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Comparison of adjectives

The adjectives in English


The comparison of adjectives
Sentences with comparisons
Exercises: Adjectives and adverbs
There are three forms of comparison:
- positive
- comparative
- superlative

A - Comparison with -er/-est
clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest
We use -er/-est with the following adjectives:
1) Adjectives with one syllable
positive comparative superlative
clean cleaner cleanest
new newer newest
cheap cheaper cheapest
2) Adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:
2 - 1) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y
positive comparative superlative
dirty dirtier dirtiest
easy easier easiest
happy happier happiest
pretty prettier prettiest
2 - 2) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er
positive comparative superlative
clever cleverer cleverest
2 - 3) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le
positive comparative superlative
simple simpler simplest
2 - 4) Adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow
positive comparative superlative
narrow narrower narrowest


3) Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est
positive comparative superlative comment
large larger largest leave out the silent -e
big bigger biggest
Double the consonant
after short vowel
sad sadder saddest
dirty dirtier dirtiest
Change -y to -i (consonant
before -y)
shy shyer shyest
Here -y is not changed to -i.
(although consonant before -
y)


B - Comparison with more - most
positive comparative superlative
difficult more difficult (the) most difficult
all adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables
- see
2 - 1 to 2 - 4)

C - Irregular adjectives
positive comparative superlative comment
good better best
bad worse worst
much more most uncountable nouns
many more most countable nouns
little less least
little smaller smallest


D - Special adjectives
Some adjectives have two possible forms of comparison (-er/est and more/most).
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positive comparative superlative
clever cleverer / more clever cleverest / most clever
common commoner / more common commonest / most common
likely likelier / more likely likeliest / most likely
pleasant pleasanter / more pleasant pleasantest / most pleasant
polite politer / more polite politest / most polite
quiet quieter / more quiet quietest / most quiet
simple simpler / more simple simplest / most simple
stupid stupider / more stupid stupidest / most stupid
subtle subtler / more subtle subtlest / most subtle
sure surer / more sure surest / most sure


E - Difference in meaning with adjectives:
positive comparative superlative comment
far farther farthest distance
further furthest
distance or
time
late
later latest
latter x
x last
old
older oldest people and things
elder eldest people (family)
near
nearer nearest distance
x next order
Sentences with comparisons
The adjectives in English
The comparison of adjectives
Sentences with comparisons
Exercises: Adjectives and adverbs
then or than - Exercise
1. something is similar A=B
Our car is as fast as Peter's car.

2. something is not similar A><B
a) Use not as ... as (to say that something is not similar)
John's car is not as fast as our car. (A><B)
b) Use than (to say that something is bigger or smaller)
Our car is faster than John's car. (A>B)
John's car is slower than our car. (A<B)
NOTE!
Peter is taller than me. (informal)
Peter is taller than I am. (formal)
Max is as tall as me. (informal)
Max is as tall as I am. (formal)
Do not mix up than with then.
see: then or than - Confusing words
Comparison of adverbs
Adverbs - Summary
The comparison of adverbs
The position of adverbs in sentences
Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs and adjectives have the same form
Adverbs, where the basis is not the adjective
Adverbs - two forms
Exercises: Adjectives and adverbs
The comparison of adverbs in English
There are three forms:
- positive
- comparative
- superlative

A - Comparison with -er/-est
hard - harder - (the) hardest
We use -er/-est with the following adverbs:
1) all adverbs with one syllable
positive comparative superlative
fast faster fastest
high higher highest
1) the adverb early
positive comparative superlative
early earlier earliest

B - Comparison with more - most
adverbs ending on -ly
(except: early)
positive comparative superlative
carefully more carefully (the) most carefully

C - Irregular adverbs
positive comparative superlative
well better best
badly worse worst
much more most
little less least
far
farther
further
farthest
furthest
ATTENTION!
In informal English some adverbs are used without -ly (e.g. cheap, loud, quick).
There are two forms of comparison possible, depending on the form of the adverb:
cheaply - more cheaply - most cheaply
cheap - cheaper - cheapest
Adverbs with two forms
Adverbs - Summary
The comparison of adverbs
The position of adverbs in sentences
Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs and adjectives have the same form
Adverbs, where the basis is not the adjective
Adverbs - two forms
Exercises: Adjectives and adverbs
These adverbs have two forms:
without -ly with -ly
fair fairly
free freely
high highly
late lately
most mostly
near nearly
pretty prettily
right rightly
wrong wrongly
The following adjectives and adverbs have the same form:
Adjective Adverb
close close
daily daily
early early
fair fair
far far
fast fast
free free
hard hard
high high
late late
like like
lilkely likely
live live
long long
low low
right right
wide wide
wrong wrong

Adverbs, where the basis is not the adjective
The following adverbs are not derived from adjectives:
Adverbs Comment
here
adverb of place
there
today
adverb of time
now
then
still
soon
yet
often
adverb of frequency sometimes
never
hard
hardly

The position of adverbs in sentences
We can put adverbs in different positions in sentences. There are three main positions but also a lot of
exceptions.
In English we never put an adverb between the verb and the object.
We often play handball. - CORRECT WRONG: We play often handball.


The three main positions of adverbs in English sentences
1) Adverb at the beginning of a sentence
Unfortunately, we could not see Mount Snowdon.
2) Adverb in the middle of a sentence
The children often ride their bikes.
3) Adverb at the end of a sentence
Andy reads a comic every afternoon.

More than one adverb at the end of a sentence
If there are more adverbs at the end of a sentence, the word order is normally:
Manner - Place - Time
Peter sang the song happily in the bathroom yesterday evening.