ for parricide is reclusion perpetua to death, the next lower penalt$ is
reclusion temporal
b+ when the penalt$ is composed of one or more divisible penalties to be imposed to
their full extent
2x. one divisible penalt$ is reclusion temporal. #he penalt$ immediatel$ following
,# is prision ma$or. 2 divisible penalties are prision correccional to prision ma$or.
#he penalt$ immediatel$ preceding the lesser of the penalties of prision
correccional to prision ma$or is arresto ma$or.
"ule #o. %)
1hen the penalt$ is composed of 2 indivisible penalties and the maximum period of
a divisible penalt$E or when composed of one divisible penalt$ the maximum of one
divisible penalt$
2x. penalt$ for murder is reclusion temporal to death. #he point of reference will
be on the proper divisible penalt$ which is reclusion temporal. Fnder the 3
rd
rule,
the penalt$ next lower to reclusion temporal is composed of the medium and
minimum periods of reclusion temporal and the maximum of prision ma$or.
"ule #o.D)
1hen the penalt$ is composed of several periods
2x. the Kseveral6 periods contemplated in this rule correspond to different
divisible penalties. A penalt$ of prision ma$or in its medium period to reclusion
temporal in its minimum period is an example of such. #he penalt$ immediatel$
following the minimum of the entire sentence, which is prision ma$or medium, is
prision ma$or in its minimum and the 2 periods next following, which are prision
correccional max and medium.
"ule #o.0)
1hen the penalt$ has onl$ 2 periods
2x. Abduction punishable b$ prision correccional in its medium and minimum.
#he next penalt$ following is formed b$ 2 periods to be taken from the same
penalt$ if possible or from the periods of the penalt$ numericall$ following the
lesser of the penalties prescribed. #he penalt$ next following prision correccional
in its med and min shall be arresto ma$or in its med and max.
Mitigating and Aggravating circumstances are first disregarded in the application of
the rules for graduating penalties. &t is onl$ after the penalt$ next lower in degree is
alread$ determined that the mitigating and aggravating circumstances should be
considered.
'rt1 >71 Effect of the atten!ance of mitigating or aggravating circ#mstances
an! of habit#al !elin"#enc1 F $itigating or aggravating circ#mstances an!
=A
habit#al !elin"#enc shall be ta3en into acco#nt for the p#rpose of !iminishing or
increasing the penalt in conformit with the following r#les:
21 'ggravating circ#mstances which in themselves constit#te a crime
speciall p#nishable b law or which are incl#!e! b the law in !efining a crime
an! prescribing the penalt therefor shall not be ta3en into acco#nt for the
p#rpose of increasing the penalt1
71 The same r#le shall appl with respect to an aggravating circ#mstance
inherent in the crime to s#ch a !egree that it m#st of necessit accompan the
commission thereof1
61 'ggravating or mitigating circ#mstances which arise from the moral
attrib#tes of the offen!er. or from his private relations with the offen!e! part. or
from an other personal ca#se. shall onl serve to aggravate or mitigate the
liabilit of the principals. accomplices an! accessories as to whom s#ch
circ#mstances are atten!ant1
;1 The circ#mstances which consist in the material e%ec#tion of the act. or in
the means emploe! to accomplish it. shall serve to aggravate or mitigate the
liabilit of those persons onl who ha! 3nowle!ge of them at the time of the
e%ec#tion of the act or their cooperation therein1
<1 0abit#al !elin"#enc shall have the following effects1
(a) /pon a thir! conviction the c#lprit shall be sentence! to the penalt
provi!e! b law for the last crime of which he be fo#n! g#ilt an! to the a!!itional
penalt of prision correccional in its me!i#m an! ma%im#m perio!s:
(b) /pon a fo#rth conviction. the c#lprit shall be sentence! to the penalt
provi!e! for the last crime of which he be fo#n! g#ilt an! to the a!!itional
penalt of prision maor in its minim#m an! me!i#m perio!s: an!
(c) /pon a fifth or a!!itional conviction. the c#lprit shall be sentence! to the
penalt provi!e! for the last crime of which he be fo#n! g#ilt an! to the
a!!itional penalt of prision maor in its ma%im#m perio! to recl#sion temporal
in its minim#m perio!1
Notwithstan!ing the provisions of this article. the total of the two penalties to be
impose! #pon the offen!er. in conformit herewith. shall in no case e%cee! 6B
ears1
=or the p#rpose of this article. a person shall be !eeme! to be habit#al
!elin"#ent. is within a perio! of ten ears from the !ate of his release or last
conviction of the crimes of serio#s or less serio#s phsical in9#ries. robo. h#rto
estafa or falsification. he is fo#n! g#ilt of an of sai! crimes a thir! time or
oftener1
!ar 1% Aggravating circumstances are not to be taken into account when%
a+ the$ themselves constitute a crime
2x. b$ Kmeans of fire6 arson
b+ the$ are included b$ law in the definition of a crime
!ar 2% .ame rules applies when the aggravating circumstance is inherent in the
crime
!ar 3. Aggravating or mitigating circumstances arising from an$ of the ff affect onl$
those to whom such circumstances are attendant%
a+ from the moral attributes of the offender
b+ from his private relations wE the offended part$
c+ from an$ other personal cause
!ar 4% the circumstances wEc consist of the ff shall serve to aggravate and mitigate
the liabilit$ onl$ of those who had knowledge of them at the time of the commission
of the offense
a+ material execution of the act
b+ means emplo$ed to accomplish the crime
=1
!ar 5% 7abitual ?elin(uent is a person who within the period of 1A $ears from the
date of his *last+ release or last conviction of the crimes of%
a+ serious or less serious ph$sical in'uries
b+ robber$
c+ estafa
d+ falsification
is found guilt$ of an$ of the said crimes a third time or oftener.
#en $ear period to be computed from the time of last release or conviction
.ubse(uent crime must be committed after conviction of the former crime. -ases still
pending are not to be taken into consideration.
7A)&#FA/ ?2/&"JF2"-I ,2-&?&L&.M
-rimes to be committed are specified .ame title
1E in 1A $ears "o time fixed b$ law
Must be found guilt$ 3
rd
time or oftener .econd conviction
Additional penalt$ is imposed &s not offset b$ M-, increases penalt$ to
maximum
,ulings on 7abitual ?elin(uenc$%
a+ the law on habitual delin(uenc$ does not contemplate the exclusion from the
computation of prior conviction those falling outside the 1A $r pd immediatel$
preceding the crime for wEc the defendant is being tried
b+ ten $r pd is counted not from the date of commission of the subse(uent offense
but to the date of conviction thereof in relation to the date of his last release or
last conviction
c+ when an offender has committed several crimes mentioned in the definition of
habitual delin(uent, without being first convicted of an$ of them before
committing the others, he is not a habitual delin(uent
d+ convictions on the same da$ or at about the same time are considered as one
onl$ *da$s, weeks..+
e+ crimes committed on the same date, although convictions on different dates are
considered as one
f+ previous convictions are considered ever$ time a new offense is committed
g+ commissions of those crimes need not be consummated
h+ habitual delin(uenc$ applies to accomplice and accessories as long as in the
crimes specified
i+ a crime committed in the minorit$ of the offender is not counted
'+ imposition of additional penalt$ is mandator$ and constitutional
k+ modif$ing circumstances applicable to additional penalt$
l+ habitual delin(uenc$ is not a crime, it is simpl$ a fact or circumstance which if
present gives rise to the imposition of additional penalt$
m+ penalt$ for habitual delin(uenc$ is a real penalt$ that determines 'urisdiction
n+ a habitual delin(uent is necessaril$ a recidivist
o+ in imposing the additional penalt$, recidivism is not aggravating. #he additional
penalt$ must be imposed in its minimum
p+ an offender can be a habitual delin(uent wEo being a recidivist
#otes)
&n no case shall be the total penalties imposed upon the offender exceed 3A $ears
#he law does not appl$ to crimes described in Art. 155
#he imposition of the additional penalties on habitual delin(uents are constitutional, it
is simpl$ a punishment on future crimes on account of the criminal propensities of
the accused.
#he imposition of such additional penalties are mandator$.
7abitual delin(uenc$ applies at an$ stage of the execution because sub'ectivel$, the
offender reveals the same degree of depravit$ or perversit$ as the one who commits
a consummated crime.
7abitual delin(uenc$ applies to all participants because it reveals persistence in
them of the inclination to wrongdoing and of the perversit$ of character that led them
to commit the previous crime.
=2
-ases where the attending aggravating or mitigating circumstances are not
considered in the imposition of penalties.
!enalt$ that is single and indivisible
:elonies through negligence
!enalt$ is a fine
!enalt$ is prescribed b$ a special law
'rt1 >61 +#les for the application of in!ivisible penalties1 F )n all cases in
which the law prescribes a single in!ivisible penalt. it shall be applie! b the
co#rts regar!less of an mitigating or aggravating circ#mstances that ma have
atten!e! the commission of the !ee!1
)n all cases in which the law prescribes a penalt compose! of two in!ivisible
penalties. the following r#les shall be observe! in the application thereof:
21 ,hen in the commission of the !ee! there is present onl one aggravating
circ#mstance. the greater penalt shall be applie!1
71 ,hen there are neither mitigating nor aggravating circ#mstances an! there
is no aggravating circ#mstance. the lesser penalt shall be applie!1
61 ,hen the commission of the act is atten!e! b some mitigating
circ#mstances an! there is no aggravating circ#mstance. the lesser penalt shall
be applie!1
;1 ,hen both mitigating an! aggravating circ#mstances atten!e! the
commission of the act. the co#rt shall reasonabl allow them to offset one another
in consi!eration of their n#mber an! importance. for the p#rpose of appling the
penalt in accor!ance with the prece!ing r#les. accor!ing to the res#lt of s#ch
compensation1
Art ;3 applies onl$ when the penalt$ prescribed b$ the -ode is either one indivisible
penalt$ or 2 indivisible penalties
1hen the penalt$ is composed of 2 indivisible penalties, the penalt$ cannot be
lowered b$ one degree no matter how man$ mitigating circumstances are present
2xception% in cases of privileged mitigating circumstances
!ar.4% the moral value rather than the numerical weight shall be taken into account
,ules for the application of indivisible penalties
!enalt$ is single and indivisible applied regardless of the presence of
aggravating and mitigating circumstances
!enalt$ composed of two indivisible penalties
1. 0ne aggravating circumstance present higher penalt$
2. 0ne mitigating circumstance present lower penalt$
3. .ome mitigating circumstances present and no aggravating lower penalt$
4. Mitigating and Aggravating -ircumstance are present basis in number and
importance
'rt1 >;1 +#les for the application of penalties which contain three perio!s1 F
)n cases in which the penalties prescribe! b law contain three perio!s. whether it
be a single !ivisible penalt or compose! of three !ifferent penalties. each one of
which forms a perio! in accor!ance with the provisions of 'rticles ?> an! ??. the
co#rt shall observe for the application of the penalt the following r#les.
accor!ing to whether there are or are not mitigating or aggravating
circ#mstances:
=3
21 ,hen there are neither aggravating nor mitigating circ#mstances. the
shall impose the penalt prescribe! b law in its me!i#m perio!1
71 ,hen onl a mitigating circ#mstances is present in the commission of the
act. the shall impose the penalt in its minim#m perio!1
61 ,hen an aggravating circ#mstance is present in the commission of the act.
the shall impose the penalt in its ma%im#m perio!1
;1 ,hen both mitigating an! aggravating circ#mstances are present. the
co#rt shall reasonabl offset those of one class against the other accor!ing to
their relative weight1
<1 ,hen there are two or more mitigating circ#mstances an! no aggravating
circ#mstances are present. the co#rt shall impose the penalt ne%t lower to that
prescribe! b law. in the perio! that it ma !eem applicable. accor!ing to the
n#mber an! nat#re of s#ch circ#mstances1
>1 ,hatever ma be the n#mber an! nat#re of the aggravating circ#mstances.
the co#rts shall not impose a greater penalt than that prescribe! b law. in its
ma%im#m perio!1
?1 ,ithin the limits of each perio!. the co#rt shall !etermine the e%tent of the
penalt accor!ing to the n#mber an! nat#re of the aggravating an! mitigating
circ#mstances an! the greater an! lesser e%tent of the evil pro!#ce! b the crime1
Art ;4 applies when the penalt$ has 3 periods because the$ are divisible. &f the
penalt$ is composed of 3 different penalties, each forms a period according to Art ==
!ar 4% the mitigating circumstances must be ordinar$, not privileged. #he aggravating
circumstances must be generic or specific, not (ualif$ing or inherent.
2xample% a (ualif$ing circumstance *treacher$+ cannot be offset b$ a generic
mitigating circumstance *voluntar$ circumstance+
#he court has discretion to impose the penalt$ within the limits fixed b$ law
Art ;4 not applicable when the penalt$ is indivisible or prescribed b$ special law or a
fine
,ules for the application of divisible penalties
"o aggravating and no mitigating circumstances medium period
0ne mitigating circumstance minimum period
0ne aggravating circumstance maximum period
Mitigating and aggravating circumstance o offset each other and according to
relative weight
2 or more mitigating without an$ aggravating circumstance on degree lower
'rt1 ><1 +#le in cases in which the penalt is not compose! of three perio!s1
F )n cases in which the penalt prescribe! b law is not compose! of three
perio!s. the co#rts shall appl the r#les containe! in the foregoing articles.
!ivi!ing into three e"#al portions of time incl#!e! in the penalt prescribe!. an!
forming one perio! of each of the three portions1
1?CP/TAT8?#.)
A. (xample) Prision $a!or *+ !rs, , da! to ,- !rs.
2) s#btract the minim#m (!isregar! 2 !a) from the ma%im#m
12$rs ;$rs S ; $rs
7) !ivi!e the !ifference b 6
; $rs E 3 S 2 $rs
6) #se the minim#m (> rs an! 2 !a) as the minim#m of the minim#m perio!1
Then a!! the 7 rs (!isregar!ing the 2 !a) to the minim#m to get the
ma%im#m of the minim#m
; $rs *minimum of the minimum+
T 2 $rs *difference+
8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888
< $rs *maximum of the minimum+.
#herefore, minimum period of prision ma$or3 ; $rs 1 da$ to < $rs
=4
;) #se the ma%im#m of the minim#m perio! as the minim#m of the me!i#m
perio! an! a!! 2 !a to !isting#ish from the minim#m perio!1 Then a!! 7
ears to the minim#m of the me!i#m (!isregar!ing the 2 !a) to get the
ma%im#m of the me!i#m perio!1
< $rs *minimum of the medium+
T 2 $rs *difference+
8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888
1A $rs *maximum of the medium+
#herefore, medium period of prision ma$or3 < $rs 1 da$ to 1A $rs
<) #se the ma%im#m of the me!i#m perio! as the minim#m of the ma%im#m p!.
a!! 2 !a to !isting#ish it from the me!i#m perio!1 Then a!! 7 rs to the
minim#m of the ma%im#m p! (!isregar!ing the 2 !a) to get the ma%im#m of
the ma%im#m perio!)
1A $rs *maximum of the medium+
T 2 $rs *difference+
8888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888
12 $rs *maximum of the maximum+
#herefore, maximum period of prision ma$or3 1A $rs 1 da$ to 12 $rs
-omputation above applicable to all others except arresto ma$or
/. (xample) Prision $a!or minimum *+ !rs , da! to 0 !rs. onl!
2) (#btract minim#m from the ma%im#m
<$rs ;$rs S 2 $rs
7) -ivi!e the !ifference b 6
2$rs E 3 S < months
6) /se the minim#m of the given e%ample as the minim#m perio!1 Then to get to
get the ma%im#m of the minim#m. a!! the @ months
; $rs T < months S ; $rs and < months
#herefore, minimum of prision ma$or minimum3 ; $rs 1 da$ to ; $rs < months
;) /se the ma%im#m of the minim#m as the minim#m of the me!i#m perio!1 '!!
2 !a to !isting#ish it from the ma%im#m of the minim#m1 '!! the @ months
an! this becomes the ma%im#m of the me!i#m
; $rs < months T < months S = $rs 4 months
#herefore, the medium period of prision ma$or minimum3 ; $rs < mos 1 da$ to = $rs 4
mos
<) /se the ma%im#m of the me!i#m as the minim#m perio! of the ma%im#m
perio! an! a!! 2 !a to !isting#ish1 '!! the @ months to get the ma%im#m of
this ma%im#m
= $rs 4 mos T < mos S < $rs
#herefore, maximum of prision ma$or3 = $rs 4 mos 1 da$ to < $rs
'rt1 >>1 )mposition of fines1 F )n imposing fines the co#rts ma fi% an
amo#nt within the limits establishe! b law: in fi%ing the amo#nt in each case
attention shall be given. not onl to the mitigating an! aggravating circ#mstances.
b#t more partic#larl to the wealth or means of the c#lprit1
-ourt must consider the following in imposing the fine%
a+ mitigating and aggravating circumstances
b+ the wealth and means of the culprit
1hen the minimum of the fine is not fixed, the court shall have the discretion
provided it does not exceed the amount authori4ed b$ law
'rt1 >?1 Penalt to be impose! when not all the re"#isites of e%emption of
the fo#rth circ#mstance of 'rticle 27 are present1F ,hen all the con!itions
re"#ire! in circ#mstances N#mber ; of 'rticle 27 of this Co!e to e%empt from
criminal liabilit are not present. the penalt of arresto maor in its ma%im#m
=5
perio! to prision correccional in its minim#m perio! shall be impose! #pon the
c#lprit if he shall have been g#ilt of a grave felon. an! arresto maor in its
minim#m an! me!i#m perio!s. if of a less grave felon1
,e(uisites of Art 12 par 4
a+ act causing the in'ur$ must be lawful
b+ act performed wE due care
c+ in'ur$ was caused b$ mere accident
d+ no fault or intention to cause in'ur$
if these conditions are not all present, then the ff penalties shall be imposed%
a+ grave felon$ arresto ma$or max to prision correccional min
b+ less grave felon$ arresto ma$or min to arresto ma$or med
'rt1 >@1 Penalt to be impose! #pon a person #n!er eighteen ears of age1
F ,hen the offen!er is a minor #n!er eighteen ears an! his case is one coming
#n!er the provisions of the paragraphs ne%t to the last of 'rticle @B of this Co!e.
the following r#les shall be observe!:
21 /pon a person #n!er fifteen b#t over nine ears of age. who is not
e%empte! from liabilit b reason of the co#rt having !eclare! that he acte! with
!iscernment. a !iscretionar penalt shall be impose!. b#t alwas lower b two
!egrees at least than that prescribe! b law for the crime which he committe!1
71 /pon a person over fifteen an! #n!er eighteen ears of age the penalt
ne%t lower than that prescribe! b law shall be impose!. b#t alwas in the proper
perio!1
#otes)
Art. ;< applies to such minor if his application for suspension of sentence is
disapproved or if while in the reformator$ institution he becomes incorrigible in which
case he shall be returned to the court for the imposition of the proper penalt$.
Art. ;< provides for 2 privileged mitigating circumstances
&f the act is attended b$ two or more mitigating circumstance and no aggravating
circumstance, the penalt$ being divisible a minor over 15 but under 1< ma$ still get a
penalt$ two degrees lower.
under 15 but over > and has acted wE discretion% 2 degrees lower
under 1< but over 15% 1 degree lower
'rt1 >51 Penalt to be impose! when the crime committe! is not wholl
e%c#sable1 F ' penalt lower b one or two !egrees than that prescribe! b law
shall be impose! if the !ee! is not wholl e%c#sable b reason of the lac3 of some
of the con!itions re"#ire! to 9#stif the same or to e%empt from criminal liabilit in
the several cases mentione! in 'rticle 22 an! 27. provi!e! that the ma9orit of
s#ch con!itions be present1 The co#rts shall impose the penalt in the perio!
which ma be !eeme! proper. in view of the n#mber an! nat#re of the con!itions
of e%emption present or lac3ing1
!enalt$ to be imposed when the crime committed is not wholl$ excusable
1 or 2 degrees lower if the ma'orit$ of the conditions for 'ustification or exemption
in the cases provided in Arts. 11 and 12 are present.
=;
'rt1 ?B1 (#ccessive service of sentence1 F ,hen the c#lprit has to serve
two or more penalties. he shall serve them sim#ltaneo#sl if the nat#re of the
penalties will so permit otherwise. the following r#les shall be observe!:
)n the imposition of the penalties. the or!er of their respective severit shall be
followe! so that the ma be e%ec#te! s#ccessivel or as nearl as ma be
possible. sho#l! a par!on have been grante! as to the penalt or penalties first
impose!. or sho#l! the have been serve! o#t1
=or the p#rpose of appling the provisions of the ne%t prece!ing paragraph the
respective severit of the penalties shall be !etermine! in accor!ance with the
following scale:
21 -eath.
71 +ecl#sion perpet#a.
61 +ecl#sion temporal.
;1 Prision maor.
<1 Prision correccional.
>1 'rresto maor.
?1 'rresto menor.
@1 -estierro.
51 Perpet#al absol#te !is"#alification.
2B Temporal absol#te !is"#alification1
221 (#spension from p#blic office. the right to vote an! be vote! for. the right
to follow a profession or calling. an!
271 P#blic cens#re1
Notwithstan!ing the provisions of the r#le ne%t prece!ing. the ma%im#m !#ration
of the convictGs sentence shall not be more than threeAfol! the length of time
correspon!ing to the most severe of the penalties impose! #pon him1 No other
penalt to which he ma be liable shall be inflicte! after the s#m total of those
impose! e"#als the same ma%im#m perio!1
(#ch ma%im#m perio! shall in no case e%cee! fort ears1
)n appling the provisions of this r#le the !#ration of perpet#al penalties ( pena
perpet#a) shall be comp#te! at thirt ears1 ('s amen!e!)1
Maximum duration of the convict@s sentence% 3 times the most severe penalt$
Max period shall not exceed 4A $ears
.ubsidiar$ imprisonment this shall be excluded in computing for the maximum
duration
2xample% Duan has 1A sentences of ; months and 1 da$ each and a fine of 1AAA. 7e
was not able to pa$ the fine. #herefore, he must serve subsidiar$ penalt$ after 1<
months and 3 da$s in 'ail.
'rt1 ?21 Gra!#ate! scales1 F )n the case in which the law prescribe! a
penalt lower or higher b one or more !egrees than another given penalt. the
r#les prescribe! in 'rticle >2 shall be observe! in gra!#ating s#ch penalt1
The lower or higher penalt shall be ta3en from the gra!#ate! scale in which is
comprise! the given penalt1
The co#rts. in appling s#ch lower or higher penalt. shall observe the following
gra!#ate! scales:
(C'LE NO1 2
21 -eath.
71 +ecl#sion perpet#a.
61 +ecl#sion temporal.
;1 Prision maor.
<1 Prision correccional.
>1 'rresto maor.
?1 -estierro.
@1 'rresto menor.
51 P#blic cens#re.
2B1 =ine1
(C'LE NO1 7
21 Perpet#al absol#te !is"#alification.
71 Temporal absol#te !is"#alification
==
61 (#spension from p#blic office. the right to vote an! be
vote! for. the right to follow a profession or calling.
;1 P#blic cens#re.
<1 =ine1
'rt1 ?71 Preference in the pament of the civil liabilities1 F The civil liabilities
of a person fo#n! g#ilt of two or more offenses shall be satisfie! b following the
chronological or!er of the !ates of the 9#!gments ren!ere! against him.
beginning with the first in or!er of time1
the penalties shall be satisfied according to the scale of Art =A
'rt1 ?61 Pres#mption in regar! to the imposition of accessor
penalties1 F ,henever the co#rts shall impose a penalt which. b provision of
law. carries with it other penalties. accor!ing to the provisions of 'rticles ;B. ;2.
;7. ;6 an! ;; of this Co!e. it m#st be #n!erstoo! that the accessor penalties are
also impose! #pon the convict1
subsidiar$ penalties are deemed imposed. 7owever, the subsidiar$ imprisonment
must be expressl$ stated in the decision.
'rt1 ?;1 Penalt higher than recl#sion perpet#a in certain cases1 F )n cases
in which the law prescribes a penalt higher than another given penalt. witho#t
speciall !esignating the name of the former. if s#ch higher penalt sho#l! be that
of !eath. the same penalt an! the accessor penalties of 'rticle ;B. shall be
consi!ere! as the ne%t higher penalt1
if the decision or law sa$s higher than ,! or 2 degrees than ,#, then the penalt$
imposed is ,! or ,# as the case ma$ be. ?eath must be designated b$ name.
7owever, for the other penalties, this does not appl$.
2xample% the penalt$ for crime B is 2 degrees lower than ,!. #he penalt$ imposed is
prision ma$or.
'rt1 ?<1 )ncreasing or re!#cing the penalt of fine b one or more !egrees1
F ,henever it ma be necessar to increase or re!#ce the penalt of fine b one
or more !egrees. it shall be increase! or re!#ce!. respectivel. for each !egree.
b oneAfo#rth of the ma%im#m amo#nt prescribe! b law. witho#t however.
changing the minim#m1
The same r#les shall be observe! with regar! of fines that !o not consist of a
fi%e! amo#nt. b#t are ma!e proportional1
To get the lower degree)
Max% reduce b$ one8fourth
Min% the same
'rt1 ?>1 Legal perio! of !#ration of !ivisible penalties1 F The legal perio! of
!#ration of !ivisible penalties shall be consi!ere! as !ivi!e! into three parts.
forming three perio!s. the minim#m. the me!i#m. an! the ma%im#m in the manner
shown in the following table:
=<
'rt1 ??1 ,hen the penalt is a comple% one compose! of three !istinct
penalties1 F )n cases in which the law prescribes a penalt compose! of three
!istinct penalties. each one shall form a perio!: the lightest of them shall be the
minim#m the ne%t the me!i#m. an! the most severe the ma%im#m perio!1
,henever the penalt prescribe! !oes not have one of the forms speciall
provi!e! for in this Co!e. the perio!s shall be !istrib#te!. appling b analog the
prescribe! r#les1
if there are 3 distinct penalties3 there shall be a minimum, a medium and a maximum
2xample% ,eclusion temporal max to death
'rt1 ?@1 ,hen an! how a penalt is to be e%ec#te!1 F No penalt shall be
e%ec#te! e%cept b virt#e of a final 9#!gment1
' penalt shall not be e%ec#te! in an other form than that prescribe! b law. nor
with an other circ#mstances or inci!ents than those e%pressl a#thori8e!
thereb1
)n a!!ition to the provisions of the law. the special reg#lations prescribe! for the
government of the instit#tions in which the penalties are to be s#ffere! shall be
observe! with regar! to the character of the wor3 to be performe!. the time of its
performance. an! other inci!ents connecte! therewith. the relations of the
convicts among themselves an! other persons. the relief which the ma receive.
an! their !iet1
The reg#lations shall ma3e provision for the separation of the se%es in !ifferent
instit#tions. or at least into !ifferent !epartments an! also for the correction an!
reform of the convicts1
0nl$ penalt$ b$ final 'udgment can be executed. Dudgment is final if the accused has
not appealed within 15 da$s or he has expressl$ waived in writing that he will not
appeal.
#here could be no subsidiar$ liabilit$ if it was not expressl$ ordered in the 'udgment
'rt1 ?51 (#spension of the e%ec#tion an! service of the penalties in case of
insanit1 F ,hen a convict shall become insane or an imbecile after final
sentence has been prono#nce!. the e%ec#tion of sai! sentence shall be
s#spen!e! onl with regar! to the personal penalt. the provisions of the secon!
paragraph of circ#mstance n#mber 2 of article 27 being observe! in the
correspon!ing cases1
)f at an time the convict shall recover his reason. his sentence shall be e%ec#te!.
#nless the penalt shall have prescribe! in accor!ance with the provisions of this
Co!e1
The respective provisions of this section shall also be observe! if the insanit or
imbecilit occ#rs while the convict is serving his sentence
-ases of insanit$%
a+ after final sentence, suspend the sentence regarding the personal penalties
b+ if he recovers, the sentence is executed unless it has prescribed
c+ the pa$ment of civil of pecuniar$ liabilities shall not be suspended
Art <A *as amended b$ !? ;A3% -hild and Iouth 1elfare -ode+
a+ $outhful offender over > but under 1< at time of the commission of the offense
b+ a $outhful offender held for examination or trial who cannot furnish bail will be
committed to the ?.1?Elocal rehab center or detention home
=>
c+ 'udgment of the court shall not be pronounced but suspended except for the ff
cases%
1. those who previousl$ en'o$ed a suspension of sentence
2. those convicted of death or life imprisonment
3. those convicted for an offense b$ the militar$ tribunals
d+ the ?.1? ma$ dismiss the case if the $outh behaves properl$
e+ the records of the proceeding shall be privileged and shall not be disclosed
f+ the civil liabilit$ of the $outhful offender ma$ be voluntar$ assumed b$ a relative
or a friend
g+ the parent or guardian of the child is liable when he aids, abets or connives wE
the commission of the crime or does an act producing, promoting or contributing
to the child@s being a 'uvenile delin(uent.
h+ #he penalties for the parent or guardian% :ine not exceeding 5AA andEor
imprisonment not exceeding 2 $ears
'rt1 @21 ,hen an! how the !eath penalt is to be e%ec#te!1 F The !eath
sentence shall be e%ec#te! with reference to an other an! shall consist in p#tting
the person #n!er sentence to !eath b electroc#tion1 The !eath sentence shall be
e%ec#te! #n!er the a#thorit of the -irector of Prisons. en!eavoring so far as
possible to mitigate the s#fferings of the person #n!er sentence !#ring
electroc#tion as well as !#ring the procee!ings prior to the e%ec#tion1
)f the person #n!er sentence so !esires. he shall be anaestheti8e! at the moment
of the electroc#tion1
'rt1 @71 Notification an! e%ec#tion of the sentence an! assistance to the
c#lprit1 F The co#rt shall !esignate a wor3ing !a for the e%ec#tion b#t not the
ho#r thereof: an! s#ch !esignation shall not be comm#nicate! to the offen!er
before s#nrise of sai! !a. an! the e%ec#tion shall not ta3e place #ntil after the
e%piration of at least eight ho#rs following the notification. b#t before s#nset1
-#ring the interval between the notification an! the e%ec#tion. the c#lprit shall. in
so far as possible. be f#rnishe! s#ch assistance as he ma re"#est in or!er to be
atten!e! in his last moments b priests or ministers of the religion he professes
an! to cons#lt lawers. as well as in or!er to ma3e a will an! confer with members
of his famil or persons in charge of the management of his b#siness. of the
a!ministration of his propert. or of the care of his !escen!ants1
?esignate a working da$ wEc shall not be communicated to the offender before the
sunrise of said da$. #he execution shall not take place until after the expiration of at
least < hrs following such notification.
7e can execute a will.
'rt1 @61 (#spension of the e%ec#tion of the !eath sentence1 F The !eath
sentence shall not be inflicte! #pon a woman within the three ears ne%t following
the !ate of the sentence or while she is pregnant. nor #pon an person over
sevent ears of age1 )n this last case. the !eath sentence shall be comm#te! to
the penalt of recl#sion perpet#a with the accessor penalties provi!e! in 'rticle
;B1
?eath sentence commuted to ,!%
a+ woman, within 3 $ears, following the date of sentence
b+ woman, while pregnant
c+ person over =A $ears old.
<A
'rt1 @;1 Place of e%ec#tion an! persons who ma witness the same1 F The
e%ec#tion shall ta3e place in the penitentiar of &ilibi! in a space close! to the
p#blic view an! shall be witnesse! onl b the priests assisting the offen!er an!
b his lawers. an! b his relatives. not e%cee!ing si%. if he so re"#est. b the
phsician an! the necessar personnel of the penal establishment. an! b s#ch
persons as the -irector of Prisons ma a#thori8e1
'rt1 @<1 Provisions relative to the corpse of the person e%ec#te! an! its
b#rial1 F /nless claime! b his famil. the corpse of the c#lprit shall. #pon the
completion of the legal procee!ings s#bse"#ent to the e%ec#tion. be t#rne! over
to the instit#te of learning or scientific research first appling for it. for the
p#rpose of st#! an! investigation. provi!e! that s#ch instit#te shall ta3e charge
of the !ecent b#rial of the remains1 Otherwise. the -irector of Prisons shall or!er
the b#rial of the bo! of the c#lprit at government e%pense. granting permission
to be present thereat to the members of the famil of the c#lprit an! the frien!s of
the latter1 )n no case shall the b#rial of the bo! of a person sentence! to !eath be
hel! with pomp1
'rt1 @>1 +ecl#sion perpet#a. recl#sion temporal. prision maor. prision
correccional an! arresto maor1 F The penalties of recl#sion perpet#a. recl#sion
temporal. prision maor. prision correccional an! arresto maor. shall be
e%ec#te! an! serve! in the places an! penal establishments provi!e! b the
'!ministrative Co!e in force or which ma be provi!e! b law in the f#t#re1
'rt1 @?1 -estierro1 F 'n person sentence! to !estierro shall not be
permitte! to enter the place or places !esignate! in the sentence. nor within the
ra!i#s therein specifie!. which shall be not more than 7<B an! not less than 7<
3ilometers from the place !esignate!1
?estierro shall be imposed in the ff cases%
a+ death or serious ph$sical in'uries is caused or are inflicted under exceptional
circumstance
b+ person fails to give bond for god behavior
c+ concubine@s penalt$ for the crime of concubinage
d+ lowering the penalt$ b$ degrees
2xecution of ?istierro
a+ -onvict shall not be permitted to enter the place designated in the sentence nor
within the radius specified, which shall not be more than 25A and not less than 25
km from the place designated.
b+ &f the convict enters the prohibited area, he commits evasion of sentence
'rt1 @@1 'rresto menor1 F The penalt of arresto menor shall be serve! in
the m#nicipal 9ail. or in the ho#se of the !efen!ant himself #n!er the s#rveillance
of an officer of the law. when the co#rt so provi!es in its !ecision. ta3ing into
consi!eration the health of the offen!er an! other reasons which ma seem
satisfactor to it1
<1
.erved where%
&n the municipal 'ail
&n the house of the offender, but under the surveillance of an officer of the law
whenever the court so provides in the decision due to the health of the offender. )ut
the reason is not satisfactor$ 'ust because the offender is a respectable member of
the communit$
'rt1 @51 0ow criminal liabilit is totall e%ting#ishe!1 F Criminal liabilit is
totall e%ting#ishe!:
(2) & the !eath of the convict. as to the personal penalties an! as to pec#niar
penalties. liabilit therefor is e%ting#ishe! onl when the !eath of the offen!er
occ#rs before final 9#!gment1
2xtinguishment of criminal liabilit$ is a ground of motion to (uash
-riminal liabilit$ whether before or after final 'udgment is extinguished upon death
because it is a personal penalt$
!ecuniar$ penalt$ is extinguished onl$ when death occurs before final 'udgement.
#he death of the offended part$ however does not extinguish criminal liabilit$ of the
accused because it is a crime against the state.
(7) & service of the sentence
-rime is a debt, hence extinguished upon pa$ment
.ervice does not extinguish civil liabilit$
Amnest$ is an act of the sovereign power granting oblivion or general pardon. &t
wipes all traces and vestiges of the crime but does not extinguish civil liabilit$.
(6) & absol#te par!on
!ardon an act of grace proceeding from the power entrusted wE the execution of
laws, which exempts the individual from the punishment the law inflicts for the crime.
AM"2.#I !A,?0"
2xtended to classes of persons who ma$ be
guilt$ of political offenses
2xercised individuall$ b$ the president
2xercised even before trial or investigation 2xercised when one is convicted
/ooks backward and abolishes the offense
itself
/ooks forward and relieves the offender of the
conse(uences
?oes not extinguish civil liabilit$ .ame
A public act that needs the declaration of the
president with the concurrence of -ongress
A private act of the president
-ourts should take 'udicial notice Must be pleaded and proved
(;) & prescription of the crime
1hen the crime prescribes, the state loses the right to prosecute
!rescription of a crime is the lossEforfeiture of the right of the state to prosecute the
offender after the lapse of a certain time.
(<) & prescription of the penalt
means the lossEforfeiture of the right of government to execute the final sentence
after the lapse of a certain time. -onditions% there must be final 'udgement and the
period has elapsed.
(>) & the marriage of the offen!e! woman. as provi!e! in 'rt 6;; of this Co!e
<2
'rt1 5B1 Prescription of crime1 F Crimes p#nishable b !eath. recl#sion
perpet#a or recl#sion temporal shall prescribe in twent ears1
Crimes p#nishable b other afflictive penalties shall prescribe in fifteen ears1
Those p#nishable b a correctional penalt shall prescribe in ten ears: with the
e%ception of those p#nishable b arresto maor. which shall prescribe in five
ears1
The crime of libel or other similar offenses shall prescribe in one ear1
The crime of oral !efamation an! slan!er b !ee! shall prescribe in si% months1
Light offenses prescribe in two months1
,hen the penalt fi%e! b law is a compo#n! one. the highest penalt shall be
ma!e the basis of the application of the r#les containe! in the first. secon! an!
thir! paragraphs of this article1 ('s amen!e! b +' ;>>2. approve! 4#ne 25.
25>>1)
&n computing for the period, the first da$ is excluded and the last da$ included.
.ub'ect to leap $ears
1hen the last da$ of the prescriptive period falls on a .unda$ or a legal holida$, the
info can no longer be filed the ff da$
.imple slander prescribes in 2 months and grave slander in ; months
.ince destierro is a correctional penalt$, it prescribes in 1A $ears. Afflictive penalties,
15 $ears.
&f compound penalt$, basis will be the highest penalt$
&f fine is an alternative penalt$ *imposed together wE a penalt$ lower than the fine+,
fine shall be the basis
!rescription begins to run from the discover$ thereof. &nterrupted when proceedings
are instituted and shall begin to run again when the proceedings are dismissed.
&f an accused fails to move to (uash before pleading, he is deemed to have waived
all ob'ections.
!rescription does not take awa$ the court@s 'urisdiction but onl$ absolves the
defendant and ac(uits him.
'rt1 521 Comp#tation of prescription of offenses1 F The perio! of
prescription shall commence to r#n from the !a on which the crime is !iscovere!
b the offen!e! part. the a#thorities. or their agents. an! shall be interr#pte! b
the filing of the complaint or information. an! shall commence to r#n again when
s#ch procee!ings terminate witho#t the acc#se! being convicte! or ac"#itte!. or
are #n9#stifiabl stoppe! for an reason not imp#table to him1
The term of prescription shall not r#n when the offen!er is absent from the
Philippine 'rchipelago1
&f there is nothing concealed *appears in a public document+, the crime commences
to run on the date of the commission
!eriod of prescription for crimes that is continuing never runs
-rime needs to be discovered b$%
a+ offended part$
b+ authorities
c+ their agents
&f a person witnesses the crime but onl$ tells the authorities 25 $ears later,
prescription commences on the da$ the authorities were told.
5hat interrupts prescription9
a+ preliminar$ examination or investigation wEc is similar to 'udicial proceeding
b+ filing the proper complaint wE the fiscal@s office and the prosecutor. !olice not
included.
c+ :iling complaint with the court that has proper 'urisdiction
<3
1hen the period commences to run again
a+ 1hen the proceeding is terminated without the accused being convicted or
ac(uitted
b+ 1hen the proceeding is un'ustifiabl$ stopped for a reason not imputable to the
offender
Kwhen such proceedings terminate6 termination that is final3 an unappealed
conviction or ac(uittal
Kun'ustifiabl$ stopped for an$ reason6 example% accused evades arrest,
proceedings must be stopped
Art >1 applies to a special law when said law does not provide for the application but
onl$ provides for the period of prescription
'rt1 571 ,hen an! how penalties prescribe1 F The penalties impose! b
final sentence prescribe as follows:
21 -eath an! recl#sion perpet#a. in twent ears:
71 Other afflictive penalties. in fifteen ears:
61 Correctional penalties. in ten ears: with the e%ception of the penalt of
arresto maor. which prescribes in five ears:
;1 Light penalties. in one ear1
"ote that final sentence must be imposed
&f a convict can avail of mitigating circumstances and the penalt$ is lowered, it is still
the original penalt$ that is used as the basis for prescription. 7owever, if the convict
alread$ serves a portion of his sentence and escapes after, the penalt$ that was
imposed *not the original+ shall be the basis for prescription
:ines less than 2AA fall under light penalt$. #hose above are correccional.
'rt1 561 Comp#tation of the prescription of penalties1 F The perio! of
prescription of penalties shall commence to r#n from the !ate when the c#lprit
sho#l! eva!e the service of his sentence. an! it shall be interr#pte! if the
!efen!ant sho#l! give himself #p. be capt#re!. sho#l! go to some foreign co#ntr
with which this Government has no e%tra!ition treat. or sho#l! commit another
crime before the e%piration of the perio! of prescription1
2lements%
a+ penalt$ is final
b+ convict evaded the sentence
c+ convict has not given himself up
d+ penalt$ has prescribed because of lapse of time from the date of the evasion of
the service of the sentence
&nterruption of the period
&f the defendant surrenders
&f he is captured
&f he should go into a foreign countr$ with which the !hilippines has no
extradition treat$
&f he should commit another crime before the expiration of the period of
prescription
Acceptance of a conditional pardon*People v. Puntilos,
&f a government has an extradition treat$ wE the countr$ to wEc a convict escaped and
the crime is not included in the treat$, the running of the prescription is interrupted
.entence evasion clearl$ starts the running of the prescription. &t does not interrupt it.
Acceptance of the conditional pardon interrupts the prescriptive period.
,olito Co case% since he was captured, he is onl$ supposed to serve the remainder
of his sentence. ,eason% during the period he escaped, his existence is one of fear
and discomfort
<4
'rt1 5;1 Partial E%tinction of criminal liabilit1 F Criminal liabilit is
e%ting#ishe! partiall:
21 & con!itional par!on:
71 & comm#tation of the sentence: an!
61 =or goo! con!#ct allowances which the c#lprit ma earn while he is
serving his sentence1
Con!itional par!on contract between the sovereign power of the executive and the
convict
-onvict shall not violate an$ of the penal laws of the !hilippines
Liolation of conditions%
0ffender is re8arrested and re8incarcerated
!rosecution under Art. 15>
Comm#tation change in the decision of the court b$ the chief regarding the
*1+ degree of the penalt$3
*2+ b$ decreasing the length of the imprisonment or fine
-ommutation allowed when%
a+ person over =A $rs old
b+ 1A 'ustices fail to reach a decision affirming the death penalt$
-onsent not necessar$ in commutation
!risoner is also allowed special time allowance for lo$alt$ wEc is 1E5 deduction of
the period of his sentence.
Parole consists in the suspension of the sentence of a convict after serving the
minimum term of the indeterminate penalt$, without granting pardon, prescribing the
terms upon which the sentence shall be suspended. &n case his parole conditions are
not observed, a convict ma$ be returned to the custod$ and continue to serve his
sentence without deducting the time that elapsed.
-0"?&#&0"A/ !A,?0" !A,0/2
Civen after final 'udgement Civen after service of the minimum penalt$
Cranted b$ -hief 2xecutive Civen b$ the )d of !ardons and !arole
:or violation, convict ma$ not be prosecuted
under 15>
:or violations, ma$ be rearrested, convict
serves remaining sentence
@ood conduct allowance during confinement
?eduction for the term of sentence for good behavior
'rt1 5<1 Obligation inc#rre! b person grante! con!itional
par!on1 F 'n person who has been grante! con!itional par!on shall inc#r the
obligation of compling strictl with the con!itions impose! therein otherwise. his
nonAcompliance with an of the con!itions specifie! shall res#lt in the revocation
of the par!on an! the provisions of 'rticle 2<5 shall be applie! to him1
-ondition of pardon is limited to unserved portion of the sentence, unless an
intention to extend it be$ond the time is manifest
<5
'rt1 5>1 Effect of comm#tation of sentence1 F The comm#tation of the
original sentence for another of a !ifferent length an! nat#re shall have the legal
effect of s#bstit#ting the latter in the place of the former1
'rt1 5?1 'llowance for goo! con!#ct1 F The goo! con!#ct of an prisoner in
an penal instit#tion shall entitle him to the following !e!#ctions from the perio!
of his sentence:
21 -#ring the first two ears of his imprisonment. he shall be allowe! a
!e!#ction of five !as for each month of goo! behavior:
71 -#ring the thir! to the fifth ear. incl#sive. of his imprisonment. he shall be
allowe! a !e!#ction of eight !as for each month of goo! behavior:
61 -#ring the following ears #ntil the tenth ear. incl#sive. of his
imprisonment. he shall be allowe! a !e!#ction of ten !as for each month of goo!
behavior: an!
;1 -#ring the eleventh an! s#ccessive ears of his imprisonment. he shall be
allowe! a !e!#ction of fifteen !as for each month of goo! behavior1
Allowance for good conduct not applicable when prisoner released under conditional
pardon.
Cood conduct time allowance is given in consideration of good conduct of prisoner
while he is serving sentence.
Allowances for Cood conduct per $ear
Iears Allowance
:irst 2 $ears 5 da$s per month of good behavior
3
rd
to 5
th
$ears < da$s per month of good behavior
:ollowing $ears up to 1A
th
$ear 1A da$s per month of good behavior
11
th
$ear and successive $ears 15 da$s per month of good behavior
'rt1 5@1 (pecial time allowance for loalt1 F ' !e!#ction of oneAfifth of the
perio! of his sentence shall be grante! to an prisoner who. having eva!e! the
service of his sentence #n!er the circ#mstances mentione! in article <@ of this
Co!e. gives himself #p to the a#thorities within ;@ ho#rs following the iss#ance of
a proclamation anno#ncing the passing awa of the calamit or catastrophe to in
sai! article1
.pecial time allowance for lo$alt$ of prisoners%
#he article applies onl$ to prisoners who escaped
deduction of 1E5 of the period of sentence of prisoner who having evaded the
service of his sentence during the calamit$ or catastrophe mentioned in Art 15<,
gives himself up to the authorities wEin 4< hrs ff the issuance of the proclamation
b$ the !resident announcing the passing awa$ of the calamit$ or catastrophe
deduction based on the original sentence and not on the unexpired portion
Art 15< provides for increased penalties%
8 a convict who has evaded the service of his sentence b$ leaving the penal
institution on the occasion of disorder resulting from conflagration, earth(uake or
similar catastrophe or during mutin$ in which he did not participate is liable to an
increased penalt$ *1E5 of the time still remaining to be served not to exceed ;
months+, if he fails to give himself up to the authorities wEin 4< hrs ff the issuance of a
proclamation b$ the !resident announcing the passing awa$ of the calamit$.
<;
'rt1 551 ,ho grants time allowances1 F ,henever lawf#ll 9#stifie!. the
-irector of Prisons shall grant allowances for goo! con!#ct1 (#ch allowances
once grante! shall not be revo3e!1
a+ authorit$ to grant time allowance for good conduct is exclusivel$ vested in the ?ir
*e.g. provincial warden cannot usurp ?irector@s authorit$+
b+ it is not an automatic right and once granted, cannot be revoked b$ him
C)D)L L)'&)L)TC
2 classes%
a+ social in'ur$ produced b$ disturbance and alarm wEc are the outcome of the offense
b+ personal in'ur$ caused b$ the victim who ma$ have suffered damage, either to his
person, propert$, honor or chastit$
'rt1 2BB1 Civil liabilit of a person g#ilt of felon1 F Ever person criminall
liable for a felon is also civill liable1
&asis:
obligation to repair or to make whole the damage caused to another b$ reason of an act
or omission, whether done intentionall$ or negligentl$ and whether or not punishable b$
law
-#al character of the crime as against:
a+ the state because of the disturbance of peace and order
b+ the private person in'ured unless it involves the crime of treason, rebellion,
espionage, contempt and others where no civil liabilit$ arises on the part of
the offender either because there are no damages or there is no private
person in'ured b$ the crime
-amage that ma be recovere! in criminal cases:
-rimes against persons, like crime of ph$sical in'uries whatever he spent for
treatment of wounds, doctor@s fees, medicines as well as salar$ or wages unearned
Moral ?amages% seduction, abduction, rape or other lascivious acts, adulter$ or
concubinage, illegal or arbitrar$ detention or arrest, illegal search, libel, slander or
an$ other form of defamation, malicious prosecution
2xemplar$ ?amages% imposed when crime was committed with one or more
aggravating circumstances
a+ &f there is no damage caused b$ the commission of the crime, offender is not civill$
liable
b+ ?ismissal of the info or the crime action does not affect the right of the offended part$
to institute or continue the civil action alread$ instituted arising from the offense,
because such dismissal does not carr$ with it the extinction of the civil one.
c+ 1hen accused is ac(uitted on ground that his guilt has not been proven be$ond
reasonable doubt, a civil action for damages for the same act or omission ma$ be
instituted
d+ 2xemption from criminal liabilit$ in favor of an imbecile or insane person, and a
person under > $rs, or over > but under 15 who acted wE discernment and those
acting under the impulse of irresistible force or under the impulse of an uncontrolable
fear of an e(ual or greater in'ur$ does not include exemption from civil liabilit$.
e+ Ac(uittal in the crim action for negligence does not preclude the offended part$ from
filing a civil action to recover damages, based on the theor$ that the act is (uasi8
delict
f+ 1hen the court found the accused guilt$ of crim negligence but failed to enter
'udgement of civil liabilit$, the private prosecutor has a right to appeal for the
purposes of the civil liabilit$ of the accused. #he appellate court ma$ remand the
case to the trial court for the latter to include in its 'udgement the civil liabilit$ of the
accused
<=
g+ )efore expiration of the 158da$ of for appealing, the trial court can amend the
'udgement of conviction b$ adding a provision for the civil liabilit$ of the accused,
even if the convict has started serving the sentence.
h+ An independent civil action ma$ be brought b$ the in'ured part$ during the pendenc$
of the criminal case provided the right is reserved. ,eservation is necessar$ in the ff
cases%
1. an$ of the cases referred to in Art 32 *perpetual or temporar$
dis(ualification for exercise of the right of suffrage+
2. defamation, fraud and ph$sical in'ur$ *bodil$ in'ur$ and not the crime of
ph$sical in'ur$+
3. civil action is against a member of a cit$ or municipal police force for
refusing or failing to render aid or protection to an$ person in case of
danger to life or propert$
4. in an action for damage arising from fault or negligence and there is no
pre8existing contractual relation between the parties *(uasi8delict+
i+ !re'udicial Juestion one wEc arises in a case, the resolution of which is a logical
antecedent of the issue involved in said case and the cogni4ance of which pertains
to another tribunal.
:or the principle to appl$, it is essential that there be 2 cases involved, a civil and a
criminal case. !re'udicial (uestions ma$ be decided before an$ criminal prosecution
ma$ be instituted or ma$ proceed.
An independent civil action ma$ be brought b$ the in'ured part$ during the pendenc$
of the criminal case, provided that the right is reserved
2xtinction of the penal action does not carr$ with it the extinction of the civil, unless
the extinction proceeds from a declaration in a final 'udgement that the fact from
which the civil might arise did not exist
'rt1 2B21 +#les regar!ing civil liabilit in certain cases1 F The e%emption
from criminal liabilit establishe! in s#b!ivisions 2. 7. 6. < an! > of article 27 an!
in s#b!ivision ; of article 22 of this Co!e !oes not incl#!e e%emption from civil
liabilit. which shall be enforce! s#b9ect to the following r#les:
=irst1 )n cases of s#b!ivisions 2. 7. an! 6 of 'rticle 27. the civil liabilit for acts
committe! b an imbecile or insane person. an! b a person #n!er nine ears of
age. or b one over nine b#t #n!er fifteen ears of age. who has acte! witho#t
!iscernment. shall !evolve #pon those having s#ch person #n!er their legal
a#thorit or control. #nless it appears that there was no fa#lt or negligence on
their part1
(ho#l! there be no person having s#ch insane. imbecile or minor #n!er his
a#thorit. legal g#ar!ianship or control. or if s#ch person be insolvent. sai!
insane. imbecile. or minor shall respon! with their own propert. e%cepting
propert e%empt from e%ec#tion. in accor!ance with the civil law1
(econ!1 )n cases falling within s#b!ivision ; of 'rticle 22. the persons for whose
benefit the harm has been prevente! shall be civill liable in proportion to the
benefit which the ma have receive!1
The co#rts shall !etermine. in so#n! !iscretion. the proportionate amo#nt for
which each one shall be liable1
,hen the respective shares cannot be e"#itabl !etermine!. even appro%imatel.
or when the liabilit also attaches to the Government. or to the ma9orit of the
inhabitants of the town. an!. in all events. whenever the !amages have been
ca#se! with the consent of the a#thorities or their agents. in!emnification shall be
ma!e in the manner prescribe! b special laws or reg#lations1
Thir!1 )n cases falling within s#b!ivisions < an! > of 'rticle 27. the persons #sing
violence or ca#sing the fears shall be primaril liable an! secon!aril. or. if there
be no s#ch persons. those !oing the act shall be liable. saving alwas to the latter
that part of their propert e%empt from e%ec#tion1
Ceneral ,ule% exemption from criminal liabilit$ does not include exemption from civil
liabilit$
2xception% no civil liabilit$ in par 4 and =of art 12. !ar 1,2,3,5 and ; are "0# exempt
from civil liabilit$ although exempt from criminal liabilit$
<<
1ho are civill$ liable for%
a. acts of insane or minor exempt from criminal liabilit$
1. primaril$ devolve upon perosns having legal authorit$ or control over him,
if at fault or negligent *except if proven that the$ acted wEo fault or wE due
diligence+
2. if no fault or negligence, or even wE fault but is insolvent and there are no
persons having legal authorit$ over them, the propert$ of the insane,
minor or imbecile not exempt from execution shall be held liable.
b. over 15 but under 1< w. discernment
1. civil code sa$s parent *dad then mom+U
2. guardians
3. minors own propert$ where a guardian ad litem shall be appointed
Hfinal release of a child based on good conduct does not remove his civil
liabilit$ for damages.
c. persons acting under an irresistible force or uncontrollable fear
1. persons using violence or causing the fear are primaril$ liable
2. if there are none, those doing the act
d. no civil liabilit$ in 'ustif$ing circumstances 2B-2!#% par 4 of Art 11, the one
benefited b$ the act is civill$ liable.
e. civil liabilit$ in case of state of necessit$
#hose who benefited b$ the act and court shall determine the
proportionate amount for which each shall be liable. &f the government or
ma'orit$ of the inhabitants are liable, such will be determined b$ special laws
or regulations.
'rt1 2B71 (#bsi!iar civil liabilit of inn3eepers. tavern3eepers an!
proprietors of establishments1 F )n !efa#lt of the persons criminall liable.
inn3eepers. tavern3eepers. an! an other persons or corporations shall be civill
liable for crimes committe! in their establishments. in all cases where a violation
of m#nicipal or!inances or some general or special police reg#lation shall have
been committe! b them or their emploees1
)nn3eepers are also s#bsi!iaril liable for the restit#tion of goo!s ta3en b
robber or theft within their ho#ses from g#ests lo!ging therein. or for the
pament of the val#e thereof. provi!e! that s#ch g#ests shall have notifie! in
a!vance the inn3eeper himself. or the person representing him. of the !eposit of
s#ch goo!s within the inn: an! shall f#rthermore have followe! the !irections
which s#ch inn3eeper or his representative ma have given them with respect to
the care an! vigilance over s#ch goo!s1 No liabilit shall attach in case of robber
with violence against or intimi!ation of persons #nless committe! b the
inn3eeperGs emploees1
Elements of Par +)
1. #hat the innkeeper of the establishment or his emplo$ee
committed a violation of municipal ordinance or some general or special police
regulation
2. A crime is committed in such establishment
3. !erson criminall$ liable is insolvent
when all these are present, the innkeeper and the like are subsidiaril$ liable
<>
Elements of Par -)
1. guests notified in advance the innkeeper of the deposit of such goods
wEin the inn
2. guests followed the directions of the innkeeper wE respect to the care and
vigilance over the such goods
3. such goods of the guest lodging therein were taken b$ robber$ wE force upon
things or theft
1hen all these are present, the innkeeper is subsidiaril$ liable
"o civil liabilit$ in case of robber$ wE violence against or intimidation of person,
unless committed b$ the innkeeper@s emplo$ees
Actual deposit of the things of the guest to the innkeeper is not necessar$, it is
enough that the$ were within the inn.
'rt1 2B61 (#bsi!iar civil liabilit of other persons1 F The s#bsi!iar liabilit
establishe! in the ne%t
prece!ing article shall also appl to emploers. teachers. persons. an!
corporations engage! in an 3in! of in!#str for felonies committe! b their
servants. p#pils. wor3men. apprentices. or emploees in the !ischarge of their
!#ties1
2lements
a. emplo$er, teacher, person or corporation is engaged in an$ kind of industr$
&ndustr$ an$ department or branch of art, occupation or business3 especiall$
one wEc emplo$s so much labor and capital is a distinct branch of trade
b. an$ of their servants, pupils, workmen, apprentices of emplo$ees commits a felon$
while in the discharge of his duties
c. the said emplo$ee is insolvent and has not satisfied his civil liabilit$
7ospitals are not engaged in industr$3 hence nit subsidiaril$ liable for acts of nurses
!rivate persons wEo business or industr$, not subsidiarill$ liable
'rt1 2B;1 ,hat is incl#!e! in civil liabilit1 F The civil liabilit establishe! in
'rticles 2BB. 2B2. 2B7. an! 2B6 of this Co!e incl#!es:
21 +estit#tion:
71 +eparation of the !amage ca#se!:
61 )n!emnification for conse"#ential !amages1
:irst remed$ granted b$ law is no. 1, in case this is not possible no. 2.
&n either case, no. 3 ma$ be re(uired
,estitution in theft, the culprit is dut$ bound to return the propert$ stolen
,eparation in case of inabilit$ to return the propert$ stolen, the culprit must pa$ the
value of the propert$ stolen.
&n case of ph$sical in'uries, the reparation of the damage cause would consist in the
pa$ment of hospital bills and doctor@s fees to the offended part$
&ndemnification the lost of salar$ or earnings
-&L&/ /&A)&/&#&2. !2-F"&A,I /&A)&/&#&2.
&ncludes reparation and indemnification .ame
&ncludes restitution *return propert$ taken+,
nothing to pa$ in terms of mone$
"o restitution as the liabilities are to paid out of
the propert$ of the offender
"o fines and costs of proceedings &ncludes fines and costs of proceedings
>A
'rt1 2B<1 +estit#tion1 F 0ow ma!e1 F The restit#tion of the thing itself m#st
be ma!e whenever possible. with allowance for an !eterioration. or !imin#tion of
val#e as !etermine! b the co#rt1
The thing itself shall be restore!. even tho#gh it be fo#n! in the possession of a
thir! person who has ac"#ire! it b lawf#l means. saving to the latter his action
against the proper person. who ma be liable to him1
This provision is not applicable in cases in which the thing has been ac"#ire! b
the thir! person in the manner an! #n!er the re"#irements which. b law. bar an
action for its recover1
#he convict cannot b$ wa$ of restitution, give to the offended part$ a similar thing of
the same amount, kind or species and (ualit$. #he ver$ thing should be returned.
&f the propert$ stolen while in the possession of the third part$ suffers deterioration
due to his fault, the court will assess the amount of the deterioration and, in addition
to the return of the propert$, the culprit will be ordered to pa$ such amount
Ceneral ,ule% the owner of the propert$ illegall$ taken b$ the offender can recover it
from whomsoever is in possession thereof. #hus, even if the propert$ stolen was
ac(uired b$ a 3
rd
person b$ purchase wEo knowing that it has been stolen, such
propert$ will be returned to the owner.
&f the thing is ac(uired b$ a person knowing that it was stolen, then he is an
accessor$ and therefore criminall$ liable
#he third part$ who ac(uired the stolen propert$ ma$ be reimbursed wE the price paid
therefor if it be ac(uired at *a+ a public sale and *b+ in good faith
-ircumstances which bar an action for recover$%
1. #orrens title
2. 1hen sale is authori4ed
1hen the liabilit$ to return a thing arises from a contract, not from a criminal act, the
court cannot order its return in the criminal case.
,estitution ma$ be ordered, even if accused is ac(uitted, provided the offense is
proved and it is shown that the thing belongs to someone else
1hen crime is not against propert$, no restitution or reparation of the thing can be
done
!a$ment of salar$ of an emplo$ee during the period of suspension cannot, as a
general rule, be properl$ decreed b$ the court in a 'udgement of ac(uittal. &t devolves
upon the head of the department concerned
#he court has authorit$ to order the reinstatement of the accused ac(uitted of a
crime punishable b$ the penalt$ of perpetual or temporar$ dis(ualification
'rt1 2B>1 +eparation1 F 0ow ma!e1 F The co#rt shall !etermine the amo#nt
of !amage. ta3ing into consi!eration the price of the thing. whenever possible.
an! its special sentimental val#e to the in9#re! part. an! reparation shall be ma!e
accor!ingl1
Notes:
,eparation will be ordered b$ the court if restitution is not possible
,eparation shall be
a+ the price of the thing
b+ its sentimental value
&f there is no evidence as to the value of the thing unrecovered, reparation cannot be
made
!a$ment b$ the insurance compan$ does not relive the offender of his obligation to
repair the damage caused
#he damages shall be limited to those caused b$ the crime
Accused is liable for the damages caused as a result of the destruction of the
propert$ after the crime was committed either because it was lost or destro$ed b$ the
accused himself or that of an$ other person or as a result of an$ other cause or
causes
>1
'rt1 2B?1 )n!emnification F ,hat is incl#!e!1 F )n!emnification for
conse"#ential !amages shall incl#!e not onl those ca#se! the in9#re! part. b#t
also those s#ffere! b his famil or b a thir! person b reason of the crime1
&ndemnit$ refers to crimes against persons3 reparation to crimes against propert$
&ndemnit$ for medical services still unpaid ma$ be recovered
-ontributor$ negligence on the part of the offended part$ reduces the civil liabilit$ of
the offender
#he civil liabilit$ ma$ be increased onl$ if it will not re(uired an aggravation of the
decision in the criminal case on wEc it is based
#he amount of damages for death shall be at least 5A,AAA, even though there ma$
have been mitigating circumstances.
&n addition%
1. pa$ment for the loss of the earning
capacit$ of the deceased
2. if the deceased was obliged to give
support, the recipient who is not an heir, ma$ demand support from the
defendant
3. the spouse, illegitimate and
illegitimate descendants and ascendants of the deceased ma$ demand for
moral damages.
Moral damages ma$ be recovered in the ff%
1. ph$sical in'uries
2. seduction, abduction, rape
3. adulter$, concubinage
4. illegal or arbitrar$ detention
5. illegal search
;. libel, slander, defamation
=. malicious prosecution
2xemplar$ damages ma$ be imposed when the crime was committed with one or
more aggravating circumstances3 cannot be recovered as a matter of right, the court
will decide whether the$ should be ad'udicated.
'rt1 2B@1 Obligation to ma3e restoration. reparation for !amages. or
in!emnification for conse"#ential !amages an! actions to !eman! the same F
/pon whom it !evolves1 F The obligation to ma3e restoration or reparation for
!amages an! in!emnification for conse"#ential !amages !evolves #pon the heirs
of the person liable1
The action to !eman! restoration. reparation. an! in!emnification li3ewise
!escen!s to the heirs of the person in9#re!1
#he heirs of the person liable has no obligation if restoration is not possible and the
deceased left no propert$
-ivil liabilit$ is possible onl$ when the offender dies after final 'udgement.
&f the death of the offender took place before an$ final 'udgement of conviction was
rendered against him, the action for restitution must necessaril$ be dismissed.
'rt1 2B51 (hare of each person civill liable1 F )f there are two or more
persons civill liable for a felon. the co#rts shall !etermine the amo#nt for which
each m#st respon!1
&n case of insolvenc$ of the accomplices, the principal shall be subsidiaril$ liable for their
share of the indemnit$ and in case of the insolvenc$ of the principal, the accomplices
shall be subsidiaril$ liable, 'ointl$ and severall$ liable, for the indemnit$ due from said
principal
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'rt1 22B1 (everal an! s#bsi!iar liabilit of principals. accomplices an!
accessories of a felon F Preference in pament1 F Notwithstan!ing the
provisions of the ne%t prece!ing article. the principals. accomplices. an!
accessories. each within their respective class. shall be liable severall (in
soli!#m) among themselves for their "#otas. an! s#bsi!iaries for those of the
other persons liable1
The s#bsi!iar liabilit shall be enforce!. first against the propert of the
principals: ne%t. against that of the accomplices. an!. lastl. against that of the
accessories1
,henever the liabilit in soli!#m or the s#bsi!iar liabilit has been enforce!. the
person b whom pament has been ma!e shall have a right of action against the
others for the amo#nt of their respective shares1
2xample% an indemnit$ of 1AA,AAA has been sentenced, 5A,AAA will go to the
principal and 2A,AAA to the accomplice
.ubsidiar$ liabilit$ will be enforced on%
1. first, against the propert$ of the principal
2. second, against that of the accomplice
3. third, against that of the accessories
'rt1 2221 Obligation to ma3e restit#tion in certain cases1 F 'n person who
has participate! grat#ito#sl in the procee!s of a felon shall be bo#n! to ma3e
restit#tion in an amo#nt e"#ivalent to the e%tent of s#ch participation1
"otes%
1. #his refers to a person who has participated gratuitousl$ in the commission of a
felon$ and he is bound to make restitution in an amount e(uivalent to the extent of
such participation
2. #he third person must be innocent of the commission of the crime otherwise he
would be liable as an accessor$ and this article will appl$
'rt1 2271 E%tinction of civil liabilit1 F Civil liabilit establishe! in 'rticles 2BB.
2B2. 2B7. an! 2B6 of this Co!e shall be e%ting#ishe! in the same manner as
obligations. in accor!ance with the provisions of the Civil Law1
-ivil liabilit$ is extinguished b$%
1. pa$ment or performance
2. loss of the thing due
3. condonation or remission of the debt
4. confusion or merger of the rights of creditor and debtor
5. compensation
;. novation
0ther causes of extinguishment of obligations such as annulment, rescission,
fulfillment of a resolutor$ condition and prescription are governed elsewhere in this
code
-ivil liabilit$ ma$ arise from
1. -rime 8 ,!-
2. )reach of contract 8 --
3. #ortious act --
#he civil liabilit$ from an$ of these is extinguished b$ the same causes enumerated
above
#he accused shall still be liable for the pa$ment of the thing stolen even if it is lost or
destro$ed
'rt1 2261 Obligation to satisf civil liabilit1 F E%cept in case of e%tinction of
his civil liabilit as provi!e! in the ne%t prece!ing article the offen!er shall
contin#e to be oblige! to satisf the civil liabilit res#lting from the crime
>3
committe! b him. notwithstan!ing the fact that he has serve! his sentence
consisting of !eprivation of libert or other rights. or has not been re"#ire! to
serve the same b reason of
amnest. par!on. comm#tation of sentence or an other reason1
#otes)
Fnless extinguished, civil liabilit$ subsists even if the offender has served sentence
consisting of deprivation of libert$ or other rights or has served the same, due to
amnest$, pardon, commutation of the sentence or an$ other reason.
Fnder the law as amended, even if the subsidiar$ imprisonment is served for non8
pa$ment of fines, this pecuniar$ liabilit$ of the defendant is not extinguished.
while amnest$ wipes out all traces and vestiges of the crime, it does not extinguish
the civil liabilit$ of the offender. A pardon shall in no case exempt the culprit from the
pa$ment of the civil indemnit$ imposed upon him b$ the sentence
probation affects onl$ the criminal aspect of the crime.
>4

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