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J.T.O.

Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10


COMMUNICATION CP-EMRP
The solution to this problem is Common Channel Signalling. We may imagine
an arrangement as shown in Figure 2.5.7.
CCITT-7 = A Signalling System
CP = Central Processor
EMRP = Extension Modle Regional Processor
ST = Signalling Terminal
Figure 2.5.7
Communication CP-EMRP
However, it would be too ostly to have separate lines !or this signalling. "
more eonomial solution is to #steal$ one o! the speeh hannels to the parent
e%hange and use it !or the sending o! signals. The hannel used !or this purpose is
no. &'. The signalling in!ormation !rom C( is proessed and re!ormatted in a
signalling terminal loated in the parent e%hange. This terminal is alled Signalling
Terminal Central )STC*.
+e%t, STC puts the signalling in!ormation into hannel &'. This is done in an
e,uipment unit alled the -%hange Terminal Ciruit )-TC*, whih serves as an
inter!ae between the (C. line and the group swith. The signalling in!ormation is
then e%trated in the -T/ e,uipment o! the subsriber stage.
The Signalling Terminal 0egional )ST0* re!ormats the signalling in!ormation
and sends it to the -.0( onerned on the -.0( /us )-.0(/*.
STCs, ST0s, -.0(/s and signalling lin1s )(C. systems with hannel &'*
are always dupliated !or reasons o! reliability. See Figure 2.5.2.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
3! these sa!ety measures do not su!!ie to prevent brea1s in the
ommuniation between the subsriber stage and the parent e%hange, it will still be
possible to handle a ertain portion o! the tra!!i. 3n these situations the blo1 "T4
)"utonomous Tra!!i at 4in1 Failure* ta1es over the !untion o! the register, setting5up
internal alls in the subsriber stage by means o! the Time Swith /us. This is
re!erred to as #stand alone !untion$.
CP = Central Processor
EMRP = Extension Modle Regional Processor
EMRP!-A = EMRP-!s" A-side
EMRP!-! = EMRP-!s" !-side
ET! = Exc#ange Terminal !oard
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system
STC = Signalling Terminal Central
STR = Signalling Terminal Regional
()*+ = C#annel )* in t#e PCM line
Figure 2.5.8
The Control Part of SSS
" desribed unit is alled a 0emote Subsriber Swith )0SS*, or 0emote
Subsriber 6nit )0S6*.
3n douments and ommands, a subsriber stage is alled an -%tension
.odule 7roup )-.7*.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
SSS in PARENT E,C-AN$E
" subsriber stage that is not detahed )but loated in the parent e%hange*
has a somewhat di!!erent design. The reason !or this is the muh shorter distane to
the entral proessor and to the group swith.
The di!!erenes are as !ollows8
The -T/ printed board assembly is replaed by a printed board assembly alled
9untor Terminal Ciruit )9TC*.
+o -TC maga:ine is used, whih means diret ommuniation between 9TC and
the group swith.
STC and ST0 are ombined to !orm a maga:ine alled a 0egional (roessor
/us Converter )0(/C*. +o signalling on hannel &'.
"ll ;2 hannels to the group swith an be used !or speeh.
Figure 2.5.< shows a subsriber stage plaed in the parent e%hange.
CP = Central Processor
EMRP = Extension Modle Regional Processor
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system
.TC = .nior Terminal Circit
RP!C = Regional Processor !s Con/erter
Figure 2.5.9
SSS in Parent Exchange TS! not inclu"e"#
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
Miscellaneos E0i%ment
/elow !ollows a list o! #misellaneous$ e,uipment, i.e. e,uipment used !or
testing subsriber lines, et. See Figure 2.5.&=.
0-6 )0inging generator* is e,uipment !or generating ringing urrent. 0-6 is
loated in an -., whih means that it serves &22 subsribers. The ringing urrent
is onneted to the subsriber line via a relay in the line inter!ae iruit.
S4CT )Subsriber 4ine > Ciruit Tester* is a printed board assembly in -. used
!or routine testing o! subsriber lines and line inter!ae iruits. The e,uipment is
onneted to the subsriber line via a relay in the line inter!ae iruit.
S64T )Subsriber 4ine Tester* is an e,uipment unit whih is ommon to a
omplete -.7 )up to 2=?2 subsribers*. S64T arries out more detailed
he1ing o! subsriber lines. The tests an be ordered by ommand.
S-5@@@ )Speial -,uipment* is used !or ertain types o! subsriber e,uipment,
!or instane, oin telephones or subsribersA private meters. The e,uipment is
onneted between the telephone and the line inter!ae iruit.
3B3. )3CB 3nter!ae .aga:ine* is an e,uipment unit to whih e%ternal alarms )!ire
alarms, power !ailure alarms, et.* an be onneted. (ortable 3CB devies, an
be onneted as re,uired. 3B3. is used !or detahed subsriber stages only.
EMRP = Extension Modle Regional Processor
I1O-de/ = In%t1Ot%t 2e/ice
IOIM = I1O Inter3ace Maga4ine
5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
REU = Ringing E0i%ment Unit
SE = S%ecial E0i%ment
S5CT = S'scri'er 5ine Circit Tester
STR = Signalling Terminal Regional
SU5T = S'scri'er 5ine Tester
Figure 2.5.$%
RE&' S(CT' S&(T' SE-))) an" *+*M
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
67* AP8 6)) and AP8 6)6 - CONTRO5 PARTS o3 t#e A,E S9STEM
Today !our di!!erent proessors are used in the "@- system. The so!tware o!
all these is !ully ompatible as regards appliation programs, i.e. one and the same
program an be used in all !our proessor types.
The proessors are alled "(D 2&=, "(D 2&&, "(D 2&2 and "(D 2&;. The
!irst proessor developed !or the "@- system was the "(D 2&=, and a large number
o! these are in operation all over the world. This proessor has now been replaed by
the three other variants, whih di!!er mainly in terms o! apaity.
The Eunior in the proessor !amily is the one that was designed last8 the "(D
2&;. The apaity o! this proessor ma1es it best suited !or installation in very small
e%hanges )with up to 2=== subsribers*.
The "(D 2&& is the medium5si:ed member o! the !amily. 6sed in e%hanges
with up to ?=,=== subsribers, it is the most ommon o! the three types.
The largest version is the "(D 2&2, whose enormous apaity ma1es it
suitable !or use in large transit e%hanges. /y way o! omparison, its omputing
power would be apable o! running a 2==,=== subsriber loal e%hange.
3n some onte%ts, the apaity o! a proessor used to ontrol telephone
e%hanges is e%pressed in a unit alled /HC" )/usy Hour Call "ttempts*.
The table below gives the /HC" values !or the !our proessor types.
"(D 2&= &?? === /HC"
"(D 2&& &5= === /HC"
"(D 2&2 2== === /HC"
"(D 2&; && === /HC"
The only proessor types dealt within this boo1 are the "(D 2&& and "(D
2&2.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
SU!SCRI!ER in AP8
"s we have already seen, the "@- system is made up o! one swithing
)telephony* part, "(T, and one ontrol part, "(D. The ontrol part is implemented in
hardware and so!tware, whih is divided into subsystems and !untion blo1s in the
same way as in "(T.
"(D omprises the !ollowing subsystems8
C(S )Central (roessor Subsystem*8 This subsystem, whih ontains both
so!tware and hardware, per!orms !untions suh as Eob administration, store
handling, loading and hanging o! programs.
."S )."intenane Subsystem*8 The ."S in "(D 2&& onsists only o! so!tware,
whereas its ounterpart in "(D 2&2 ontains both so!tware and hardware. The
primary tas1 o! the subsystem is to loate hardware !aults and so!tware errors,
and to minimi:e the e!!ets o! suh !aultsCerrors.
0(S )0egional (roessor Subsystem*8 This subsystem ontains both so!tware
and hardware. The hardware is in the !orm o! regional proessors, while the
so!tware onsists o! administrative programs loated in the regional proessors.
.CS ).an5mahine Communiation Subsystem*
S(S )Support (roessor Subsystem*
FCS )Fata Communiation Subsystem*
F.S )File .anagement Subsystem*
The !our last5mentioned subsystems 5 whih all belong to the 3nputCButput
)3CB* system 5 will be dealt with separately in Setion 2.7.
We will now e%amine in detail the two types o! entral proessors that an be
used in the "@- system.
COMMON :UNCTIONS
4et us start by establishing what harateristis are idential in the two
proessors8
Fupliated hardware. To minimi:e the e!!ets o! hardware !aults, two idential
proessors are used, eah having its own store. The two proessors are alled
the "5side )C(5"* and the /5side )C(5/*.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
(arallel operation8 /oth sides e%eute the same programs 5 instrution by
instrution. Sine the two sides are ompared ontinuously, hardware !aults will
be deteted immediately.
Bne o! the sides )usually C(5"* is -@-C6T3G-, and the regional proessors
always reeive their orders !rom that side. There will be no redution in proessor
apaity i! one o! the sides stops wor1ing.
"!ter a side has been halted and repaired, it must return to operation in
parallel with the !aultless side. To permit this, data is trans!erred !rom the e%eutive
side to the repaired side. This proess is alled 6(F"T3+7.
The purpose o! updating is to ensure that both sides ontain the same
programs and the same data.
"!ter the updating, the "5side will be -@-C6T3G- and the /5side will be
ST"+F/H. Sine both sides will reeive the same in!ormation !rom the regional
proessors, they will ontain e%atly the same data and do e%atly the same wor1.
AP8 6))
We will begin by studying the smaller o! the two proessors8 the "(D 2&&.
Figure 2.'.& shows one o! the sides o! an "(D 2&& proessor.
!AC = !s Access Controller
CPU = Central Processor Unit
MS = Main Store
RP- = Regional Processor -andler
UPM = U%dating and Matc# Unit
Figure 2.,.$
-P. 2$$ onl/ one 0i"e i0 0ho1n#
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
The proessor onsists o! a number o! !untion blo1s, eah per!orming a
spei!i !untion. -ah !untion onsists o! a number o! printed board assemblies.
Figure 2.'.2. shows the hardware !untion blo1s in "(D 2&&, and the buses
that interonnet them.
AM5 = Atomatic Maintenance 5in;
AMU = Atomatic Maintenance Unit
!AC = !s Access Controller
!C5 = !s Control 5in;
CP-A = Central Processor" A-side
CP-! = Central Processor" !-side
CP! = Central Processor !s
CPU = Central Processing Unit
IRP-! = Interregional Processor -andler !s
MS = Main Store
RP = Regional Processor
RP- = Regional Processor -andler
UM! = U%dating and Matc# !s
UPM = U%dating and Matc# Unit
Figure 2.,.2
!loc2 3iagram' -P. 2$$
3n the !ollowing we are going to study eah !untion blo1 separately.
RP- <Regional Processor -andler=> 0(H handles the signalling to and !rom the
regional proessors. The unit operates ompletely independently in per!orming
this tas1. -ah 0(H an handle up to &22 regional proessors, and up to !our
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
0(Hs an be onneted. 0(H ontains a power!ul &'5bit miroproessor, whih
has its own store. The unit has aess to the entral bus in the proessor and an
itsel! address the store o! the entral proessor, .S.
MS <Main Store=> This is the memory o! "(D 2&&. .S ontains both programs
and data, and has a ma%imum storage apaity o! &'. &'5bit words. The store
!untions inlude an error detetion and orretion ode, whih means that
unompliated bit errors an be orreted without a!!eting the tra!!i handling.
This ode re,uires another ' bits per word. Figure 2.'.; shows an .S storage
board.
Figure 2.,.4
MS !oar" for $ M 5or"0
CPU <Central Processor Unit=> This is the very heart o! the proessor. C(6
per!orms all arithmetial and logial operations. 3n addition, it ontains the
miroprogram. What is a miroprogramI 5 See Figure 2.'.?.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
MS 6 Main Store
CP 6 Central Proce00or
Figure 2.,.7
The Micro8rogram Princi8le
-ah mahine instrution orresponds to a number o! miroinstrutions.
Thus, the ontrol in!ormation sent to the other units in the entral proessor is in the
!orm o! miroinstrutions.
!AC <!s Access Controller=> The hie! tas1 o! this unit is to determine #who$
will be allowed to send data on the bus in the entral proessor )C(/ 5 Central
(roessor /us*. /oth C(6 and 0(H an have aess to C(/.
UPM <U%dating and Matc# Unit=> This !untion blo1 has two important
!untions8 )i* 3n normal parallel operation, the 6./ )6pdating and .ath /us*,
whih interonnets the 6(. !untion blo1s, is used !or ontinuous omparison
between the two C( sides. The omparison is made in the standby side, )ii* 3n
updating operations the same bus is used to trans!er data to the side that is being
updated. The updating is ontrolled by the /"C !untion blo1, and the two /"C
!untion blo1s are interonneted by a bus alled /us Control 4in1 )/C4*.
AMU <Atomatic Maintenance Unit=> The hie! tas1 o! this !untion blo1 is to
initiate testing o! the proessors on detetion o! hardware !aults. ".6 also
deides whih o! the sides should be -@-C6T3G-. ".6 is onneted to both
sides over a bus alled "utomati .aintenane 4in1 )".4*.
AP8 6)6
+ow, we will e%amine the larger and more power!ul o! the two proessors8 the
"(D 2&2.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
The apaity o! "(D 2&2 is about !ive times that o! "(D 2&&. How is this
possible I
The reason is two!old8
)i* -ah proessor side has two proessors8 one that administers the wor1,
and another that e%eutes the atual program.
)ii* .uh wor1 an be done in parallel in the proessor. Tas1s that re,uire
several se,uenes in "(D 2&& may only need one se,uene in "(D 2&2.
Figure 2.'.5 shows one o! the sides o! an "(D 2&2 proessor.
CPTUM = E0i%ment 3or Test
CPUM = Central Processor Unit <SPU ? IPU=
2SUM = 2ata Store
MAUM = Maintenance Unit
PO@CM = Po&er Control
PSUM = Program Store
RPIM = Regional Processor -andler
Figure 2.,.5
-P. 2$2 onl/ one 0i"e i0 0ho1n#
" simpli!ied blo1 diagram o! the proessor is shown in Figure 2.'.'.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
CP-A = Central Processor" A-side
CP-! = Central Processor" !-side
2S = 2ata Store
IPU = Instrction Processor
MAU = Maintenance Unit
PS = Program Store
RP = Regional Processor
RP- = Regional Processor -andler
RS = Re3erence Store
SPU = Signal Processor
UM!-I = U%dating and Matc# !s 3or IPU
UMP-S = U%dating and Matc# !s 3or SPU
Figure 2.,.,
!loc2 3iagram' -P. 2$2
RP- <Regional Processor -andler=> "s in "(D 2&&, 0(H handles
ommuniation with the regional proessors.
SPU <Signal Processor=> This proessor administers the wor1 in "(D 2&2. 3t
also prepares the wor1 to be done by 3(6 )see below*, thus enabling the latter
unit to e%eute programs ontinuously. We may ompare S(6 to a seretary who
tells her boss where and when he is to attend meetings, ma1es new
appointments, and does the mailing and telephoning 5 thus giving the boss )the
3(6* time to ma1e important deisions.
IPU <Instrction Processor=8 "s has been said, 3(6As hie! tas1 is to e%eute
programs, and S(6 tells 3(6 the address at whih it should start e%euting them.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
3(6 has aess to three storage units alled (S, 0S and FS. The use o! these
stores will be dealt within Setion 2.2.
MAU <Maintenance Unit=> The main tas1 o! this unit is the same as that o! ".6
in "(D 2&&, i.e. to initiate tests in both sides in ase o! !ault. ."6 also deides
whih side is to be -@-C6T3G-.
ARC-ITECTURE o3 IPU and SPU
"s we have seen, muh o! the wor1 done in "(D 2&2 is per!ormed in parallel.
To lari!y this we will have a loser loo1 at the 3(6 struture )whih is similar
to that o! S(6*.
" onventional omputerCproessor usually has only one entral bus !or
internal trans!ers, whereas 3(6 has three internal buses !or data trans!ers. See
Figure 2.'.7.
A5U = Arit#metic and 5ogic Unit
CP! = Central Processor !s
IPU = Instrction Processor
Figure 2.,.7
- Com8ari0on 9et1een a Con:entional Proce00or an" -P. 2$2
"dding together two numbers in a onventional proessor re,uires !our
phases8
P#ase )> Trans!er o! +6./-0 & to a register in "46. )"46 is that unit in a
proessor whih per!orms arithmeti operations*.
P#ase 6> Trans!er o! +6./-0 2 to another register in "46.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
P#ase A> "ddition o! two numbers in "46.
P#ase B> Trans!er o! the results to the desired unit.
3n "(D 2&2 the above ?5phase operation an be per!ormed in a S3+74-
phase. +6./-0 & is sent on bus ", simultaneously with the sending o! +6./-0 2
on bus /. "ddition ta1es plae in "46, whih then sends the result on the result bus
to the desired unit.
RE$IONA5 PROCESSORS
"s we 1now, the Central (roessor )C(* is assisted by a number o! 0egional
(roessors )0(*. The bus !or ommuniation between the C( and the 0(s is alled
the 0egional (roessor /us )0(/*.
"ll regional proessors are dupliated !or reasons o! reliability. However, their
method o! interwor1ing di!!ers somewhat !rom that o! the two entral proessors. Two
0(s operate normally aording to the 4B"F SH"03+7 priniple, whih means that
one 0( ontrols one hal! o! the e,uipment while the other 0( ontrols the other hal!.
3! a !ault ours in an 0(, the other 0( an ta1e over ontrol o! all the e,uipment.
The e,uipment ontrolled by an 0( pair are arranged in groups alled
-%tension .odules )-.*. -ah 0( pair normally ontrols 2 or &' -.s.
"n -. is usually a maga:ine e,uipped with printed board assemblies, but it
may also onsist o! a single printed board assembly.
-%amples8 " TS. 5 the time swith in the group.
swith 5 is a maga:ine made up o! &2 printed board
assemblies. This is an -..
"n -TC )digit trun1* is a printed board assembly
aommodated in a maga:ine. This is also an -..
For the regional proessors to be able to ontrol the e,uipment o! an -.
there is a bus alled the -%tension .odule /us )-./*.
4et us now study Figure 2.'.2 whih illustrates what we have said above.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
CP-A = Central Processor" A-side
CP-! = Central Processor" !-side
EM = Extension Modle
RP = Regional Processor
RP!-A = Regional Processor !s" A-side
RP!-! = Regional Processor !s" !-side
Figure 2.,.8
Communication CP - RP - EM
Figure 2.'.< shows a regional proessor.
Figure 2.,.9
Regional Proce00or
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
" regional proessor onsists o! 5 printed board assemblies8 one !or power
supply, two !or ommuniation with the entral proessors )"5side and /5side*, and
two whih onstitute the atual proessor. Bne o! the two last mentioned printed
board assemblies ).-6* is e,uipped with a store and with iruits !or ommuniation
with the -. bus. The other one )(0B* has miroprograms, an "46, and iruits !or
address alulation. See Figure 2.'.&=.
EM! = Extension Modle !s
MEU = Memory Unit
PRO = Processor Unit
RP!-A = Regional Processor !s" A-side
RP!-! = Regional Processor !s" !-side
RP!U = Regional Processor !s Unit
Figure 2.,.$%
!loc2 3iagram of a Regional Proce00or
PROCESSORS in t#e SU!SCRI!ER STA$E
"ll proessors and signalling terminals used in the subsriber stage have 25bit
miroproessors as their #nulei$. The reason !or this is primarily eonomi8
miroproessors are heap.
-ah signalling terminal )STC, ST0* has a proessor whih handles and
supervises the signalling between C( and -.0(.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
-ah -. in the subsriber stage is assoiated with an -%tension .odule
0egional (roessor )-.0(*. Sine the -.0(s only ontrol one -. eah, their
apaity is smaller than that o! a #regular$ 0(.
SA:ET9 ASPECTS
What would happen i! parts or the whole o! the ontrol system should stop
!untioningI Well, the e%hange would ollapse, resulting in a atastrophi tra!!i
situation. "nd this, o! ourse, must be prevented at all osts.
+one o! todayAs manu!aturers o! eletroni omponents an guarantee
trouble5!ree operation !or ;=5?= years )the estimated servie li!e o! an e%hange*. So
we 1now that omponents will brea1 down.
How an we prepare !or thisI
The answer is dupliated hardware, and programs to ontrol it.
The whole o! the "@- ontrol system is dupliated up to the level represented
by an -.8
Fupliated entral proessors.
Fupliated 0( buses.
Fupliated regional proessors.
Fupliated -. buses.
The ontrol system is also dupliated in its ommuniation with the subsriber
stage8
Fupliated STCs.
Fupliated signalling lin1s.
Fupliated ST0s.
Fupliated -.0( buses.
"s a result o! these sa!ety arrangements, hardware !aults ourring in the
ontrol system will not a!!et the tra!!i.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
The system has a large number o! built5in he1 !untions !or supervising the
hardware.
These !untions inlude anything !rom omparison between the C( sides to
simple parity he1s on buses.
When a !ault is deteted in the ontrol system, blo1ing o! the !aulty unit and
swith5over to the !aultless side is always initiated.
Then !ollows more omprehensive testing o! the !aulty unit, giving one o! two
results8
i. The !ault was temporary )it only lasted !or a very short period o! time*.
3n!ormation on temporary !aults is always stored, and i! the number o!
temporary !aults reahes a preset ritial value, the unit involved will be
blo1ed.
ii. The !ault was permanent. "larm in!ormation is sent to the e%hange
personnel. The alarm printout indiates the printed board assembly )ies*
that are suspeted o! being !aulty. We will revert to this in Chapter 5.
The so!tware !or all this is ontained in ."S )."intenane Subsystem*.
-AN25IN$ o3 :AU5TS in t#e CENTRA5 PROCESSOR
Finally, we are going to study the method used to diagnose a !ault in the
entral proessor. "s said be!ore, the two C( sides are ompared ontinuously. The
purpose o! this omparison is to detet hardware !aults. 3! there is mismath between
the two sides, then one o! them must be !aulty. To deide whih side is !aulty, a
2= ms test program is initiated.
"!ter the test program has been e%euted, the !aultless side ontinues to
proess tra!!i. This is done without disturbing the teleom servie.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
".6 in "(D 2&& and ."6 in "(D 2&2 are the units that initiate these
operations. "!ter the !aulty side has been blo1ed, ".6C."6 initiates updating o! the
!aulty side. The purpose o! the updating is two!old8 to see whether the !ault still
e%ists, and to loate it. 3! the !ault is not o! a temporary nature, an alarm will be
initiated on ompletion o! the updating phase.
Figure 2.'.&& illustrates the proess desribed above.
AMU = Atomatic Maintenance Unit <AP8 6))=
CP-A = Central Processor" A-side
CP-! = Central Processor" !-side
MAU = Maintenance Unit <AP8 6)6=
Figure 2.,.$$
Fault Reco:er/ in the Central Proce00or
677 T-E I1O <INPUT1OUTPUT= S9STEM in A,E
What is an 3CB system used !or in a telephone e%hangeI
This ,uestion is !re,uently as1ed by persons with no e%periene o! S(C
e%hanges.
The #3CB System$ in mehanial e%hanges was made up o! a !ew lamps and
perhaps some test e,uipment. 3n an S(C e%hange, most o! the internal wor1 is
done via the 3CB system. /elow !ollows a list o! some o! the ativities per!ormed with
the aid o! the 3CB system.
69
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
Connetion o! subsribers.
Change o! subsriber ategories.
Butput o! harging )all metering* data.
"utomati printout o! alarms.
Fault traing )in so!tware and hardware*.
.easurements )e.g. tra!!i reording*.
Storage o! ba1up so!tware !or automati reloading o! the system as a
result o! serious !aults.
Communiation over data lin1s with operation and maintenane entres,
et.
The 3CB system !untions are implemented in !our subsystems as !ollows8
SUPPORT PROCESSOR SU!S9STEM <SPS=
This subsystem inludes a power!ul proessor !or ommuniation with all 3CB
devies. This proessor, whih was developed by -risson, is also used in other
appliations. The proessor is generally re!erred to as #"(+ &'7$. The S(S also
handles !untions !or blo1ing, deblo1ing and supervision o! 3CB devies.
:I5E MANA$EMENT SU!S9STEM <:MS=
This subsystem handles all types o! !iles used in the system. )The term #!ile$
denotes all data stored on tape, !loppy dis1s and Winhester dis1s*. The data blo1s
o! the system must always #onsult$ F.S be!ore storage o! in!ormation in e%ternal
storage media )output o! harging data, et.*.
MAN-MAC-INE COMMUNICATION SU!S9STEMS <MCS=
This subsystem handles ommuniation between the 3CB devies and the rest
o! the system. The 3CB devies an be in the !orm o! display units, paper5opy
printers, alarm panels, or intelligent personal omputers )intelligent terminals using
simple menu system instead o! #regular$ "@- ommands*.
70
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
2ATA COMMUNICATION SU!S9STEM <2CS=
This subsystem handles the ommuniation between blo1s in C( and S(.
The subsystem struture is in aordane with international standards )3SB* !or 3CB
systems8 Bpen Systems 3nteronnetion )BS3*. FCS also handles the
ommuniation over data lin1s aording to CC3TTAs standardi:ed data protools
@.25, @.75 and @.22.
-AR2@ARE
So !ar we have only disussed some o! the !untions inluded in the 3CB
system. +ow, we are going to get a,uainted with the atual hardware. "s has been
said, the nuleus o! the 3CB system is the Support (roessor )S(*. For apaity and
reliability reasons, several S(s an be onneted in parallel. Figure 2.7.& shows
some o! the 3CB devies that an be onneted.
CP = Central Processor
2CI = 2ata C#annel Inter3ace
M! = Mega 'its
RP! = Regional Processor !s
SP = S%%ort Processor
C2U = Cisal 2is%lay Unit
Figure 2.7.$
;ar"1are Structure of the *<+ S/0tem
71
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
COMMAN2S
The operation and maintenane personnel use ommands to ma1e
modi!iations in an e%hange. The "@- ommand language is in aordane with
CC3TTAs reommendations.
" ommand onsists o! !ive letters whih indiate 5 in abbreviated !orm 5 the
tas1 to be per!ormed by the ommand onerned. This !ive5letter ode is !ollowed by
a number o! parameters whih desribe 5 in more spei!i terms 5 the wor1 to be
done. 4et us study the !ollowing e%ample8
The system has !ound a regional proessor to be !aulty and blo1ed it
automatially. "!ter repair )hange o! printed board assemblies* the regional
proessor is to resume servie. The e,uipment is to be deblo1ed. The
orresponding ommand is as !ollows8
!5RPE> RP = BDE
The ommand ode #/40(-$ is the abbreviated !orm o! #/4o1ing o!
0egional (roessor, -nd$. The parameter a!ter the ommand ode indiates the
identity o! the regional proessor involved, in this ase 0( number ?5 )all 0(s have
individual numbers*. " ommand always ends with a semi5olon.
MAN-MAC-INE COMMUNICATION USIN$ PERSONA5 COMPUTERS
<MMS-PC=
The number o! ommands in "@- is very large )about &===*, and some
ativities re,uire several ommands. 3nterventions o! a !re,uent nature 5 suh as
hanging subsriber ategories 5 an be simpli!ied by using a (ersonal Computer
)(C*.
The so!tware in a personal omputer ma1es it easier !or the e%hange
personnel to ommuniate with "@-.
3nstead o! 1eying a large number o! ommands )eah o! whih may ontain
several parameters*, we ompose a #!orm$ on the graphi display unit o! the (C. /y
!illing in the desired values in the empty s,uares o! the !orm, we an over several
72
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
ommands. The !orms are tailor5made !or di!!erent types o! Eob. Figure 2.7.2 shows
an e%ample o! suh a !orm.
Figure 2.7.2
Exam8le of a Form
This simpli!ied method o! ommuniating with the system o!!ers many
advantages to personnel and administrations, !or instane8
0edued ris1 o! mista1es in handling proedures.
The operator need not possess a detailed 1nowledge o! the system.
The !orms an be written in the loal language.
+ew !orms an easily be tailor5made !or new Eobs.
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J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
A5ARMS
3! the system detets abnormalities in the hardware or so!tware, it initiates an
alarm. The alarm is automatially printed out on a typewriter and indiated visually on
an alarm panel. )We will revert to this in Chapter 5*.
"larms an be lassi!ied in di!!erent types, lasses and ategories. 3n a given
alarm situation, this lassi!iation enables the system to alert the right personnel and
to indiate the degree o! emergeny.
Alarm Ty%e> There are two alarm types8
)i* "utomatially initiated alarms, and
)ii* Bbservation alarms generated as a result o! the e%hange personnel
blo1ing e,uipment units.
Alarm Class> " lass indiating priority is assigned to all alarms. The system
has three lasses alled "& )top priority*, "2 and ";.
Alarm Category> Bne out o! &' alarm ategories is assigned to eah alarm.
The purpose o! these ategories is to indiate the type o! e,uipment whih
aused the alarm. -%amples8 proessors, power units, subsriber lines.
"ll alarms generated in the system are stored in an alarm list. This list is
printed out at intervals deided by the e%hange personnel, but a printout an also be
initiated by ommand.
We will revert to this in Chapter 5, whih deals with the operation and
maintenane o! "@- e%hanges.
67F A22RESSIN$ PRINCIP5ES and t#e OPERATIN$ S9STEM
"s we 1now, the "@- system is divided into !untion blo1s, all interwor1ing
between the blo1s ta1ing plae via the entral proessor.
To !ailitate loation and identi!iation, eah blo1 has been given a uni,ue
number. )"n "@- e%hange ontains between ;== and 5== !untion blo1s*.
74
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
The program store positions o! all blo1s are written in a store alled the
0e!erene Store )0S*. -ah blo1 in the system is represented by a number o! data
words in 0S. Bne o! these words indiates where in the (rogram Store )(S* the
blo1 is stored. 3n "(D 2&2 these stores are physially separated, whereas in "(D
2&&, they are both ontained in .S ).ain Store*. See Figure 2.2.&.
PS = Program Store
PSA = Program Start Address
RS = Re3erence Store
Figure 2.8.$
&0e of the Reference Store RS#
This word in the re!erene store is alled (rogram Start "ddress )(S"* and
indiates the address at whih the blo1 begins. The blo1 number )/+* is used !or
addressing in 0S.
We an thus say that eah blo1 in the system has an area o! its own in the
re!erene store8 a table alled the 0e!erene Table. " !untion blo1 an usually
per!orm a large number o! tas1s or 9B/S. -ah Eob is initiated by sending a signal to
the blo1. To !ind the wanted Eob within the blo1, eah signal has been given an
individual number, the Signal +umber )S+*. )" synonymous term is #signal loation$*.
To initiate a Eob within a blo1 we thus use a blo1 number and a signal
number. These two elements !orm what is usually alled a SBFTW"0- S37+"4 and
are normally abbreviated /+ J S+.
How is the signal number used in the blo1I
75
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
SI$NA5 2ISTRI!UTION TA!5E
"t the beginning o! eah blo1 there is a table alled the Signal Fistribution
Table )SFT*. This table, whih starts at (S", is reversed as shown in Figure 2.2.2.
PS = Program Store
PSA = Program Start Address
S2T = Signal 2istri'tion Ta'le
Figure 2.8.2
The Signal 3i0tri9ution Ta9le
"n address is written in eah position o! the signal distribution table. This
address, whih is always relative to the start address o! the blo1 )(S"*, indiates
where in the program the di!!erent Eobs begin.
Conse,uently, the absolute address o! a Eob will be as !ollows8 The start
address o! the blo1 J the address given in the signal distribution table. See Figure
2.2.;.
We have now studied the addressing o! programs, or rather8 how a Eob in a
blo1 is addressed.
A22RESSIN$ o3 2ATA
The te%t that !ollows desribes how a blo1 addresses its data. )" blo1 an
only address its #own$ data*.
76
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
PS = Program Store
PSA = Program Start Address
SN = Signal Nm'er
Figure 2.8.4
The -""re00ing of a =o9
First, we will use a simpli!ied e%ample to e%plain the term #data$. "ssume that
we have ? devies o! a given type, and that these devies are loated in )onneted
to* the group swith. The devies !orm part o! blo1 @, whose data ontains ertain
in!ormation about the ? devies.
The !ollowing in!ormation must be stored !or eah devie8
)i* The state o! the devie )!ree, engaged, blo1ed, et.*.
)ii* Where the devie is onneted to the group swith, i.e. the inlet or
multiple position ).6(*.
)iii* The value o! a disturbane ounter )!or supervision*.
Thus, the blo1 needs three variables. See Figure 2.2.?.
77
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system
MUP = Mlti%le Position
Figure 2.8.7
Tele8hon/ 3e:ice0 1ith 3ata
This way o! illustrating data is not ,uite in aordane with the !ats.
4oo1ing at the way in whih the data is stored in the data store we !ind that all
variables o! the same types are stored together. See Figure 2.2.5.
2S = 2ata Store
MUP = Mlti%le Position
Figure 2.8.5
3ata Store" in the 3ata Store
78
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
What must the program do to !ind these variables )whih are dispersed in
di!!erent plaes in the store*I
The answer is the 0-F-0-+C- STB0- )0S*.
3n the re!erene store all variables o! a blo1 have a table alled the /ase
"ddress Table. The !untions o! this table inlude storage o! in!ormation indiating
where in the data store the variables are loated.
-ah variable within a blo1 has been given a number whih is used as a
pointer within the table o! the blo1. To indiate where in 0S this /ase "ddress Table
is to be !ound, a word alled /ase Start "ddress )/S"* is given in the 0e!erene
Table. The word that indiates the storage position o! the variable is alled a Word
"ddress )W"*. See Figure 2.2.'.
!SA = !ase Start Address
2S = 2ata Store
MUP = Mlti%le Position
PS = Program Store
PSA = Program Start Address
RS = Re3erence Store
S2T = Signal 2istri'tion Ta'le
@A = @ord Address
Figure 2.8.,
-""re00ing of Program an" 3ata for +ne Function !loc2
"t !irst sight this may seem an unneessarily ompliated way o! addressing.
/ut, as we will see below, the method has obvious advantages, !or instane8
79
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
" program an be stored anywhere in the program store without a!!eting
anything e%ept the (S" in the re!erene store.
" program se,uene )a Eob* an be plaed anywhere within a blo1 without
a!!eting anything e%ept the address in the signal distribution table.
The number o! variables per blo1 is ompletely !le%ible. Bnly the si:e o! the
/ase "ddress Table o! the blo1 is a!!eted.
The number o! devies an easily be inreased or dereased beause the
variable blo1 an be moved to a vaant area in the data store. Bnly the Word
"ddress )W"* is a!!eted.
SI$NA5 SEN2IN$
Bne o! the variables o! blo1 @ is #disturbane ounter$. )There is one ounter
!or eah devie*. Some other blo1 will re,uest 5 at regular intervals 5 the values o!
the ounters. )For e%ample, a supervisory blo1 in the B.S subsystem. (reset limit
values have been spei!ied in this blo1*.
The other blo1 5 here alled H 5 will re,uest in!ormation by sending a
so!tware signal. /lo1 @ will read o!! the values o! the ounters and plae them in a
register alled the 0egister .emory )0.*.
This register, whih is loated in C(6, is used !or standardi:ed trans!er o!
data between the blo1s.
The blo1 number and the signal number o! blo1 H are stored in blo1 @ in a
table alled the Signal Sending Table )SST*. This in!ormation, too, is plaed in 0..
See Figure 2.2.7.
0. now ontains a so!tware signal and its assoiated data, and these
ontents will initiate a program se,uene in blo1 H. How important is it, that this
must be done immediatelyI "re there other, more urgent tas1s that the proessor
should attend toI Hes, probably.
80
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!N = !loc; Nm'er
2S = 2ata Store
PS = Program Store
PSA = Program Start Address
RM = Re3erence Memory
S2T = Signal 2istri'tion Ta'le
SN = Signal Nm'er
SST = Signal Sending Ta'le
Figure 2.8.7
- Signal Sent from !loc2 >)?
We thus reali:e that the proessor must have some 1ind o! (03B03TH
SHST-..
T-E OPERATIN$ S9STEM
Furing the design phases it has been deided what signals should have
priority over other signals. 3n other words, there is a signal hierarhy. The priority o! a
given signal determines the 9B/ /6FF-0 in whih the signal will be plaed.
3n "(D 2&& a Eob bu!!er is a separate area in .S, while in "(D 2&2, it is a
separate store in S(6.
Two Eob bu!!ers are provided !or tra!!i5handling programs, and another two
!or maintenane programs. The !our Eob bu!!ers "5F are named 9/", 9//, 9/C and
9/F.
9/" has the highest priority and 9/F the lowest. This means that the
proessor will e%eute Eobs in 9/" until that Eob bu!!er is empty. Bnly then an it start
e%euting Eobs in the other bu!!ers.
3! we send our signal to blo1 H, it will be plaed in 9/C. See Figure 2.2.2.
81
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!N = !loc; Nm'er
.!A = .o' !33er A
.!! = .o' !33er !
.!C = .o' !33er C
.!2 = .o' !33er 2
RM = Register Memory
SN = Signal Nm'er
Figure 2.8.8
The Four =o9 !uffer0
Bur signal to blo1 H will thus have to wait !or a short moment8 a Eob with
higher priority must be e%euted !irst.
3n some ases it may be onvenient to delay ),ueue* a signal !or a given
period o! time or until a given point in time.
The entral proessor has ? time ,ueues. The operating priniple o! these
,ueues is that a ounter is deremented by & at regular intervals, and when the
ounter reahes :ero, a so!tware signal is sent to one o! the blo1s.
Bne o! the time ,ueues is an "/SB46T- K6-6-, whih means that the
delay will last until a ertain date and a ertain hour.
Figure 2.2.< shows the !our time ,ueues and their ma%imum delay.
Time ,ueues are used to delay signals that do not appear at regular intervals.
" so5alled 9B/ T"/4- is used i! a blo1 re,uires regular reeption o! a signal )!or
instane, to per!orm time supervision !untions*. The priniple is the same as !or the
time ,ueues )a ounter is deremented to :ero*. The derementation ta1es plae
82
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
every &= ms, and to enable the proessor to 1now when &= ms have elapsed, a
!untion alled Clo1 3nterrupt is provided.
Figure 2.8.9
The Time @ueue0
This is a ounter whih sends a Clo1 3nterrupt Signal )C3S* every &= ms and
initiates derementation o! the Eob table ounters.
We say that the proessor has a primary interval o! &= ms. +ote that this has
nothing to do with the speed at whih the proessor operates8 it ma1es the proessor
apable o! measuring time.
67G TRA::IC -AN25IN$
"s we 1now, the "@- system is made up o! a number o! !untion blo1s.
Sine several !untions ta1e part in the set5up, supervision and learing o! all
!ailities must be provided !or blo1 interwor1. 3n this setion, we are going to have a
loser loo1 at suh interblo1 ommuniation.
The partiipants in the interwor1 are the entral so!tware units o! the !untion
blo1s, whih ommuniate with the aid o! so!tware signals )See Figures 2.2.; and
83
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
2.2.7*. How and in what order the blo1s should e%hange signals is determined in
the design phase )We will return to this later in the boo1*.
Sine the atual number o! signals re,uired to set5up and lear a all is ,uite
large )between &5= and 2== !or an ordinary loal all*, our presentation will be
somewhat simpli!ied.
The model we are going to use when studying the various all phases is
!ound in Figure 2.<.&.
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.$
Mo"el for 3e0cri9ing the :ariou0 Call Pha0e0
4et us start by identi!ying the omponent parts o! the !igure. The upper
setion represents the hardware whih ta1es part in the onnetions we are going to
study, while the lower setion represents the entral so!tware o! the di!!erent blo1s.
84
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
Sine we are already !amiliar with most o! the blo1s, we will only omment
on the ones that have been added.
CA C-AR$IN$ ANA59SIS
C" is responsible !or the analysis o! harging data. -%amples o! results !rom
suh analyses are the identity o! the e%hange whih is to harge the all and the
harging method to be used.
P2 PU5SE 2ISTRI!UTION
(F handles the stepping o! the subsribersA allmeters.
C75A!T CCITT No77 5A!E5 TRANS5ATION
The blo1 ats as an inter!ae between TSS and CSS. 3n the messages sent
by CC3TT +o. 7 !rom other e%hanges, a number indiates the line that interlin1s the
two e%hanges involved. C74"/T translates this number into a !orm whih agrees
with the internal numbering in the e%hange.
C72R CCITT No7 7 2ISTRI!UTION and ROUTIN$
The blo1 sends CC3TT +o.7 messages to the desired destination. C7F0
also goes through all inoming messages to deide whether they are intended !or
#our$ e%hange or should be passed on.
AN OUT$OIN$ CA55
3n the !ollowing we will study an outgoing all !rom subsriber #"$ to
subsriber #/$. )3n telephone swithing, #"5subsriber$ and #/5subsriber$ are
aepted terms denoting the alling and the alled subsriber, respetively*.
3n eah o! the !igures below, the blo1s that ta1e part in the respetive
se,uenes are shaded. The arrows between the blo1s indiate so!tware signals.
"!ter eah !igure !ollows a te%t whih desribes the events illustrated in the !igure.
85
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.2
The --Su90cri9er lift0 hi0 ;an"0et
" subsriber li!ts his handset to ma1e a all. This is deteted by the
subsriberAs line iruit, whih is sanned ontinuously by a devie proessor on the
line iruit board )See Figure 2.5.?*. The -.0( sans all devie proessors at
regular intervals to see i! something has happened, so the -.0( is in!ormed about
the li!ting o! the handset and sends in its turn a signal to the entral so!tware o! the
432 blo1. 432 sends a signal to the C9 blo1 )Combined 9untor*, whih o5ordinates
the ativities per!ormed within the SSS subsystem. C9 as1s the 9T blo1 )9untor
Terminal* to reserve a hannel to the group swith !or our all. 3! the subsriber stage
is detahed )i.e. remote*, then a blo1 0T )0emote Terminal* will be used instead o!
9T.
86
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.4
Connecting a ARC
The ne%t thing to do is to see i! the "5subsriber has been assigned any
!ailities. )He may, !or instane, have the !aility #non5dialled onnetion$ 5 also alled
#hot line$ 5 whih means that he need not dial any digits*. Furthermore, the swithing
e,uipment must 1now whether the subsriber has a 1eyset telephone or not, and this
in!ormation is stored in the SC blo1 )Subsriber Categories*. 3! the subsriber has a
1eyset telephone, a 1eyset ode reeiver )L0C* must be onneted. C9 orders L02
to selet a !ree L0C, and when L02 has !ound suh a devie it orders the Time
Swith )TS* to set5up a onnetion between the subsriberAs 43C and the seleted
L0C.
87
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.7
Selection of Regi0ter an" Sen"ing of 3ial Tone
"n 0- individual is now to be reserved to handle the set5up o! our all. )"n
0- individual is a data area in the 0- blo1 whih stores in!ormation about this
partiular all*. To ma1e the reservation, C9 sends a signal to 0-, and this signal
passes via SC to !eth more ategories. These are then stored in 0- and will be
used later on during the set5up phase. When an 0- individual has been seleted, the
e%hange is ready to reeive digits. 0- in!orms C9 to that e!!et, and C9 passes the
in!ormation on to L02, whih ativates the !untion !or sending o! dial tone to the "5
subsriber.
88
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.5
-nal/0ing the Fir0t 3igit
The subsriberAs dialling o! the !irst digit is deteted by the L0C. The L02
blo1 sends the digit to C9, whih sends it on to 0-. 0- stores the digit and sends it
to F" )Figit "nalysis* !or analysis. The in!ormation ontained in F" is in the !orm o!
tables and is to a great e%tent dependent on the on!iguration o! the networ1 in whih
the e%hange is inluded.
The result o! the analysis is sent to 0-, whih ta1es di!!erent 1inds o! ation
depending on what the result indiates.
The !ollowing are e%amples o! analysis results8
+umber length.
Charging ase. This in!ormation is used !or !urther analysis in C" )Charging
"nalysis*.
89
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.,
-nal/0i0 of Charging Ca0e an" +utgoing Route
0- reeives a routing ase as analysis result !rom F" and sends it diret to
the 0" blo1 )0oute "nalysis* !or !urther analysis.
0" responds by indiating the outgoing route to be used and the number o!
digits to be sent to the ne%t e%hange. 0- treats the harging ase indiated by F"
as analysis result in the same manner, but sends it to C" )Charging "nalysis*
instead. C" responds by indiating how the all is to be harged.
90
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.7
Selection of an +utgoing (ine
The in!ormation about the route to be used enables 0- to as1 the /T blo1
)/othway Trun1* to selet a !ree outgoing line in the route. 3! /T does not !ind any
!ree line, 0- will as1 the 0" blo1 )0oute "nalysis* to provide an alternative route.
)Here we assume that /T !inds a !ree line*.
/T answers 0- by telling it whih line has been seleted, and 0- an now
as1 the 7S blo1 )7roup Swith* to reserve )Eust reserve 5 not set5up* a path !rom the
9TC0T hannel to the /T hannel.
91
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.8
The 3igit0 are 0ent to the next Exchange
"t this point all preparations have been made !or sending the digits to the
other e%hange.
The in!ormation reeived !rom 0" )0oute "nalysis* tells 0- how many digits
are to be sent. The digits are sent to /T, whih !orwards them 5 together with
in!ormation about their destination 5 to the C7F0 blo1 )CC3TT +o. 7, Fistribution
and 0outing*. "!ter e%amining the destination data, C7F0 selets the proper
signalling terminal !or sending the message. The signalling terminals are
administered by the C7ST blo1 )CC3TT +o. 7 Signalling Terminal*.
92
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.9
Recei:ing a Signal from the !-Su90cri9erB0 Exchange
"!ter the other e%hange has reeived the digits, one o! its tas1s will be to see
i! the /5subsriber is !ree. 3! this is the ase and i! set5up is permitted, the /5
subsriberAs e%hange in!orms our e%hange to that e!!et by sending a CC3TT +o. 7
signal. The signal is reeived by the signalling terminal and sent to C7F0 )CC3TT
+o.7 Fistribution and 0outing* to see i! the message is addressed to #our$ e%hange.
3! so, the message is sent to C74"/T )CC3TT +o.7 4abel Transition* !or translation o!
the oded number into the identity o! the /T line )hannel* re,uired. The message is
sent to the proper 0- individual by /T.
93
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.$%
En"-of-Selection
When this #end5o!5seletion signal$ arrives, 0- will ta1e the !ollowing ation8
)i* Brder seletion o! a (F individual !or harging o! the all )(F M (ulse
Fistribution*.
)ii* Brder 7S )7roup Swith* to set5up the path reserved in Figure 2.<.7.
)iii* Brder C9 to set5up the all through the subsriber stage. C9 orders )&*
L02 to disonnet the L0C and )2* TS to set5up a onnetion between
the subsriberAs 43C and the reserved 9TC0T hannel.
0- has now ompleted its tas1s, and a C4 individual )Call Supervision* an
be seleted to supervise the all. "t this point the e%hange is through5onneted,
and the "5subsriber will reeive ringing tone !rom the /5subsriberAs e%hange a!ter
a !ew moments.
94
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Fig. 2.9.$$
Su8er:i0ion an" Charging
When the /5subsriber answers, the two parties an start onversing.
Charging is arried out by the (F blo1 )(ulse Fistribution*, whih has reserved a (F
individual )data area* !or our all.
95
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
!T = !ot#&ay Trn; .T1RT = .nctor Terminal1Remote Terminal
CA = C#arging Analysis HRC = Heyset code Rece%tion Circit
CCS = Common C#annel Signalling S'system HR6 = <2igital= Heyset code Recei/er
C-S = C#arging S'system 5IC = 5ine Inter3ace Circit
C. = Com'ined .nctor 5I6 = <2igital= 5ine Circit
C5 = Call s%er/ision P2 = Plse 2istri'tion
C75A!T = CCITT No7 7 5a'el Translation RA = Rote Analysis
C72R = CCITT No7 7 2istri'tion and Roting RE = Register 3nctions
C7ST = CCITT No7 7 Signal Terminal SC = S'scri'er Categories
2A = 2igit Analysis SSS = S'scri'er S&itc#ing S'system
EMTS = Extension Modle Time S&itc# ST-7 = Signalling Terminal 3or CCITT No77
ETC = Exc#ange Terminal Circit TCS = Tra33ic Control S'system
$S = $ro% S&itc# TS = Time S&itc#
$SS = $ro% S&itc#ing S'system TSS = Trn; and Signalling S'system
Figure 2.9.$2
Clearing the Call
The learing operation is to start when the "5subsriber replaes his handset.
The 4I2 blo1 )4ine 3nter!ae* detets the replaement event and !orwards
in!ormation about this to C4 via C9.
C4 deides whether learing is to be started. 3! so, C4 order the /T, C9 and
(F blo1s to lear the onnetion. The subse,uent all learing within the SSS
subsystem is oNordinated by the C9 blo1.
96
J.T.O. Phase II (Switching Specialisation) : AXE-10
A%%endix 6
97