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Distinguish among the following types of ecology:

organismal, population, community, ecosystem, and

-organismal: studies how an organism's structure,
physiology, and
behavior meets environmental challenges
--ex. How do hammerhead sharks
select a mate?
-population: focuses on factors affecting how many
individuals of a species live in an area
--a population is a group of individuals of the
same species living in an area
--ex. What environmental factors affect the
reproductive rate of deer mice?
-community: examines how interactions between
species (ex: predation,
competition) affect community structure and
--a community is a group of populations of
different species in an area
--ex. What factors influence the
diversity of species that make up
a forest?
-ecosystem: emphasizes energy flow and chemical
cycling between
organisms and the environment
--an ecosystem is the community of
organisms in an area and the physical
factors with which they interact
--ex. What factors control
photosynthetic productivity in a
temperate grassland ecosystem?
-landscape: focuses on factors controlling exchanges of
energy, materials,
and organisms across multiple ecosystems
--a landscape is a mosaic of connected
--ex. To what extent do trees
lining a river serve as corridors of dispersal for
-global:examines how regional exchange of energy and
materials influences the functioning and distribution of
organisms across the biosphere
--the biosphere is the global ecosystem, the
sum of all the planet's ecosystems
--ex. How does ocean circulation affect
the global distribution of crustaceans?

Explain how dispersal may contribute to a species'
-dispersal: movement of individuals away from their
area of origin or from centers of high population
--natural range expansions: when organisms reach an
area where they did not exist before (shows influence of
dispersal on distribution)

Distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
potential and actual range, biotic and abiotic factors,
macroclimate and microclimate patterns
-potential range vs. actual range: for transplants to be
successful, some of the relocated organisms must
survive and reproduce in the new area
--if the transplant is successful, then the potential
range of the species
is larger than its actual range
--i.e. species could live in certain areas where it
currently does not
-biotic factors: other species that limit distribution
--ex. beneficial interactions with other species such as
pollinators for flowering plants
--ex. negative interactions with other organisms such as
competition and predation
-abiotic factors: nonliving things that limit distribution
--ex. temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and
-macroclimate: patterns on the global, regional, and
local level
-microclimate: very fine patterns such as those
encountered by the community organisms that live
beneath a fallen log

Explain how a body of water or mountain range
might affect regional climatic conditions
-body of water: because of the high specific heat of
water, oceans and large lakes moderate temperature of
nearby land
--during a hot day when land is warmer than water, air
over the land heats up and rises, drawing a cool breeze
from the water across the land
--at night, air over the warmer water rises, drawing cool
air from the land back to the water, replacing it with
warmer air offshore
-mountain range: affect sunlight reaching an area and
the local temperature and rainfall
--when warm, moist air approaches a mountain, air
rises and cools, releasing moisture on the windward
side of the peak
--on the leeward side, cooler, dry air descends,
absorbing moisture and producing a "rain shadow"

Define the following terms: photic zone, aphotic zone,
benthic zone, abyssal zone, thermal stratification,
thermocline, seasonal turnover, climograph,
-photic zone: upper area where there is sufficient light
for photosynthesis (in aquatic biome)
-aphotic zone: lower area where little light penetrates
-benthic zone: substrate at the bottom of all aquatic
biomes made up of sand and organic and inorganic
-abyssal zone: part of benthic zone that lies between
2,000-6,000 m below the surface of the ocean
-thermal stratification: a change in the temperature at
different depths in the lake, and is due to the change in
water's density with temperature - cold water is denser
than warm water
-thermocline: narrow layer of abrupt temperature
change that separates the more uniformly warm upper
layer from the more uniformly cold deeper waters
-seasonal turnover: semiannual mixing of water in
lakes as a result of changing temperature profiles,
which brings oxygenated water from the surface to the
bottom and nutrient rich water from the bottom to the
surface in both spring and autumn
-climograph: a plot of temperature and precipitation in
a particular region
-disturbance: an event (storm, fire, or human activity)
that changes a community, removing organisms from it
and altering resource availability

List the major aquatic biomes
-streams and rivers
-intertidal zones
-oceanic pelagic zones
-coral reefs
-marine benthic zones

List and the major terrestrial biomes
-tropical forest
-temperate grassland
-northern coniferous forest
-temperate broadleaf forest

Compare the vertical layering of a forest and
-forest: layers from top to bottom consist of the upper
canopy, the low-tree layer, the shrub understory, the
ground layer of herbaceous plants, the forest floor, and
the root layer
-grasslands: herbaceous layer of grasses and forbs, a
litter layer, and a root layer

Define and distinguish between the following sets of
terms: density and dispersion; clumped dispersion,
uniform dispersion, and random dispersion; life table
and reproductive table; Type I, Type II, and Type III
survivorship curves; semelparity and iteroparity; r-
selected populations and K-selected populations
-density: number of individuals
-dispersion: pattern of spacing among individuals
within boundaries of population

-clumped dispersion: influenced by resources and
behavior - areas where there are several animals in a
group (ex. wolves)
-uniform dispersion: evenly spaced out in territories
(ex. penguins)
-random dispersion: independent of other individuals
(ex. dandelions - seeds blow everywhere in no specific

-life table: age-specific summary of survival pattern of a
-reproductive table: fertility schedule is an age specific
summary of reproductive rates of a population (based
on females)

-Type I survivorship curve: low death rates during early
and middle life, then an increase among older age
groups, provide good care to offspring (ex. humans)
-Type II: the death rate is constant over the organism's
life span (ex. rodents, vertebrates, lizards, and annual
-Type III: high death rates for the young, then a slower
death rate for survivors, little or no care for offspring
(ex. fish, marine invertebrates, long-lived plants)

-semelparity: big-bang reproduction theory where an
organism reproduces once then dies (ex. salmon)
-iteroparity: repeated reproduction (ex. lizards)

-r-selected populations: density-independent selection,
selects for life history traits that maximize reproduction
-k-selection populations: density-dependent selection,
selects for life history traits that are sensitive to
population density

Explain how ecologists may estimate the density of a
-Mark-recapture method: mark species in a population
and let them back into their habitat, then recapture
them and see how many are marked (collect, mark,
release, recapture)
--100 are marked, capture 100, 1 is marked, population
is 1000

Explain how limited resources and trade-offs may
affect life histories
-life histories: evolutionary outcomes reflected in
development, physiology, and behavior
-trade-offs: animals with more offspring will die sooner
than animals with less because more offspring require
more energy and resources to reproduce, support the
offspring, and take care of itself
--affect the age reproduction begins, how often
reproduction occurs, and how many organisms are
produced during reproductive cycle

Compare the exponential and logistic models of
population growth
-exponential model: when populations increase under
ideal conditions of abundant food and the ability to
--per capita rate of increase may assume maximum rate
for the species
--results in J-shaped curve as population increases at a
constant rate
--population accumulates more new individuals per
unit of time when it is large than when it is small,
making the curve steeper over time
dN/dt = r(max)N
d=per capita death rate
N=population size
r(max)=maximum per capita rate of increase for the

-logistic model: per capita rate of increase approaches
zero as the carrying capacity is reached
--produces sigmoid (s-shaped) curve
--new individuals are added to the population most
rapidly at intermediate population sizes, when there is
not only a breeding population of substantial size, but
also lots of available space and other resources in the
dN/dt = r(max)N((K-N)/K)
K=carrying capacity
(K-N)/K=fraction of carrying capacity that population
can grow by

Explain how density-dependent and density-
independent factors may affect population growth
density dependent: birth rate or death rate that does
not change with population density
-competition for resources: in crowded populations,
increasing population density intensifies competition
for declining nutrients, resulting in a lower birth rate
-territoriality: becomes resource for which individuals
compete, presence of surplus or non-breeding
individuals is a good indication that territoriality is
restricting population growth
-disease: transmission rate of a particular disease can
depend on a certain level of crowding in a population
-predation: predators encounter and capture more food
as population density of prey increases
-toxic wastes: accumulation of metabolic by-products
as the population grows poisons the organisms
-intrinsic factors: reproductive rate can drop due to
aggressive interactions that increase with population
density, high population densities can induce a stress
syndrome in which hormonal changes delay sexual
maturation, causing reproductive organs to shrink and
depress the immune system

-unusual weather
-natural disasters
-seasonal cycles
-certain human activitiessuch as damming rivers and
clear-cutting forests

Explain how biotic and abiotic factors may work
together to control a population's growth
Biotic: Predation and competition can cause a decrease
in population

Abiotic: Severe weather can cause extreme decreases

Describe the problems associated with estimating
Earth's carrying capacity for the human species
There is no single carrying capacity for the human
population on earth - how many people our planet can
sustain depends on quality of life each of us enjoys and
the distribution of wealth across people and nations

Define the demographic transition
compares the demographic transition in one of the
most industrialized countries, Sweden, in a less
industrialized country, Mexico
-movement toward 2nd configuration:
zero population growth = high birth rate - high death
zero population growth = low birth rate - low death rate
-also associated with increase in quality of health care
and sanitation as well as improved access to education

Distinguish between the following sets of terms:
competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis;
fundamental and realized niche; cryptic and
aposematic coloration; Batesian mimicry and
Mllerian mimicry; parasitism, mutualism, and
commensalism; endoparasites and ectoparasites;
species richness and relative abundance; food chain
and food web; primary and secondary succession
-competition: (interspecific) (-/-) occurs when
individuals of different species compete for a resource
that limits their growth and survival
--ex. grasshoppers and bison both compete for grass in
the Great Plains
-predation: (+/-) one species, the predator, kills and eat
the other, prey
--ex. rattlesnakes find their prey with pair of heat
sensing organs between their eyes and nostrils and they
kill small birds by injecting them with toxins thru their
-herbivory: (+/-) an organism eats part f a plant or alga
--ex. cattle, sheep, and water buffalo
-symbiosis: when two or more individuals live in direct
and intimate contact with one another
--parasitism: (+/-) one organism, the parasite, derives
its nourishment from another organism, its host, which
is harmed in the process
---ex. ectoparasites, which feed on the external surface
of the host such as lice and ticks / endoparasites, which
live within the body of their host such as tapeworms
--mutualism: (+/+) benefits both species (ex. termites
in the digestive system of ruminant mammals)
---obligate mutualism: at least one species has lost the
ability to survive without its partner
---facultative mutualism: both species can survive alone
-commensalism: (+/0) benefits one species but neither
harms nor helps the other (difficult to document)
---ex. cowbirds and cattle egrets feed on insects flushed
out of the grass by grazing herbivores

-fundamental niche: niche potentially occupied by that
-realized niche: portion of fundamental niche that
species actually occupies in a particular environment

-cryptic coloration: camouflage, makes prey difficult to
-aposematic coloration: warning coloration, such as
that of a poison dart frog

-Batesian Mimicry: a palatable or harmless species
mimics an unpalatable or harmful model (ex. larva of
hawkmoth puff up its head and thorax when disturbed
looking like the head of a poisonous snake)
-Mullerian Mimicry: two or more unpalatable species,
such as the cuckoo bee and yellow jacket, resemble
each other

-species richness: number of different species in the
-relative abundance: proportion each species
represents of all individuals in the community

-food chain: transfer of food energy up the trophic
levels from its source in plants and other autotrophic
organisms (primary producers) through herbivores
(primary consumers) to carnivores (secondary, tertiary,
and quaternary consumers) to decomposers
-food web: summary of trophic relationships of a
community with arrows linking species according to
who eats whom

-primary succession: process that begins in a virtually
lifeless area where soil has not formed, such as a new
volcanic island or on the rubble
-secondary succession: occurs when an existing
community has been cleared by some disturbances that
leaves soil intact (ex. Yellowstone following the fires)

Define an ecological niche and explain the
competitive exclusion principle in terms of the niche
-ecological niche: sum of species' use of the biotic and
abiotic resources in its environment
-competitive exclusion: outcome that results from a
slight reproductive advantage eventually leading to the
local elimination of the inferior competitor

Explain how dominant and keystone species exert
strong control on community structure
-dominant species: species that are most abundant or
that collectively have the highest biomass (total mass of
individuals in a population) and exert powerful control
over occurrence and distribution of other species
--ex. sugar maples have impact on abiotic factors such
as shading and soil, which affect other species that live
-keystone species: not necessarily abundant in a
community, but control structure though pivotal
ecological role or niche
--ex. sea otters feed on sea urchins which mainly feed
kelp - loss of sea otters (from whales) has allowed sea
urchin population to increase and kelp to decrease

Distinguish between bottom-up and top-down
community organization
-bottom-up: primary producers (plants) regulate the
trophic levels above them by the amount of food they
produce (presence or absence of mineral nutrients
controls plant numbers, which control herbivore
numbers, which in turn control predator numbers
-top-down: ecosystem is regulated by predation from
the top of the food chain (predators limit herbivores,
herbivores limit plants, and plants limit nutrients
during growth and reproduction N<-V<-H<-P)

Describe and explain the intermediate disturbance
Moderate levels of disturbance can create conditions
that foster greater species diversity than low or high
levels of disturbance
-high levels of disturbance reduce species diversity by
creating environmental stress
-low levels of disturbance reduce species diversity by
allowing competitively dominant species to exclude less
competitive species
-intermediate levels open up habitats for occupation by
less competitive species
--supported by ecologists in New Zealand that found
that when floods occurred either frequently or rarely,
invertebrate richness was low (frequent made it hard
for species to become established in the streambed and
rare resulted in species being displaced by superior

Explain why species richness declines along an
equatorial-polar gradient
-evolutionary history: tropical communities are
generally older than temperate/polar communities
(growing season is 5x as long in tropical forests as in
tundra with high altitudes)
--intervals between speciation events run about 5x as
fast in tropics as near the poles
--many polar/temperate communities have "started
over" because of disturbances

-climate: solar energy input and water availability (high
in tropics)
--evapotranspiration: evaporation of water from soil
plus transpiration of water from plants - higher in hot
areas abundant with rainfall than in low temp areas
with low precipitation
--species richness correlates with both measure of

Define zoonotic pathogens and explain, with an
example, how they may be controlled
-pathogens that are transferred from other animals to
humans, either thru direct contact or by means of an
intermediate species called a vector (often parasites
including ticks, lice, and mosquitos)
-can prevent zoonotic diseases by identifying key
species interactions involving pathogens and their
vectors and by tracking pathogen spread
-ex. river blindness is caused by a nematode
transmitted by blackflies
--controlled blackflies that spread the nematodes by
using an airplane to spray biodegradable insecticides

Explain how the first and second laws of
thermodynamics apply to ecosystems
1. energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only
transferred or transformed
-we can account for the transfer of energy through an
ecosystem from its input as solar radiation to its release
as heat from organisms
-transfers help determine how many organisms a
habitat can support and the amount of food humans
can harvest from a given site
2. every exchange of energy increases the entropy of the
-some energy is always lost as heat
-energy flowing thru ecosystems is dissipated into
space as heat, so if the sun were not continuously
providing energy to earth, ecosystems would vanish

Define and compare gross primary production, net
primary production, and standing crop
-gross primary production: the amount of light energy
that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis
per unit time

-net primary production: equal to gross primary
production minus the energy used by primary
producers for respiration (R) (key measurement
because it represents the storage of chemical energy
that will be available to consumers in the ecosystem)
--NEW bomass added in a group at a given time


-NPP is about 1/2 of GPP

-standing crop: TOTAL biomass of photosynthetic
autotrophs present at given time

*Explain why energy flows but nutrients cycle within
an ecosystem
-Energy flow: Energy enters most ecosystems as
sunlight and is then converted to chemical energy by
autotrophs, passed to heterotrophs through organic
molecules that make up food, and finally dissipated as
- Nutrient cycling: Chemical elements, including
carbon and nitrogen, are cycled among abiotic and
biotic components of an ecosystem
--photosynthetic organisms incorporate these elements
into their biomass from the air, soil and water and
some of this biomass is then consumed by animals
--the elements are returned to the environment by the
metabolism of plants
and animals, as well as by bacteria and fungi

Explain what factors may limit primary production in
aquatic ecosystems
-Light: the depth of light penetration affects primary
production in the photic zone of an ocean or lake
--about of all solar radiation is absorbed in the 1st 15
meters of water
--only ~5-10% of solar radiation may reach a depth of
75 meters
-Nutrients: more than light, nutrients limit primary
production in geographic
regions of the ocean and in lakes
--limiting nutrient is the element that must be added
for production to
increase in an area
--Nitrogen and phosphorous are typically the nutrients
that most often limit marine production
---concentrations of these nutrients are very low in the
photic zone because they are taken up rapidly by
phytoplankton and because
detritus tends to sink
--common in freshwater lakes
---the addition of large amounts of nutrients from
sewage and fertilizer runoff from farms and yards to
lakes has a wide range
of ecological impacts
---in some areas, sewage runoff has caused
eutrophication of lakes, which can lead to loss of most
fish species (eutrophication is the process in which
cyanobacteria and algae grow rapidly in response to
increased nutrient
concentrations, ultimately reducing oxygen

Distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
primary and secondary production, production
efficiency and trophic efficiency
-primary production: amount of light energy converted
to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time
period in an ecosystem
-secondary production: amount of chemical energy in
consumers' food that is converted to their own new
biomass during a given time period

-production efficiency: the percentage of energy stored
in assimilated food that is not used for respiration
-trophic efficiency: percentage of production
transferred from one trophic level to the next
--must always be less than production efficiencies
because they take into account not only energy lost thru
respiration, but also the energy is organic material in a
lower trophic level that is not consumed by the next
trophic level
--approx. 10%, so 90% of energy available at one
trophic level is not transferred to the next, which is
multiplied ver the length of the food chain (10% of the
previous 10% for the next level)

*Explain why worldwide agriculture could feed more
people if all humans consumed only plant material
-eating meat is an inefficient way of tapping
photosynthetic production
-a person obtains more calories by eating grains
directly as a primary consumer than by eating the same
amount of grain fed to an animal

Describe the four nutrient reservoirs and the
processes that transfer the elements between
1.Water cycle
-biological importance: essential for all organisms
forms available to life: liquid, vapor, or frozen ice
reservoirs: oceans contain 97% water, 2% is bound in
glaciers and polar ice caps, and 1% in lakes, rivers, and
ground water
key processes: evaporation of liquid H2O by solar
energy, condensation of H2O vapor into clouds, and
precipitation, transpiration by plants moves volumes of
H2O into atmosphere, surface and groundwater can
flow into ocean completing cycle

Carbon Cycle
-biological importance: framework of organic
molecules essential to all organisms
-forms available to life: photosynthetic organisms
utilize CO2 during photosynthesis and convert carbon
to organic forms used by consumers
-reservoirs: fossil fuels, soils, sediments of aquatic
ecosystems, oceans, plant and animal biomass,
atmosphere, sedimentary rock is the largest (limestone)
-key processes: photosynthesis by plants and
phytoplankton remove atmospheric CO2 (equal to
amount added by cellular respiration), volcanoes are
source, along with burning of fossil fuels

Nitrogen Cycle
-biological importance: part of amino acids, proteins,
and nucleic acid, and is a limiting plant nutrient
-forms available to life: 2 inorganic forms are
ammonium and nitrate and organic forms are amino
acids, bacteria also use nitrite (animals only use
organic forms)
-reservoirs: 80% is in atmosphere as nitrogen gas,
others are soils and sediments of lakes, rivers, and
oceans; surface and groundwater; and biomass of living
-key processes: entrance is nitrogen fixation
(conversion of nitrogen gas by bacteria to forms that
can be used to synthesize nitrogenous organic
compounds), also fixed by lightning; nitrogen fertilizer,
precipitation, and blowing dust provides input of
ammonium and nitrate; ammonification decomposes
organic nitrogen to ammonium; nitrification converts
ammonium to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria;
denitrification involves bacteria using nitrate as their
metabolism instead of oxygen, releasing nitrogen gas

Phosphorous Cycle
-biological importance: major constituent of nucleic
acid, phospholipids, and ATP, and bones and teeth
-forms available to life: phosphate, which plants absorb
and use in the synthesis of organic compounds
-reservoirs: sedimentary rock (largest), soils, oceans
(dissolved), and organisms
-key processes: weathering of rocks adds phosphate to
soil, some may leach into ground and surface water and
reach the sea; phosphate taken in by producers may be
eaten by consumers; returned to sol or water through
decomposition of biomass or excretion by consumers;
dust and sea spray move small amounts thru

Explain why toxic compounds usually have the
greatest effect on top-level carnivores
biological magnification: process in which accumulated
toxins becomes harmful as they become more
concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web
--occurs because biomass at any given trophic level is
produced from a much larger biomass ingested from
the level below

Describe the causes and consequences of ozone
-results mainly from the accumulation of CFCs,
chemicals used in refrigerators and in manufacturing
--when breakdown products from these chemicals rise
to the stratosphere, the chlorine reacts with the ozone,
reducing molecular O2
-thinning is most apparent over Antarctica and the hole
is increased
-increases intensity if UV rays reaching earth's surface,
increasing lethal and nonlethal forms of skin cancer
and cataracts in humans

Distinguish between conservation biology and
restoration biology
-conservation biology: seeks to preserve life and
integrates ecology, physiology, molecular bio, genetics,
and evolutionary bio

-restoration ecology: applies ecological principles to
return ecosystems that have been disturbed by human
activity to a condition as similar as possible to their
natural state

List the three major threats to biodiversity and give
an example of each
1. habitat destruction: alteration of habitat
-ex. prairie occupies <.1% of original area in
Wisconsin/93% of coral reefs have been damaged by
human activities
2. introduced species: humans move them from native
locations to new geographical region
-ex. brown tree snake arriving in Guam as cargo ship
3. Overexploitation: human harvesting of wild plants or
animals at rates exceeding ability of population of
species to rebound
-ex. fishing has decreased population of bluefish tuna
to feed humans protein

Define and compare the small-population approach
and the declining-population approach
-small-population approach: studies processes that can
make small populations become extinct (ultimate cause
of extinction especially thru the loss of genetic
-declining population approach: focuses on threatened
and endangered population that show a downward
trend regardless of population size (environmental
factors that cause a population to decline in the first
--steps: 1. confirm there is a decline 2. study natural
history of species/related species to determine
environmental requirements 3. develop hypotheses for
all possible causes of decline and list predictions for
each one 4. test most likely hypothesis 5. apply results
to manage threatened species and monitor recovery

Distinguish between the total population size and the
effective population size
-total population size: total number of organisms
inhabiting an ecosystem
-effective population size: the population's breeding
-- Ne = 4NfNm/Nf+Nm
---Nf and Nm are the numbers of males and females
that can breed successfully

Describe the conflicting demands that may
accompany species conservation
Conservation requires resolving conflict between
habitat needs of endangered species and human
-ex. US Pacific Northwest habitat preservation is at
odds with timber and mining industries

Define biodiversity hot spots and explain why they
are important
-a relatively small area with an exceptional
concentration of endemic species and a large number of
endangered and threatened species
-good choices for nature reserves, but are hard to
identify (could be a hot spot for more than one
taxonomic group)

Define zoned reserves and explain why they are
-an extensive region that includes areas relatively
undisturbed by humans surrounded by areas that have
been changed by human activity and are used for
economic gain
-small Central American nation of Costa Rica has
become a world leader in establishing zoned reserves
--Costa Rica has eight zoned reserves, called
"conservation areas," which contain national park land
--the buffer zones provide a steady, lasting supply of
forest products, water, and hydroelectric power, as well
as support sustainable agriculture and tourism
--Costa Rica hopes to maintain at least 80% of its
native species in its zoned reserves

Explain the importance of bioremediation and
biological augmentation of ecosystem processes in
restoration efforts
-bioremediation: use of organisms, usually prokaryotes,
fungi, or plants, to detoxify polluted ecosystems
--restoration ecologists use various types of organisms
to remove many different types of toxins from
--ex. some plants adapted to soils containing heavy
metals are capable of accumulating high concentrations
of potentially toxic metals
---restoration ecologists can use these plants to
revegetate sites polluted by mining and then harvest
the plants to remove the metals from the ecosystem

-biological augmentation: uses organisms to add
essential materials to a degraded ecosystem
--encouraging the growth of plants that thrive in
nutrient-poor soils often speeds up the rate of
successional changes that can lead to recovery of
damaged sites
--ex. rapid regrowth of indigenous plants alongside
roads in Puerto Rico after colonization of the areas by a
nonnative plant that thrives on nitrogen-poor soils.
---rapid buildup of organic material from the nonnative
plant enabled the indigenous plants to recolonize the
area and overgrow the introduced species

Describe the concept of sustainable development
-development that meets the needs of people today
without limiting the ability of future generations to
meet their needs
-must connect life sciences with social sciences,
economics, and humanities

Explain the goals of the Sustainable Biosphere
-define and acquire the basic ecological info needed to
develop, manage, and conserve Earth's resources as
responsibly as possible
-studies global change, including interactions between
climate and ecological processes: biological diversity
and its role in maintaining ecological processes; and
ways in which productivity of natural and artificial
ecosystems can be sustained

Describe water and air near the equator
-air is armer and less dense
-air rises causing an open space in the atmosphere
-cooler air gets pulled in and causes convection
-falls as precipitation when air is too dense (cold)

-water gets warmer and top portion is blown by wind in
its direction (affected by landforms and amount of sun)

Which direction does the wind blow in the northern
hemisphere? Southern?
-northern = right
-southern = left
--because of coriolis effect: nothing is blown straight
because the earth is constantly spinning and because of
the angle of the earth at which it revolves around the

Describe the impact of wind patterns on an ecosystem
-less water will evaporate with less heat, so less
precipitation will occur

Define zero population growth
-occurs when per capita birth and death rates are equal

(change in)N/(change in)t = rN

N=population size
r=per capita rate of increase

Define Shannon Diversity
-calculation of organisms that can be in a certain

H=shannon diversity

H = -[(pA ln pA) + (pB ln pB) + (pC ln pC) + ...]

A, B, and C are the species in the community and p is
the relative abundance of each species