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Lecture 5: Photoinjector

Technology
J. Rosenzweig
UCLA Dept. of Physics & Astronomy
USPAS, 7/1/04
Technologies
Magnetostatic devices
Computational modeling
Map generation
RF cavities
2 cell devices
Multicell devices
Computational modeling: map generation
Short pulse lasers
Diagnosis of electron beams
The photoinjector layout
ORION gun side view
SPARC gun and solenoid
Solenoid Design
Electromagnet with iron yoke and field stiffeners/dividers
Iron acts as magnetic equipotential.
Use of magnetic circuit analogy for dipole gives field strength
ORION design has all coils in series
SPARC design has four independent coils

r
H d
r
l

= I
enc

B
0

0
L
sol
+
1

r
B d
r
l
Fe

= I
enc
B
0

0
NI / L
sol
Solenoid field tuning
No motion of heavy solenoid
Uniform field possible
Tune centroid of emittance
compensation lens by
asymmetric excitation of the
four coils
Simulation indicates 8 G
field at cathode.
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
10 20 30 40 50 60
Uniform
Down ramp
Up ramp
B

(
G
)
z (cm)
Maps available for HOMDYN
Ramp up field
Ramp down field
Effect of solenoid tuning on
beam dynamics
Beam dynamics studied with HOMDYN
SPARC/LCLS design surprisingly robust, may be fine-
tuned using this method
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Sigma (ramp down)
Emittance (ramp down)
Emittance (flat)
Sigma (flat)
[mm]
[mm-mrad]
z [m]
Other emittance compensation
solenoid designs
Lower gradients are
possible for integrated
photoinjectors
Lower magnetic
focusing fields as well
Fields closer to the
cathode for beam
control
Bucking coil needed
Example: PEGASUS
PWT injector
z
Field null at cathode
Main coil Bucking coil
Other solenoids: linac emittance
compensation
In TW linac, second
order RF focusing is not
strong
Generalize focusing in
envelope equation
Example: for 20 MV/m
TW linac,
=1 (pure SW),
= 0 (pure TW), = 0.4 (SLAC TW)
+ 2b
2
, b = cB
0
/ E
0
for b
2
=1, B
0
=1.1 kG
SPARC linac solenoid,
From LANL POISSON
Some practical considerations
Power dissipation limited. Limit is roughly
700 A/cm
2
in Cu
Yoke saturation: avoid fields above 1 T in
the iron

=
r
B d
r
A
pole

A
Fe
>> A
pole
B
pole
B
sat

c
= 5.810
5
cm
( )
-1
( )
dP
dV
=
J
2

c
1 W/cm
3
RF structures
Photoinjectors are based
on high gradient standing
wave devices
Need to understand:
Cavity resonances
Coupled cavity systems
Power dissipation
External coupling
Simple 2-cell systems to
much more elaborate
devices
UCLA photocathode gun
with cathode plate remove
The standard rf gun
Concentrate on simplest case
-mode, full (/2) cell with 0.6 cathode cell
Start with model
Cavity resonances
L
z
R
c
Pill-box model approximates
cylindrical cavities
Resonances from Helmholtz
equation analysis
Fields:
Stored energy

0,1

2.405c
R
c
1
p
o
op
p
o
op
[
\
|

)
j
~ k
z, n
2
+
c
2
c
2
|
|
|
|
|
|

R = 0
No longitudinal dependence
in fundamental
E
z

( )
= E
0
J
0
k
,0

( )
H


( )
=

0
k
,0
E
0
J
1
k
,0

( )
= c
0
E
0
J
1
k
,0

( )
U
EM
=
1
4

0
L
z
E
0
2
J
0
2
k
, 0

( )
+ J
1
2
k
, 0

( ) [ ]
d
0
R
C

=
1
2

0
L
z
E
0
2
R
c
2
J
1
2
k
, 0
R
C
( )
A circuit-model view
Lumped circuit
elements may be
assigned: L, C, and R.
Resonant frequency
Tuning by changing
inductance,
capacitance
Power dissipation by
surface current (H)
Contours of constant
flux in 0.6 cell of gun

1
LC
Cavity shape and fields
Fields near axis (in iris region) may be better
represented by spatial harmonics
Higher (no speed of light) harmonics have
nonlinear (modified Bessel function) dependence
on .
Energy spread
Nonlinear transverse RF forces
Avoid re-entrant nose-cones, etc.
E
z
(,z,t) = E
0
Im a
n
n=

exp i k
n, z
z t
( ) [ ]
I
0
k
, n

[ ] k
, n
= k
n, z
2
/ c
( )
2
Power dissipation and Q
Power is lost in a narrow layer (skin-depth) of the
wall by surface current excitation
Total power
Internal quality factor
Other useful interpretations of Q
dP
dA
=
K
s
2
4
s

c
=
K
s
2
4

0
2
c
=
K
s
2
2
R
s
,
R
s

1
2

0
2
c

K
s
=
r
H
||
=
0
r
B
||
Surface resistivity
Surface current
Q
U
EM
P
=
Z
0
2R
s
2.405L
z
R
c
+ L
z
( )
P = R
s
cr
0
E
0
( )
2
R
c
L
z
J
1
2
k
p, 0
R
c
( )
+ 2 J
1
2
k
p, 0
p
( )
pdp
0
R
c
j
|
|
|
|
|
|
= R
s
cr
0
E
0
( )
2
R
c
J
1
2
k
p, 0
R
c
( )
L
z
+ R
c
[ ]
Z
0
= 377
Q=
f
=

1/ 2
=
L
R
Cavity coupling
Circuit model allows
simple derivation of mode
frequencies
Solve eigenvalue problem
Mode separation is
important
In 1.6 cell gun
(b)
L
C
L
C
CC

z
Electric
coupling
(a)
=
0
(0 - mode) and =
0
1+ 2
c
( - mode)
d
2
I
1
dt
2
+
0
2
1
c
( )I
1
=
c

0
2
I
2
d
2
I
2
dt
2
+
0
2
1
c
( )I
2
=
c

0
2
I
1

c
>>
0
/Q
f = 3.3 MHz, f

= 2856 MHz, Q=12,000


Measurement of frequencies
Frequency response can be measured on a network analyzer
Resonance frequencies of individual cells and coupled modes
Tuning via Slaters theorem guide
Reflection measurement S
11
(5-cell deflection mode cavity)

0
=
V
c
U
EM
1
2

0
r
E
2

1
2

0
r
H
2
[ ]
Width of resonances measures Q.
Measurement of fields
Use so-called bead-pull
technique
Metallic of dielectric bead (on
optical fiber)
Metallic bead on-axis gives
negative frequency shift
(electric field energy
displaced)
More complex if one has
magnetic fields (deflector)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 2 4 6 8 10
Neptune Gun Bead Pull
Data
Superfish balanced
Superfish x 1.04 in 0.6 cell
F
i
e
l
d

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

s
q
u
a
r
e
d
z [cm]
E
z

Temporal response of the cavity
Standing wave cavity fills
exponentially
Gradual matching of
reflected and radiate
power (E
2
) from input
coupler
In steady-state, all power
goes into cavity (critical
coupling)
Ideal VSWR is 1 (no beam
loading)
0.0
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.0
0 1 2 3 4
Cavity Power
Reflected power
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

p
o
w
e
r
t/
f
E 1exp(/2Q)
Reading references
Magnets: Chapter 6, section 2
RF cavities: Chapter 7, sections 2-8

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