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International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol. 3 No.

6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642


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Editorial
Dear Colleagues
Greetings
It gives me immense pleasure in hosting the June,2014 issue of the INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL OF TEACHER EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH (IJTER), a monthly online open access journal,
indexed as international journal in the Directory of Research Journal Indexing (www.drji.com). You can
find IJTER available in all online repositories and data bases and also available in almost all the
university libraries. The review committee has selected four papers for publication in this issue. Hope
these papers will be very useful for many researches, teachers in the field of Education. Kindly extend
your fullest co-operation and support for the development of this Journal. Please do not hesitate to
share your comments and suggestions, if any, to fine tune this journal further. Again I request all the
contributors to follow strictly the guidelines prescribed by IJTER while preparing research papers
for submission. I take this opportunity to thank all the contributors for having provided support through
their contributions.
With every good wish,


Dr.S.RAJASEKAR
Date: 01-06-2014 Editor-in-Chief
IJTER
Emails: editor@ijter.com
editorijter@gmail.com

Website: www.ijter.com



International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
1

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDY HABITS AND TEST ANXIETY OF HIGHER SECONDARY
STUDENTS


Mr.A. S. ARUL LAWRENCE
Assistant Professor, School of Education,
Tamil Nadu Open University,
Chennai 600015, Tamil Nadu, India.
E-mail: arullawrence@gmail.com


ABSTRACT
The present study aims to probe the relationship between study habits and test anxiety of higher
secondary students. In this normative study survey method was employed. The population for the present
study consisted of higher secondary students studying in Tirunelveli district. The investigator used the
simple random sampling technique. The sample consisted of 300 students from 10 higher secondary
schools. The investigator used the Study Habits Scale by Santhy, K. R. (2010) and Test Anxiety Scale by
Sharma, V. P. (1997). For analyzing and interpreting the data the investigator used percentile analysis,
standard deviation, t test, and Pearsons product moment correlation as the statistical techniques. The
findings show that (i) the level of study habits and test anxiety of the higher secondary students were
moderate (ii) there was no significant relationship between study habits and test anxiety of higher
secondary students.
Keywords: study habits, test anxiety, examination anxiety, higher secondary students

INTRODUCTION
The higher secondary level is that where the completion of the moulding of a genuine personality
takes place. It is the highest level of the school educational system, which releases specific citizens into
the immediate society. It is the period in which the student expresses his totality not only in learning, but
also in social, cultural, emotional and behavioural aspects. Hence, the higher secondary students form a
definite, specialized sample. After acquiring ten years of general education, at the higher secondary level,
the students are focused to a diversification of subjects. Hence, they automatically develop into students
following certain new study habits, which suit their change in the academic field. Many students undergo
private tuition to improve their performance, but this improvement cannot be achieved overnight. What they
need is improvement in studies by various ways and means. This can be achieved only by means of
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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
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having proper and regular study habits. Students needs, requirements, abilities, capabilities, their pattern
of studying etc. have been neglected for a long time and they were forced to learn the same thing, by the
same method, by the same person in the same environment. Not only is it important that teachers
recognize these diversities in their students, but also it is desirable that they value their study habits.
Otherwise, even if appropriate strategies are developed and made available to teachers, there may be little
proof of gain in the students.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Students are the pillars of the nation. They should posses qualities needed for the effective
performance of their roles. Education should speed out the kinds of desirable changes needed by the
society and now these changes are to be brought among the students. For this educational institutions
should try to study and understand various problems of the society in specific areas from time to time and
should become the integral part of social development. The students should be involved in studies to attain
the whole development. Our educational institutions should take into account basic human differences in
their studying, thinking etc., to seek better means of individualized instruction for more effective studying.
Higher secondary is a stage where the students can improve their study habits. A good classroom climate
enhances the study habits of the student and it should reduce the fear of facing the examination. Scoring
marks in their higher +2 examinations is very important because the marks or achievement direct the
students for their future vocation. The future destiny of the students is mostly determined by the higher
secondary achievements. This leads the investigator to find out the relationship between the study habits
and test anxiety of higher secondary students.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The present study is entitled as Relationship between Study Habits and Test Anxiety of
Higher Secondary School Students.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
Relationship
It means the connection between two variables. In this study, the connection between study habits
and academic achievement was found out.



International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
3

Study Habits
In the manual of Raos study habits inventory, study habits are defined as the sum of all the
habits, determined purposes and enforced practices that the individual uses in order to learn. Here, the
investigator means the same.
Test Anxiety
Test anxiety is the mental distress and fear experienced by students when they have to face
examinations of any type (or) any of its related activities. Here the investigator refers Test Anxiety of Higher
Secondary students facing or doing examination.
Higher Secondary Students
By higher secondary students, the investigator means the students studying the higher secondary
course, i.e., XI and XII standards after completion of their SSLC / 10
th
standard.
OBJECTIVES
1. To find out the level, significant difference if any in the study habits of higher secondary
students in terms of background variables.
2. To find out the level, significant difference if any in the test anxiety of higher secondary
students in terms of background variables.
3. To find out the relationship between study habits and test anxiety of higher secondary
students.
METHODOLOGY
The investigator adopted the survey method to find out the relationship between study habits and
test anxiety of higher secondary students. The population for the present study consisted of higher
secondary students studying in Tirunelveli district. The investigator used the simple random sampling
technique. The sample consisted of 300 students from 10 higher secondary schools. The investigator used
the Study Habits Scale by Santhy, K. R. (2010) and Test Anxiety Scale by Sharma, V. P. (1997). For
analyzing and interpreting the data the investigator used percentile analysis, standard deviation, t test, and
Pearsons product moment correlation as the statistical techniques.
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
1. To find out the level of study habits of the higher secondary students.


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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
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Table-1
Level of Study Habits of Higher Secondary Students
Variable
Low Moderate High
N % N % N %
Study Habits 70 23.3 147 49.0 83 27.7

It is inferred from the table that 23.3% of higher secondary students have low, 49.0% of them have
moderate and 27.7% of them have high level of study habits.
2. To find out the level of test anxiety of the higher secondary students.
Table-2
Level of Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
Variable
Low Moderate High
N % N % N %
Test Anxiety 74 24.7 148 49.3 78 26.0

It is inferred from the table that 24.7% of higher secondary students have low, 49.3% of them have
moderate and 26.0% of them have high level of test anxiety.
Null Hypothesis-1
There is no significant difference between higher secondary school boys and girls in their study
habits.
Table-3
Difference between Higher Secondary School Boys and Girls in their Study Habits
Gender N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Boys 123 49.03 10.87
1.36 NS
Girls 177 50.67 9.33
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)
It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between higher secondary
school boys and girls in their study habits.
Null Hypothesis-2
There is no significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in
their study habits.


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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
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Table-4
Difference between Rural and Urban Higher Secondary School Students in their Study Habits
Locality of
School
N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Rural 150 50.15 10.49
0.263 NS
Urban 150 49.84 9.51
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)
It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between rural and urban
higher secondary school students in their study habits.
Null Hypothesis-3
There is no significant difference between day-scholar and hosteller higher secondary students in
their study habits.
Table-5
Difference between Day-scholar and Hosteller Higher Secondary Students in their Study Habits
Mode of Stay N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Day-scholar 233 50.23 10.02
0.687 NS
Hosteller 77 49.32 9.96
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)

It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between day-scholar and
hosteller higher secondary students in their study habits.
Null Hypothesis-4
There is no significant difference between private tuition going and non-going higher secondary
students in their study habits.
Table-6
Difference between Private Tuition Going and Non-going Higher Secondary Students in their Study
Habits
Private
Tuition
N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Going 113 50.38 10.34
0.506 NS
Non-going 187 49.76 9.80
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)

It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between private tuition
going and non-going higher secondary students in their study habits.

International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
6

Null Hypothesis-5
There is no significant difference between higher secondary school boys and girls in their test
anxiety.
Table-7
Difference between Higher Secondary School Boys and Girls in their Test Anxiety
Gender N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Boys 123 48.99 10.458
1.43 NS
Girls 177 50.70 9.636
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)

It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between higher secondary
school boys and girls in their test anxiety.
Null Hypothesis-6
There is no significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in
their test anxiety.
Table-8
Difference between Rural and Urban Higher Secondary School Students in their Test Anxiety
Locality of
School
N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Rural 150 50.26 10.047
0.456 NS
Urban 150 49.73 9.978
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)

It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between rural and urban
higher secondary school students in their test anxiety.
Null Hypothesis-7
There is no significant difference between day-scholar and hosteller higher secondary students in
their test anxiety.
Table-9
Difference between Day-scholar and Hosteller Higher Secondary Students in their Test Anxiety
Mode of Stay N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Day-scholar 233 49.55 9.66
1.23 NS
Hosteller 77 51.28 10.87
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)

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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
7

It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between day-scholar and
hosteller higher secondary students in their test anxiety.
Null Hypothesis-8
There is no significant difference between private tuition going and non-going higher secondary
students in their test anxiety.
Table-10
Difference between Private Tuition Going and Non-going Higher Secondary Students in their Test
Anxiety
Private
Tuition
N Mean S.D. Calculated t value Remarks at 5% level
Going 113 49.97 10.10
0.033 NS
Non-going 187 50.01 9.96
(At 5% level of significance, the table value of t is 1.96)
It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant difference between private tuition
going and non-going higher secondary students in their test anxiety.
Null Hypothesis-9
There is no significant relationship between study habits and test anxiety of higher secondary
students.
Table-11
Relationship between Study Habits and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
Variables N value Remarks
Study Habits and Test Anxiety 300 0.010 NS
(At 5% Level of significance the table value of is 0.113)
It is inferred from the above table that there is no significant relationship between study habits and
test anxiety of higher secondary students.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
From the above study the investigator has come to conclusion that the level of study habits of the
higher secondary students is moderate and level of test anxiety of the higher secondary students is also
moderate.
The investigator found that there is no significant difference between higher secondary school
boys and girls in their study habits. This finding contradicts the findings of Arul Lawrence (2013) & Doss
(2012) and supports the findings of Kulandai Samy (2007) & Helen Kevin (2007). There is no significant
difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their study habits. This finding
supports the findings of Arul Lawrence (2013), Doss (2012) and Helen Kevin (2007). There is no significant
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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
8

difference between day-scholar and hosteller higher secondary students in their study habits. This finding
contradicts the findings of Arul Lawrence (2014) and Doss (2012). There is no significant difference
between private tuition going and non-going higher secondary students in their study habits.
The investigator found that the test anxiety of girls was higher than the boys. This finding supports
the findings of Devine et al. (2012), Baskar (2012), Surjit Singh (2010) and Mark Chapell (2005). There is
no significant difference between rural and urban higher secondary school students in their test anxiety.
This finding supports the findings of Baskar (2012). There is no significant difference between day-scholar
and hosteller higher secondary students in their test anxiety. This finding contradicts the findings of Baskar
(2012). There is no significant difference between private tuition going and non-going higher secondary
students in their test anxiety. This finding supports the findings of Baskar (2012). There is no significant
relationship between study habits and test anxiety of higher secondary students.
CONCLUSION
In order to improve the quality of education we must develop certain innovative strategies, which
will enhance the educational standards. In addition to that from the students side there must be some
important steps, which form the basis for their academic achievement. Here the investigator thought that
students academic achievement and their excellence in studies depends mainly on two factors such as
their study habits and their test anxiety. For this matter, it is the effort of teachers to develop good study
habits among school students. If we develop the good study habits among the students their test anxiety
will be diminished automatically. This study will help to identify the study related problems especially test
anxiety which blocks the academic achievements and advancements. Present study enhances the learning
strategies and helps one to develop good study habits. This study will be of great use to the 10
th
and 12
th

standard students who will be under great stress and anxiety before writing their public examinations. If the
student follows proper study habits then he can overcome his test anxiety and score more. Also, this study
will definitely help to reduce dropouts, wastage and stagnation in learning process.
REFERENCES
Baskar, M. (2012). Study involvement and test anxiety of higher secondary students. An unpublished M.Ed.
dissertation submitted to Tamil Nadu Teachers Education University, Chennai.
Chapell, S. Mark et al. (2005). Test anxiety and academic performance in undergraduate and graduate
students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2): 268-274. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.97.2.268
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Relationship between Study Habit and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students
9

Devine, et al. (2012). Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics
performance while controlling for test anxiety. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 8(33): 1-9.
Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1744-9081-8-33.pdf
Doss, T. J. V. A. (2012). Relationship between study habits and academic achievement of high school
Santal students. An Unpublished M.Ed. Dissertation submitted to Tamilnadu Teachers Education
University, Chennai.
Kevin, M. Helen. (2007). Relationship between study habits and achievement in biology at the higher
secondary level. An unpublished M.Phil. Dissertation submitted to Periyar University, Salem.
Lawrence, A. S. Arul. (2013). Study habits of higher secondary school students. Edu Care a Peer
reviewed International Journal of Education & Humanities, Vol.II (1): 270-275.
Lawrence, A. S. Arul. (2014). Relationship between study habits and academic achievement of higher
secondary school students. Indian Journal of Applied Science. Paper submitted for the publication.
Rao, D. Gopal. (1976). Rao's study habits inventory, Agra: Agra Psychological Research Cell.
Samy, R. Kulandai. (2007). Relationship between study habits and achievement of matriculation higher
secondary school students. An Unpublished M.Phil. Dissertation submitted to Manonmaniam
Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli.
Sharma, V. P. (1997).Test Anxiety Scale. Agra: National Psychological Corporation.
Singh, Surjit (2010). Relationship of anxiety and emotional and social maturity with actualization of general
mental ability of high school students. An published Ph.D. dissertation submitted to Guru Nanak
Dev University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10603/7062



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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

10

STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Ms. CHARMAINE SENTA GEETA BISSESSAR
Academic Development Coach
Hugh Wooding Law School
83 Aquamarine Drive, Diamond Vale, Diego Martin,
Trinidad
Email: cbissessar@hwls.edu.tt
Website: www.hwls.edu.tt

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine college students perceptions of effective teacher
characteristics in higher education. Participants were 17 French and English college students enrolled in
the Associate and Bachelors Degree Programs at a vocational higher educational institution in Trinidad.
Students reflections of the classes were coded and linked to Onwuegbuzie, Witcher Collins, Filer,
Wiedmaier, and Moores (2007) nine themes which form the acronym RESPECTED and four meta-themes
of CARE which were termed the CARE-RESPECTED model of Teaching Evaluation. After application of
the prevalent themes from students reflections the acronym CREATES was found. C was matched with
Connector; R equaled Responsiveness/Communicator; E was linked to Enthusiast; A was connected to
Advocate; T dealt with Transmitter; E equaled Empowerment; and S pertained to Student-Centered.
Keywords: College Students; Effective Characteristics of Teachers and Teaching; Trinidadian
INTRODUCTION
Trinidad and Tobagos Vision 2020, Operational Plan, Section 1 stated that education is critical
in the development of a cadre of academically, intellectually and skilled individuals who possess relevant
life skills as well as positive attitudes, to facilitate and enable quick employability locally, regionally and
internationally (p. 23). With this in mind, the Government of Trinidad and Tobago implemented the GATE
program to ensure that, there are no limits to accessing quality education (Ministry of Science Technology
and Tertiary Level Education, 2010, p. 1). The Ministry of Education website lists the following objectives of
the GATE program:
1. To make tertiary education affordable to all so that no Citizen of Trinidad and Tobago will be
denied tertiary education because of their inability to pay.
2. To widen access to tertiary education that will support economic development and promote
social equity.
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

11

3. To build and strengthen a national quality tertiary education sector through both public and
private Tertiary Level Institutions. (p. 1)
With such objectives at the forefront, higher education has been increasing in institutions and students
throughout Trinidad and Tobago. With the increase in student education and enhanced need for teachers
at the higher echelons of education, the question of teacher and teaching effectiveness is inevitable.
PROBLEM
Increased investment in human and intellectual capital should result in substantial dividends
especially when students are the most significant stakeholders in promoting sustainability and equity within
a countrys educational system. Therefore, as the demand for courses and higher education increases so
too does the need for educators. The problem, hence, is the quality of the teachers in higher education and
their effectiveness. Teacher effectiveness determines whether students and an educational system are
efficient. Bezold (2012) indicated that teacher concerns and issues pertaining to teacher quality and
effectiveness are global concerns and one in which university leaders continue to have a vested interest
(Ovando, 1989).
PURPOSE
The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine students perception of teacher
effectiveness at a vocational higher education institution in Trinidad. The research question answered was:
What are Trinidadian college students perceptions of effective teaching and teacher characteristics? There
is a dearth of information on Trinidadian teachers and students in the extant research literature. This study
will extend the body of information on students perception of effective teacher characteristics in general
and specifically related to Trinidadian students. The findings of this study can be used as a stepping stone
toward implementing more student-centered activities in the classroom as well as promoting increased
levels of care in the teacher/student dyad.
LITERATURE/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS
Eggen and Kauchak (1992) defined teacher effectiveness as the patterns of teacher behavior that
resulted in increased student learning." (p. 45). Marsh and Roche (1993) looked at students evaluations of
instructor teaching effectiveness in order to enhance university teaching. Ryan and Harrison (1995)
advanced this general idea to include more specifically, the value students ascribe to several subscales of
teacher characteristics to rate overall teacher effectiveness. In their chronological examination of research
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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articles on teacher effectiveness from 1999 to 2005, Anderson, Ingram, and Buford (2012) showed the
trend from tangible qualities such as information given to intangible characteristics of care and concern for
students.
Sheehan (1999) found that students wanted instructors who were informative and provided
interesting lectures. In 2001, Crumbley et al. found that teachers were considered effective based on their
teaching style, their presentation techniques, their enthusiasm, and preparation and organization. Spencer
and Schmelkin (2002) concluded that students rated teachers as being effective when they showed
concern, valued students opinions, and expressed clarity in communication, and were open to differing
viewpoints. Greimel-Fuhrmann and Geyer (2003) discovered that teachers were considered effective if they
responded to student questions and view-points, used creative instructional delivery approaches,
demonstrated a sense of humor and maintained balance, and exercised a fair approach toward classroom
discipline. Okpala and Ellis (2005) concluded that teachers were deemed effective based on their level of
caring for students and their learning, their teaching skills, their content knowledge, their dedication to
teaching, and their verbal skills.
Similarly, Darling-Hammond (2008) underscored the use of indirect instruction and stated that
engaging students in active learning and assessing students learning continuously with constant feedback
were some of the necessary elements in teaching behaviors that promote powerful learning. There was a
definite shift from information-driven needs or direct instruction to more philanthropic-driven needs or
indirect instruction throughout the six years of student/teacher relationships (Bezold, 2012). This is
evidenced in the CARE-RESPECTED Model of Teacher Evaluation (Onwuegbuzie, 2007).
CARE-RESPECTED Model of Teacher Evaluation
The CARE-RESPECTED Model of Teacher Evaluation was posited by Onwuegbuzie, Witcher
Collins, Filer, Wiedmaier, and Moores (2007) to encompass both the desire for information as well as the
defining intangible qualities of care, concern, and value creation. Consequently, this model encompassed
both paradigms of direct and indirect instruction. Each letter stands for a particular teaching effectiveness
characteristic identified by 912 undergraduate and graduate students in a Public University in the U.S.A.
The following explains each aspect of the aforementioned acronym which is seen in Appendix A. Tutors
responsiveness is seen in timely feedback (R); displays passion and enthusiasm in the delivery of the
curriculum (E); the student-centered classroom (S); shows professionalism (P); connects students prior
knowledge to current knowledge (E); connects with students within and outside the classroom (C);
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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transmits information clearly and accurately (T); shows ethical qualities adherence to institutional policies
(E); and directs effective instruction through effective managing of time, material and environment (D).
The CARE acronym was seen in students reflection of the tutor as a: communicator who
effectively delivers information (C); promoter of active learning and shows sensitivity to students (A);
demonstrator of responsibility in maximizing students learning experiences (R); and vehicle towards
empowering students to acquire the necessary skills (E). Table 2 shows the CARE acronym and
descriptions of each quality. Myers and Anderson (2012) purported a theory of emotionally intelligent
teaching where teachers are aware of students needs and cater to these needs. They also found that
caring was reported by students to play a pivotal role in teacher effectiveness. They valued the importance
of the CARE-RESPECTED Model of Teacher Evaluation.
METHOD
This qualitative study is based on students reflections of one French class and two English classes
at a higher educational vocational institution in Trinidad. Seventeen participants were asked to reflect on
their experiences in an English class after 8 weeks of exposure to the subject and the teacher. The
participants ages ranged from 18 to 45 years. The students wrote their reflections on the class on the 15
th

January, 2014 and 21
st
March, 2014. They gave informed consent to have their reflections used in this
study and were told that information will be recorded cumulatively. Convenience sampling was used to
collect students reflection of the class. It was an open-ended assignment with no specific instructions.
The researcher read and re-read students reflections. She then coded them into themes and re-
coded them noting the various recurring vocabulary and the frequency of use words. A content analysis of
the reflections was conducted. Marshall and Rossman (1989) suggested a five mode analytical procedure
in content analysis which involved: (a) organizing the data; (b) generating the categories themes and
patterns; (c) testing the emergent hypothesis against the data; (d) searching for alternative explanations;
and (e) writing the report. When adhering to these five modes, the researcher found adequate content to
validate the emerging themes of students perceptions of effective teaching and teacher characteristics
similar to the nine themes and four meta-themes espoused by Onwuegbuzie et al. (2007).
Onwuegbuzie at al. (2007) used the acronym RESPECTED with the meta-theme CARE to illustrate
each aspect of teacher qualities identified by students. The main theme RESPECTED is evidenced in
students reflections. However, the PE and ED were not found among Trinidadian college students
reflections. The CARE acronym was seen in students reflections. However, the R aspect of CARE was not
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

14

evident (as indicated in Table 1). A re-arranging and re-structuring of the acronyms and letters evident in
students reflections was done and the acronym CREATES was found when both RESPECTED and CARE
acronyms were conjoined.
As indicated in Appendix A, each letter was evidenced by students reflections on tutors:
connection with students within and outside the classroom (C); responsiveness in timely feedback (R);
display of passion and enthusiasm in the delivery of the curriculum (E); use of interactive and group
activities as an advocate in fostering active learning activities (A); transmission of information clearly and
accurately (T); ability to empower students (E); and promotion of a student-centered classroom (S).

Table1. CARE Acronym and Trinidadian Students Reflections

Communicator Serves as a reliable resource for students; effectively guides
students acquisition of knowledge, skills, and dispositions;
engages students in the curriculum and monitors their
progress by providing formative and summative evaluations

Formative Assessment
Advocate Demonstrates behaviors and dispositions that are deemed
exemplary for representing the college teaching profession,
promotes active learning, exhibits sensitivity to students

Interactive/Group
Activities
Responsible Seeks to conform to the highest levels
of ethical standards associated with the college teaching
profession and optimizes the learning experiences of students

Empowering Stimulates students to acquire the knowledge, skills, and
dispositions associated with an academic discipline or field and
stimulates students to attain maximally all instructional goals
and objectives

Improvement/Confident/

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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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FINDINGS
Based on the codification process the aforementioned themes were found and cross-referenced.
During the process of inquiry, the researcher checked the data for trustworthiness credibility,
transferability, dependability, and conformability (Lincoln & Guba 1985, p. 189). From the data garnered,
there was the repetition of key descriptive words and phrases such as: provides feedback, energetic
lively, engage her students, very motivating, individual help, technology, interactive teaching
techniques, caring, Improvement, motivational, functional method of teaching, appreciated, and
enjoyable, which when analyzed quantitatively proved to be 80% of words participants used during the
interviews.
The acronym derived from students reflections CREATES, exemplifies aspects of teaching and
teacher effectiveness. Table 2 shows each letter and the corresponding word and quality. From Table 2, C
is equivalent to connector and relates to individualized attention; R relates to responsiveness and
communicator; E shows enthusiasm and denotes energy and liveliness; A relates to advocacy and can be
seen in the use of interactive and group activities; T displays the use of technology and interactive games
which leads to E, student empowerment; such confidence was further demonstrated in catering to students
individual learning styles and creating a risk-taking environment which leads to student-centered
instruction, S.
Table 2. CREATES Acronym and Characteristics of Teacher/Teaching Effectiveness
CREATES Characteristics
Connector Individualized Attention/Caring/Going the extra mile
Responsiveness/Communicator Feedback/ Formative Assessment
Enthusiast Energetic/Vivacious/Lively
Advocate Interactive/ Group Activities
Transmitter Technology/Interactive Games
Empowering Confident/Improvement
Student-Centered Learning Styles/Risk Taking Environment/Boosts Retention Skills

Connector
Most students commented on the fact that the tutor gave individualized attention and they were
grateful for that. One Participant 11, stated, Miss called me up and spoke to me about my essay writing
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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she encouraged me to read every day. I felt appreciated (Personal communication, 15
th
January, 2014).
Participant 12 reiterated the level of care, Sometimes, I felt as though Miss was being hard on me but at
the end it was worth it all and she just wanted the best for me (personal communication, 15
th
January,
2014). Participants indicated that teacher interest in their work was critical to their success and a strong
intrinsic motivator. For example, Participant 16 stated, the interest shown by my teacher towards my work
motivated me to keep going. Participant 8 concluded, Sometimes, I think she is hard on us but I dont
mind at all. It shows how much she cares about us all.
Another aspect of the connector is that of going the extra mile. Participant 9 opined, She goes all
out for her students. She bends wires to make ends meet right where she wants them. Participant 17
echoed similar sentiments, the interest shown in my work from the teacher motivated me to work and try
harder. She is pushing for everyone to pass, by going the extra mile. Participant 14 lauded the tutors
efforts, She is a teacher who surely knows her work and teaches us it and her motto is No-one fails in her
class. This is similar to what Participant 2 said, she stated, Miss classes leave no one behind. The
qualities of a connector are exemplified in these statements.
Responsiveness/Communicator
Students rated feedback and responsiveness as essential in teaching and learning. Participant 7
was quick to state what she most liked about this English class, One thing I like about this class is that she
takes your work, checks it, calls you individually and tells you the problems she sees so far. Participant 7
also continued, I love the part when the teacher finishes a topic and she gives a small test to ensure that
everyone understands it and every day she gives us more work to learn. This shows the importance of
feedback and formative assessment.
Enthusiast
Teachers passion for their subject and what they do was reinforced by these students. Participant
3 stated, I enjoy that both classes are not dull and boring and they are vivacious and interactive. She
continued, Every week I look forward to class to see what we are going to learn and what creative way
there is to get a better understanding of the class. Capitalizing on students anticipation can be
motivational as other participants indicated. Participant 9 stated, Miss is an energetic teacher. Participant
15 expressed gratitude for this energy, I will always be thankful to my teacher for the time and energy she
puts out to ensure all of her students understand what she teaches. Participant 7 stated, First time, I came
to an English class and enjoyed it and learnt so fast. I always look forward to English class every day.
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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Participant 12 stated, For a person like me who is not a fan of English, I was beginning to enjoy it because
Miss made it very interesting and helped me to realize how important a Language like English is in our
everyday lives. Enthusiasm, passion, fun, enjoyment, and engagement were cited as essential tools for
teachers repertoire of effectiveness.
Advocate
According to Onwuegbuzie et al. (2007), the teacher, Demonstrates behaviors and dispositions
that are deemed exemplary for representing the college teaching profession, promotes active learning,
exhibits sensitivity to students (p. 114). Participant 6 stated, I am enjoying the group activities that are
given to us each week. Working with my class enhances my learning and it decreases the stress of
remembering new topics on my own. Participant 9 stated:
Miss is a very patient and lively teacher to the satisfaction of the class. Everyone pushes
themselves. I love the motivation a lot. I even dream about it and think about class before I get
here. When I reach, I feel relaxed like I am supposed to be here.
Another student indicated, The classes have been very interactive; the learning atmosphere is open,
engaging and has influenced me to be more responsive to questions that are being asked in the class.
Participant 14 stated, The class has gotten more lively and enjoyable. Participant 15 reiterated, I look
forward to coming to class and talking and interacting with my peers. Participant 2 stated, Her very
interactive teaching techniques ensure that all members of the class participate. Participant 11 stated, My
teacher is a well-spoken person who has a proper attitude and is gracious. Participant 15 stated, Miss is a
great teacher and role-model. She taught us to never give up without trying ad if we do not get through try
again. Effective teacher characteristics therefore, were more focused on indirect instruction.
Transmitter
Aspects of transmitter can be evidenced in all the other qualities. However, some snippets of
transmitter are represented here. Participant 1 stated, The lecturer tries using state of the art and cutting
edge technology to engage her charges. Participant 4 stated, The classes are interesting, active and you
have no time to sleep. Participant 5 agreed that, The interactive and exciting lectures have encouraged
me to be anxious for the next class. Ensuring that learning is engaging is another attribute lauded by
participants, Participant 17 opined, She made learning fun. Engagement was high on students list of
priorities and this empowered them as they indicated in the following section.

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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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Empowering
Participant 15 stated, Miss was a great teacher and role-model. She taught us to never give up
without trying and it we do not get through try again. Participant 7 stated, I am so proud of myself. I think
that I am learning very fast. Participant 10 stated, I have improved and I am very appreciative of my
current ability. With the knowledge and understanding I have acquired within this four week period, I intend
to apply what I have learned to my everyday activities. Participant 11 stated, I have improved so I dont
mind having to give up some of my responsibilities. I am confident about myself. Participant 12 said, I
learnt from my actions and I also learnt to never give up no matter how many times you fall get back up.
Participant 14 stated, I am sure everyones English has improved. Improvement was equated with
empowerment where students felt more confident in their abilities.
Student-Centered
Students were pleased with the use of technology and the instructors ability to cater to differing
learning styles through interactive games. Participant 1 opined:
The lecturer tries using state of the art and cutting edge technology to engage her charges. Both
French and English classes are boisterous with the hum of industry as we are made to reinforce
concepts learnt through witty sessions involving role-play and theatrics.
Participant 2 stated, These modern-day techniques of class activities and youtube, makes the students get
a better understanding of the topic and reinforce the topics taught. The implementation of learning styles
was mentioned positively by several students. Participant 4 stated, The activities that Miss gives us,
usually keeps us thinking, from singing to rapping. This allows the work to stick in your head. This point
leads me to the last point. There is no time to sleep. Participant 5 reiterated:
Although the French class has been fun; the activities that we complete allow me to understand the
topic better than reading through the slides. In these lectures, we have been using the Internet to
complete exercises and to hear sounds on the topic; this has helped me to remember the lessons
and it makes studying for exams easier.
Similarly, Participant 3 stated:
French class to me is an awesome class. I love the interaction process because I think that it really
helped. The way in which the class understood the topic as well as it was fun and it being so it
helped me to retain the information that was taught.
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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Participant 10 stated, The lecturer has a beautiful and fully functional method of teaching and explaining
this subject. Participant 15 stated, I enjoyed the games she had us play in class that way of teaching
helped the class to keep on their toes. Participant 13 stated, I am quite satisfied with the techniques used
to make learning easy.
Overall, Participants rated this particular teacher positively and quite liked her
instructional delivery and her ability to care and show interest in each student individually. Myers and
Anderson (2012) found that students who were taught from an emotionally intelligent perspective were
more likely to feel valued and appreciated. Bezold (2012) also found that the instructors behavior
determined the student/teacher dyad and the type of learning environment.
DISCUSSION
Findings in this study corroborate conclusions by Bezold (2012), Myers and Anderson (2012),
Onwuegbuzie et al. (2007), and Delaney et al. (2010). The first letter of the acronym CREATES connector
is substantiated by several researchers. Delaney et al. stated that Students who identified approachable
as a characteristic of effective teaching described these behaviors using adjectives that include: friendly,
personable, helpful, accessible, happy and positive (p. 10). Reid and Johnston (1999) and found
approachability and interest as significant characteristics identified by students as reflecting effective
teachers. Moreover, Pollio and Humphreys (1996) concluded that a connection between instructor and
teacher resulted in effective teaching. Spencer and Schmelkin (2002) posited that students felt valued
when instructors showed care and concern. Greimel-Fuhrmann and Geyer (2003) also indicated that
instructors willingness to respond to students questions was rated highly in teachers level of
effectiveness.
Responsiveness/communication was also found by several researchers to be influential in effective
teaching (Bezold, 2012; Greimel-Fuhrmann & Geyer, 2003). Darling-Hammond (2008) posited seven
teaching behaviors for powerful learning. Two of these behaviors involved assessing student learning
continuously and giving constant feedback. Delaney et al. (2010), Okpala and Ellis (2005) and also found
that students rated instructors who contained excellent communication skills and were responsive to
students needs highly.
Instructors who were engaging and enthusiastic were also placed in high regard among college
students (Rosenshine & Frust, 1971; Crumbley et al. 2001; Greimel-Fuhrmann & Geyer 2003). Delaney et
al (2010) found that students who identified instructor behaviors that were engaging describe these
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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behaviors using adjectives that include: enthusiastic, interesting, passionate, motivating, creative, positive,
charismatic, stimulating, interactive, energetic, and assertive (p. 11). Advocate and transmitter were also
found to be necessary attributes to teaching effectiveness. Darling-Hammond (2008), Delaney et al.,
Greimel-Fuhrmann and Geyer found that student participation in active learning and engaging interactions
resulted in higher teacher effectiveness. Chickering and Gameson (1987) also found that teachers who
encouraged cooperation among students and active learning were rated higher than other teachers who did
not provide opportunities for student participation.
Students also rated teachers empowerment of them as vital in teaching effectiveness
(Onwuegbuzie et al., 2007). Proponents of teacher effectiveness underscored the importance of a student-
centered classroom (Delaney et al. 2010, Onwuegbuzie et al.). Taylor and Parsons (2011) in their
discussion on student engagement, stated, Educators must continue to seek to understand and apply
specific, well-considered, if not agreed upon, strategies that support student engagement in learning both in
and beyond the classroom (p. 5). Participants underscored the importance of student engagement in
ensuring that learning took place.
CONCLUSIONS
Higher education students in this paper have exemplified what they consider to be effective teacher
characteristics. The findings of this study have been found to be consistent with conclusions discovered by
other researchers in the literature. Participants have underscored the need for instructors to be effective
through the application of student-centered to teaching, showing concern and care, displaying passion,
drive, and enthusiasm and above all by empowering them. Teacher educators who do not see the value of
active engagement in the classroom should rethink this strategy since continued research suggests that
interaction and student-centered learning continue to be the sine qua non of student success.
REFERENCES
Anderson, M. R., Ingram, J. M., & Buford, B. J. (2012). Doctoral students perceptions of characteristics of
effective college students: A mixed analysis. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 7, 279-309.
Retrieved from http://ijds.org/Volume7/IJDSv7p279-309Anderson0360.pdf
Bezold, R. (2012). Students perception of effective teaching behaviors demonstrated by college
instructors. Retrieved from
https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/15388/research.pdf?sequence=2
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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Chickering, A., & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. The
Wingspread Journal.
Crumbley, L., Henry, B. K., & Kratchman, S. H. (2001). Students perceptions of the evaluation of college
teaching. Quality Assurance in Education, 9, 197-207.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teaching and learning for understanding. In Linda Darling-Hammond (Ed.),
Powerful learning (pp. 1-9). San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
Delaney, J., Johnson, A., Johnson, T., &Treslan, D. (2010).Students Perceptions of Effective Teaching in
Higher Education. Retrieved from
http://www.mun.ca/educ/faculty/mwatch/laura_treslan_SPETHE_Paper.pdf
Eggen, P. D., & Kauchak, D. (1992). Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms. New York: Merrill.
Greimel-Fuhrmann, B., & Geyer, A. (2003). Students evaluation of teachers and instructional quality
Analysis of relevant factors based on empirical evaluation. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher
Education, 28, 229-238.
Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. California, CA: Sage Publications Incorporated.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. (1998). Designing qualitative research. California, CA: Sage Publications
Incorporated.
Marsh, H.W., & Roche, L. (1993). The use of students evaluations and an individually- structured
intervention to enhance university teaching effectiveness. American Educational Research Journal,
30(1), 217-251.
Ministry of Science Technology and Tertiary Level Education (2010). Retrieved from
http://www.stte.gov.tt/GATEInner.aspx?Lid=1&id=10
Myers, S., & Anderson, C. (2012). Dimensions in mentoring: A continuum of beginning teachers from
practice to teacher leaders. Rotterdam: Netherlands; Sense Publishers.
Okpala, C. O., & Ellis, R. (2005). The perceptions of college students on teacher quality: A focus on teacher
qualification. Education, 126, 374-378.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Witcher, A. E., Collins, K. M., Filer, J. D., Wiedmaier, C. D., & Moore, C. W. (2007).
Students perceptions of characteristics of effective college teachers: A validity study of a teaching
evaluation form using a mixed-methods analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 44,
113-160.
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Students Perceptions of Effective Characteristics in Higher Education

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Pollio, H. R., & Humphreys, W. L. (1996). What award-winning lecturers say about their teaching: It's all
about connection. College Teaching, 44, 101-106.
Reid, D.J., & Johnstone, M. (1999). Improving teaching in higher education: Student and teacher
perspectives. Educational Studies, 269-281.
Appendix A
Respected Acronym and Students Reflections
Quality

Responsive Provides frequent, timely, and meaningful feedback to
students

Feedback
Enthusiast Exhibits passion in delivery of curricula, in particular,
and representing the field, in general

Energetic/Vivacious/Lively
Student-
centered
Places students in the center of the learning process,
prioritizes instruction in response to student diversity
and interests, possesses strong interpersonal skills

Learning Styles/Individualized
Instruction/Risk Taking
Professional Displays behaviors and dispositions deemed
exemplary for the instructors discipline


Expert Demonstrates relevant and current content, connects
students prior knowledge and experience with key
components of curricula


Connector Provides multiple opportunities for student and
professor interactions within and outside of class

Individualized
Attention/Caring/Going the extra
mile
Transmitter Imparts critical information clearly and accurately,
provides relevant examples, integrates varied
communication techniques to foster knowledge
acquisition

Learning Styles/Use of
Technology/Interactive Games
Ethical Demonstrates consistency in enforcing classroom
policies, responds to students concerns and
behaviors, provides equitable opportunities for student
interaction

Director Organizes instructional time efficiently, optimizes
resources to create a safe and orderly learning
environment


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Job satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Bankura District, West Bengal

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JOB SATISFACTION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST
BENGAL

ANUSHRI GHOSH
M.A (Education)
Department of Education
Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University
Purulia, W.B
SUMIT PAROI
Assistant Professor (Contractual)
Department of Education
Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University
Purulia, W.B

ABSTRACT
In the whole education system teachers play an important role. Since, the future of the nation is
being moulded by them, it is necessary that a lot of researches must be done concerning them. One
such attempt is made here in this study which is on Secondary school teachers job satisfaction. The
objectives of this study are to find out the level of job satisfaction of the teachers and also to ascertain
whether job satisfaction differ significantly with regard to gender, locality of school and streams of
subjects taken. For this, 120 teachers were selected from 4 urban and 4 rural schools of Bankura district
of West Bengal, India through Stratified Random Sampling. A self made questionnaire with some of the
items procured from Teachers Job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS) by Y. Mudgil and others, 1991 were
developed for data collection. The obtained data were analysed through descriptive as well as
inferential statistics. The result shows that the level of job satisfaction of the teachers is above average.
The result also shows that job satisfaction does not vary significantly with regard to gender, locality of
schools and the steams of subjects taken.
Keywords: Job satisfaction, Secondary school teachers
INTRODUCTION
Job satisfaction among school teachers has been considered as a vital factor for the
improvement of the education system and thus has got an unshakeable place in educational research.
Satisfaction is a psychological phenomenon and its concept is highly intricate and subjective. Job
satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It expresses the extent of match
between the employees expectations from the job and the rewards that the job provides. Teachers job
satisfaction is one of the key factors in school dynamics and is generally considered as a primary
dependent variable in terms of which effectiveness of the school is evaluated. The well adjusted and
satisfied teacher can contribute a lot to the well being of his/ her pupils.


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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Dr. Asif Iqubal and Saeed Adkhtar (2012) worked on job satisfaction of secondary school
teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore teachers satisfaction working in public sector
secondary schools in Lahore district. The results showed that no significant difference was found
between job satisfaction of male and female teachers.
Muhammad Asghar Ali, Dr. Taneer-Uz-Zaman, Fouzia Tabassum and Dr. Zafar Iqbal (2011)
worked on job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore the
job satisfaction of secondary school teachers. The results showed that no significant difference was
found between job satisfaction of rural and urban teachers.
NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE
As the teacher is the main agent of imparting education to the child so that the child may be a
good citizen of the society in future, teachers job satisfaction is a must. Teachers satisfaction and
dissatisfaction with the job of teaching play a vital role in the success and failure of an educational
programme. If the teacher is not satisfied with his or her job he or she may fail to become a good
teacher and to create good citizens for the nation which may totally upset the educational plan and may
create a crucial problem to the educational leaders and planners. A better performance from a teacher
can only be expected if they are satisfied with their jobs. The highlighted topic is a very serious issue
due to the importance of Secondary education which is a central stage of the whole pyramid of
education system in India. Since, Bankura is an important district of West Bengal which has many
Secondary schools shaping the young minds for the future, it becomes necessary to investigate what
the level of job satisfaction the teachers do have.
OBJECTIVES
1. To find out the level of job satisfaction of the Secondary School Teachers of Bankura
District.
2. To compare the means of Male and Female teachers with respect to their job satisfaction.
3. To compare the means of Urban and Rural teachers with respect to their job satisfaction.
4. To compare the means of Science and Arts teachers with respect to their job satisfaction.
DELIMITATIONS
1. The present study is restricted to teachers of Secondary schools in the district of
Bankura, W.B.
2. This study is delimited to the variable of job satisfaction.
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METHODOLOGY
The present study has employed descriptive survey method and comparison was made to study the
job satisfaction of the Secondary school teachers in relation to certain variables such as gender, nature
of locality and streams of subjects taken.
SAMPLE AND SAMPLING
To simplify the study, a suitable sample has been chosen from the population. The sample consists
of the Secondary school teachers of 4 Rural schools and 4 Urban schools of Bankura district. All the
respondents from these schools constitute the sample of the study. There were altogether 120 teachers
who responded to the questionnaire. To draw the sample from the population Stratified Random
Sampling method was used.
TOOLS USED
i. For the purpose of conducting this research the researcher has procured some of the items
of a standardized tool called Teachers job Satisfaction Scale (TJSS). It is developed by
Y.Mudgil (Rohtak), I.S.Muhar (Rohtak), P.Bhatia (Rohtak). It is suitable for job satisfaction
of college and university teachers. This is available in National Psychological Corporation,
Agra-282 004(India).
ii. A Self-made questionnaire was used. And the combined tool comprised of 40 items, 23
Positive and 17 Negative items. Each item was followed by Likert type five point scale
responses namely Strongly agree (SA), Agree (A), Neutral (N), Disagree (D) and Strongly
Disagree (SD). The positive items received scores of 5 to1 from SA to SD and the negative
ones received the reverse respectively.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIOS
The scores on the scale range from 40 to 200. The more the individual scores of the Secondary
school teachers remained closer to 200, the higher the level of their job satisfaction would be. For this
purpose of ascertaining the level of job satisfaction of the Secondary School Teachers of Bankura
district, the total range of scores is divided equally into 5 parts with a class interval of 32. Then the
frequencies falling in each part were counted. The data are shown below in the forms of table and
graph.




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Class Interval Frequencies Percentage
41 - 72 0 0
73 104 1 0.83
105 136 13 10.84
137 168 94 78.33
169 200 12 10
Total 120 100%



From the table and the graph it could be found out that the level of job satisfaction of the
Secondary school teachers of Bankura district is above average.
NULL HYPOTHESIS 1
There is no significant difference between the two Means of Male & Female Teachers
with respect to their job satisfaction.
The following results were found.
GROUP N MEAN SD df CALCULATED
T-VALUE
TABLE
VALUE
RESULT
MALE 68 151.24 16.02 118 1.644 0.05 1.98 NOT
SIGNIFICANT FEMALE 52 155.59 11.93 0.01 2.58


0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
41 -72 73 - 104 105 - 136 137 - 168 169 - 200
Series1
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INTERPRETATION
It can be found out that the table value with df (Degree of Freedom) of 118 is 1.98 at 0.05 level of
confidence. Since, our calculated t value that is 1.644 which is lesser than the table value, we can
accept the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Our hypothesis is accepted. Therefore we can
say that the two groups namely Male and Female teachers do not differ significantly with respect to their
job satisfaction. In other words, we can also say that job satisfaction does not significantly differ with
regard to gender of the individuals.
NULL HYPOTHESIS 2
There is no significant difference between Urban & Rural Teachers with respect to their job
satisfaction. The following results were obtained.
GROUP N MEAN SD df CALCULATED
T-VALUE
TABLE
VALUE
RESULT
RURAL 54 153.91 15.52 118 0.533 0.05 1.98 NOT
SIGNIFICANCE URBAN 66 152.48 13.68 0.01 2.58

INTERPRETATION
It can be found out that the table value with df (Degree of Freedom) of 118 is 1.98 at 0.05 level
of confidence. Since, our calculated t value that is 0.533, which is lesser than the table value, we can
accept the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Our hypothesis is accepted. Therefore we can
say that the two groups Means of Rural and Urban teachers do not differ significantly with respect to
their job satisfaction. In other words, it can also be said that job satisfaction does not differ significantly
with respect to regions in which schools are situated.
NULL HYPOTHESIS 3
There is no significant difference between Science & Arts school teachers with respect to their
job satisfaction. The following results were obtained.
GROUP N MEAN SD df CALCULATED
T-VALUE
TABLE
VALUE
RESULT
SCIENCE 42 150.5 16.32 118 1.462 0.05 1.98 NOT
SIGNIFICANCE ARTS 78 154.54 13.31 0.01 2.58
INTERPRETATION
It can be found out that the table value with df (Degree of Freedom) of 118 is 1.98 at 0.05 level
of confidence. Since, our calculated t value that is 1.462 which is lesser than the table value, we can
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accept the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Our hypothesis is accepted. Therefore we can
say that the means of the two groups namely science and arts teachers do not differ significantly with
respect to their job satisfaction. In other words, it can also be said that job satisfaction does not differ
significantly with various streams of disciplines pursued by teachers.
FINDINGS
1. The Mean score of all the Secondary School Teachers show that they have above average
level of job satisfaction.
2. There is no significant difference between the job satisfaction of Male and Female Secondary
School Teachers in Bankura district. In other words, job satisfaction does not differ significantly
among the Secondary school teachers with regard to gender in the district of Bankura.
3. There is no significant difference between the job satisfaction of Rural and Urban Secondary
School Teachers in Bankura district. In other words, job satisfaction does not differ significantly
among the Secondary school teachers with regard to place of residence in the district of
Bankura.
4. There is no significant difference between the job satisfaction of Science and Arts Stream
Secondary School Teachers in Bankura district. In other words, job satisfaction does not differ
significantly among the Secondary school teachers with regard to steams of subjects taken in
the district of Bankura.
CONCLUSION
At the end, it can be said that this study is a vital one as it may help the authority concerned for
the Secondary school teachers in Bankura district in policy making and implementation of certain
projects or programmes for them. This kind of studies on job satisfaction of teachers at all levels
Primary, Secondary, Higher Secondary, College and University must be carried out in order to maintain
properly the human resources in education sector of our country.
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Koul, L. (1944). Methodology of Educational Research. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing house.
Pvt.Ltd.


International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
www.ijter.com
Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
30
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES IN RELATION TO ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AMONG XI
STANDARD STUDENTS OF PUDUCHERRY
Mr. K . ILAYAPERUMAL Dr.V.AMBEDKAR
Assistant Professor Associate Professor
Faculty of Education Education Wing DDE
Vinayaka Missions University Annamalai University.
Puducherry, India. Annamalai Nagar

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study is to study the differences between Multiple Intelligences and
Achievement Motivation among 11
th
standard students in Puducherry with respect to the gender and
locality. In the present study, the researcher adopted Normative Survey type of Research design. A
sample of 1250 11th standard students is taken using cluster sampling technique for the present
investigation. For the purpose of collection of data related to the present study, Multiple Intelligences
tool (constructed and validated by the investigator) and Achievement Motivation Tool A standardized
tool by Pratiba Deo & Mohan (1985) were used.
Keywords: Multiple Intelligences, Achievement Motivation
INTRODUCTION
Multiple intelligences refer to the different types of individuals that are inherent in human beings
and are applied in situation of need to solve problems. Traditionally schools have almost exclusively
emphasized the development of logical intelligence and linguistic intelligence (mainly reading and
writing). While many students function well in this environment, there are those who do not. Gardner's
theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use
different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at
linguistic and logical intelligence. Many teachers see the theory as simple common sense, validating
what they already know: that student learn in different ways.
The practical application of the theory of multiple intelligences varies widely. It runs the gamut
from a teacher who, when confronted with a student having difficulties, uses a different approach to
teach the material, to an entire school using Multiple Intelligence as a framework. In general, those who
subscribe to the theory strive to provide opportunities for their students to use and develop all the
different intelligences, not just the few at which they naturally excel.
Thus, the success or failure of the learner is determined by the usage of all types of
Intelligences adopted by the learner. Hence the present study is aimed to find out the relationship
between the Multiple Intelligences with the Achievement Motivation among the 11
th
standard students
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
www.ijter.com
Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
31
in Puducherry. Thus by exploring these variables, Multiple Intelligences associated with the learners
and their determination of Achievement Motivation could be understood. Further the effect of the
background variable sex over the research variables are proposed to be studied.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific
(primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.
Harvard professor Howard Gardner has identified eight different types of intelligences that each
individual has the capacity to possess. The idea of multiple intelligences is important because it allows
for educators to identify differing strengths and weaknesses in students and also contradicts the idea
that intelligence can be measured through IQ. In researching about genius, we found that Howard
Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a great alternative to the popular measurable IQ
method. Multiple intelligences refer to the different types of individuals that are inherent in human
beings and are applied in situation of need to solve problems.
Gardners theory of multiple intelligences
According to Gardner (1999), intelligence is much more than IQ because a high IQ in the
absence of productivity does not equate to intelligence. In his definition, "Intelligence is a bio
psychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve
problems or create products that are of value in a culture" (p.34). Consequently, instead of intelligence
being a single entity described psychometrically with an IQ score, Gardner's definition views it as many
things. He endeavored to define intelligence in a much broader way than psychometricians. To achieve
this goal Gardner (1983) established several criteria for defining intelligence. In identifying capabilities
to be considered for one of the "multiple intelligences" the construct under consideration had to meet
several criteria rather than resting on the results of a narrow psychometric approach.
Types of intelligences (According to Gardner)
Following are the types of intelligence according to Gardner:
1. Linguistic Intelligence allows individuals to communicate and make sense of the world
through language. Poets exemplify this intelligence in its mature form. Students who enjoy
playing with rhymes, who pun, who always have a story to tell, who quickly acquire other
languagesincluding sign languageall exhibit linguistic intelligence.
2. Logical-Mathematical Intelligence enables individuals to use and appreciate abstract
relations. Scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers all rely on this intelligence. So do the
students who live baseball statistics or who carefully analyze the components of problems
either personal or school-related before systematically testing solutions.
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
32
3. Musical Intelligence allows people to create, communicate, and understand meanings made
out of sound. While composers and instrumentalists clearly exhibit this intelligence, so the
students who seem particularly attracted by the birds singing outside the classroom window or
who constantly tap out intricate rhythms on the desk with their pencils
4. Spatial Intelligence makes it possible for people to perceive visual or spatial information, to
transform this information, and to recreate visual images from memory. Well-developed spatial
capacities are needed for the work of architects, sculptors, and engineers. The students who
turn first to the graphs, charts, and pictures in their textbook, who like to web their ideas
before writing a paper, and who fill the blank space around their notes with intricate patterns
are also using their spatial intelligence. While usually tied to the visual modality, spatial
intelligence can also be exercised to a high level by individuals who are visually impaired.
5. Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence allows individuals to use all or part of the body to create
products or solve problems. Athletes, surgeons, dancers, choreographers, and crafts people all
use bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. The capacity is also evident in students who relish gym
class and school dances, who prefer to carry out school projects by making models rather than
writing reports, and who toss crumbled paper with frequency and accuracy into wastebaskets
across the room.
6. Intrapersonal Intelligence helps individuals to distinguish among their own feelings, to build
accurate mental models of themselves, and to draw on these models to make decisions about
their lives. Although it is most difficult to assess who has this capacity and to what degree,
evidence can be sought in students uses of other intelligenceshow well they seem to be
capitalizing on their strengths, how cognizant they are of their weaknesses, and how thoughtful
they are about the decisions and choice they make.
7. Interpersonal Intelligence enables individuals to recognize and make distinctions about
others feelings and intentions. Teachers, parents, politicians, psychologists, and salespeople
rely on interpersonal intelligence. Students exhibit this intelligence when they thrive on small-
group work, when they notice and react to the moods of their friends and classmates, and
when they tactfully convince the teacher of their need for extra time to complete the homework
assignment.
8. Naturalist Intelligence allows people to distinguish among, classify, and use features of the
environment. Farmers, gardeners, botanists, geologists, florists, and archaeologists all exhibit
this intelligence, as do students who can name and describe the features of every make of car
around them.
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
33
Relationship between multiple Intelligence and education
Traditionally schools have almost exclusively emphasized the development of logical
intelligence and linguistic intelligence (mainly reading and writing). While many students function well in
this environment, there are those who do not. Gardner's theory argues that students will be better
served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and
activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical intelligence. Many
teachers see the theory as simple common sense, validating what they already know: that student learn
in different ways.
The practical application of the theory of multiple intelligences varies widely. It runs the gamut
from a teacher who, when confronted with a student having difficulties, uses a different approach to
teach the material, to an entire school using MI as a framework. In general, those who subscribe to the
theory strive to provide opportunities for their students to use and develop all the different intelligences,
not just the few at which they naturally excel.
Achievement motivation
It refers to the goal or drive that students have towards their academics. Motivation,
also referred to as academic engagement, refers to cognitive, emotional, and behavioral indicators of
student investment in and attachment to education (Tucker, Zayco, & Herman, 2002, p. 477). It is
obvious that students who are not motivated to succeed will not work hard. Numerous studies have
been conducted on this topic, which has led to the development of several theories of motivation.
OBJECTIVES
1. To study the differences in Multiple Intelligences, Achievement Motivation among 11
th

standard male students in Puducherry.
2. To study the differences in Multiple Intelligences, Achievement Motivation among 11
th

standard female students in Puducherry.
3. To study the differences in Multiple Intelligences, Achievement Motivation among 11
th

standard rural students in Puducherry.
4. To study the differences in Multiple Intelligences, Achievement Motivation among 11
th

standard urban students in Puducherry.
5. To study the differences in Multiple Intelligences, Achievement Motivation among 11
th

standard Semi - Urban students in Puducherry.
RESESARCH DESIGN ADOPTED FOR THE STUDY
In the present study, the researcher / investigator adopted Normative Survey type of Research
design.
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
34
SAMPLE & SAMPLING PROCEDURE
A sample of 1250 11
th
standard students is taken using cluster sampling technique for the
present investigation.
TOOLS USED
For the purpose of collection of data related to the present study, the following tools were
employed.
1. Multiple Intelligences Test constructed and validated by the investigator.
2. Achievement Motivation Tool constructed and validated by Pratiba Deo & Mohan (1985).
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
It is found that 10.56% 0f 11th standard students possess Linguistic intelligence, 8.7% possess
Logical / Mathematical intelligence, 11.3% belong to Musical intelligence, 7.5% belong to Spatial
intelligence, 9.7% belong to Bodily / Kinesthetic intelligence, 11.6% belong to Intrapersonal intelligence,
7.4% belong to Interpersonal Intelligence and 33% belong to Naturalistic intelligence. This clearly
shows that from the sample drawn, students of 11th standard belong to Naturalistic type of intelligence
than any other intelligence.
Table 1
Distribution of sample as per Achievement Motivation





From the table 1, it is found that the 11
th
standard students posses around 70% of Achievement
Motivation when compared with the maximum score of the tool.
HYPOTHESIS 1
Male Students of different types of Multiple Intelligences differ in their Achievement Motivation.
Table 2
Comparison of Mean Scores of Achievement Motivation of 11
th
Standard male students with
different types of Multiple Intelligences
Max Score: 250

Sum of
Squares
df Mean square F P
Between
Groups
10135.89 7 1447.98
3.19 < 0.05
Within Groups 330346.88 728 453.77
GROUPS N Mean S.D
Male 736 172. 21.523
Female 514 176.78 20.761
Rural 720 172.63 20.953
Urban 368 176.47 22.117
Semi Urban 162 174.30 20.797
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
35
From the table 2, it is evident that there is a significant difference between Multiple Intelligences
of XI Standard male students and their Achievement Motivation, since the calculated F value (3.19) is
significant at 0.05 level. Hence, the research hypothesis framed is accepted. In order to find out the
significance of difference between each of the two groups of Multiple Intelligences of XI Standard male
students, Post Hoc Scheffes Test is used and is presented in the following table.
HYPOTHESIS 2
Female Students of different types of Multiple Intelligences differ in their Achievement
Motivation.
Table 3
Comparison of Mean Scores of Achievement Motivation of 11
th
Standard female students with
different types of Multiple Intelligences
Max Score: 250

Sum of
Squares
Df Mean square F P
Between
Groups
8347.171 7 1192.453
2.836 < 0.05
Within
Groups
212755.545 506 420.446

From the table 3, it is evident that there is a significant difference between Multiple Intelligences
of XI Standard female students and their Achievement Motivation, since the calculated F value (2.836)
is significant at 0.05 level. Hence, the research hypothesis framed is accepted. In order to find out the
significance of difference between each of the two groups of Multiple Intelligences of 11
th
Standard
female students, Post Hoc Scheffes Test is used and is presented in the following table.
HYPOTHESIS 3
Rural Students of different types of Multiple Intelligences differ in their Achievement Motivation.
Table 4
Comparison of Mean Scores of Achievement Motivation of 11
th
Standard Rural students with
different types of Multiple Intelligences
Max Score: 250

Sum of
Squares
df Mean square F P
Between
Groups
4857.959 7 693.994
1.590 Not Significant
Within
Groups
310812.539 712 436.534

From the table 4, it is evident that there is no significant difference between Multiple
Intelligences of XI Standard Rural students and their Achievement Motivation, since the calculated F
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
www.ijter.com
Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
36
value (1.590) is not significant at 0.05 level. Hence, the research hypothesis framed is rejected and the
alternate hypothesis is accepted.
HYPOTHESIS 4
Urban Students of different types of Multiple Intelligences differ in their Achievement
Motivation.
Table 5
Comparison of Mean Scores of Achievement Motivation of 11
th
Standard Urban students with
different types of Multiple Intelligences
Max Score: 250

Sum of
Squares
df Mean square F P
Between
Groups
6467.461 7 923.923
1.922 Not Significant
Within
Groups
173050.210 360 480.695

From the table 5, it is evident that there is no significant difference between Multiple
Intelligences of XI Standard Urban students and their Achievement Motivation, since the calculated F
value (1.922) is not significant at 0 .05 level. Hence, the research hypothesis framed is rejected and the
alternate hypothesis is accepted.
HYPOTHESIS 5
Semi - Urban Students of different types of Multiple Intelligences differ in their Achievement
Motivation.
Table 6
Comparison of Mean Scores of Achievement Motivation of 11
th
Standard Semi-Urban students
with different types of Multiple Intelligences
Max Score: 250

Sum of
Squares
df Mean square F P
Between
Groups
6047.327 7 863.904
2.092 < 0.05
Within
Groups
63590.852 154 412.928
From the table 6, it is evident that there is a significant difference between Multiple Intelligences
of XI Standard Semi - Urban students and their Achievement Motivation, since the calculated F value
(2.092) is significant at 0.05 level. Hence, the research hypothesis framed is accepted. In order to find
out the significance of difference between each of the two groups of Multiple Intelligences of XI
Standard Semi - Urban students, Post Hoc Scheffes Test is used and is presented in the following
table.
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
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Multiple intelligence in relation to Achievement Motivation among XI standard students of Puducherry
37
FINDINGS
The 11
th
standard male students with Musical intelligence and Natural intelligence do differ
significantly in their achievement motivation and the mean scores being greater for students
with Naturalistic Intelligences.
The 11
th
standard female students with Musical intelligence and Spatial intelligence do differ
significantly in their achievement motivation and the mean scores being greater for students
with Spatial Intelligences.
11
th
standard students with different types of Intelligences do not differ significantly in their
achievement motivation.
11
th
standard Rural students with different types of Intelligences do not differ significantly in
their achievement motivation.
11
th
standard Semi - Urban students with Musical intelligence and Natural intelligence differ
significantly in their achievement motivation and the mean scores being greater for students
with Naturalistic Intelligences.
DISCUSSION
The 11
th
standard students with different Multiple Intelligences in their Achievement Motivation
scores do not differ significantly, but in their Musical and Intrapersonal Vs Naturalistic Intelligences they
do differ significantly. It shows that the naturalistic intelligences is the strongest intelligences while
comparing with other Multiple Intelligences. The Multiple Intelligences with grade V Pupils a study
conducted by Divina G.Naeo (2010) shown that the intrapersonal intelligence differ significantly
between the two adult groups and among the three important subjects namely Science, Mathematics
and English, the pupil respondent appeared to be naturalistic Intelligence.
CONCLUSION
The study concludes that the 11
th
standard students who perceive Naturalistic Intelligence
possess more Achievement Motivation than the students who perceive other types of intelligences.
REFERENCES
Ayishabi, T.C. and Kuruvilla, M. (1998) Achievement Motivation of Secondary School Children of
Working Mothers of Kerala. Experiments in education, 26,203-206.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
International Journal of Teacher Educational Research (IJTER) Vol.3 No.6 June, 2014 ISSN: 2319-4642
Vol.1


CONTRIBUTORS


Mr. A. S. Arul Lawrence
Assistant Professor, School of Education,
Tamil Nadu Open University,
Chennai 600015, Tamil Nadu, India.
E-mail: arullawrence@gmail.com

Ms. Charmaine Senta Geeta Bissessar
Academic Development Coach
Hugh Wooding Law School
83 Aquamarine Drive, Diamond Vale, Diego Martin,
Trinidad
Email: cbissessar@hwls.edu.tt
Website: www.hwls.edu.tt

Anushri Ghosh
M.A (Education)
Department of Education
Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University
Purulia, W.B

Sumit Paroi
Assistant Professor (Contractual)
Department of Education
Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University
Purulia, W.B

Mr.K.Ilayaperumal
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Education
Vinayaka Missions University
Puducherry India

Dr.V.Ambedkar
Associate Professor
Education Wing DDE
Annamalai University
Annamalainagar India


























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