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Welds are sized for their ability to withstand static or cyclic
loading in accordance with AWS D1.1, Structural Welding Code
Steel, to ensure that a soundly welded joint is able to support
the applied load for the expected service life. Design strengths
of welds for various types of static loading are normally specified
in the applicable standard for the job. These are usually based
on a percentage of the tensile or yield strength of the filler or
base metal. The allowable stress range for cyclic loading is also
normally specified in the applicable standard for the job.
Static Loading
The various types of static loading are shown in Fig. 1. Com-
plete joint penetration (CJP) groove welds, illustrated in Fig.
1AD, are considered full-strength welds because they are capa-
ble of transferring the full strength of the connected elements.
Providing matching strength weld metal is used, the design
strength of such welds are the same as those in the base metal.
In CJP groove welds, the mechanical properties of the filler metal
selected must at least match those of the base metal. If two base
metals of different strengths are welded together, the selected
filler metal strength must match or exceed the strength of the
weaker base metal.
Partial joint penetration groove welds, which are shown in
Fig. 1B, C, E, and F, are widely used for the economical welding
of thick sections. These welds not only lead to savings in weld
metal and welding time, but they can also provide the required
joint strength. To avoid cracking in the weld or the heat-affected
zone, the minimum weld size should provide adequate process
heat input to counteract the quenching effect of the base metal.
Various factors should be considered in determining the de-
sign strength of the throat of partial joint penetration groove
welds. One factor is joint configuration. The effective throat of
a prequalified partial joint penetration groove weld is the depth
of the groove when the groove angle is 60 deg or greater at the
root of the weld. For groove angles of less than 60 deg, the ef-
fective throat depends upon the welding process, welding posi-
tion, and groove angle at the root. The provisions of AWS D1.1
should be consulted to determine if an allowance for uncertain
penetration is required for the conditions of a particular weld.
APRIL 2010 60
Datasheet 314
Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol. 1, ninth edition.
Static Loading of Welds
Fig. 1 Examples of welds with various types of loading. A Complete joint penetration groove weld in tension; B compression normal to
the axis of weld; C tension or compression parallel to weld axis; D complete joint penetration groove weld in shear; E partial joint pen-
etration in groove welds; F shear parallel to weld axis; G fillet welds loaded in shear along weld throat.
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