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www.elsevier.com/locate/enbuild

with building simulation

Gerson H. dos Santos, Nathan Mendes *

Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR/CCET, Thermal Systems Laboratory—LST, Rua Imaculada Conceição,

1155 Curitiba, PR 80215-901, Brazil

Received 10 February 2005; received in revised form 25 May 2005; accepted 22 June 2005

Abstract

In order to precisely predict ground heat transfer, room air temperature and humidity, a combined model has been developed and conceived

to calculate both the coupled heat and moisture transfer in soil and floor and the psychrometrics condition of indoor air. The present

methodology for the soil is based on the theory of Philip and De Vries, using variable thermophysical properties for different materials. The

governing equations were discretized using the finite-volume method and a three-dimensional model for describing the physical phenomena

of heat and mass transfer in unsaturated moist porous soils and floor. Additionally, a lumped transient approach for a building room and a

finite-volume multi-layer model for the building envelope have been developed to integrate with the soil model. Results are presented in terms

of temperature, humidity and heat flux at the interface between room air and the floor, showing the importance of the approach presented and

the model robustness for long-term simulations with a high time step.

# 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Coupled heat and moisture transfer; Soil simulation; Building hygrothermal performance

1. Introduction Actually, some studies have been carried out to model the

moisture storage and transport mechanisms and their effects

Since the 1970s, due to the worldwide energy crisis, some on heat transport through walls and roofs of buildings [1–3].

countries have adopted a severe legislation aiming to However, these works present some simplifications on their

promote energy efficiency of equipment and buildings. In calculation routines by not considering the three-dimen-

Brazil, in 2001, a committee to develop regulations for sional aspects of heat and moisture transfer and have not

energy efficiency in buildings, such as national standards focused these effects on highly capillary soils.

and building codes, was created so that rational policies of Some building physics studies involving the pure

energy conservation could be applied all over the country. In conduction heat transfer through the ground can be found

this context, to evaluate the building performance with in the literature. The first experimental study concluded that

thermal parameters, several codes have been developed. the heat loss through the ground is proportional to the size of

However, most of those codes do not take into account the its perimeter. However, Bahnfleth [4] observed that the area

moisture presence within building envelopes. The moisture and shape must be taken into account as well.

in the furniture and envelope of buildings implies an Davies et al. [5], using the finite-volume approach,

additional mechanism of transport absorbing or releasing compared multidimensional models and observed that the

latent heat of vaporization, affecting the hygrothermal use of three-dimensional simulation provides better predic-

building performance or causing mold growth. tion of building temperature and heating loads than two-

dimensional simulation, when these results are compared

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +55 41 3271 1322; fax: +55 41 3271 1349.

with experimental data.

E-mail addresses: gerson.santos@pucpr.br (G.H. dos Santos), Computer programs for transient and steady-state pure

nathan.mendes@pucpr.br (N. Mendes). conduction heat transfer in two and three dimensions have

0378-7788/$ – see front matter # 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.06.011

304 G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314

R universal gas constant (J/(kmol K))

Ai area of the i-th surface (m2) Rlw long-wave radiation (W/m2)

Aj,f area of j-th control volumes of the floor sur- T temperature (8C)

face discretized by using the finite-volume T0 temperature calculated at the previous time

method (m2) step (8C)

c specific heat (J/(kg K)) Ti temperature of each surface of the building

cm mean specific heat (J/(kg K)) envelope (8C)

cw wall specific heat (J/(kg K)) Tint room air temperature (8C)

cair air specific heat (J/(kg K)) Text external air temperature (8C)

DTl liquid phase transport coefficient associated to Ty=H temperature of the ground or floor surfaces

a temperature gradient (m2/(s K)) (8C)

DTv vapor phase transport coefficient associated to Tx=0 temperature on the external surfaces (8C)

a temperature gradient (m2/(s K)) Tx=e temperature on the internal surfaces (8C)

Dul liquid phase transport coefficient associated to Tprev temperature calculated at the previous itera-

a moisture content gradient (m2/s) tion (8C)

Duv vapor phase transport coefficient associated to Tsur temperature of internal surfaces of surround-

a moisture content gradient (m2/s) ing walls (8C)

DT mass transport coefficient associated to a t time (s)

temperature gradient (m2/(s K)) Vair room volume (m3)

Du mass transport coefficient associated to a W0 humidity ratio calculated at the previous time

moisture content gradient (m2/s) step and (kg water/kg dry air)

Ėt energy flow that crosses the room control Wext external humidity ratio (kg water/kg dry air)

surface (W) Wint internal humidity ratio (kg water/kg dry air)

Ėg internal energy generation rate (W) Wv,f the humidity ratio of each control volume (kg

hm mass convection coefficient (m/s) water/kg dry air)

hmf floor mass convection coefficient (m/s) as soil solar absorptivity

hms soil mass convection coefficient (m/s) aw wall solar absorptivity

h convection coefficient (W/(m2 K)) es soil emissivity

hint internal convection heat transfer coefficient ef floor emissivity

between internal surfaces and room air ew wall emissivity

(W/(m2 K)) eroof roof emissivity

hext external convection heat transfer coefficient fv view factor

between external surfaces and external air f relative humidity

(W/(m2 K)) fext external relative humidity

hroof external convection heat transfer coefficient l thermal conductivity (W/(m2 K))

for the rooftop (W/(m2 K)) lf floor (concrete) thermal conductivity

hD the floor mass transfer coefficient (kg/m2 s), (W/(m K))

H depth of the ground (m) ls soil thermal conductivity (W/(m K))

jv vapor flow (kg/(m2 K)) lw wall thermal conductivity (W/(m K))

jl liquid flow (kg/(m2 K)) lroof roof thermal conductivity (W/(m K))

j total flow (kg/(m2 K)) r density (kg/m3)

L latent heat of vaporization (J/kg) r0 solid matrix density (kg/m3)

ṁinf mass flow by infiltration (kg/s) rl water density (kg/m3)

ṁvent mass flow by ventilation (kg/s) pv,1 vapor density in the surrounding air far from

ṁb water vapor flow from the breath of occupants the soil surface (kg/m3)

(kg/s) Pv,y=H vapor density at the upper surface of the soil

ṁger internal water-vapor generation rate (kg/s), domain (kg/m3)

M molecular mass (kg/kmol) rair air density (kg/m3)

m number of surfaces u volume basis moisture content (m3/m3)

n number of control volumes of the floor surface uprev volume basis moisture content calculated at

discretized by using the finite-volume method the previous iteration (m3/m3)

Ps saturated pressure (Pa) s Stefan–Boltzmann constant (W/(m2 K4))

prev previous iteration

G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314 305

been developed by Blomberg [6]. These codes can be used presented a numerical method based on an algorithm that

for analyses of thermal bridge effects, heat transfer through combines an explicit model with relaxation schemes. In this

the corners of a window and heat loss from a house to the model, a criterion for time step determination is developed

ground. However, the moisture presence has been ignored. to improve numerical stability.

Matsumoto et al. [7] described a program for ground For ensuring numerical stability in the present model, the

temperature data generation, using the finite-element linearized set of equations was obtained by using the finite-

method. Latent heat losses by evaporation at the ground volume method and the MultiTriDiagonal-Matrix Algorithm

surface and snow cover on the surface are considered in their [16] to solve a three-dimensional model to describe the

program. physical phenomena of heat and mass transfer in sandy-silt

Krarti [8] discussed the effect of spatial variation of soil and sandy porous soils. In this way, the code has been

thermal properties on slab-on-ground heat transfer by using conceived to be numerically robust with a fast-simulating

the Interzone Temperature Profile Estimation (ITPE) procedure. The heat and moisture transfer in soils was based

technique. on the theory of Philip and De Vries [17], which is one of the

In the works mentioned above, the conductivity and the most disseminated and accepted mathematical formulation

thermal capacity are considered constant and the moisture for studying heat and moisture transfer through porous soils,

effect is ignored. However, the presence of moisture in the considering both vapor diffusion and capillary migration.

ground implies an additional mechanism of transport: in the Janssen et al. [18] elaborated an analysis of heat loss

pores of unsaturated soil, liquid water evaporates at the through a basement and presented as false a generally

warm side, absorbing latent heat of vaporization, while, due accepted postulate in building simulation: the combined heat

to the vapor-pressure gradient, vapor condenses on the and mass transfer in ground can be ignored for the heat flow

coldest side of the pore, releasing latent heat of vaporization calculation through the building foundation. In this context,

[9]. This added or removed latent heat can cause great Onmura et al. [19] investigated the evaporative cooling

discrepancies on the prediction of room air temperature and effect of roofs lawn gardens and observed a reduction of up

relative humidity, when compared to values obtained by pure to 50% on the heat flux through the ceiling.

conduction heat transfer [2]. In soil simulation, some parameters such as the boundary

Moreover, Brink and Hoogendoorn [10] analyzed conditions, initial conditions, simulation time period

groundwater losses due to conduction and natural convec- (including warm-up), simulation time step and grid

tion heat transfer modes and verified that convection heat refinement have to be carefully chosen and combined in

losses are mainly dependent on soil permeability. order to reach accuracy without using excessive computa-

Freitas and Prata [11] elaborated a numerical methodol- tional processing.

ogy for thermal performance analysis of power cables under In this way, it is presented a mathematical model in order to

the presence of moisture migration in the surrounding soil. test the hygrothermal performance of buildings by consider-

They utilized a two-dimensional finite-volume approach to ing the combined three-dimensional heat and moisture

solve the governing equations and the boundary conditions transport through the ground for capillary unsaturated porous

did not take any phase-change effect into account. soils. Heat diffusion through building envelope (walls and

Ogura et al. [12] analyzed the heat and moisture behavior roof) was calculated by using the Fourier’s law. The

in underground space in a two-dimensional model using the importance of considering a three-dimensional approach

quasi-linearized method. The outdoor temperature, relative for the soil domain for low-rise buildings was verified by

humidity, solar radiation and precipitation were investigated Santos and Mendes [20], using a simply conductive model for

as outdoor conditions. ground heat transfer calculation.

Some simplified models can be also found in the The room can be submitted to loads of solar radiation,

literature such as the model utilized by the MOHID program inter-surface long wave radiation, convection, infiltration and

[13]. This code, using the Richards’s equation, is utilized for internal gains from light, equipment and people. A lumped

simulating marine processes, quality processes in reservoirs approach for energy and water vapor balances is used to

and water flow in unsaturated media. calculate the room air temperature and relative humidity.

Combined heat and moisture transfer in soils may require

the use of very short time steps, especially at highly

permeable surfaces, which may prohibit the use of long time 2. Mathematical model

step for long-term simulations. Galbraith [14] noticed the

influence of the spatial discretization on the accuracy of the The physical problem is divided into three domains:

numerical simulation on the heat and mass transport in ground, building envelope (walls and roof) and room air. At

porous media. It was observed that in one-dimensional the external surfaces, the heat transfer due to short wave

discretization, the two-way model, based on the technique of radiation and convection were considered as boundary

control volume, can be used to avoid refined meshes. conditions and the long-wave radiation losses were taken

Due to the numerical instabilities caused by the effect of into account only at horizontal surfaces, i.e., ground and

latent heat at the boundaries, Wang and Hagentoft [15] roof. At the internal surfaces, besides the convection heat

306 G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314

was considered and for the ground and floor a combined heat

and mass transfer model was used.

and De Vries [17], to model heat and mass transfer through

porous media, are given by Eqs. (1) and (2). The energy

conservation equation is written in the form:

@T Fig. 1. Physical domain for ground and floor.

r0 cm ðT; uÞ ¼ r ðlðT; uÞrTÞ LðTÞðr jv Þ (1)

@t

and the mass conservation equation as:

Surface 2 (in contact with external air):

@u j

¼ r ; (2)

@t rl @T

ls ðT; uÞ þ ðLðTÞ jv Þy¼H

@y y¼H

where r0 is the solid matrix density (m3/kg); cm, the mean

specific heat (J/(kg K)); T, temperature (8C); l, thermal ¼ hs ðText Ty¼H Þ þ as qr

conductivity (W/(m K)); L, latent heat of vaporization (J/ þ LðTÞhms ðrv;ext rv;y¼H Þ es Rlw ; (5)

kg); u, volumetric moisture content (m3/m3); jv, vapor flow

(kg/(m2 K)); j, total flow (kg/(m2 K)); rl is the water density where h(T1 Ty=H) represents the heat exchanged by con-

(kg/m3). vection with the external air, described by the surface

The total three-dimensional vapor flow (j) – given by conductance h, asqr is the absorbed short-wave radiation

summing the vapor flow (jv) and the liquid flow (jl) – can be and LðTÞhm ðrv;1 rv;y¼H Þ, the phase-change energy term.

described as: The long-wave radiation loss is defined as Rlw (W/m2) and e

is the surface emissivity. The solar absorptivity is repre-

j @T @u sented by a and the mass convection coefficient by hm,

¼ DT ðT; uÞ þ Du ðT; uÞ i

rl @x @x which is related to h by the Lewis’ relation.

@T @u Similarly, the mass balance at the upper surface is written

DT ðT; uÞ þ Du ðT; uÞ j as:

@y @y

@T @u @Kg @u @T hmf

DT ðT; uÞ þ Du ðT; uÞ þ k; (3) Duf ðT; uÞ þ DTf ðT; uÞ ¼ ðr ry¼H Þ;

@z @z @z @y @y y¼H rl v;int

with DT = DTl + DTv and Du = Dul + Duv, where DTl is the (6)

liquid phase transport coefficient associated to a temperature

gradient (m2/(s K)), DTv, vapor phase transport coefficient for surface 1 (in contact with internal air), and as:

associated to a temperature gradient (m2/(s K)), Dul, liquid

@u @T hms

phase transport coefficient associated to a moisture content Dus ðT; uÞ þ DTs ðT; uÞ ¼ ðr ry¼H Þ;

@y @y y¼H rl v;ext

gradient (m2/s), Duv, vapor phase transport coefficient asso-

ciated to a moisture content gradient (m2/s), DT, mass (7)

transport coefficient associated to a temperature gradient

for surface 2 (in contact with external air).

(m2/s K) and Du is the mass transport coefficient associated

The other soil domain surfaces were all considered

to a moisture content gradient (m2/s).

adiabatic and impermeable.

Fig. 1 shows the physical domain. According to Fig. 1,

Eqs. (6) and (7) show a vapor concentration difference,

the boundary conditions, for the most generic case (three-

Drv, on their right-hand side. This difference is between the

dimensional), can be mathematically expressed as:

porous surface and air and is normally determined by using

Surface 1 (in contact with internal air):

the values of previous iterations for temperature and

@T moisture content, generating additional numerical instabil-

lf ðT; uÞ þ ðLðTÞ jv Þy¼H ity. Due to the instability created by this source term, the

@y y¼H

solution of the linear set of discretized equations normally

X

m

requires the use of very small time steps, which can be

4 4

¼ hf ðTint Ty¼H Þ þ fv ef sðTsur Ty¼H Þ

i¼1 exceedingly time consuming especially in long-term soil

simulations; in some research cases, a time period of several

þ LðTÞhmf ðrv;int rv;y¼H Þ (4) decades has to be simulated, taking into account the three-

G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314 307

dimensional heat and moisture transfer through a very convection heat transfer. In this way, the external boundary

refined grid. condition (x = 0) can be mathematically expressed as:

In order to raise the simulation time step, Mendes et al.

[16] presented a procedure to calculate the vapor flow, @T

lw ¼ hext ðText Tx¼0 Þ þ aw qr : (10)

independently of previous values of temperature and @x x¼0

moisture content. In this way, the term (Drv) was linearized

as a linear combination of temperature and moisture content, On the internal side (x = L), the inter-surface long-wave

viz., radiation was included as:

X

m

ðrv;1 rv ðsÞÞ ¼ M1 ðT1 TðsÞÞ þ M2 ðu1 uðsÞÞ þ M3 ; @T 4 4

lw ¼ hint ðTint Tx¼e Þ þ fv ew sðTsur Tx¼e Þ:

(8) @x x¼e i1

where (11)

M On the other hand, for the roof, long-wave radiation

M1 ¼ A f;

R losses were considered (Rlw) so that Eq. (10) has assumed

M Ps ðsÞ prev @f prev the following form:

M2 ¼ ;

R TðsÞ @uðsÞ

@T

M Ps ðsÞ prev lroof ¼ hroof ðText Tx¼0 Þ þ aroof qr eroof Rlw ;

M3 ¼ Rðuprev ðsÞÞþf1 ðRðT1 ÞRðT prev ðsÞÞÞ : @x x¼0

R TðsÞ

(12)

In the equations above, the index(s) represents the surface

on contact with air and (1) where the term eroof represents the roof emissivity at the

the air far from that surface, R is surface.

a residual function of PTs ; Ps, saturated pressure (Pa); R,

universal gas constant (J/(kmol K)); M, molecular mass (kg/ It has been assumed that surrounding surfaces that face

kmol); f, relative humidity, prev, previous iteration; A is the the building envelope and the building envelope surfaces are

nearly at the same temperature. In this way, the long-wave

straight-line

Ps

coefficient from the approximation

radiation term was only considered in Eq. (12).

T ¼ AT þ B.

The solar radiation (direct, reflected and diffuse) came

2.2. Building envelope domain from models presented by ASHRAE [21] and are

conveniently projected to each surface considered in both

As the scope of this work is to analyze the coupled three- envelope and soil domains. In this way, the numerical value

dimensional heat and moisture transfer through the ground, a of ‘‘qr’’, shown in Eqs. (1)–(12), is modified according to the

simple one-dimensional conductive heat transfer model was projection of the solar beam at each simulation time step.

considered for the building envelope including walls and

roof (Fig. 2). In this way, the internal surface temperature is 2.3. Internal air domain

calculated by an energy balance equation, in an elemental

control volume, using the Fourier’s law: The present work uses a dynamic model for analysis of

hygrothermal behavior of a room without HVAC system.

@T @2 T Thus, a lumped formulation for both temperature and water

rc ¼l 2: (9)

@t @x vapor is adopted. Eq. (13) describes the energy conservation

equation applied to a control volume that involves the room

On the external side of the room, the walls, roof, doors

air, which is submitted to loads of conduction, convection,

and windows are exposed to solar radiation and to

short-wave solar radiation, inter-surface long-wave radia-

tion and infiltration:

dTint

Ėt þ Ėg ¼ rair cair Vair ; (13)

dt

where Ėt is the energy flow that crosses the room (W), Ėg the

internal energy generation rate (W), rair the air density (kg/

m3), cair the specific heat of air (J/(kg K)), Vair the room

volume (m3) and Tint is the room air temperature (8C).

The term Ėt , on the energy conservation equation,

includes loads associated to the building envelope (sensible

heat) and latent conduction from floor, fenestration

(conduction and solar radiation), and openings (ventilation

Fig. 2. Building envelope schematic representation. and infiltration).

308 G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314

The sensible heat released by the building envelope and extremely time consuming. A third method used was the one

floor is calculated as: obtained by the Matlab program, which provides analytical

X

m expressions to be solved in a real simultaneous way.

Qs ðtÞ ¼ hint Ai ½Tx¼e ðtÞ Tint ðtÞ (14) However, these expressions are time consuming due to their

i¼1 great size, even though they require less iterations due to the

numerical robustness.

for the sensible conduction load and as:

In order to avoid limitations such as the requirement of

X

n

small time steps and high computer run time, it was shown

Qfloor ðtÞ ¼ LðTy¼H ðtÞÞhmf A j;f ½rv;int ðtÞ rv;f ðtÞ (15) that the use of a semi-analytical method could be a good

j¼1

strategy to solve the differential governing equations for the

for the latent load from floor. room air, as it combines robustness and rapidness, which are

In Eq. (14) Ai represents the area of the i-th surface (m2), important criteria in whole-building simulation programs.

hint the convection heat transfer coefficients (W/(m2 K)), This last method solves analytically each equation (mass and

Tx=e(t) the temperature at the i-th internal surface of the energy balances), but with numerical coupling between each

building (8C) and Tint(t) the room air temperature (8C). In other. In this way, for the proposed problem, Eqs. (13) and

Eq. (15), n is the number of control volumes of the floor (16) can be written as:

surface discretized by using the finite-volume method; L, the dTint

vaporization latent heat (J/kg); hmf, the floor mass A BTint ¼ rcV (17)

dt

convection coefficient (m/s); Aj,f, the area of j-th control

volumes of the floor surface discretized by using the finite- and

volume method (m2); rv,int, internal water vapor density (kg/ dWint

m3); rv,f the water vapor density of each control volume (kg/ C þ DWint ¼ rV ; (18)

dt

m3). The temperature and vapor density are calculated by the

combined heat and moisture transfer model described in which gives

Section 2.1 by using the values of temperature, moisture B

ercV Dt ðA þ BT0 Þ A

content and sorption isotherm. Tint ¼ (19)

B

In terms of water vapor mass balance, different

contributions were considered: ventilation, infiltration, and

internal generation, people breath and floor surface. In this D

Wint ¼ ; (20)

D

ðṁinf þ ṁvent ÞðWext Wint Þ þ ṁb þ ṁger

where T0 and W0 are the temperature and the humidity ratio

Xn

dWint calculated at the previous time step and

þ hD A j;f Wv;f Wint ¼ rair Vair ; (16)

j¼1

dt X

m

A¼ hAi Ti þ Ėgs þ Ėgl ðWprev Þ;

where ṁint is the mass flow by infiltration (kg/s); ṁvent , the i¼1

mass flow by ventilation (kg/s); Wext the external humidity X

m

ratio (kg water/kg dry air); Wint, the internal humidity ratio B¼ hAi ;

i¼1

(kg water/kg dry air); ṁb , the water vapor flow from the X

n

breath of occupants (kg/s); ṁger , the internal water-vapor C ¼ ṁinf Wext þ ṁresp ðTprev Þ þ ṁger þ hD A j;f Wv;f and

generation rate (kg/s); hD, the mass transfer coefficient (kg/ ! j¼1

m2 s); Aj,f represents the area of j-th control volumes of the X m

floor surface (m2); Wv,f, the humidity ratio of each control D ¼ ṁinf þ ṁvent þ hD A j;f ;

i¼1

volume (kg water/kg dry air); rair, the air density (kg dry air/

m3); Vair is the room volume (m3). with Ėgs as the sensible energy (infiltration + generation) (W),

The water-vapor mass flow from the people breath is Ėgl , the latent energy (infiltration + generation) (W), Ti, the

calculated as shown in ASHRAE [21], which takes into temperature of each surface of the building envelope (8C).

account the room air temperature, humidity ratio and

physical activity as well.

Santos and Mendes [22] presented and discussed 3. Simulation procedure

different numerical methods used to integrate the differential

governing equations in the air domain (Eqs. (13) and (16)), A C-code was elaborated for the prediction of the

showing the results in terms of accuracy and computer run building hygrothermal performance. For the simulation, a

time. In their analysis, it was shown that the use of explicit 25-m2 single-zone building with two windows (single glass

methods such as Euler and Modified Euler requires layer) and one door, distributed as shown in Fig. 3 was

imperatively very small time steps, making simulations considered. For the conduction load calculation, 0.19-m

G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314 309

Fig. 4. Dimensions of the soil and floor domain used in the simulation.

In this work, the properties of soil (sandy silt soil and

sand) strongly affected by temperature and moisture content

thick walls composed of three layers were used: mortar were taken from Oliveira et al. [25]. The basic dry-basis

(2 cm), brick (15 cm) and mortar (2 cm). In those typical material properties are shown in Table 2.

Brazilian walls, the contact resistance between two different In this work, internal generation of both energy and mass

layers was not considered. was not considered and an infiltration rate of 1 L/s was

The differential equations of energy conservation for adopted. The Sun effect (short-wave radiation) on the

each node of the building envelope (walls and roof) were ground was considered on East side until noon, and on West

discretized by using the finite-volume method [23], with a side, from noon until 6:00 p.m. On North side, solar

central difference scheme, a uniform grid and a fully implicit radiation was considered during all day and at no moment on

approach. The solution of the set of algebraic equations was the South side as the building is located in the city of

obtained by using the TriDiagonal-Matrix Algorithm Curitiba (south of Brazil at a latitude of 25.48).

(TDMA). The external climate was represented by Eqs. (21)–(23)

For the building envelope, a one-dimensional model was for temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation,

considered since the temperature gradients are much higher respectively. It was considered a yearly average temperature

on the normal direction. The thermophysical properties of of 20 8C with a daily variation of 5 8C. A yearly variation of

the building envelope materials were gathered from 5 8C was considered for the peak values. For the external

Incropera [24] and considered constant as shown in Table 1. relative humidity, a daily variation between 50 and 70% was

For the presented single-zone building, a 0.35-m concrete considered. A yearly variation on the peak values is not used

floor was considered within the soil domain as it can be seen in this case.

in Fig. 4. The governing partial differential equations were The value for total solar radiation (direct + diffuse) is

discretized by using the control-volume formulation method valid between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., with a peak value at

[23]. The spatial interpolation method used is the control- noon, and, elsewhere, it is equal to zero.

difference scheme (CDS) and the time derivatives are

integrated using a fully implicit approach. In the three- pt pt

Text ¼ 20 þ 5 sin p þ þ 5 sin p þ

dimensional model for the ground and floor, an amount of 31536000 43200

9261 nodes were used. (21)

The MultiTriDiagonal-Matrix Algorithm (MTDMA;

[16]) was used to solve a three-dimensional model to

pt

describe the physical phenomena of the strongly coupled fext ¼ 0:60 0:10 sin p þ (22)

43200

heat and mass transfer in porous soils. In this algorithm, the

dependent variables are obtained simultaneously, avoiding

pt 3p pt

numerical divergence caused by the evaluation of coupled qrad ¼ 300 þ 100 sin p þ sin þ

terms from previous iteration values. 31536000 2 43200

(23)

Table 1

Thermophysical properties [24]

Material l (W/(m K)) r (kg/m3) cp (J/(kg K)) Table 2

Dry-basis properties of soils

Mortar 0.72 1860 780

Brick 0.72 1920 835 Soil r0 (m3/kg) cm (J/(kg K)) Porosity

Wood 0.16 720 1255 Sandy silt 1280 880 0.517

Glass 1.4 2500 750 Sand 1650 800 0.380

310 G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314

Fig. 8. Moisture content profiles of the sandy silt soil for different node

numbers.

Fig. 5. Temperature profiles of the sandy silt soil for different time steps. In the sensitivity analysis, the results presented in Figs. 5–

10 were obtained by carrying out simulations for the sandy

silt soil only. In Section 4.4, the comparison results shown

4. Results in Figs. 11–17 were obtained for both sandy silt and sand

soils.

The boundary conditions, the pre-simulation time period In all cases, sinusoidal functions (Eqs. (21)–(23)) have

(warm-up), the size of the physical domain, the simulation been considered to represent the weather. In the soil domain

time step, the grid refinement, the convergence errors and the of the building located in the city of Curitiba-Brazil (south

required computer run time are important simulation latitude of 25.48), a constant convection heat transfer

parameters, which have to be chosen very carefully in coefficient of 10 W/(m2 K), an absorptivity of 0.5 and a

order to accurately predict temperature and moisture content constant long-wave radiation loss of 30 W/m2 were

profiles in soils under different sort of weather data. considered as a boundary condition at the upper surface.

Fig. 6. Moisture content profiles of the sandy silt soil for different time Fig. 9. Temperature profiles in a soil physical domain with a 5-m depth.

steps.

Fig. 7. Temperature profiles of the sandy silt soil for different node Fig. 10. Moisture content profiles in a soil physical domain with a 5-m

numbers. depth.

G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314 311

Fig. 11. Variation of the internal temperature after two years of pre- Fig. 14. Internal temperature after two years of pre-simulation period with

simulation. an infiltration rate of 10 L/s.

Fig. 12. Internal humidity ratio after two years of pre-simulation period. Fig. 15. Internal temperature considering soil and floor as sand.

The other surfaces were considered adiabatic and imperme- 4.1. Time step sensitivity

able.

In the analysis of moisture effects on indoor air (Section For the time step sensitivity analysis, the temperature and

4.4), three different boundary conditions were considered moisture content profiles presented in Figs. 5 and 6 cor-

for the external ground upper surface: (i) solar radiation; (ii) respond to the one obtained on December 31st at 12:00 p.m. of

rain with no solar radiation effect; (iii) rain followed by solar the fifth year of simulation period. In this comparison, time

radiation. For the purely conductive model, rain was not step of 1, 10, 30 and 60 min were considered.

considered. A maximum temperature difference of approximately

0.3 8C on the ground surface was noticed in Fig. 5, by

comparing the different time steps. However, the moisture

content did not present any plausible difference, as it can be

Fig. 13. Heat transfer rate from floor (25 m2) in the simulation period of one

month. Fig. 16. Internal humidity ratio considering soil and floor as sand.

312 G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314

high thermal and hygric soil capacities.

analysis of the moisture effects on the heat and mass transfer

calculation through the floor and ground. In Figs. 11–14, for

the soil a sandy-silt type was considered, which properties

were gathered from Oliveira et al. [25] and for the floor,

properties from mortar [28] were used. Those strongly

moisture-content-dependent properties include specific heat,

density, thermal conductivity and liquid and vapor transport

Fig. 17. Heat transfer rate from floor considering soil and floor as sand in

coefficients associated to temperature and moisture content

the simulation period of one month.

gradients.

Three different boundary conditions were considered for

seen in Fig. 6. The low sensitivity to the time step was due to the external ground upper soil surface: (i) solar radiation; (ii)

the use of a robust numerical method [26]. rain with no solar radiation effect; (iii) rain followed by solar

radiation. For the purely conductive model, rain was not

4.2. Grid size refinement considered.

Convection heat transfer has been taken into account in

In a similar way, in the analysis of sensitivity to the grid all cases. For all external surfaces, a constant convection

size refinement, the values of temperature and moisture heat transfer coefficient of 12 W/(m2 K) was adopted and,

content correspond to the one attained at 12:00 p.m. on for all internal surfaces, 3 W/(m2 K) was considered. A

December 31st of the fifth year of simulation period. The constant long-wave radiation loss of 100 W/m2 was

number of nodes (300, 500 and 1000) was varied on the attributed for the ground and roof as well as an absorptivity

vertical direction only, since this is the direction where the of 0.5 for the ground and 0.3 for other surfaces. In the soil

temperature and moisture content gradients are predomi- domain, the laterals and lower surface were considered

nant, when no solar shading effect is considered. A time step adiabatic and impermeable.

of 10 min was used in this case. In Figs. 11–17, a temperature of 20 8C and a volumetric

Increasing the number of nodes on the gravity direction moisture content of 4% were considered as initial conditions.

axis from 300 to 1000, a maximum temperature difference of Fig. 11 shows the variation of the room air temperature.

1.8 8C (Fig. 7) is noticed. On the other hand, according to the During the simulation period, it was not verified a significant

results presented in Fig. 8, the moisture content profile variation between the purely conductive model and the

showed a highest absolute difference of nearly 0.1 (vol.%) at model that takes moisture transport through the ground and

the soil top surface. floor into account. The decrease of the internal temperature

The simulation performed showed a higher sensitivity to in the rain case is mainly due to the absence of solar radiation

the grid refinement than to the time step, which has to be during the 1-month period for the first case and 3 days, for

carefully done as the required computer run time is much the second case. Therefore, it can be clearly noticeable that

more sensitive to the grid size than to the time step. solar radiation, in this case, is the uppermost thermal load

source considered in the room air energy balance.

4.3. Depth sensitivity A higher difference of approximately 15% on the internal

humidity ratio was verified in Fig. 12, when the purely

Santos and Mendes [27] have presented results compar- conductive model for the ground and floor is considered. It

ing soil domains with different depth, showing that a 5-m was also noticed a low daily variation of humidity ratio when

depth soil domain could provide reasonable results, moisture is not neglected, i.e., a lower buffer effect of

especially near the upper surface. In this way, for the humidity in air occurs when moisture buffer capacity

weather functions presented in Eqs. (21)–(23), the tem- materials are employed.

perature and moisture content distributions vary with time In the case moisture is disregarded, water vapor is only

according to the results presented in Figs. 9 and 10, for a 1-h exchanged by ex- or infiltration. Nevertheless, when

time step and a grid of 4961 nodes. moisture is considered, the vapor flow exchanged with the

It is possible to notice in Figs. 9 and 10 that the floor can be a significant counterpoise on the room air

temperature and moisture content values remain constant, in moisture balance, providing different results in terms of

essence, at the upper surface. A very slow evolution room air relative humidity.

especially in the moisture content distribution was In this context, some research [29,30] has also been

remarked. The time evolution differences in the temperature conducted to aware about the importance of indoor relative

G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314 313

respiratory comfort; (ii) perception of indoor air quality;

(iii) occupant health; (iv) durability of building materials (v) Building simulation codes present some simplifications

energy consumption. For example, there will be twice as on their calculation routines of heat transfer through the

many occupants dissatisfied with the indoor comfort ground. Regarding the ground heat transfer some aspects

conditions at 24 8C and 70% relative humidity than at should be clarified: the multidimensional phenomenon; the

24 8C and 40% [30]. At the same time, the occupants will transient behavior; the great number of involved parameters,

perceive the indoor air quality (IAQ) to be better at lower mainly when moisture is considered.

humidity (in fact enthalpy) and recent research results show A review in the literature showed divergences about

that ventilation rates could be decreased notably by moisture effects on the ground heat transfer. In addition,

maintaining a moderate enthalpy in spaces. Humidity also most of programs do not consider the three-dimensional

influences the growth of dust mites and fungi and the asymmetrical effect in the soil.

occurrence of respiratory infections, with values between 30 In this way, some comparison exercises were carried out

and 55% relative humidity recommended [30]. to show how important moisture in soils can be in different

In addition, Salonvaara and Ojanen [31] showed also that scenarios, taking into account a coupled three-dimensional

materials with hygroscopic capacity have the ability to heat and moisture transfer model integrated to a single-zone

improve the performance of building envelope structures building model.

even to such level that condensation and mold growth Simulations carried out for sensitivity analyses of time step

conditions are eliminated. and grid size shown the importance of refinement at the upper

Furthermore, there is a need to improve the indoor air surface, which is in contact with air. On the other hand, the

relative humidity prediction by incorporating accurate results were not so sensitive to time step, allowing the

moisture models in building thermal simulation programs adoption of high values of time step with no loss of accuracy

[32]. The realization of this need led to formation of an thanks to the robust algorithm and to the linearization of vapor

International Research Project, in the framework of the concentration difference at soil top surface.

International Energy agency, which started in late 2003 and We also noticed the importance of a pre-simulation

comprising as many as 19 countries [30]. period of several years for the correct estimation of

In Fig. 13, the heat exchanged with the floor can be temperature and moisture content profiles. As computer

observed for the same three scenarios presented for the run time plays an important role in long-term soil

relative humidity results (Fig. 12). The absence of solar simulations, a depth of 5 m was suggested whereas the

radiation during the rain period, causes the decrease of the main temperature and moisture content gradients are close to

internal temperature of the building, increasing the heat flux the upper surface, affecting somewhat the thermal behavior

from the floor. In this case, difference of up to 100% was of low-rise buildings.

observed in Fig. 13, for the heat flux between the model that Concerning the moisture effects on indoor air analysis, it

does not consider moisture and the one that considers is showed a very slight difference in terms of room air

moisture with boundary condition of rain. temperature between the purely conductive model for the

Fig. 14 shows the evolution of room air temperature when ground and the moisture model, due to the importance of

an infiltration rate of 10 L/s is applied. In this case, a solar gains compared to ground heat transfer in the room

maximum difference of 0.5 8C was verified between the energy balance and due to the different time scales between

peak values, attributed to the increase of vapor concentration room air and soil. However, a significant difference of 15%

difference between internal air and floor surface, caused by was noticed on the room air humidity ratio, even for the high

an increase of the infiltration flow. infiltration rate case. Therefore, higher energy consumption

In Figs. 15–17, a sand floor was considered in order to could be expected when an air conditioning system is used

observe a higher evaporation rate potential. In this case, the due to the augmentation of building latent loads.

effect of solar radiation was also ignored and an infiltration Besides the energy related aspects, moisture models shall

rate of 20 L/s was adopted. be incorporated to building simulation codes due to other

Fig. 15 shows a small difference between the temperature indoor relative humidity effects such as perception of indoor

peaks for the two models. air quality, occupant’s health and durability of building

Fig. 16 illustrates a difference of 10% on the internal materials.

humidity ratio for the two first days of simulation. Although Regarding the heat flux through building floor, it was

the values of heat transfer rate does not present a significant noted a small thermal load contribution in both models.

variation on the internal temperature, it is observed, in However, the absence of solar radiation during the rain

Fig. 17, a great difference of up to 110% between the results. period caused a room temperature reduction, occasioning an

In this way, the heat transfer rate at the floor surface can increase of ground heat transfer of approximately 100%.

be very important on the calculation of sensible heat factor In order to increase the evaporative flux, the floor surface

for the building, depending on the direction of the latent and was considered composed uniquely of sand. In this case, no

sensible heat flux exchanged with the floor. significant variations on the room temperature values were

314 G.H. dos Santos, N. Mendes / Energy and Buildings 38 (2006) 303–314

verified between the two models. However, these results [12] D. Ogura, T. Matsushita, M. Matsumoto, Analysis of heat and moisture

could be more expressive for the calculation of sensible heat behavior in underground space by quasilinearized method, in: Sixth

International IBPSA Conference (BS’99), Kyoto, Japan. 2, 1999, pp.

factor for building zones, depending on the direction of the 755–762.

latent and sensible heat fluxes at the floor surface. [13] R. Neves, P.C. Leitão, Modelação numérica da circulação da água no

Although the moisture effect has caused no significant solo, O modelo MOHID, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade

difference on the room air temperature, a building with a Técnica de Lisboa, Pedologia, Oeira, vol. 28, 2000, pp. 46–55.

[14] G.H. Galbraith, C. Ji, R. Mclean, P. Baker, The influence of space

greater area of contact with the ground or in underground

discretization on the accurancy of numerical simulation of heat and

zones where the solar radiation effect is not predominant, the moisture transport in porous building materials, Journal of Thermal

moisture flux through the floor could contribute more Envelope and Building Science 25 (2) (2001) 143–160.

effectively for the room air energy balance. [15] J. Wang, C.E. Hagentoft, A numerical method for calculating com-

To conclude, some recommendations are addressed for bined heat, air and moisture transport in building envelope compo-

further work: (i) Simulation of underground zones and nents, Nordic Journal of Building Physics 2 (2001) 1–17.

[16] N. Mendes, P.C. Philippi, R. Lamberts, A new mathematical method to

include the moisture effects on the building envelope as solve highly coupled equations of heat and mass transfer in porous

well; (ii) determination empirical correlations for ground media, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 (2002)

heat transfer; (iii) improvement of the rain model. 509–518.

[17] J.R. Philip, D.A. de Vries, Moisture moviment in porous media under

temperature gradients, Transactions of the American Geophysical

Union 38 (1957) 222–232.

Acknowledgments [18] H. Janssen, J. Carmeliet, H. Hens, The influence of soil moisture in the

unsatured zone on the heat loss from building via the ground, Journal

The authors thank the Brazilian Research Council of Thermal Envelope and Building Science 25 (4) (2002) 275–298.

(CNPq) of the Secretary for Science and Technology of [19] S. Onmura, M. Matsumoto, S. Hokoi, Study on evaporative cooling

effect of roof lawn gardens, Energy and Building 33 (2001) 653–666.

Brazil for support of this work.

[20] G.H. Santos, N. Mendes, Multidimensional effects of ground heat

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