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Lift Automation System | Projects of PIC microcontroller http://www.projectsofpic.com/lift-automation-system/
1 of 6 03/08/2014 PM 05:14
By RohitG 2 October, 2012 2 Comments
Lift Automation System
Project Cost: Rs.15000
Project Code: 3***
Available in: 12 Days


You will get a CD with this project
CD contains following things with fully assembled project:
1. Project report
2. Circuit diagram of the project
3. PCB layout of the project
4. PIC Microcontroller program in embedded C language
5. Datasheets of all ICs used in the project
INRODUCTION:
Lift is the vital part of everyones life living in large buildings, and moreover it is the necessary thing in large buildings or any big construction having number of
floors for transportation. Now a day it is becoming prestigious thing for the malls, shopping markets etc. which are having two to three floors only. So we are
trying to make it more automatic through our project.
The IR transmitters and receivers used in our project will automatically trace the person in front of the lift gate due to which the doors of lift will automatically
open. we also place limit of six people only, which avoids the overload problem in lift, smoke sensor in the project senses carbon monoxide which is
responsible for any type of smoke, on destination floor dc motor1 driving lift will automatically stop and the dc motor2 will open the door as soon as person in
the lift leaves lift the door of motor will be closed. Then again lift will go to ground for further transportation.
BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Lift Automation System | Projects of PIC microcontroller http://www.projectsofpic.com/lift-automation-system/
2 of 6 03/08/2014 PM 05:14
Above figure shows block diagram of Automatic Lift System. The basic building blocks of our project are:
PIC 16F877A 1.
LCD 162 2.
MQ7 SMOKE SENSOR 3.
KEY-PAD 4X1 4.
BUZZER 5.
RELAY 6.
DC MOTOR 7.
IR TRANS-RECEIVER 8.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM WORKING:
When any person gets detected outside the door the door will opened automatically by rotating the first motor clockwise and waits for 10 sec. after 10 sec.
door will closed automatically by rotating the first motor anticlockwise.
At the same time counter will increment to count no. of persons entered. It allows only 6 people to enter into the lift when count value reaches to 6 it will
automatically close the door.
After this message will be displayed on the LCD that Enter the No. of floor when any key is pressed interrupt gets activated and second motor start to
rotate till that floor to come after this again by using first motor door will be opened and closed automatically.
Then by rotating the second motor anticlockwise lift is taken at ground floor and this process will be continued till the power supply is provided.
During the person is present in the lift and if he is smoking then MQ7 sensor (available inside the lift) will sense the carbon monoxide (CO) and buzzer will
be activated this is used for security purpose.

1) POWER SUPPLY:
Transformer:
Transformer steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC. We have used 12V,1A transformer.
Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why
mains electricity is AC.
The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the secondary. There is no electrical connection between the two coils; instead they are linked
by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core.
Lift Automation System | Projects of PIC microcontroller http://www.projectsofpic.com/lift-automation-system/
3 of 6 03/08/2014 PM 05:14
Bridge rectifier
A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes, but it is also available in special packages (W10) containing the four diodes required. It is called a
full-wave rectifier because it uses the entire AC wave (both positive and negative sections).

Filtering :
Smoothing is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor(1000F, 25v) connected across the DC supply to act as a reservoir, supplying current to the
output when the varying DC voltage from the rectifier is falling. The capacitor charges quickly near the peak of the varying DC, and then discharges as it
supplies current to the output. Smoothing is not perfect due to the capacitor voltage falling a little as it discharges, giving a small ripple voltage.
Regulator
Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5, 12 and 15V) or variable output voltages. Most regulators include some automatic protection from
excessive current (overload protection) and overheating (thermal protection).


2) PIC 16F877A:
As we know controller is the heart of any project because each and every device rely on it for its operation. In our project we are using Microchips PIC
16F877A controller.
Following are some features of PIC 16F877A;
Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming.
35 single-word instructions.
All single-cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle.
DC 200 ns instruction cycle
Operating speed : DC 20 MHz clock input
Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM), Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM Data Memory
Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation.
Programmable code protection.
10 bit up to 8 channel Analog to Digital converter (ADC).

3) 16*2 LCD DISPLAY:
LCD displays are widely used because of its low current consumptions compared to SSD. Also that LCD can be used to display any character as it uses 5*7
dot matrix to display.
Selection of display depends on various factors like power consumption, ambient light conditions, surrounding temperature, visibility from long distance, total
information to be display, cost of display, circuit/lines required for display interfacing, etc.
An LCD allows the user to output a specific message making the application more user friendly and attractive. LCDs are invaluable for displaying status
messages and information while a program is being debugged.

4) RELAY:
In our project relay is used to drive the appliances like Light, Charger, Fan, Computer etc. We have used 4 relays in our project. It requires 6V to operate.
A relay circuit is typically a smaller switch or device which drives (opens /closes) an electric switch that is capable of carrying much large current amount.
A relay is an electrically operated switch. It is used in all devices which are able to switch a much larger amount of power.
Current flowing through the coil of relay creates the magnetic field which attracts the lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so
relay have two switch positions and most have double throw switch contacts.
Lift Automation System | Projects of PIC microcontroller http://www.projectsofpic.com/lift-automation-system/
4 of 6 03/08/2014 PM 05:14
Relay allows one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from first.
eg. A low voltage battery circuit can be use a relay to switch a 230v ac mains circuit.
5) MQ7 SMOKE SENSOR:
In our project we are using MQ7 sensor to detect smoke in the lift. If any person is smoking inside the lift it will sense the smoke inside and buzzer will be ON.
MQ-7 gas sensor has high sensitivity to Carbon Monoxide (CO). The sensor could be used to detect different gases contains CO at very low voltage i.e. 1.5
V. It is the easiest method to detect CO with low cost and also suitable for different application.
Character Configuration:
Good sensitivity to Combustible gas in wide range.
High sensitivity to Natural gas.
Long life and low cost.
Simple drive circuit.
Application:
Domestic gas leakage detector.
Industrial CO detector.
Portable gas detector.

6) DC MOTOR:
In our project we are using series DC Motor to show clockwise and anti clockwise rotation. It will indicate CLOSE/OPEN movements of the lift door and
UP/DOWN movements of the lift to indicate its position.
The motor continuously convert the electrical energy into mechanical energy which is nothing but the speed of rotation of motor.
DC motor consists of two windings namely field winding and armature winding as we are using series DC motor these two windings are connected in series.
When DC supply of 12V is applied it produces magnetic field in the gap between field and armature. Armature rotates in the magnetic field to produce
mechanical power.

7) IR Transmitter Receiver:
In our project we are using IR Trans-receiver pair to detect any human being outside the door of lift.
An infrared emitter is an LED made from gallium arsenide which emits near infrared energy of about 880nm. This device works by measuring the amount of
light i.e. reflected into the receiver.
Because receiver also responds to the ambient light the device works best when shielded from ambient light and when the distance between sensor and
reflective surface is small(less than 5mm).

ALGORITHM:
1) Start.
2) Initialize LCD & port pins.
3) Display welcome message.
4) Detect person increment counter.
5) If person counts == 6 then go to step7.
6) If person < 6 then delay 10 sec then go to step 7.
7) Close door & then press the floor number.
8) Rotate floor motor.
Lift Automation System | Projects of PIC microcontroller http://www.projectsofpic.com/lift-automation-system/
5 of 6 03/08/2014 PM 05:14
9) Read smoke sensor if output >1.25 then buzzer on else go to step10.
10) Open door wait for 10 sec. then close door.
11) Bring lift on ground floor.
12) Open door then go to step2.
13) Stop.
ADVANTAGES:
Manual efforts are being reduced. 1.
Smoking will be prohibited. 2.
More suitable for handicapped. 3.
As doors are automatically controlled the audio indication sound is being eliminated. 4.
DISADVANTAGES:
Continuous power supply is required. 1.
Not convenient for illiterate people. 2.
Maintenance will be required. 3.
FUTURE SCOPE:
Fan and Light can be controlled automatically. 1.
Generator Back up can be provided when there is no electricity. 2.
Recorded voice instruction can guide the people. 3.
Wireless camera can be used for security. 4.


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2 Comments
kunal says:
22 April, 2013 at 5:37 am
hey mate i have got to make one of the project based on the pic18 microcontroller.
please reply me as soon as you can
Reply
jayashri says:
22 July, 2013 at 8:51 am
i want to make system for 32 floors. which microcontroller should be used for this system?
Please reply me as soon as possible.
Reply
Lift Automation System | Projects of PIC microcontroller http://www.projectsofpic.com/lift-automation-system/
6 of 6 03/08/2014 PM 05:14