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© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

Introduction of OFC.

Introduction of OFC. OF Cable is a guided medium, in which information (voice, data or video)

OF Cable is a guided medium, in which

information (voice, data or video) is transmitted through a glass or plastic fibre, in

the form of light from one end to other end.

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Technology in OF cable.

• Transmission sequence

• Principles of operation

– TIR

– Propagation of light

• To Achieve TIR

– Value of IOR

– Propagation angle

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Optical parameters.

• Wavelength

• Frequency

• Window

• Attenuation

• Dispersion

• Bandwidth or NA

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Type of OF Cable.

• Single Mode Fibre

• Multi Mode Fibre

• Plastic Optic Fibre

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Single Mode Fibre

Single Mode Fibre A much smaller core Diameter • The Core dia is 8 to 10

A much smaller core Diameter

• The Core dia is 8 to 10 Micrometer

• Cladding Dia is 125 Micrometer

• Very large bandwidth

• Light can go for very long distances

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Multimode

Multimode Has a large Core Diameter Core Diameter - 50, 62.5, 100 Micro meter Cladding dia

Has a large Core Diameter

Core Diameter - 50, 62.5, 100 Micro meter

Cladding dia

Light waves are dispersed into number of paths

Multiple path of light cause signal distortion

Suitable for shorter length like LAN

- 125 Micro meter

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Multi Mode Fibre

Step Index Fibre

Multi Mode Fibre Step Index Fibre Graded Index Fibre © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

Graded Index Fibre

Multi Mode Fibre Step Index Fibre Graded Index Fibre © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

Advantages of OF Cable.

Unlimited bandwidth

• Low Loss - 0.5db per km

• Less number of Repeaters

• Electro Magnetic Immunity

• Small size & Light Weight - Easy to

handle

• Greater Safety - No Electric Hazards

• Higher Security

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Application of Cable.

• Telecom network

• CP Commn. Network

• Under sea

• High EMI area

• Explosive env. area

• High lightening area

• Military applications

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OFC Construction

Parameters of Cabling

• Tensile Strength ( Pull)

• Crushing Resistance

• Protection from Excess Bending

• Abrasion Protection

• Anti-Twist

• Chemical protection

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OFC Construction

OFC Construction 1. Core • It is made by silica or Glass 1.48 • More RI

1. Core

It is made by silica or Glass

1.48

• More RI and it is

• diameter

• Light is transmitted through

8-10 micrometer

the core

2. Cladding

It is made by silica or glass

• More RI and it is

1.46

• diameter

125 micrometer

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• 6 Fibre

• 12 Fibre

• 24 Fibre

• 48 Fibre

• 96 Fibre

OFC Sizes

• Note: Standard drum length is 2000M +10% 0r 4000 m

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PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy.

Support large amount of data to transport .

The term “PLESIOCHRONOUS” is derived from which means near, and chronous, time.

Greek plesio

It means, networks works in different state but not perfectly within network.

Transmission and reception are synchronized but timing is not

The channel clocks derived from diff master clock and range is within limit . It called “PLESIOCHRONOUS” SIGNAL.

PDH signal are neither SYNCHRONOUS nor ASYNCHRONOUS.

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VERSIONS OF PDH

There are two version in PDH namely

THE EUROPEAN AND

THE AMERICAN.

They are different Bit rates and same

EUROPEAN PCM = 30 CHANNELS

NORTH AMERICAN PCM = 24 CHANNELS

Bit rates and same  EUROPEAN PCM = 30 CHANNELS  NORTH AMERICAN PCM = 24

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EUROPEAN PDH HIERARCHY WITH BIT RATES

MUX

BIT RATE

PARTS PER MILLION

CHANNELS

2

Mbps

2.048

Mbps

+/- 50 ppm

30

8

Mbps

8.448

Mbps

+/- 30 ppm

120

34 Mbps

34.368

+/- 20 ppm

480

Mbps

140 Mbps

139.264

+/- 15 ppm

1920

Mbps

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MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE

Digital data from multiple streams are combined called Multiplexing .

Taking one bit from each stream and followed by other one .

Multiplexer also adds some additional bits to enable the reliable.

The additional bit called “JUSTIFICATION “OR “STUFFING” bits.

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30 Chl Digital Hierarchy

2.048 Mbps

Primary

Mux

30 Chls

8.448 Mbps

34.368 Mbps

139.264 Mbps

II order Mux III Order Mux 480 Chls 120 Chls X 4 X 4
II order
Mux
III Order
Mux
480 Chls
120 Chls
X 4
X 4
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls
IV Order Mux 1920 Chls

IV Order Mux

1920 Chls

X 4

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

DIGITAL MUX CONCEPTS

BIT INTERLEAVING:

• It means Alternately each channel code can be scanned one digit at a time.

• It is adopted in Higher order Multiplexing. BYTE/WORD/BLOCK INTERLEAVING If TS is long enough to accommodate the group of bits, then signal called Byte interleaving.

A1

A2

A3

A4

B1

B2

B3

B4

C1

C2

C3

C4

D1

D2

D3

D4

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SLIP, JUSTIFICATION AND JITTER

SLIP – This occurs when incoming bit rates does not match with the divided MUX/DEMUX clock rate .Same bit may be read twice or loss of bit will occur.

JUSTIFICATION:- It is process of adding additional bits to solve this SLIP problem.

JITTER:- Displacement of pulse from its normal significant instant is called Jitter.

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PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN HIGHER ORDER MULTIPLEXING AND SOLUTIONS FOR THEM

MUX CLOCK SPEEDS SHOULD BE SAME AT BOTH THE ENDS. – SOLUTION :- It solved by using PLL circuit at receive tml to recover the clock.

SYNCHRONIZATION:- SOLUTION- It is solved by FRAME ALIGNMENT WORD (FAW).

TRIBUTARY BIT RATE AND MUX CLOCK (DIVIDED) SHOULD BE THE SAME:- SOLUTION - It is solved by adding additional Stuffing bit or Justification bit during process.

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FOTS

• FIBRE OPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM.

• It has the following sub system

– DIGITAL MULTIPLEX SUB SYSTEM.

– OPTICAL LINE TRANSMISSION SUB SYSTEM.

– CENTRAL SUPERVISORY SUB SYSTEM

– POWER SUB SYSTEM

– ALARM SUB SYSTEM

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LIMITATIONS

• Lower capacity

• Add and drop difficult

• MUX/DEMUX process Complex

• No Universal standard

• Internetworking betn. Hierarchies complex.

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DISADVANTAGES OF PDH SYSTEM

• Bandwidth is limited

• To access LO tributary involves whole process.

• No common standard between vendors.

• Only Point to Point configuration.

• No provision for NMS

standard between vendors. • Only Point to Point configuration. • No provision for NMS © BHARAT

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

WHAT

IS S D H

?

SYNCHRONOUS :

ONE MASTER CLOCK & ALL ELEMENTS SYNCHRONISE WITH IT. DIGITAL:

INFORMATION IN BINARY.

HIERARCHY:

SET OF BIT RATES IN A HIERARCHIAL ORDER.

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ADVANTAGES OF SDH

1. SIMPLIFIED MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUES.

2. DIRECT ACCESS TO LOWER ORDER TRIBUTARIES.

3. ACCOMMODATES EXISTING PDH SIGNALS.

4. CAPABLE OF TRANSPORTING BROADBAND SIGNALS.

5. MULTI-VENDOR, MULTI OPERATOR ENVIRONMENT.

6. PROTECTION SWITCHING TO TRAFFIC IS OFFERED BY RINGS.

7. ENHANCED BANDWIDTH.

8. NMS FACILITY.

9. UNLIMITED BANDWIDTH

10. GROWTH OF THE EXISTING TO THE HIGHER ORDER SYSTEM IS SIMPLE.

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The Container (C)

– Basic packaging unit for tributary signals (PDH)

– Synchronous to the STM-1

– Bitrate adaptation is done via a positive stuffing procedure

– Adaptation of synchronous tributaries by fixed stuffing bits

– Bit by bit stuffing

The Virtual Container (VC)

– Formation of the Container by adding of a POH (Path Overhead)

– Transport as a unit through the network (SDH)

– A VC containing several VCs has also a pointer area

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• The Tributary Unit (TU)

• Is formed via adding a pointer to the VC

• The Tributary Unit Group (TUG)

– Combines several TUs for a new VC

• The Administrative Unit (AU)

– Is shaped if a pointer is allocated to the VC formed at last

• The Syncronous Transport Module Level 1

(STM-1)

– Formed by adding a Section Overhead (SOH) to AUs

– Clock justification through positive-zero-negative stuffing in the AU pointer area

– byte by byte stuffing

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

STM1 Frames

STM1 Frames © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

REDUCED MUX STRUCTURE

STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4 140Mbps TUG-3 TU-3 VC-3 34Mbps C-3 TUG-2 TU-1 VC-1 C-1
STM-N
AUG
AU-4
VC-4
C-4
140Mbps
TUG-3
TU-3
VC-3
34Mbps
C-3
TUG-2
TU-1
VC-1
C-1
2Mbps

(REDUCED DIAGRAM FOR SDH-MULTIPLEXING)

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

Containers: C-3, C-2, C-12 and C-11

Container

Carries signals at

C-11

1.544 Mbit/s

C-12

2.048

Mbit/s

C-2

6.312

Mbit/s

C-3

34.368 Mbit/s and 44.736 Mbit/s

C-4

139.264 Mbit/s

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

SDH BIT RATES

SDH Levels

Bit rates in Kbps

STM-1

155520

STM-4

622080

STM-16

2488320

STM-64

9953.28

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SOH BYTE ALLOCATION

A1A2

Frame alignment

B1B2

Error monitoring

D1 D3

Data comm channel for RSOH

D4 D12

Data comm channel for MSOH

E1-E2

Order wire channel

F1

Maintenance

J0

STM Identifier

K1 K2

Automatic protection switching

S1

SYNCHRONISATION STATUS

M1

Txmn Error acknowledgement

 

Media dependent bytes

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SDH NETWORK ELEMENTS

• The different network elements are

• SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER

• SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT

• REGENERATOR

• NMS

• SYNCHRONOUS MULTIPLEXER • SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL CROSS CONNECT • REGENERATOR • NMS © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

SYNCHRONOUS MUX

• Types of synchronous multiplexers

• TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM)

• ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)

of synchronous multiplexers • TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM) • ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM) © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

TM

TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM)

• TM Accepts a no. Of tributary signals and multiplex them to appropriate optical/electrical aggregate signal viz STM1,STM4,STM16 etc.

multiplex them to appropriate optical/electrical aggregate signal viz STM1,STM4,STM16 etc. © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM)

TERMINAL MULTIPLEXER(TM ) © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM)

• Only signals that need to be accessed are dropped or inserted

• Remaining traffic continues thru the NE without requiring special signal process.

• Remaining traffic continues thru the NE without requiring special signal process . © BHARAT SANCHAR

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

ADM

• ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(TM)

ADM
ADM

AGGREGATE SIGNAL SDH(E/O)

AGGREGATE SIGNAL

SDH(E/O)

TRIBUTARY SIGNALS

(PDH/SDH)

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ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)

• ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)
ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER(ADM)

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CROSS CONNECT EQUIPMENT

• It works as semi permanent switch for varying B/W.

• It can pick out one or more lower order channels for transmitting signal without trans. Chls.

• Chls. can be 64Kbps up to STM1

• Under software program the need of demultiplexing

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TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY

• STRING/BUS/LINEAR Topology

• RING Topology

• STAR Topology

• MESH Topology

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STRING/BUS/LINEAR

TOPOLOGY

TM REG TM ADM ADM ADM
TM
REG
TM
ADM
ADM
ADM

Aggregate signalSTRING/BUS/LINEAR TOPOLOGY TM REG TM ADM ADM ADM ( STM1/STM4/STM16) Tributary signal (2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o))

(STM1/STM4/STM16)

Tributary

signal

(2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o))

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RING TOPOLOGY

• Ring is a linear network looped back to itself

• Network elements are ADM’s or REGENERATORS

• Every node on a ring has two communication paths to each other node via the two directions around the ring.

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RING TOPOLOGY

ADM ADM (STM1/STM4/STM16) Aggregate signal Tributary signal (2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o)) © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM
ADM
ADM
(STM1/STM4/STM16)
Aggregate signal
Tributary
signal
(2/34/140Mbps/STM1(e)/ STM1(o))
© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

RING TOPOLOGY

• Ring network is self healing type

• Ring protocol can detect failure of fibre segment or node

• Then rapidly reestablish communications,

• Duration is on the order of milliseconds.

• It known as protection or protection switching

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RING TOPOLOGY

• Rings gives greater flexibility in the allocation of band width to the different users.

• Normally used in LAN,WAN, Core Network,Regional Network etc.

to the different users. • Normally used in LAN,WAN, Core Network,Regional Network etc. © BHARAT SANCHAR

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

STAR TOPOLOGY

• Traffic passes thru a central node called HUB.

• The HUB is a DXC.

• If HUB fails ,total traffic fails.

a central node called HUB. • The HUB is a DXC. • If HUB fails ,total

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

DWDM BASICS

DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
SINGLE FIBRE
SINGLE FIBRE
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED
DWDM BASICS SINGLE FIBRE SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS NEW REQUIREMENTS: © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

SDH OPTICAL SIGNALS

NEW REQUIREMENTS:

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

Achieving high bandwidth

Achieving high bandwidth Three possible solutions. • Install new fiber • Invest in new TDM technology
Achieving high bandwidth Three possible solutions. • Install new fiber • Invest in new TDM technology

Three possible solutions.

• Install new fiber • Invest in new TDM technology to achieve higher bandwidth. •

Install new fiber

Invest in new TDM

technology to achieve

higher bandwidth.

Deploy DWDM

Expensive

Very expensive Require new type fibre.

Economical.

Deploy DWDM • Expensive • Very expensive Require new type fibre. • Economical. © BHARAT SANCHAR

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

DWDM

• DWDM IS A TECHNOLOGY THAT USES MULTIPLE LASERS TO TRANSMIT MANY WAVELENGTHS OF LIGHT SIMULTANEOUSLY OVER A SINGLE OPTICAL FIBRE.

• EACH SIGNAL IS MODULATED BY DIFFERENT SOURCE DATA (TEXT, VIDEO ETC) AND TRAVELS WITHIN ITS OWN UNIQUE COLOUR BAND – WAVELENGTH.

• DWDM DRAMATICALLY INCREASES THE FIBRE INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE OPTICAL TRANSPORT NETWORK.

• BIT RATE TRANSPARENCY

• QUICK DEPLOYMENT

• WAVELENGTH ROUTING

• WAVELENGTH SWITCHING.

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

WHAT IS DWDM ?

THE TECHNOLOGY OF COMBINING A NUMBER OF OPTICAL WAVE LENGTHS AND THEN TRANSMITING THE SAME THROUGH SINGLE FIBRE IS CALLED “DWDM”

DENSE WAVE LENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING IS A NEW TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE THE CAPACITY OF TRANSMISSION NETWORK.

IT WAS COMMERCIALISED IN 1990s.

CHANNELS MULTIPLEX DATA SIGNALS INTO A COMMON OPTICAL FIBRE.

AT&T BUILT THE FIRST 8 CHANNEL DWDM SYSTEM IN THE WORLD.

DWDM IS AN EFFECTIVE METHOD TO INCREASE THE SYSTEM CAPACITY.

DWDM TECHNOLOGY COULD OFFER SEVERAL VIRTUAL OPTICAL CHANNELS IN ONE FIBRE. COST COULD BE SAVED IN NET WORK EXPANDING.

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COMPONENTS AND OPERATION

TRANS SIDE:- LASERS WITH PRECISE AND STABLE WAVE LENGTH.

LINK SIDE:- FIBRE THAT EXHIBITS LOW LOSS AND TRANSMISSION PERFORMANCE IN THE RELEVANT WAVELENGTH SPECTRA, IN ADDITION TO FLAT GAIN AMPLIFIERS TO BOOST THE SIGNALS ON LONGER SPAN.

RECEIVE SIDE:- PHOTO DETECTORS AND OPTICAL DEMUX USING THIN FILM FILTERS OR DIFFRACTIVE ELEMENTS.

• OPTICAL ADM.

• OPTICAL CROSS CONNECT COMPONENTS.

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DWDM SYSTEM Vs OTHER SYSTEMS

OTHER SYSTEMS

• REGENERATORS WERE EMPLOYED TO BOOST OR REGENERATE THE SIGNALS.

• INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS, INDIVIDUAL FIBRES.

• CONSUMES MORE ENERGY.

• CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT WAS NOT POSSIBLE

DWDM SYSTEMS

• OPTICAL FIBRE AMPLIFIERS ARE USED COMMONLY.

• ONE COMMON FIBRE IS ENOUGH.

• OPTICAL COMPONENTS MINIMIZE ENERGY.

• POSSIBLE TO ENHANCE BANDWIDTH.

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

DWDM

Tx Rx OPTICAL SIGNALS. λ MUX DEMUX 1 STM-1 λ OFA 2 STM-4 W W
Tx
Rx
OPTICAL
SIGNALS.
λ
MUX
DEMUX
1
STM-1
λ
OFA
2
STM-4
W
W
STM-16
D
D
ATM
M
M
IP
λ
16
TRANSPONDERS

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

MAIN NETWORK ELEMENTS

1. TRANSPONDER

2. OPTICAL MULTIPLEXER

3. OPTICAL DEMULTIPLEXER

4. OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS

5. OPTICAL ADD DROP MULTIPLEXER

6. OPTICAL CROSS CONNECT

7. OPTICAL REPEATER

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

JUST LIKE WIDENING OF ROAD USING AVAILABLE LAND TO MEET INCREASED TRAFFIC.

TX RX OFA WDM WDM
TX
RX
OFA
WDM
WDM

STM 1

STM 4

STM 16

ATM

IP TFC

TRANSPONDERS

NEW REQUIREMENT – OPTICAL SIGNALS DWDM – BLOCK SCHEMATIC

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EXTRACTING HIGHER CAPACITY BY SENDING SEVERAL LOW BITRATE SIGNALS ON SAME FIBRE

EXTRACTING HIGHER CAPACITY BY SENDING SEVERAL LOW BITRATE SIGNALS ON SAME FIBRE © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

DWDM MAIN FUNCTIONS

1. GENERATING THE SIGNAL – WITH SOURCES 2. COMBINING THE SIGNALS – USING MULTIPLEXERS. 3.TRANSMITTING THE SIGNALS – WITH QUALITY FIBRE. 4.SEPARATING THE RECEIVED SIGNALS – USING DEMULTIPLEXER 6.RECEIVING THE SIGNALS – USING PHOTO DETECTORS.

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

STAGES IN EVOLUTION OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATION:

Improvised Fiber

• Point-to-point transport of medium bit rate signals over short distance : single optical channel, 850 nm; using multimode (MM) fibre

• Point-to-point transport of medium/high bitrate signals over medium/long distance : single optical channel 1310 nm; (Single Mode fibre)

• Point-to-point transport of very high bitrate signals over long distance using two optical channels (second & third windows) : WDM ; (SM fibre)

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

STAGES IN EVOLUTION OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATION:

EDFAs

• Invention of the Optical Amplifier (EDFA):

• It amplifies all the DWDM channels in the fibre

• The erbium doped fiber amplifier is the most successful design for 1550 nm. (both L and C bands)

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STAGES IN EVOLUTION OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATION:

NEW FIBRES

• Type of fiber:

– DSF. G.653: Shifts dispersion minimum from 1300 to 1550. Ideal for low loss, low dispersion use with EDFAs.

– DSF , G.654 (<0.18 db/km): Achieved by using pure silica in core and deeply down doping the cladding;

– mainly for non repeater submarine systems

– NZDSF(G.655): For used in DWDM systems

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

STAGES IN EVOLUTION OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATION:

ACCESS

• Entry of Fibre into the access network (FTTC, FTTB, FTTH) :

• In order to meet the QoS, and bandwidth requirements of customers.

• Also to overcome the limitations of existing copper based access network.

• This is facilitating the convergence of Long distance with Local and Broadband serivces.

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

ADVANTAGES OF DWDM

ADVANTAGES OF DWDM © BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

Why Optical (DWDM) Networking?

• Fibre Exhaust : Unlimited bandwidth on a fibre pair

• Bit Rate Transparency

• Format/Protocol Transparency : IP, ATM etc.

• Efficient use and rearrangement of embedded optical capacity as per demand.

• Minimal Capital Expenditure : Capacity Expansions Demand

• Simpler Operations : Embedded DCC ---> Limited Nes --> Alarm Storm

Demand • Simpler Operations : Embedded DCC ---> Limited Nes --> Alarm Storm © BHARAT SANCHAR

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

OPTICAL BANDS

• EXTENSIVE USE OF WAVELENGTHS

– DIFFERENT VENDORS:INTEROPERABILITY ISSUES

– NEED FOR STANDARD WAVELENGTH VALUES

• ITU Classification of bands

• Standard values : ITU Grid

– Center frequency: 193.10THz (1552.52 nm)

– Standard spacings of 200, 100, 50 GHz for different applications

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

ITU-T BAND ALLOCATION C BAND L BAND Optical Supervisory channel BLUE RED BAND BAND 1500

ITU-T BAND ALLOCATION

C BAND L BAND Optical Supervisory channel BLUE RED BAND BAND 1500 1520 1530 1542
C BAND
L BAND
Optical
Supervisory
channel
BLUE
RED
BAND
BAND
1500 1520
1530
1542 1547
1560
1620

C BAND PRODUCTS ARE COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE.

• ERBIUM DOPED FIBRE AMPLIFIERS SUITABLE FOR

• GAIN IN RED BAND FLATTEST FOR EDFA.

• SOME MANUFACTURERS PROVIDE 16 CHANNELS IN

‘C’ BAND.

RED BAND ONLY. OTHERS USE BOTH RED

& BLUE BANDS.

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

© BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED