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Lecture 5 Lecture 5

RF Acceleration in RF Acceleration in Linacs Linacs


Part 2 Part 2
Stuart Henderson, Jeff Holmes, Stuart Henderson, Jeff Holmes,
Yan Zhang Yan Zhang
USPAS January 2009 USPAS January 2009
Outline Outline
Traveling-wave linear accelerators
Longitudinal beam dynamics Longitudinal beam dynamics
M t i l f W l Ch t 3 4 6 Material from Wangler, Chapters 3, 4, 6
Guided Electromagnetic Waves in a Cylindrical Guided Electromagnetic Waves in a Cylindrical
Waveguide Waveguide
We can accomplish each of these by transporting EM waves in a
waveguide
Take a cylindrical geometry. The wave equation in cylindrical
coordinates for the z field component is coordinates for the z field component is
0
1 1 1
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
=

t
E
c
E
r r
E
r
r r z
E
z z z z

Assume the EM wave propagates in the Z direction. Lets look for


a solution that has a finite electric field in that same direction:
) cos( ) , ( ) , , , (
0
t z k r E t z r E E
z z z
= =
The azimuthal dependence must be repetitive in : The azimuthal dependence must be repetitive in :
) cos( ) cos( ) ( t z k n r R E
z z
=
The wave equation yields:
0 ) (
) ( 1 ) (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

r R
n
k
r R r R
z

2 2
2
2

r c r r r
c
k
z
43 42 1
Cylindrical Waveguides Cylindrical Waveguides
0 ) / 1 (
1
2 2
2
2
= + + R x n
dx
dR
x dx
R d
Which results in the following differential equation for R(r) (with
x=k
c
r)
The solutions to this equation are Bessel functions of order n, J
n
(k
c
r),
which look like this:
Cylindrical Waveguides Cylindrical Waveguides
The solution is:
) cos( ) cos( ) ( t z k n r k J E
c n
=
The boundary conditions require that
) cos( ) cos( ) ( t z k n r k J E
z c n z

0 ) ( E
Which requires that
0 ) ( = =a r E
z
Label the n-th zero of J :
n all for 0 ) ( = a k J
c n
0 ) ( =
mn m
x J
Label the n th zero of J
m
:
For m=0, x
01
= 2.405
) (
mn m
2
2

2
2
2 2
2
2
405 . 2
z z c
k
a
k k
c
+

= + =

Cutoff Frequency and Dispersion Curve Cutoff Frequency and Dispersion Curve
2 2 2
0 z c
k k k + =
The cylindrically symmetric waveguide has
2 2 2
) ( c k
z c
+ =
0 z c
z c
A plot of vs. k is a hyperbola,
called the Dispersion Curve p
Two cases:
>
c
: k
z
is a real number and
the wave propagates
<
c
: k
z
is an imaginary
number and the wave decays
exponentially with distance
O l EM ith f Only EM waves with frequency
above cutoff are transported!
Phase Velocity and Group Velocity Phase Velocity and Group Velocity
The propagating wave solution has
t z k
z
=
) cos( ) , (
0
z r E E
z
=
A point of constant propagates ith a elocit called the phase
Th l t ti i li d i l id h h
A point of constant propagates with a velocity, called the phase
velocity,
z
p
k
v

=
c
c
v
c
p
>

=
2 2
/ 1
The electromagnetic wave in cylindrical waveguide has phase
velocity that is faster than the speed of light:
This wont work to accelerate particles. We need to modify the phase
velocity to something smaller than the speed of light to accelerate
particles particles
The group velocity is the velocity of energy flow:
U v P
g RF
=
A d i i b And is given by:
dk
d
v
g

=
Traveling Wave Structures Traveling Wave Structures
c
c
v
p
> =
Recall that in the cylindrical waveguide, the electromagnetic wave
has phase velocity that is faster than the speed of light:
c v
c
p

2 2
/ 1
This wont work to accelerate particles. We need to modify the phase
velocity to the speed of light (or slower) to accelerate particles in a
traveling wave traveling wave
Imagine a situation where the EM wave phase velocity equals the
particle velocity
Then the particle rides the wave
PARTICLE
v
Then the particle rides the wave
P
v
A disk-loaded waveguide can be made to have a phase velocity
equal to the speed of light. These structures are often used to
accelerate electrons
The best and largest example of such an accelerator is the SLAC
two-mile long linac
Disk Disk--loaded waveguide structure loaded waveguide structure
KEK
Energy Gain in a Disk Energy Gain in a Disk--Loaded Waveguide Loaded Waveguide
D fi Define
E
a
: longitudinal accelerating field amplitude
U: stored energy per unit length
P
w
: traveling wave power
dP
w
/dz: power dissipation per unit length
Shunt impedance per unit length ) / /(
2
dz dP E r
L
= Shunt impedance per unit length
We have
) / /( dz dP U Q
w
=
) / /( dz dP E r
w a L
U v P
g w
=
g w
dP
g w L a
Qv P r E /
2
=
w w
g
w
P P
Qv dz
dP
0
2

= =
We ha e t o choices for the accelerating str ct re considered We have two choices for the accelerating structure, considered
now in turn
Constant Impedance Traveling Constant Impedance Traveling Wave Structure Wave Structure
Consider a disk-loaded waveguide with uniform cell geometry along the
length, then Q, v
g
, r
L
,
0
are independent of z:
z
e z P
0
2
) (

=
w
e z P ) ( =
E dz dE / =
Power decays exponentially along the length of the structure
The Electric field amplitude is
a a
E dz dE
0
/ =
z
a
e E z E
0
0
) (

=
At the end of a waveguide of length L g g
0
2
0
) (

= e P L P
w
0
0
) (

= e E L E
a
Qv
L
L
2
0 0

= =
g
Qv 2
The energy gain is


cos
1
) ( cos
0
0
0
0

= =

e
L qE dz z E q W
L
a


cos
1
2
0
0
0

=
e
L P r q W
L
Constant Impedance Structure Parameters Constant Impedance Structure Parameters
Constant Gradient Traveling Wave Structure Constant Gradient Traveling Wave Structure
A more common design keeps the gradient constant over the length
w
w
P z
dz
dP
) ( 2
0
=
A more common design keeps the gradient constant over the length,
which requires that the attenuation
0
depend on z
dz

=

) 1 ( 1 ) (
0
2
0

e
L
z
P z P
w
Which can be integrated to yield
) 1 )( / ( 1
1
2
1
) (
0
0
2
2
0



=
e L z
e
L
z
The attenuation factor is
L
The energy gain

cos ) 1 (
cos ) ( cos
0
2
0
0
0

=
= =

e L P r q W
L qE dz z E q W
L
L
a
gy g
is
cos ) 1 (
0
e L P r q W
L
To achieve a constant gradient, the
SLAC linac structure tapers from a
radius of 4 2 to 4 1 cm and the iris radii radius of 4.2 to 4.1 cm, and the iris radii
taper from 1.3 to 1.0 cm over 3 meters
Constant Gradient Traveling Wave Structure Constant Gradient Traveling Wave Structure
The group velocity is
0
2
) 1 )( / ( 1



e L z L
Th filli ti i
0
2
0
1
) 1 )( / ( 1
) ( 2
) (


= =
e
e L z
Q
L
z Q
z v
g
The filling time is

= = =

L L
F
Q
e L z
dz
e
L
Q
z v
dz
t
0 0
0
2
2
2
) 1 )( / ( 1
) 1 (
) (
0
0

For typical parameters the filling time is




g
e L z L z v
0 0
) 1 )( / ( 1 ) (
0

For typical parameters, the filling time is
~1 sec, and the beam pulse is 1-2 sec
Constant Gradient Structure Parameters Constant Gradient Structure Parameters
SLAC Linac SLAC Linac
Largest in the world.
Reached energies of
50 GeV
Synchronicity condition in multicell RF Synchronicity condition in multicell RF
structures structures
TM010 Cavities
Drift spaces
l
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
l
5

1

2

3

4

5
Suppose we want a particle to arrive at the center of each gap at =0.
Then we would have to space the cavities so that the RF phase
advanced by
l
1
l
2
l
3
l
4
l
5
advanced by
2 if the coupled cavity array was driven in zero-mode
Or by if the coupled cavity array was driven in pi-mode
Synchronicity Condition Synchronicity Condition
Zero-mode:

2
2 2
= = = =
n
n
c
l c
t
c
t
l
n n
l =
RF gaps (cells) are spaced by , which
increases as the particle velocity increases
Pi-mode:



n
l c
t
c
t
2 2
Pi mode:


= = = =
n
n
c
t t
2 /
n n
l =
n n
RF gaps (cells) are spaced by /2, which
increases as the particle velocity increases increases as the particle velocity increases
Longitudinal Dynamics Longitudinal Dynamics
The drift space length between gaps was calculated for a particular particle with a The drift space length between gaps was calculated for a particular particle with a
very specific energy. This is the reference particle, or the synchronous particle.
What happens to particles slightly faster or slower than the synchronous particle that
the linac was designed to accelerate?
Linacs are operated to provide longitudinal focusing to properly accelerate particle Linacs are operated to provide longitudinal focusing to properly accelerate particle
over a range in energies or arrival time
Slower particles arrive at the next gap later than the synchronous particle
They experience a larger accelerating field
Faster particles arrive at the next gap earlier than the synchronous particle Faster particles arrive at the next gap earlier than the synchronous particle
They experience a smaller accelerating field
Equations of Motion I Equations of Motion I
Consider an array of accelerating cells with drift tubes and accelerating gaps
The array is designed at the n-th cell for a particle with synchronous phase, kinetic
energy and velocity
sn
, W
sn
,
sn
. Note that the synchronous phase is not zero!
We express the phase energy and velocity for an arbitrary particle in the n-th cell We express the phase, energy and velocity for an arbitrary particle in the n th cell
as
n
, W
n
,
n
Assume that the particles receive a longitudinal kick at the geometric center of the
cell, and drift freely to the center of the next cell
The half-cell length is The half cell length is
2
1 ,
1

=
n s
n
N
l
Where N=1/2 for Pi-mode and 1 for zero-mode
The cell length (center of one drift tube to center of next) is therefore
2 / ) (
, 1 ,

n s n s n
N L + =

Equations of Motion II Equations of Motion II
The RF phase changes as the particle advances from one gap to the
next according to

+ + =

2
1
1


l
n
mode mode

+ +

0
1
1


c
n
n n
0 mode 0 mode
The phase change during the time an arbitrary particle travels from
gap n-1 to gap n, relative to the synchronous particle is
2
1 ,
1
1 ,
1 , 1
1 , ,
2
1 1
2 ) (

= =
n s
n
n s
n s n
n s n s n n s
N N




Where we have used
W

1 for ,
1 1 1 1
2
<<
+
=


s
s s s
Using
s s
mc

3 2
=
( )
1 , 1
2 ) (

n s n
W W
N
g
We get
( )
2
1 ,
1 ,
3 2
,
2 ) (

=
n s
n s
n s
mc
N


Equations of Motion III Equations of Motion III
Next, derive the difference in kinetic energies of the arbitrary particle
and the synchronous particle
( ) ) cos (cos
0
TL qE W W = ( ) ) cos (cos
, 0 n s n n
n
s
TL qE W W
To figure out the dynamics, we could track particles through gaps on
a computer using these difference equations
To get a feel for the dynamics on paper, we can convert these
difference equations to differential equations by replacing the
discrete action of the fields with a continuous field
So we replace
dn
d
s
s
) (
) (




dn
W W d
W W
s
s
) (
) (



s
N
s
n =



3 3
2
) ( W W d
s s

) cos (cos
) (
s
T qE
W W d
=

giving



2
3 3
2
) (
mc ds
s s
s s
=
) cos (cos
0 s
T qE
ds
=
Equations of Motion IV Equations of Motion IV
Assume acceleration rate is small and that E T and are Assume acceleration rate is small, and that E
0
T,
s
and
s
are
constant
We arrive at the equations of motion:
( )
2
0
3 3 2
qE
B
2
A and with
and cos cos
T W W
w
Aw
ds
d
B
ds
dw
w
s
s
= =

=
= =

= =


2 3 3
s
2
mc mc
s

( )
s
AB
d

cos cos
2
2
=
Finally
( )
s
ds

2
Aw
2

H B
Aw
s
= + ) cos (sin
2

H V Aw = +
2
2
1

2
Where V is the potential energy term, and H (the Hamiltonian) is total
energy
Stable RF Bucket Stable RF Bucket
There is a potential well
when - <
s
< 0
There is acceleration for
/2 /2 -/2 <
s
< /2
The stable region for phase
motion is
2
< < -
s
Th t i d fi th The separatrix defines the
area within which the
trajectories are stable.
The stable area is called the The stable area is called the
bucket
Stable motion means that
particles follow a trajectory p j y
about the stable phase, with
constant amplitude given by
H

Hamiltonian and Hamiltonian and Separatrix Separatrix Parameters Parameters


We can calculate the Hamiltonian to complete the discussion
At the potential maximum where, = -
s
, =0 and w=0
)) ( ) ( i ( B H )) cos ( ) (sin(
s s s
B H

=
The points on the separatrix must therefore satisfy
2
Aw
We can calculate the size of the separatrix. We will do the energy width.
Th i idth d t
) cos (sin ) cos (sin
2
s s s s
B B
Aw
= +
The maximum energy width corresponds to =
s
) cos (sin ) cos (sin
2
2
max
s s s s s s
B B
Aw
= +
2
3 3
Giving for the energy half-width of the separatrix. The energy acceptance
is twice this value:
) sin cos (
2
2
3 3
0
2
max
max s s s
s s
mc
T qE
mc
W
w

=
Phase Width Phase Width
The maximum phase width is determined
from the two solutions for w=0. One
solution is
1
= -
s
. The other solution
2
is
given by g y
The total phase width is
s s s s
sin cos cos sin
2 2
=

The total phase width is
The phase width is zero at
s
=0 and
i t /2 i i 2 (
2
=
s
maximum at
s
=-/2, giving =2 (see
Wangler figure 6.4)
Small Amplitude Oscillations Small Amplitude Oscillations
Look at small amplitude oscillations. Letting -
s
be
small,
0 ) )( sin( = +

s s
AB
This is an equation for simple harmonic motion with an angular
frequency given by
) )( (
s s

s s
s
l
mc
T qE

3 2
0
2
2
2
) sin(
=
Note that as the beam becomes relativistic the frequency goes to Note that as the beam becomes relativistic, the frequency goes to
zero
From the equation of motion we can calculate the trajectory of a
particle: particle:
1
) (
) (
2
0
2
2
0
2
=


s
w
w
2 2
0
3 3
0
2
0
2 / ) sin( mc T qE
mc
W
w
s s s
=

=
This is the equation of an ellipse in w, -
s
phase space
Particles on a particular ellipse circulate indefinitely on that
trajectory
Longitudinal Phase Space Motion Longitudinal Phase Space Motion
We studied the approximation of small acceleration rate, and constant
velocity, synchronous phase, etc.
In a real linac, the velocity increases, and the phase space motion and
= const const
separatrix becomes more complicated.
The acceptance takes a shape called the golf-club
= const const
Longitudinal Dynamics: Real data from SNS Longitudinal Dynamics: Real data from SNS
Drift Tube Linac Drift Tube Linac
Longitudinal Acceptance Scan
Simulated DTL1
Acceptance
Data Data
FWHM=24 deg
Measurement of SNS SC Linac Acceptance (Y. Measurement of SNS SC Linac Acceptance (Y.
Zhang) Zhang)
Simulation
Measurement
Adiabatic Phase Damping Adiabatic Phase Damping
Louivilles theorem:
The density in phase space of non-interacting particles in a conservative
or Hamiltonian system measured along the trajectory of a particle is y g j y p
invariant.
Or, if you prefer: phase space area is conserved
Area of ellipse:
W A
Area of ellipse:
0 0
W Area =
4 / 3
0
) (
s s
const

=
4 / 3
0
) (
s s
const W =
Which gives
) (
s s

Since area is conserved an initial
distribution with phase width ()
i
acquired a smaller phase width acquired a smaller phase width
after acceleration:
4 / 3
0
) (
) (
i
f


4 / 3
0
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
f
i
i
f

The End The End


That concludes our whirlwind tour of
Linear Accelerators
Now, on to Rings. Now, on to Rings.

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