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LABORATORY MANUAL

ECE321
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
LABORATORY





1 Page


Table of Content
Serial
No.
List of Experiments Page
No
1.
To obtain time domain AM envelope in CRO and recovering the
message signal using envelope detector circuit
2-5
2.
To obtain FM time domain waveform in CRO and to calculate
modulation index and frequency deviation for FM
6-8
3.
To obtain time domain PAM signal in CRO and to calculate the
discrete amplitude levels of modulated carrier pulses.
9-12
4.
To obtain a Delta modulated signal and calculate slope
overload and granular noise using Matlab
13-15
5.
To obtain PCM signal with proper analysis of sampling,
quantization and encoding using Matlab
16-18
6.
To obtain Unipolar, polar and bipolar line coded signal for RZ
and NRZ techniques using Matlab
19-21
7.
To obtain Binary ASK modulated signal and to calculate the
bandwidth
22-23
8.
To obtain Binary FSK modulated signal and to calculate the
bandwidth using Matlab
24-25
9.
To obtain BPSK signal using Matlab and to calculate the
bandwidth
26-27
10.
To obtain TDM signal and to calculate the data rate of the
multiplexed signal using Matlab
28-30

2 Page

Experiment1
Aim: To obtain time domain AM envelope in CRO and recovering the message signal using
envelope detector circuit
Equipments required: One IC BC 107BP, 10k, 20kohm resistor, three 0.01F capacitor,
CRO(20 Mhz),Function generator(1Mhz), connecting wires and probes.
Learning objectives:
1. To obtain AM envelope in CRO and to calculate modulation index.
2. To recover message signal using envelope detector.
Circuit diagram:

Fig1. AM envelope genaration

Fig2. Envelope detector

3 Page

Outline of the procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per Fig1.
2. Apply fixed frequency carrier signal to carrier input terminals.
3. Apply modulating signal from function generator of 0.8VP-P of 1 KHz.
4. Note down and trace the modulated signal envelop on the CRO screen.
5. Find the modulation index by measuring Vmax and Vmin from the modulated
(detected/ traced) envelope.
6. Connect the circuit as per Fig2.
7. Feed the AM wave to the demodulator circuit and observe the output.
8. Note down frequency and amplitude of the demodulated output waveform.
9. Draw the demodulated wave form for modulation index=1.
Observation:



4 Page


Error Analysis:
Calculate Modulation index using mathematical formula mc = (Vm/Vc)x100%
ERROR = [(m mc)/ mc] x 100%
Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.
Cautions:
1. Check the connections properly before applying the power supply.
2. Need to be careful and serious when interfacing the connections between
breadboard and power supply.












5 Page

Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained




6 Page

Experiment 2
Aim: To obtain FM time domain waveform in CRO and to calculate modulation index and
frequency deviation for FM
Equipments required: IC LM 2206,10k, two 100k, three 4.7k, 220ohm resistor values,
22F,1F, 10F, 0.01F capacitor values, CRO(20 Mhz), Function generator (1Mhz),
connecting wires and probes.
Learning objectives:
1. To obtain FM in CRO and to calculate modulation index.
Circuit diagram:

Fig3. FM generation
Outline of the procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per Fig3.
2. Apply the modulating signal of 100HZ with 3Vp-p.
3. Trace the modulated wave on the C.R.O & plot the same on graph.
4. Find the modulation index by measuring minimum and maximum frequency
deviations from the carrier frequency using the CRO.
5. M = S/f = maximum Frequency deviation /modulating signal frequency
6. Repeat the steps 3& 4 by changing the amplitude and /or frequency of the modulating
Signal
7 Page

Observation:



Error Analysis:
Student need to calculate error in calculation as per observation table.
Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.
Cautions:
1. Check the connections properly before applying the power supply.
2. Need to be careful and serious when interfacing the connections between
breadboard and power supply.


8 Page

Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained





9 Page

Experiment 3
Aim: To obtain time domain PAM signal in CRO and to calculate the discrete amplitude
levels of modulated carrier pulses.
Equipments required:



Learning objectives:
1. To obtain PAM in CRO and to calculate discrete amplitudes.
Circuit diagram:

Fig4. PAM generation
10 Page


Fig5. PAM demodulation

Outline of the procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per Fig 4.
2. Set the modulating frequency to 1KHz and sampling frequency to 12KHz
3. Observe the o/p on CRO i.e. PAM wave.
4. Measure the levels of Emax & Emin.
5. Feed the modulated wave to the low pass filter as in Fig 5.
6. The output observed on CRO will be the demodulated wave.
7. Note down the amplitude (p-p) and time period of the demodulated wave. Vary the
amplitude and frequency of modulating signal.
8. Observe and note down the changes in output.
9. Plot the wave forms on graph sheet.
Observation:

11 Page

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.
Cautions:
1. Check the connections properly before applying the power supply.
2. Need to be careful and serious when interfacing the connections between
breadboard and power supply.























12 Page


Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained




13 Page

Experiment 4
Aim: To obtain a Delta modulated signal and calculate slope overload and granular noise
using Matlab
Equipments Required: Computer, MatLab-7.5 Software
Learning Objectives:
1. To implement the MatLab code for delta modulation
2. To calculate condition for avoid slop overload error.
Mat Lab Code: A general guidelines of code has been given below but student need to
develop the complete program as per the learning objectives.

% DELTA MODULATiON
figure(1);
a=2;
t=0:2*pi/50:2*pi;
x=a*sin(t);
l=length(x);
plot(x,'r');
delta=0.2;
hold on
xn=0;
for i=1:l;
if x(i)>xn(i)
d(i)=1;
xn(i+1)=xn(i)+delta;
else
d(i)=0; xn(i+1)=xn(i)-delta;
end
end
stairs(xn)
hold on
for i=1:d
if d(i)>xn(i)
d(i)=0;
xn(i+1)=xn(i)-delta;
else
d(i)=1;
xn(i+1)=xn(i)+delta;
end
end
plot(xn,'c');
legend('Analog signal','Delta modulation','Demodulation')
title('DELTA MODULATION / DEMODULATION ')



Outline of the Procedure:
14 Page


1. Open a new M-File or Script window in MatLab.
2. Type the MatLab code and execute it.
3. Do necessary modifications in code as per learning objectives.
4. View the results in command window / figure window.
5. Plot the results.

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.






















15 Page


Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained




16 Page


Experiment 5
Aim: To obtain PCM signal with proper analysis of sampling, quantization and encoding
using Matlab
Equipments Required: Computer, MatLab-7.5 Software.

Learning Objective:
1. To implement the MatLab code for pulse code modulation.

MatLab Code: A general guidelines of code has been given below but student need to
develop the complete program as per the learning objectives.

%Pulse code modulation
A=2;
fc=3;
fs=20;
n=3;
t=0:1/(100*fc):1;
x=A*sin(2*pi*fc*t);
ts=0:1/fs:1;
xs=A*sin(2*pi*fc*ts);
x1=xs+A;
x1=x1/(2*A);
L=(-1+2^n);
x1=L*x1;
xq=round(x1);
r=xq/L;
r=2*A*r;
r=r-A;
y=[];
for i=1:length(xq);
d=dec2bin(xq(i),n);
y=[y double(d)-48];
end
MSE=sum((xs-r).^2)/length(x);
Bitrate=n*fs;
Stepsize=2*A/L;
QNoise=((Stepsize)^2)/12;
subplot(3,1,1);
plot(t,x,'linewidth',2)
title('step 1')
ylabel('y axis')
xlabel('t(in sec)')
hold on
stem(ts,xs,'r','linewidth',2)
hold off
legend('analog signal',' sampling');
subplot(3,1,2);
17 Page

stem(ts,x1,'linewidth',2)
title('step 2')
ylabel('Y axis')
hold on
stem(ts,xq,'r','linewidth',2)
plot(ts,xq,'--r')
plot(t,(x+A)*L/(2*A),'--b')
grid
hold off
legend('Quantization','sampling');
subplot(3,1,3);
stairs([y y(length(y))],'linewidth',2)
title('PCM')
ylabel('Y axis')
xlabel('bits')
axis([0 length(y) -2 2])
grid

Outline of the Procedure:
1. Open a new M-File or Script window in MatLab.
2. Type the MatLab code and execute it.
3. View the results in command window / figure window.
4. Plot the Results.

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.













18 Page

Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):
S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained






19 Page

Experiment 6
Aim: To obtain Unipolar, polar and bipolar line coded signal for RZ and NRZ techniques
using Matlab
Equipments Required: MatLab-7.5 Software.

Learning Objectives:
1. To implement the MatLab code for various line coding techniques.

MatLab Code: A general guidelines of code has been given below but student need to
develop the complete program as per the learning objectives.

%Pulse data coding techniques
a=[1 0 0 1 1]; U=a;
n=length(a);
U(n+1)=U(n);
%POLAR
P=a;
for k=1:n;
if a(k)==0
P(k)=-1;
end
P(n+1)=P(n);
end
%Bipolar
B=a;
f = -1;
for k=1:n;
if B(k)==1;
if f==-1;
B(k)=1; f=1;
else
B(k)=-1; f=-1;
end
end
B(n+1)=B(n);
end
%Mark
M(1)=1;
for k=1:n;
M(k+1)=xor(M(k), a(k));
end
%Space
S(1)=1;
for k=1:n
S(k+1)=not(xor(S(k), a(k)));
end
%Plotting Waves
subplot(5, 1, 1);
stairs(U)
20 Page

axis([1 n+2 -2 2])
title('Unipolar NRZ')
grid on
subplot(5, 1, 2);
stairs(P)
axis([1 n+2 -2 2])
title('Polar NRZ')
grid on
subplot(5, 1, 3);
stairs(B)
axis([1 n+2 -2 2])
title('Bipolar NRZ')
grid on
subplot(5, 1, 4);
stairs(M)
axis([1 n+2 -2 2])
title('NRZ-Mark')
grid on
subplot(5, 1, 5);
stairs(S)
axis([1 n+2 -2 2])
title('NRZ-Space')
grid on

Outline of the Procedure:
1. Open a new M-File or Script window in MatLab.
2. Type the MatLab code and execute it.
3. View the results in command window / figure window.
4. Plot the results.

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words











21 Page

Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained





22 Page

Experiment 7:
Aim: To obtain Binary ASK modulated signal and to calculate the bandwidth
Equipments Required: Computer, MatLab-7.5 Software.

Learning Objectives:
1. To implement the MatLab code for amplitude shift keying.

MatLab Code: A general guidelines of code has been given below but student need to
develop the complete program as per the learning objectives.



%Amplitude shift keying
clc;
clear all;
close all;
s=[1 0 1 1 1 0];
f1=10;
a=length(s);
for i=1:a
f=f1*s(1,i);
for t=(i-1)*100+1:i*100
x(t)=sin(2*pi*f*t/1000)
end
end
plot(x)
xlabel('time in secs')
ylabel('amplitude in volts')
title('ASK')
grid on

Outline of the Procedure:
1. Open a new M-File or Script window in MatLab.
2. Type the MatLab code and execute it.
3. View the results in command window / figure window.
4. Plot the results.

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.






23 Page


Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained




24 Page

Experiment 8
Aim: To obtain Binary FSK modulated signal and to calculate the bandwidth using Matlab
Equipments Required: Computer, MatLab-7.5 Software.
Learning Objectives:
1. To implement the MatLab code for frequency shift keying.
MatLab Code: A general guidelines of code has been given below but student need to
develop the complete program as per the learning objectives.

%Frequency shift keying
clc;
clear all;
close all;
s=[1 0 1 0];
f1=10;
f2=50;
a=length (s);
for i=1:a
if s(1,i)==1
freq=f1*s(1,i);
for t= (i-1)*100+1:i*100
x(t)= sin(2*pi*freq*t/1000);
end
elseif s(1,i)==0
b=(2*s(1,i))+1;
freq=f2*b;
for t=(i-1)*100+1:i*100
x(t)= sin(2*pi*freq*t/1000);
end
end
end
plot(x);
xlabel('title in secs');
ylabel('amplitude in volts')
title ('FSK')
grid on

Outline of the Procedure:

1. Open a new M-File or Script window in MatLab.
2. Type the MatLab code and execute it.
3. View the results in command window / figure window.
4. Plot the results.

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.

25 Page

Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained





26 Page

Experiment 9
Aim: To obtain BPSK signal using Matlab and to calculate the bandwidth
Equipments Required: Computer, MatLab-7.5 Software.
Learning Objectives:
1. To implement the MatLab code for phase shift keying.

MatLab Code: A general guidelines of code has been given below but student need to
develop the complete program as per the learning objectives.

%Phase shift keying
clc;
clear all;
close all;
s=[1 0 1 0];
f1=10;
a=length(s);
for i=1:a
if s(1,i)==1
freq=f1*s(1,i);
for t= (i-1)*100+1:i*100
x(t)= sin(2*pi*freq*t/1000);
end
elseif s(1,i)==0
b=(2*s(1,i))+1;
freq=f1*b;
for t=(i-1)*100+1:i*100
x(t)= sin((2*pi*freq*t/1000)+pi);
end
end
end
plot(x);
xlabel('title in secs');
ylabel('amplitude in volts')
title ('PSK')
grid on

Outline of the Procedure:
1. Open a new M-File or Script window in MatLab.
2. Type the MatLab code and execute it.
3. View the results in command window / figure window.
4. Plot the results.

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.



27 Page

Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained





28 Page


Experiment 10
Aim: To obtain TDM signal and to calculate the data rate of the multiplexed signal using
Matlab
Equipments Required: Computer, MatLab-7.5 Software.
Learning Objectives:
1. To implement the MatLab code for time division multiplexing
MatLab Code: A general guidelines of code has been given below but student need to
develop the complete program as per the learning objectives.

%Time division multiplexing
fs=10000;
t=0:1/fs:1.5;
x1=sawtooth(2*pi*50*t);
x2=square(2*pi*50*t);
x3=sin(2*pi*50*t);
subplot(2,2,1),plot(t,x1),axis([0 0.2 -1.2 1.2]);
xlabel('time(sec)');
ylabel('amplitude');
title('sawtooth periodic wave');
subplot(2,2,2),plot(t,x2),axis([0 0.2 -1.2 1.2]);
xlabel('time(sec)');
ylabel('amplitude');
title('square wave');
subplot(2,2,3),plot(t,x3),axis([0 0.2 -1.2 1.2]);
xlabel('time(sec)');
ylabel('amplitude');
title('sin wave');
l1=length(x1);
l2=length(x2);
l3=length(x3);
for i=1:l1
x(1,i)=x1(i);
x(2,i)=x2(i);
x(3,i)=x3(i);
end
tdmx=reshape(x,1,3*l1);
figure;
plot(tdmx);
dmx=reshape(tdmx,3,l1);
for i=1:l1
x4(i)=dmx(1,i);
x5(i)=dmx(2,i);
x6(i)=dmx(3,i);
end
29 Page

figure;
subplot(2,2,1),plot(x4);
axis([0 1000 -1 1]);
xlabel('time(sec)');
ylabel('amplitude');
title('recovered sawtooth periodic wave');
subplot(2,2,2),plot(x5);
axis([0 1000 -1 1]);
xlabel('time(sec)');
ylabel('amplitude');
title('recovered square wave');
subplot(2,2,3),plot(x6);
axis([0 1000 -1 1]);
xlabel('time(sec)');
ylabel('amplitude');
title('recovered sin wave');

Outline of the procedure:

1. Open a new M-File or Script window in MatLab.
2. Type the MatLab code and execute it.
3. View the results in command window / figure window.
4. Plot the results

Learning Outcomes: To be written by students in 50-70 words.













30 Page

Date of Performance Worksheet of the student Registration Number

Aim:

Observation:



Result and Discussion:


Graph/Plot:


Error Analysis:

Learning Outcomes (what I have learnt):

S.No.

Parameter

Marks obtained

Max. Marks

1. Understanding of the student
about the procedure/apparatus.

20
2. Observations and analysis
including learning outcomes

20
3. Completion of experiment,
Discipline and Cleanliness

10
Signature of Faculty

Total marks
obtained