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Winter 2009 CMPE 150 Due February 24, 2009

PEM Assignment #5 Solutions

1. For the network of Figure 5.7a (and ignore the line weights), suppose flooding is used for the
routing algorithm. If a packet is sent from E to D, with a maximum hop count of 3, list all the
routes it will take. How many packets are sent in this flooding?

Hop 1, Hop 2, Hop 3. 11 packets are sent in this flooding

2. For the subnet of Figure 5.13(a), using distance vector routing. As router B, build the router
table for that node having received the following vectors: from A (0,4,6,8,6,10), from C
(7,2,0,5,2,8) and from F (11,4,8,5,7,0). B has measured its routes to its neighbors A, C and F
and gets 2, 3 and 2 respectively. Compute Bs new routing table, showing both the outgoing
line and the expected delay.


3. For the subnet of Figure 5.6(a), draw a sink tree for router B. Using this subtree, how many
packets are generated by a broadcast from B using:
a. reverse path forwarding
b. the sink tree?

Packets generated by broadcast from B:

a) Reverse Path Forwarding : 28 packets

b) Sink Tree: 14 packets(obtained by counting the links on the tree)

Sink Tree at Node B
Sink Tree at Node B (Re-ordered)
Tree built by reverse path forwarding. Circles in blue indicates paths that are not found in the sink tree
for node B. Packets received on these paths are duplicates and are not forwarded

4. Referring to Figure 5-20, suppose that node C has just rebooted and has no routing information
in its tables. It immediately needs a route to node H. It sends out broadcasts with TTL of 1, 2, 3,
and so on. How many rounds does it take to find the route?

Node C is 3 hops away from H, so it takes 3 rounds for it to find the route.

5. Suppose an ATM network uses a token bucket scheme for traffic shaping. If a new token is put
into the bucket every 10 sec, and is good for one 64K Byte packet, what is the maximum
sustainable data rate?

10 sec =64 x 8 x 10
bits 1sec =(64 x 8 x 10
) / 10 x 10

1 sec =51.2x10

The maximum sustainable data rate is 51.2Gbps

6. An IP datagram reassembly algorithm uses a timer to avoid having a lost fragment tie up buffers
indefinitely. Suppose that a datagram was fragmented into three fragments, and the first two
arrive, but the timer goes off before the last fragment arrives. The algorithm has discarded the
first two fragments, now it has finally the missing third fragment. What does it do with it?

As far as the receiver is concerned, this is a part of a new datagram, since no other parts of
it are known. It will therefore be queued up until the rest show up. If they do not, this one
will time out too.

8. Convert the IP address whose hexadecimal representation is C0A8000D.

11000000.10101000.00000000.00001101 =

9. What does this address tell you about its location?

This is a private IP address and the host is located in a private network. ie, it is not directly
reachable from the public internet.
10. A router has the following (CIDR) entries in its routing table:
Address/mask Next hop Interface 0 Interface 1
192.168.30/23 Router 1
Default Router 2 For packets with the following IP addresses, show where the
router will send the packet

Solution Convert the IP address to bits and then make an AND with the subnet mask of the
interface whose address is closest to that of the IP address. The results of the AND will give you
the network address and the interface to send the packet to.