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Porter’s 5-Forces Model

1. Supplier Power: Here you assess how easy it is for suppliers to drive up prices. This is driven by the
number of suppliers of each key input, the uniqueness of their product or service, their strength and control
over you, the cost of switching from one to another, and so on. The fewer the supplier choices you have, and
the more you need suppliers' help, the more powerful your suppliers are.
2. Buyer Power - Patients: Here you ask yourself how easy it is for buyers(patients) to drive prices down –
social welfare na lang. Again, this is driven by the number of buyers, the importance of each individual buyer
to your business, the cost to them of switching from your products and services to those of someone else, and
so on. If you deal with few, powerful buyers, they are often able to dictate terms to you.
3. Competitive Rivalry – how are we competeting against other government hospitals: What is
important here is the number and capability of your competitors – if you have many competitors, and they
offer equally attractive products and services, then you’ll most likely have little power in the situation. If
suppliers and buyers don’t get a good deal from you, they’ll go elsewhere. On the other hand, if no-one else
can do what you do, then you can often have tremendous strength.
4. Threat of Substitution – Private Hospitals and their deals with Local Government Units – Makati
Med and Makati City: This is affected by the ability of your customers to find a different way of doing what
you do – for example, if you supply a unique software product that automates an important process, people
may substitute by doing the process manually or by outsourcing it. If substitution is easy and substitution is
viable, then this weakens your power.
5. Threat of New Entry – New government or private hospital planned in your vicinity: Power is also
affected by the ability of people to enter your market. If it costs little in time or money to enter your market
and compete effectively, if there are few economies of scale in place, or if you have little protection for your
key technologies, then new competitors can quickly enter your market and weaken your position. If you have
strong and durable barriers to entry, then you can preserve a favorable position and take fair advantage of it.
Plus: Complementors: can be plus or minus
• Our budget is dictated by the National Government via DOH – which means it has a very
significant impact on the strategic plan. No money – no projects or programs
• Public’s perception on the service levels the hospital provides: News on TV at Radio …
o can we charge the patient – “di ba libre ito..!” mentality
o wala kayo nitong gamit na ito…? Hospital be kayo…?
o at iba pang mga sentimiento de asukal ng mga pasyente natin at madyang people …

 Environmental Scan – Past and Present. This will require information on:
 Background Information – the past.
 Situational Analysis – what do we have now?
 Create SWOT Chart.
 Baseline - an imaginary line or standard by which things are measured or compared.
 Significant Issues
 Organizational Profile
 Operational Environment
 Key Performance Indicators
 Align and Fit with Capabilities
 You can dream but do not have “impossible dreams” – you will end up like Ninoy…!
 Make sure you have “attainable dreams” – those that align and fit with your capabilities…!
 Gaps = “as-is” vs.. “to-be”
 These are what you should address in the strategic and action plan.
 Mission and Vision broken down into a set of:
 Values and Guiding Principles which are in turn broken down into:
 Major Goals with Specific Objectives – which comprises the Strategic Plan.
 Down to Specifics
 Objectives broken down into:
 Initiatives and Projects into:
 Measures into Targets - which comprises the Action Plan.
 Review Progress – Periodically (monthly, quarterly, annually, …) using a constant set of Metrics.
 Take Action – Contingent, Preventive, Interim, Adaptive and/or Corrective.
 Feedback upstream – go back to the previous stages and find out if you are still In-Scope, and
revise the plan if required…

 Strengths: Those things that you do well, the high value or performance points
• Strengths can be tangible: Loyal customers, efficient distribution channels, very
high quality products, excellent financial condition
• Strengths can be intangible: Good leadership, strategic insights, customer
intelligence, solid reputation, high skilled workforce
• Often considered “Core Competencies” – Best leverage points for growth without
draining your resources
 Weaknesses: Those things that prevent you from doing what you really need to do
• Since weaknesses are internal, they are within your control
• Weaknesses include: Bad leadership, unskilled workforce, insufficient resources,
poor product quality, slow distribution and delivery channels, outdated
technologies, lack of planning, …
 Opportunities: Potential areas for growth and higher performance
• External in nature – marketplace, unhappy customers with competitor’s, better
economic conditions, more open trading policies, . .
• Internal opportunities should be classified as Strength’s
• Timing may be important for capitalizing on opportunities
 Threats: Challenges confronting the organization, external in nature
• Threats can take a wide range – bad press coverage, shifts in consumer behavior,
substitute products, new regulations, . . .
• May be useful to classify or assign probabilities to threats
• The more accurate you are in identifying threats, the better position you are for
dealing with the “sudden ripples” of change

 Why create a baseline?

 Puts everything about the organization into a single context for comparability and
 Description about the organization as well as the overall environment.
Products and Services – Suppliers, Delivery Channels, Contracts, Arrangements, …
 Organizational Culture – Barriers, Leadership, Communication, Cohesiveness, …
 Workforce Productivity – Skill levels, diversity, contractor’s, aging workforce, …
 Infrastructure – Systems, technology, facilities, …
 Regulatory – Product / Service Regulation, Quality Standards, Safety,
Environmental, …
 Key Performance Indicators. With respect to the following categories:
 Products and Services
 Human Resources
 External (Regulatory Compliance, Social Responsibility, …)
 Include information about relationships:
 Five-Forces Model plus Complementors
 Organizational Structure – Business Units, Functions, Board,
Management Layers, …
 Customer Relationships – Requirements, Satisfaction, Loyalty,
Expectations, …
 Partner Relationships – Alliances, long-term suppliers, customer
partnerships, …

 Where we are now? Present - “as-is” and;

Where we want to be? Future - “to-be”.
 Identify Gaps = “to-be” vs.. “as-is”
 These are what we have to address in the Strategic and Action Plan

• Captures the essence of why the organization exists – Who we are, what we do
• Explains the basic needs that you fulfill
• Expresses the core values of the organization
• Should be brief and to the point
• Easy to understand
• If possible, try to convey the unique nature of your organization and the role it plays that
differentiates it from others
• How the organization wants to be perceived in the future – what success looks like
• An expression of the desired end state
• Challenges everyone to reach for something significant – inspires a compelling future
• Provides a long
long--term focus for the entire organization
• Based on: Guiding Principles and Values
o Every organization should be guided by a set of values and beliefs
o Provides an underlying framework for making decisions – part of the organization’s
o Values are often rooted in ethical themes, such as honesty, trust, integrity, respect,
fairness, . . . .
o Values should be applicable across the entire organization
o Values may be appropriate for certain best management practices – best in terms of
quality, exceptional customer service, etc.
 Goals and Objectives - will be discussed on the next slide
• Measure your milestones – short
short--term outcomes at the Action Item level.
• Measure the outcomes of your objectives.
• Try to keep your measures one per objective.
• For each measurement, you should have at least one target
• Targets should stretch the organization to higher levels of performance
• Incremental improvements over current performance can be used to establish your targets
• Targets put focus on your strategy
• When you reach your targets, you have successfully executed your strategy

• Describes a future end
end--state – desired outcome that is supportive of the mission and vision.
• Shapes the way ahead in actionable terms.
• Best applied where there are clear choices about the future.
• Puts strategic focus into the organization – specific ownership of the goal should be assigned to
someone within the organization.
• May not work well where things are changing fast – goals tend to be long-
long-term for environments that
have limited choices about the future.
 Examples of Good Goals:
o Reorganize the entire organization for better responsiveness to patients.
o We will partner with private businesses, hospital leaders, and government agencies in order to better meet the needs of
stakeholders (patients, public, government, hospital organization, …).
o Manage our resources with fiscal responsibility and efficiency through a single comprehensive process that is aligned to our
strategic plan.
o Improve the quality and accuracy of service support information provided to our internal customers.
o Establish a means by which our decision making process is Public and Patient focus.
o Maintain and enhance the physical conditions of our public facilities and equipment.
• Relevant - directly supports the goal
• Compels the organization into action
• Specific enough so we can quantify and measure the results
• Simple and easy to understand
• Realistic and attainable
• Conveys responsibility and ownership
• Acceptable to those who must execute
• May need several objectives to meet a goal
 Examples of Good Objectives:
o Develop a patient database system to capture, store, retrieve and analyze patterns in in/out-patient care.
o Centralize the procurement process for improvements in enterprise-wide(hospital) purchasing power.
o Consolidate payable processing through a direct-bank-to-vendor system over the next two years.
o Improve receivables processing from PhilHealth and PCSO for service and charity patient charges in one year.
o Monitor and address employee morale issues through an annual employee satisfaction survey across all hospital functions.

 Assign responsibility for the successful completion of the Action Plan. Who is
responsible? What are the roles and responsibilities?
 Detail all required steps to achieve the Initiative that the Action Plan is supporting.
Where will the actions be taken?
 Establish a time frame for the completion each steps. When will we need to take these
 Establish the resources required to complete the steps. How much will it take to
execute these actions?
 Define the specific actions (steps) that must be taken to implement the initiative.
 Determine the deliverables (in measurable terms) that should result from
completion of individual steps.
 Identify in-process measures to ensure the processes used to carry out the action
are working as intended.
 Define the expected results and milestones of the action plan.
 Provide a brief status report on each step, whether completed or not. What
communication process will we follow? How well are we doing in executing our action
 If you have several action plans, you may have to prioritize. Based on the above
criteria, you should be able to clearly define your action plan.

 Goals should be decomposed or broken down into a set of:

 Objectives, which in turn decomposed into a set of:
 Initiatives and Projects, which are specified in terms of a set of:
 Measures, which are further specified in detail by a set of:
 Targets – these must be SMART – Specific, Measureable,
Attainable, Results-oriented and Time-bounded.

Establish a regular review cycle: Actual work done versus Baseline – Goals with Objectives with Initiatives with Measures with Targets
 Goal: Maintain and enhance the physical conditions of our public facilities. Metric: Scale of 5..4..3..2..1 – Excellent …to … Poor
 Objective 1: Select competent contractor to maintain public facilities. Metric: Scale of 5..4..3..2..1 – Excellent …to … Poor
 Initiative 1.1: Create Standard Terms of Reference(TOR). Metric: Specify: Done!, % completion, Check status?
 Measure 1.1.1: Publish Standard TOR.
 Target Standard TOR printed 2 weeks before distribution of bid documents.
 Target Distribute TOR to bidders 2 weeks before opening of bids.
 Measure 1.1.2: Publish Request for Bids with accredited newspapers.
 Target Finalize draft of Request for Bids 2 weeks before publication date.
 Target Close contract with newspaper for ad space 1 week before publication date.
 Initiative 1.2: Create a Budget for procurement of improvements and maintenance of facilities components.
 Measure 1.2.1: … measurement info. Specify: Done!, % completion, Check status?
 Target … target info. Specify: Done!, % completion, Check status?
 Goal 2: … goal 2 info. Scale of 5..4..3..2..1 – Excellent …to … Poor
 Initiative 2.1: … initiative 2.1 info. Specify: Done!, % completion, Check status?

Charts – Bar, Pie, Gantt, PERT, etc… - are better than words. You will see this later in the Swing Project.

Don't be afraid to change your metrics.

 Plan the work – lays the groundwork
 Work the plan – executes the plan but adjusting to changes

Work back upstream to revise plans

 Validation – process of upstream checking if we are doing it according to plan. Scope Check…!
 Verification – process of in stream checking if we are doing it right…! Where we are now…! Testing!…against a

Recognize and reward good performance results

 People always want to know how well they are doing.
 Remember…. No surprises…!

Brainstorm and change – poor performance results are risks.. If these things continue then the project may be in trouble..!
 Actions: These are discussed again in RISK MANAGEMENT.
 Preventive – actions to be taken to mitigate or limit the possibility of the risk occurring … done during planning
 Contingent – actions to be taken in case the risk happens … done during planning
 Interim – you do not immediately solve the problem … we will study the situation … dribble the ball
 Corrective – you completely eliminate or solve the problem – para bang surgical operation to remove a tumor …
 Adaptive – the problem can not be solved..! So you accept it as FACT or REALITY… parang lahar…walang solution…tangapin na lang..!

A Project Is
• A group of tasks, performed in a definable time period, in order to meet a
specific set of objectives.
• It is likely to be a one-time program.
• It has a life cycle, with a specific start and end.
• It has a work scope that can be categorized into definable tasks.
• It has a budget.
• It is likely to require the use of multiple resources. Many of these resources
may be scarce and may have to be shared with others.
• It may require the establishment of a special organization, or the crossing of
traditional organizational boundaries.

A Project Is
• A group of tasks, performed in a definable time period, in order to meet a
specific set of objectives.
• It is likely to be a one-time program.
• It has a life cycle, with a specific start and end.
• It has a work scope that can be categorized into definable tasks.
• It has a budget.
• It is likely to require the use of multiple resources. Many of these resources may be scarce
and may have to be shared with others.
• It may require the establishment of a special organization, or the crossing of traditional
organizational boundaries.

Determine the nature of work each of these scenarios represent: Program or Project
1. Christmas party planning and execution. Project
2. Plan, procure and install an X-ray machine. Project
3. Maintenance or X-ray machine. Program
4. HBAC plan, bid and procure medicines. Program
5. Build a 2-story building for a new department. Project
6. Running the cooperative canteen. Program

 It is the only KASH you can not spend. It is something you have which no one can take
away from you…
 Project Phases – Inception, Elaboration, Construction and Transition – or whatever
Project Life Cycle you use…
 Processes – some methodology has templates on how to construct a process – workflow
and persons involved
 WBS – Work Breakdown Structure – how to convert deliverables into Activities, into
Tasks and into development steps.
 Charts – Gantt Chart and PERT(Project Evaluation and Review Technique) Chart
 Etc. – other tools and techniques you might want to use
 Project management software – MS Project is the most commonly used.

How important is properly identifying Client’s true needs and expectations?

The swing project(the next 5 slides) is a perfect example of how things can go wrong.
There is always something – Lost in the Translation… Be ready for it…plan…prepare…and fix
it later…

How the client explained it or how the interviewer understood his wishes:
The client may just have said – “ I want you to build me a swing” or something like it.
The interviewer – may be a member of the team or external – heard it and incorporated his
ideas on how he would like a swing to look like.
This is the start of the problems of communication.
- Research has shown that communication between 2 persons with different backgrounds
can only achieve a maximum of 80% communication reception – so if the client said 100
things, then the interviewer will get only 80 things right and the remaining 20 things will be
his own creation.
- Communication between 2 persons with the same background can only achieve a
maximum of 90% communication reception.
- The more persons you pass on the swing project specifications, the more of the original
intent gets lost in the translation.

More of the swing specifications get lost and the product deteriorates.

And it continues…

Until we get the point that the client finally sees the end product… Behold…. “This is not
what I want and needed”…
So we go back to Phase 1 to repair or fix the defects –original perceptions or those carried
over from one person to the next…

So what have we learned?

What we have here… Is a failure to communicate – classic byline and quotation from the
movie “Cool Hand Luke”
“ Lost in the Translation” is another movie that emphasize the problem of communication.

What you hear and perceive is not always the same as the speaker. Remember:
- Research has shown that communication between 2 persons with different backgrounds
can only achieve a maximum of 80% communication reception – so if the client said 100
things, then the interviewer will get only 80 things right and the remaining 20 things will be
his own creation.
- Communication between 2 persons with the same background can only achieve a
maximum of 90% communication reception.
- The more persons you pass on the swing project specifications, the more of the original
intent gets lost in the translation.

Other Reasons for Success:

Project Sponsorship at executive level
Good project charter
Strong project management
The right mix of team players
Good decision making structure
Good communication
Team members are working toward common goals

Other Reasons:
 Failure to align project with organizational objectives
 Poor scope
 Unrealistic expectations
 Lack of executive sponsorship
 Lack of project management
 Inability to move beyond individual and personality conflicts

 SCOPE MANAGEMENT – Ensuring all the appropriate work within the project scope is
completed and only the work within scope is being conducted
 TIME MANAGEMENT – Schedule Management
 COST MANAGEMENT – How costs are controlled and incurred costs are paid
 QUALITY MANAGEMENT – Quality Assurance Plan – How quality control is measured
and satisfied
 COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT – How project communications will be handled
to ensure all project stakeholders are informed
 RISK MANAGEMENT – Risk Management plan to have all project stakeholders in
agreement on how project risks will be handled (aversion,
mitigation or assumption)
 CHANGE CONTROL MANAGEMENT - Without an effective process, a project's scope
typically increases with time, resulting in a project that cannot maintain its
schedule, stay within its budget, and may not know the full scope of the delivered product.

 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – Development of the project team,
reporting structure, resource capacity
 PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT – Procurement process, contract processes
 INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT – Integration of all areas of project management
to develop a cohesive project plan

 This component is used to communicate

 How the scope was defined
 How the project scope will be managed
 Who will manage the scope – there must be a group responsible for this
 Change Control – there must be a process to initiate, discuss and approve scope

 Issues not easily resolved are escalated for resolution. Escalate means it becomes a scope

 Issues are typically identified throughout the project and logged and tracked through
 In this section of the plan the following processes are depicted:
 Where issues will be maintained and tracked
 The process for updating issues regularly
 The escalation process – what to do when there is a change in scope
 The vehicle by which team members can access documented issues

Issue… already impacting the cost, time or quality

Risk… POTENTIAL negative impact to project


 Resource Planning - Full Time Employees, Professional Services, Cost, and Contingency
 Resource Planning - The physical resources required (people, equipment,
materials) and what quantities are necessary for the project
 Budget estimates – the planned budget
 Baseline estimates – basis for making estimates
 Project Actuals – the actual budget spent

 What is Quality - conformance to requirements’ - Crosby

 ‘fitness for use’ - Juran
 ‘the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated
and implied need’ - ISO 8402:1994
1. Customer-Based -> Fitness for use, meeting customer expectations.
2. Manufacturing-Based -> Conforming to design, specifications, or requirements.
Having no defects.
3. Product-Based -> The product has something that other similar products do
not that adds value.
4. Value-Based -> The product is the best combination of price and features.
5. Transcendent -> It is not clear what it is, but it is something good...
6. Patient-Based -> Provide quality patient care and patient satisfaction at
reasonable cost

Quality Planning, Quality Assurance, and Quality Control
Clearly Defined Quality Performance Standards
How those Quality and Performance Standards are measured and satisfied
How Testing and Quality Assurance Processes will ensure standards are
Continuous ongoing quality control

 Communications planning: Determining the needs (who needs what information, when
they need it, and how it will be delivered)
 Information Distribution: Defining who and how information will flow to the project
stakeholders and the frequency
 Performance Reporting: Providing project performance updates via status reporting.
 Define the schedule for the Project Meeting
 Status Meetings and Issues Meetings to be implemented
 Remember: No surprises….!

 Risk Management is a systematic approach to identifying, evaluating, and mitigating

(limiting or preventing) risks.
 Risks are a potential barrier to accomplishing project goals and objectives.
 Risk Management is not about being risk averse; it is based on informed decisions
and analyzing potential outcomes.
 Risk Management focuses on identifying and proactively responding to project
threats throughout the development life cycle.
 Ways of handling problems or risks – ACTIONS…!
 Preventive – actions to be taken to mitigate or limit the possibility of it occurring
… done during planning and evaluation(monitoring)
 Contingent – actions to be taken in case it happens … done during planning and
 Interim – you do not immediately solve the problem … we will study the situation
… dribble the ball…!
 Corrective – you completely eliminate or solve the problem – para bang surgical
operation to remove a tumor …!
 Adaptive – the problem can not be solved..! So you accept it as FACT or REALITY…
parang lahar…walang solution…tangapin na lang…!

 Formal change control is required for all of the following

1.Scope Change
2.Schedule changes
3.Technical Specification Changes
4.Training Changes

 All changes require collaboration and buy in via the project sponsor’s signature prior to
implementation of the changes
 It is preferable that there is a Change Control Committee that will make
recommendation prior to project sponsor’s approval.

 Plan the work. "If you fail to plan, you plan to fail " - Old Saying (unknown)
 By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail. - Franklin, Benjamin
 Most plans are just inaccurate predictions. - Bayol, Ben
 Before beginning, plan carefully. - Cicero, Marcus T.
 Always plan ahead. It wasn't raining when Noah built the ark. - Cushing, Richard
 A good plan is like a road map: it shows the final destination and usually the best
way to get there. - Judd, H. Stanley
 A good plan today is better than a perfect plan tomorrow. - Patton, George S. – do
not over-plan…!

 Work the plan

 Why plan if you are not going to use it.
 A plan is a plan.. Work is doing the plan and adapting to change.

 No surprises
 Everyone must KNOW what is going on.
 IF YOU are going to miss a deadline in one week. Make sure they know one or
more weeks before the deadline.
 It is not good project management to tell them you cannot meet the deadline on
the deadline itself.
 For Western cultures, a DEADLINE is DEAD. For Asian cultures – there is no such
thing as a deadline. It moves.
They should call it an ALIVELINE instead…!

Form Project Team

 Identify project sponsor. No sponsor = No project. Multiple Sponsors = No
Sponsor = Problematic Project
 Identify Team Members – Project Manager, Team Leaders, Members – state status:
full-time, part-time, support, consultants, etc.
Define Project Overview Statement
 A copy is provided in this manual
Cost-Benefit Analysis
 Only when the sponsor requires it
Make, Buy or Outsource
 Make – the team does all the project work
 Buy – opt for an off-the-shelf solution that works in other similar environments. A
short project it will be…but be careful….!
 Do not fall into the Aspirin Doctor trap – aspirin for all ailments…no matter
what it is….!
 Outsource – sub-contract the project to an external entity – project team becomes
a coordinating and controlling group
Project Kickoff or Launch
 It is necessary for everyone in the organization know that there is a project to be
 This is one of the change management technique to inform everyone of what is
going on.
 Remember – No Surprises…!

 The Triple Constraint is something you should plan, monitor and control. Remember:

 Increased Scope = increased time (schedule change) + increased cost (resource


 Tight Time or Schedule = increased resources(more manpower, money and

the other M&M’s) + reduced scope

 Tight Budget or Resource = increased time (schedule change) + reduced


 It is important to know how the triple constraint affects your project. The Project
Flexibility Matrix provides you the tool.
 This can change as the project progresses. So do a flexibility temperature check often…!
 If there is a change in the flexibility matrix … then this must be addressed via the

Project Item
Project Goals and Objectives
(Concise description of the proposed project)
Project Owner & Sponsor
(Who is the high-level administrator who is backing and funding the project.
He should be able to help the project
team to ensure project success)
(When does the project need to be completed? If spread out over time – ask
key milestones or deadlines)
(State short and long-term cost outlay. Include allowance for contingencies)
Other Resources Required
(Manpower, machine, materials and special procurement procedures for

Scope Item
Deliverable and Conditions of Satisfaction
(Documented information and knowledge produced and Conditions of
Satisfactions - how you will measure and demonstrate success)
Business Process Changes
(Will the project require the analysis or re-engineering of an established
work procedure. Will there be any personnel changes required)
(What are the risk s? A risk is some future happening that results in a change,
either positive or negative, to the project .)
Project Team
Person(s) and Job Description
Response >
Project Manager
Response >
Response >
Support, Others
Response >

 Challenges facing the project
 Organizational history
 Political implications
 Impact to traditional power
 Requirements of decision-making
 Write down what cannot be said
 Keep it objective
 If your rights are not written, then they do not exist… No surprises..!

 Decision Making Requirements

 Avoid consensus abuse - Consensus may be desired, but is not required - Lack of
consensus does not mean no decision
 Projects force decisions by leaders - Clarify who makes what decisions
 Establish structure for rapid decision making
 Communicate decisions
 Log/track decisions for future reference
 While everyone may not agree with all decisions, it’s important that team
members agree to support the decisions
 Get buy-in from sponsor and administrators preventing ‘end around.’

 Key Management Concerns Plans – most of these were discussed in the previous slides…

Quality Assurance Plan

 A quality assurance plan is a document, constructed by the project team, meant to ensure
the final products are of the upmost quality.
 The quality assurance plan should define objectives, roles and responsibilities, coordinate
with other plans, and define tasks and the schedule.
 A quality assurance plan contains a set of documented activities meant to ensure that
customers are satisfied with the goods or services a company provides.
 There are four steps of the quality assurance process: Plan, Do, Check, and Act.

 Work Breakdown Structure

 Requires structured brainstorming by the project team
Identify Planned outcomes. For each planned outcome:
 Identify the major task categories. For each task category:
 Identify sub-tasks, and sub-sub-tasks
 Use verb-noun to imply action to something
 Example: Getting up in the morning
 Hit snooze button
 Hit snooze button again
 Get out a bed
 Avoid dog
 Go to bathroom

 A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.

 Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and
summary elements of a project.
 Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown
structure of the project.
 Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i.e., precedence network)
relationships between activities.
 Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete
shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here.

 PERT network chart for a seven-month project with

 five milestones (10 through 50) and
 six activities (A through F).
 The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly abbreviated
is a model for project management designed to analyze and
represent the tasks involved in completing a given project.
 A PERT chart is a tool that facilitates decision making; The first draft of a PERT
chart will number its events sequentially in 10s
(10, 20, 30, etc.) to allow the later insertion of additional events.
 Two consecutive events in a PERT chart are linked by activities,
which are conventionally represented as arrows in the diagram above.
 The events are presented in a logical sequence and
no activity can commence until its immediately preceding event is completed.
 The planner decides which milestones should be PERT events and
also decides their “proper” sequence.
 A PERT chart may have multiple pages with many sub-tasks.
 Critical Path
 Milestones that impact downstream milestones and the overall timeline of project
 If you miss a Critical Path, the entire project is delayed, or
 You have to make up ground on downstream critical paths

 Execute project plan and accomplish project goals

 Work the Plan
 Training Plan
 Identify user training needs and design training materials
 System Build
 Refine the application design until it is concrete and detailed enough to be
 Build and test the application.
 Integrate all the individually developed and tested components into an
executable application.
 Quality Assurance
 Check if the project meets scope requirements – quality and quantity.

User Training
 Confirm time frame, type, content, and target audience of planned training.
 Conduct training according to identified characteristics.
 Evaluate outcome against goals and expectations.
 Identify effect and value of conducted training and propose retraining if

Production Review
 Review the impact of the implemented system on the business,
a central issue will be whether the system meets the goals set at the beginning
of the project.
 Depending on this the project goes to the next stage,
the post-project or loops back to one of the preceding stages for further
This review is will be documented in a PROJECT REVIEW DOCUMENT.

Start Using
 Implement the tested system at the location of the end users, called as DELIVERED


 Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.
 Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons

 This phase consists of:

 Project close: Finalize all activities across all of the process groups to formally
close the project or a project phase
 Contract closure: Complete and settle each contract (including the resolution of
any open items) and
close each contract applicable to the project or project phase

Process Responsibilities
 The project manager normally is responsible for defining and planning the project.
 This results in the completion of a Project Definition and a project workplan.
 Once the project starts, the project manager must successfully manage and control the work, including:
 Identifying, tracking managing and resolving project issues
 Proactively disseminating project information to all stakeholders
 Identifying, managing and mitigating project risk
 Ensuring that the solution is of acceptable quality
 Proactively managing scope to ensure that only what was agreed to is delivered,
unless changes are approved through scope management
 Defining and collecting metrics to give a sense for how the project is progressing and
whether the deliverables produced are acceptable
 Managing the overall workplan to ensure work is assigned and completed on time and within budget
 To manage the project management processes, a person should be:
 well organized,
 have great follow-up skills,
 be process oriented,
 be able to multi-task,
 have a logical thought process,
 be able to determine root causes,
 have good analytical ability,
 be a good estimator and budget manager, and
 have good self-discipline.
People Responsibilities
 In addition to process skills, a project manager must have good people management skills.
 This includes:
 Having the discipline and general management skills to make sure that people follow the standard processes and procedures
 Establishing leadership skills to get the team to willingly follow your direction.
 Leadership is about communicating a vision and getting the team to accept it and strive to get there with you.
 Setting reasonable, challenging and clear expectations for people, and holding them accountable for meeting the expectations.
 This includes providing good performance feedback to team members
 Team building skills so that the people work together well, and feel motivated to work hard for the sake of the project and their other
team members.
 The larger your team and the longer the project, the more important it is to have good team-building skills.
 Proactive verbal and written communicator skills, including good, active listening skills.
Multiple Roles
 Depending on the size and complexity of the project, the project manager may take on other responsibilities
in addition to managing the work.
 For instance, the project manager may assist with gathering business requirements.
 Or they may help design a database management system or they may write some of the project documentation.
 Project management is a particular role that a person fills, even if the person who is the project manager is working in other roles as well.

Being a Project Manager is HARD..!


 Do not feel bad if you failed the first time. Learn from your mistakes and be a project
manager again..!
 This is called the “95 Percent Syndrome”.
 Remember Murphy's Law or is it laws…

 To remove a defect, you have to test, find the defect and fix the defect.
 The problem is this is a never-ending process – called regression.
 So the only thing you can do is to TEST EARLY, TEST OFTEN and TEST
ENOUGH..! Know when to STOP…
 All plans tend to escalate… no matter how carefully you plan or even if you plan for it…
That’s LIFE..!
 The HARDEST THINGS to manage and control are PEOPLE…PEOPLE…PEOPLE..! The
rest is easy..!

 Program has a higher scope - missions, guiding principles, goals and objectives.
 Remember the Constraint Triangle… Increase in SCOPE means increase in