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Acknowledgement

"Organizational cultures are created by leaders, and one of the most decisive functions of leadership may well be the creation, the management, and - if and when that may become

necessary - the destruction of culture."

- Edgar Schein

Organization development (OD) is a professional discipline with focus on improving and enhancing capabilities within organizations to meet strategic and tactical goals. That focus is directed at the performance of people: individuals, groups and teams distinct from capital or other assets at the disposal of the organization.

As such OD professionals pay particular attention to motivation, behavior, group dynamics, skills and values development and performance measurement.

There are countless methods, tools, frameworks and practices to draw from and apply to the successful use of organization development to meet organizational goals.

Whether it is Industrial Psychology, Social Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Law, Adult Learning Theory, Behavior and Development Theory, ROI analysis, process analysis, or the synthesis of two or more of these disciplines, the application of Action- Learning is a cornerstone of the successful se of Organization Development.

It is Action-Learning that makes OD interesting, challenging, fruitful and fulfilling, not only for individuals, but for groups, teams and organizations.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I ...................................................................................................1

Introduction and Background of Study

2

Objective of Study

3

Methodology

3

Limitations

3

CHAPTER II ..................................................................................................1

Literature Review

............................................................................................................ Theoretical Background

......................................................................................................

2

3

CHAPTER III ................................................................................................1

Background to the Organization .............................................................................2

Entering and contracting process

3

Organizational

3

Selection and analysis of main OD issues to be addressed .....................................3

Intervention strategies

3

3

3

CHAPTER IV.................................................................................................1

Major Findings ........................................................................................................2

Conclusion

3

Recommendation

3

Appendix .........................................................................................................1

Executive Summary

Using OD techniques, organisation scan explore more transformational approaches to change and ready themselves for a new era of open market and greater user choice and involvement.

Executive Summary Using OD techniques, organisation scan explore more transformational approaches to change and ready themselves

Organizations are complex bodies, affected by their environment, by their leaders and their systems and processes. OD is concerned with making the entire organization fitter for purpose. It does not focus solely on discrete services or teams but treats the whole body. It treats causes rather than symptoms. There are very important distinctions between Organisational developments and development in an organisation.

Organisational Development favors:

Dealing with causes over dealing with symptoms Working with whole systems rather than parts of them Changes in culture over changes in changes in behavior Change of a system over changes in a system.

Chapter I

Introduction and Background of Study

The “O” is about organizations (systems) of all kinds; the units throughout society that are human organizations existing to accomplish some purpose. The “D” is about change & improvement ; growing towards something, getting better at one’s mission, improving

how work gets done & people live their live.

  • OD is a mind-set (way of seeing the organization world).

  • A set of value based perspectives.

  • A philosophy of organizing, managing and changing organizations that include the human element.

  • An integration, across disciplines, of theories, concepts and methods, for understanding & changing human systems (anthropology, psychology, sociology, behavioural science).

  • A field of study & practice.

Organization Development uses a systems approach for sustainable growth and renewal and we can play a big role in helping our organization grow and embrace change effectively. There are certain competencies which are essential for OD professionals and how it help senior leaders overcome business challenges by applying OD principles to problem solving, decision making, feedback, and measuring results.

Objective of Study

Organization Development: A Growing Discipline

Organizations of today’s world must adapt to increasingly complex and uncertain

technological, economic, political and cultural changes.

Three major trends have precipitated the need of OD as a sure way of survival from unprecedented uncertainty of recent times:

  • 1. Globalization

  • 2. Information Technology

  • 3. Managerial Innovation

Therefore the objectives of the Study are enlisted as below:

An understanding of the key concepts of OD;

An understanding of OD as a process of building leadership, facilitating learning and enabling developmental change in human systems; • explored the values underpinning one’s own practice and those underpinning OD practice;

• explored the role and capabilities of an OD practitioner; • exposed to a number of tools and techniques for OD practice; • developed strategies to transfer and continue the learning in an organisation.

Change Agent

OD is responsible for managing planned change activities through Change Agents. The

term change agents is used in broad sense because a change agent can be managers or non-managers, employees of organization or an outside consultants. Terms such as OD Consultant, OD practitioner and Change Agent are used interchangeably. For major change efforts, top managers are increasingly turning to temporary outside consultants with specialized knowledge in theory and methods of change. Change agents can broadly be classified as:

  • 1. External Change Agents

  • 2. Internal Change Agents

  • 3. External-Internal Change Agents

Methodology

Organization Development (OD) interventions techniques are the methods created by OD professionals and others. Single organization or consultant cannot use all the interventions.

The intervention basically consists of 4 trials enlisted as below:

Action Search

Appreciative Inquiry

Future Search

Whole System Intervention

However the four of them can be further divided as follows: They use these interventions depending upon the need or requirement. The most important interventions are,

  • 1. Survey feedback: The intervention provides data and information to the managers. They analyse the data, find out the problem, evaluate the results and develop the means to correct the problems identified.

  • 2. Process Consultation: The process consultant meets the members of the department and work teams observes their interaction, problem identification skills, solving procedures etc.

  • 3. Goal setting and planning: Each division in an organization sets the goals or formulates the plans for profitability. These goals are sent to the top management which in turn sends them back to the divisions after modification. A set of organization goals thus emerge thereafter.

  • 4. Managerial grid: This identifies a range of management behaviour based on the different ways that how production/service oriented and employee oriented states interact with each other. Managerial grid is also called as instrumental laboratory training as it is a structured version of laboratory training. It consists of individual and group exercises with a view to developing awareness of individual

managerial style interpersonal competence and group effectiveness. Thus grid training is related to the leadership styles.

  • 5. Management by Objectives (MBO) It is a successful philosophy of management. It replaces the traditional philosophy of “Management by Domination”. MBO is a process by which managers at different levels and their subordinates work together in identifying goals and establishing objectives consistent with Organizational goals and attaining them.

  • 6. Team building It is an application of various techniques of Sensitivity training to the actual work groups in various departments. These work groups consist of peers and a supervisor.

  • 7. Sensitivity training It is called a laboratory as it is conducted by creating an experimental laboratory situation in which employees are brought together.

  • 8. Job enrichment It is currently practiced all over the world. It is based on the assumption in order to motivate workers, job itself must provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth. The basic idea is to restore to jobs the elements of interest that were taken away

Limitations

  • 1. We had chosen two organization beforehand. However we didn’t have the approval so within small time frame we had to choose of our team member organization so that reduced out time frame for completion of the project.

  • 2. There are only two members as OD consulting team, which is considered very few, so couldn’t make much activity that actually need to perform.

Chapter II

Literature Review

This literature review covers those issues and elements necessary to implement a proper evaluation of the effects of an organization development (OD) intervention. Brief discussions of the purposes of OD interventions and evaluations are given, followed by a

description of each step necessary in carrying out an evaluation. An optimal evaluation takes into account each of the following steps: the definition of goals; the selection of criteria; the selection of measures and problems associated with measuring change; threats to internal validity and research design; and statistical analysis of data collected. Each of these steps is discussed in detail, followed by an assessment of the current state of the art of OD research in light of these considerations. Recommendations are then made as to how OD evaluations can be improved in light of the discrepancies found between the state of the art and the ideal or optimal evaluation.

Theoretical Background

Intervention techniques focus on 4 categories:

  • 1. Individual or interpersonal level.

  • 2. Team or group level.

  • 3. Intergroup level.

  • 4. Total organizational system level.

Stream Analysis

  • Useful in planning.

  • Helps organization plan interventions.

  • Provides graphical view of changes.

  • Allows progress to be plotted.

Selecting an OD Intervention

  • Practitioner and client consider:

  • Potential results of technique.

  • Potential implementation of technique including costs versus benefit.

  • Potential acceptance of technique.

Table showing OD: Intervention Overview. Figure showing Organizational Effectiveness and Excellence

Table showing OD: Intervention Overview.

Table showing OD: Intervention Overview. Figure showing Organizational Effectiveness and Excellence

Figure showing Organizational Effectiveness and Excellence

Figure showing “Organization Iceberg Approach” to OD Three Basic Approaches to Organization Change Developing strategy includes

Figure showing “Organization Iceberg Approach” to OD

Three Basic Approaches to Organization Change

Developing strategy includes planning activities to resolve difficulties and build on

strengths.

  • 1. Structural Approach to Change

Changes that relate elements of organization to one another.

Includes removing or adding layers to hierarchy. Downsizing associated with restructuring. Changes can involve decentralization and centralization.

  • 2. Technological Approach to Change

Changes in machinery, methods, automation, and job design.

Changes help companies become more productive.

  • 3. Behavioral Approach to Change

Emphasizes better utilization of human resources by improving:

Morale.

Motivation. Commitment of members.

OD traditionally associated with behavioral strategies.

Change requires all strategies.

  • Structural, technological, and behavioral strategies not OD change strategies per se.

  • Determining feature of an OD strategy is process used to arrive at strategy.

Chapter III

Background to the Organization

Professional Computer System (PCS) is a leading ISO 9001:2008 certified software company of Nepal, promoted by IT professionals' with more than 20 years of experience in the field. It has been working mostly in software development and consulting since 1988. Since its inception, PCS has been working in the field of software development, system study and consulting. PCS has also undertaken various study projects to ascertain the system requirements of various organizations and has provided them with credible consultations and solutions. PCS has gathered a vast experience of designing and developing information systems and it has already implemented many applications using client server technologies and Relational Database Management System. Our software development teams consisting of engineers with hands on expertise in key technologies and project leaders/managers with real-world multinational project experience are readily available at short notice. The management of PCS is well versed in customizing engineering processes and business models to suit client needs. PCS provides cost-effective and high-quality software solutions as per Client's IT requirements. PCS delivers end-to-end solutions in software development and consultancy in the field of banking & finance also. We also specialize in providing e- commerce and web-enabled solution. PCS is keeping pace with the rapid advancement in Information Technology by continuously upgrading its skill set with self-learning and related IT training. PCS has more than 2500+ man-months of software development and more than 50 different clients underline our rich texture of experience. PCS has a mixed set of core competencies with distinct multi-disciplinary orientation. The professionals of PCS are highly qualified in the field of IT. They have diverse experience from mainframe computers to microcomputers, from stand-alone systems to LAN/WAN systems, from centralized systems to distributed systems/client-server systems, and RDBMS like ORACLE, DB2, SQL Server, and MS ACCESS etc. PCS has its services extending to the international organizations too.

Entering and contracting process

Our one of the team member is currently working there so formal contracting wasn’t an

obligation. We got good support and responses for our intervention from the active team members. Since, this whole process of OD intervention was just for an academic purpose, we do not had to go for a contracting process in the organization.

Organizational Diagnosis Questionnaires (ODQ)

Both internal and external organization development (OD) consultants at some point in the consulting process must address the question of diagnosis. Recently the need for two levels of diagnosis, preliminary and intensive, was addressed. The purpose of the Organizational Diagnosis Questionnaire (ODQ) is to provide survey-feedback data for intensive diagnostic efforts. Use of the questionnaire either by itself or in conjunction with other information-collecting techniques (such as direct observation or interviewing)

will provide the data needed for identifying strengths and weaknesses in the functioning of an organization and/or its subparts. The questionnaire produces data relative to informal activity. A meaningful diagnostic effort must be based on a theory or model of organizational functioning. This makes action research possible as it facilitates problem identification, which is essential to organization development. One of the more significant models in existence is Weisbord’s (1976) Six-Box Organizational Model (Figure 1). Weisbord’s model establishes a systematic approach for analysing relationships among variables that influence how an organization is managed. It provides for assessment in six areas of formal and informal activity: purposes, structure, relationships, rewards, leadership, and helpful mechanisms. The outer circle in Figure 1 determines an organizational boundary for diagnosis. This boundary clarifies the functioning of the internal environment, which is to be analysed to the exclusion of the external environment.

THE INSTRUMENT

The Organizational Diagnosis Questionnaire (ODQ) is based on Weisbord’s practitioner- oriented theory. The ODQ generates data in each of Weisbord’s suggested six areas as

well as in a seventh, attitude toward change. This item was added as a helpful mechanism for the person involved in organizational diagnosis. In attempting any planned-change effort in an organization it is wise to know how changeable an organization is. Such knowledge helps the change agent understand how to direct his efforts. Thirty-five questions compose the ODQ, five in each of the seven variables. Respondents are asked to indicate their current views of their organization on a scale of 1 to 5, with a score of 3 representing a neutral point.

USES OF THE ODQ

The ODQ can be administered to a work unit, an entire organization, or a random sample of each. It might also be used to analyse staff or line functioning as well as to assess the thinking of different levels of management or supervision. It should be administer by the consultant or process facilitator in order to insure that an adequate explanation of the questionnaire and its use will be given. The consultant could also train others to administer the questionnaire.

Administration and Scoring

The administrator of the questionnaire must emphasize to the respondents that they be open and honest. If they are not, data that yield an inaccurate assessment of the organization on any or all of the seven variables may be produced. All ODQ statements are positive and can easily be discerned as such, which may influence the manner in which the respondents react to the questionnaire. Scoring the questionnaire may be done in more than one way. Aggregate data will be most useful; an individual’s set of responses is not significant. A self-scoring sheet is provided for each individual. Individual scoring sheets could then be tabulated by the consultant, an assistant, or, for large-scale studies, a computer. Processing the Data Once aggregate data have been collected, they must be processed. The first task is to

prepare a bar or line graph (or any similar technique) to present the data so that they can be readily understood. The consultant/facilitator should present the data first to the

organization’s president or the work unit’s supervisor (whichever is applicable) to

establish understanding, commitment, and support.

ENVIRONMENT Figure 1. The Six-Box Organizational Model’
ENVIRONMENT
Figure 1. The Six-Box Organizational Model’

Reproduced from M.R. Weisbord’s, Organizational diagnosis: Six places to look for trouble with or without a theory. Group &Organization Studies, 1976, 1(4), 430-447. Copyright© 1976 by Sage Publications, Inc.Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications, Inc.

Next, a meeting with the work group is essential. During this meeting the consultant/ facilitator must weave a delicate balance between task and maintenance issues in order to be productive. During this meeting a number of things take place: information is presented (feedback); information is objectively discussed; group problem solving is encouraged; brainstorming for solutions is facilitated; alternative solutions are evaluated

against criteria; a solution is chosen; an action plan is developed; and a plan for future evaluation is determined. This process is presented in detail in Hausser, Pecorella, and Wissler (1977).

The ODQ produces information about the informal system. As Weisbord’s suggested, the formal system must be considered also. A consultant/facilitator may review’ an

organization’s charter, operations manual, personnel policies, etc. Caps between the two systems lead to a diagnosis of what is not happening that should be happening, or vice versa. In sum, the ODQ is useful for diagnostic efforts insofar as it provides data about people’s perceptions of their organization. It is an instrument that maybe used separate from or in addition to other information collecting techniques.

Organizational Diagnosis Questionnaires

From time to time organizations consider it important to analyse themselves. It is necessary to find out from the people who work in the organization what they think if the analysis is going to be of value. This questionnaire will help the organization that you work to analyse itself.

           

Sum (Neutral,

Questions

No.

Strongly

 

Strongly

Disagree,

relating

to

Org.

Agree

Agree

 

Neutral

 

Disagree

Disagree

S.Disagree)

activity

(%)

(%)

(%)

(%)

 

(%)

 

(%)

Awards/Employee

           

Wellness

5

  • 10 31

  • 17 18

             

24

 

73

12

  • 14 41

  • 15 14

             

16

 

71

19

7

1

 

7

   

7

   

78

 

92

26

23

14

 

20

   

31

   

12

 

63

33

12

22

 

17

   

34

   

15

 

66

             

Purposes

           

1

40

20

 

12

   

6

   

22

 

40

8

30

18

 

11

   

39

   

2

 

52

15

32

10

 

19

   

6

   

33

 

58

22

32

32

   
  • 8 16

       

12

 

36

29

22

3

   
  • 9 31

       

35

 

75

             

Structure

           

2

24

32

 

18

   

0

   

26

 

44

9

21

20

 

19

   

20

   

20

 

59

16

10

23

 

9

   

21

   

37

 

67

23

22

25

 

11

   

31

   

11

 

53

30

10

30

 

14

   

19

   

27

 

60

             

Leadership

             

3

3

66

 

16

   

14

   

1

 

31

10

44

  • 2 7

       

39

   

8

 

54

17

32

  • 2 6

       

43

   

17

 

66

24

24

   

21

   

24

  • 27 4

     

49

31

24

   

1

   

48

  • 18 9

     

58

             

Relationships

             

4

22

   

19

   

5

  • 46 8

     

32

11

40

   

11

   

31

  • 13 5

     

47

18

7

  • 25 25

 

12

         

31

 

68

25

39

   

0

  • 14 25

       

22

 

47

 

32

20

  • 11 12

       

31

   

26

 

69

             
 

Helpful

           

Mechanisms

 
 

6

12

  • 32 32

       

16

   

8

 

56

 

13

51

4

 

5

   

29

   

11

 

45

 

20

30

  • 27 9

       

29

   

5

 

43

 

27

11

  • 32 28

       

19

   

10

 

57

 

34

47

   

17

   

12

  • 23 1

     

30

             
 

Attitude

towards

           

Change

 

7

46

   

4

   

30

  • 16 4

     

38

 

14

9

   

3

   

46

  • 20 22

     

71

 

21

37

   

16

   

2

  • 26 19

     

37

 

27

10

   

3

   

1

  • 35 51

     

55

 

35

33

   

13

   

23

  • 19 12

     

48

ODQ PROFILE AND INTERPRETATION SHEET

Transferring the average scores from the ODQ Scoring Sheet to the appropriate boxes in

the figure above, the study the background information and interpretation suggestions were followed.

BACKGROUND

The ODQ is a survey-feedback instrument designed to collect data on organizational functioning. It measures the perceptions of persons in an organization or work unit to determine areas of activity that would benefit from an organization development effort. It

can be used as the sole data-collection technique or in conjunction with other techniques (interview, observation, etc.). Weisbord’s Six-Box Organizational Model (1976) is the basis for the questionnaire, which measures seven variables: purposes, structure, relationships, rewards, leadership,

helpful mechanisms, and attitude toward change. The first six areas are from Weisbord’s

model, while the last one was added to provide the consultant/facilitator with input on readiness for change. The instrument and the model reflect a systematic approach for analyzing relationships among variables that influence how an organization is managed. The ODQ measures the informal aspects of the system. It may be necessary for the consultant/facilitator also to gather information on the formal aspects and to examine the gaps between the two. Using the ODQ is the first step in determining appropriate interventions for

organizational change efforts. Its use as a diagnostic tool can be the first step in

improving an organizations or work unit’s capability to serve its clientele.

INTERPRETATION AND DIAGNOSIS

A crucial consideration is the diagnosis based upon data interpretation. The simplest diagnosis would be to assess the amount of variance for each of the seven variables in relation to a score of 3, which is the neutral point. Scores above 3 would indicate a problem with organizational functioning. The closer the score is to 5 the more severe the problem would be. Scores below 3 indicate the lack of a problem, with a score of 1 indicating optimum functioning. The score of each of the thirty-five questions on the questionnaire can be reviewed to produce more exacting information on problematic areas. Thus diagnosis would be more precise. For example, let us suppose that the average score on item number 8 is 4.4. This would indicate not only a problem in organizational purpose, but also a more specific problem in that there is a gap between organizational and individual goals. This more precise diagnostic effort is likely to lead to a more appropriate intervention in the organization than the generalized diagnostic approach described in the preceding paragraph.

Bar Graph Showing Employee reactions towards

Organizational Activities.

26 21 37 9 21 20 19 20 20 2 24 32 18 0 9 Structure
26
21
37
9
21
20
19
20
20
2
24
32
18
0
9
Structure
29
22
3
9
31
35
22
32
32
8
16
12
10
44
2
7
39
8
3
3
66
16
14
1
Leadership
30
15
30
14
19
27
23
22
25
11
31
11
16
10
23
41
20
31
12
19
7
1
7
7
78
12
14
15
14
14
16
5
10
17
18
31
24
Awards / Employee Wellness
Strongly Disagree
Strongly Agree
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
20
32
10
19
6
33
8
30
18
11
39
2
1
40
10
12
6
22
Purposes
33
12
22
17
34
15
26
23
10
4
Attitude towards Change
34
47
23
17
12
1
27
11
32
28
19
30
20
30
27
9
29
5
13
51
4
5
29
11
6
26
33
19
13
23
12
27
10
35
3
1
51
21
37
12
16
2
19
14
9
20
3
46
22
7
46
16
4
48
31
5
4
22
46
19
5
8
Relationships
31
24
18
1
11
9
24
24
27
21
24
4
17
32
2
6
43
17
14
32
32
16
8
Helpful Mechanisms
32
20
11
12
31
26
25
39
35
0
25
22
18
7
25
12
25
31
11
40
13

Selection and analysis of main OD issues to be addressed

We have distributed the questionnaires to all 56 employees of the services department of PCS. Out of which, only 42 employees filled and submitted the forms. The employees include Trainee, Software Engineer, Software Developers, System analysts, Project Managers, and a HR Manager.

Out of 42 questionnaires, majority of the employees seem to have problem with compensation and disparity in employee remuneration. Most of the subordinate level staffs feel that they are not addressed fairly compared to other departments of that organization. We found that that these staffs are lacking motivation and support from their own departments. The higher level management seem to support only senior level staffs and thus, there is a necessity of intervention in the Employee Wellness area of the organization.

Intervention strategies

WHAT DO WE MEAN BY EMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAMS?

The initial session of the meeting focused on drawing out participants’ views on how they

wished to conceptualize employee wellness programs for the purpose of elaborating the research agenda to be developed during the meeting. This discussion centered on how broadly or narrowly they wished to think of EWPs and what features they viewed as essential or highly desirable for wellness programs. Participants strongly favored thinking broadly about wellness programs, feeling that different interest groups would emphasize different aspects of wellness programs and have different outcomes of primary interest. Thinking broadly would, therefore, enhance the ability of the resulting research agenda to address needs of diverse stakeholders. They also felt that a broader concept would be helpful for investigator-initiated research, as it would expand the range of worthwhile studies that could qualify for funding opportunities. There also was much agreement that wellness should be thought of as not merely the absence of illness but in terms of the total wellbeing of the individual - encompassing emotional, social, spiritual and intellectual health as well as physical health; healthy behavior; and supportive environments at work, in the home, and in the community. Participants also stressed that the workplace is not an isolated environment. Not only can employers influence the policy agenda and the health of their larger community, the external environment can affect the success of employer programs. Understanding (and controlling for) these influences and interactions would have a place in future research.

There was general consensus that wellness programs would include many of the following features (as either essential or highly desirable):

Health risk assessment/health appraisal for all members of the population. Data can be derived from participant surveys, biometric screening, and claims. Common data elements include height, weight and BMI, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. Other information might assess risk and behavioral factors, readiness to change, and social and emotional factors. Systems should be in place to protect the confidentiality of personal information.

• Stratification of the population based on risk. Results from the health risk assessment are used to classify people according to risk; classification methods may range from a simple count of risk factors to complex algorithms. Tailored and personalized interventions. Personalized programming is based primarily on risk classification but might also incorporate other personal characteristics (such as readiness to change and social factors). Common interventions aimed at modification of risk factors and behavior change focus on encouraging physical activity and good nutrition, smoking cessation, stress management, and achieving a healthy weight. Disease management initiatives would also be relevant here, targeted to individuals with specific chronic conditions. Strategies to encourage program engagement. Typical strategies include financial and non-financial incentives and health coaching.

Multimodal communication and intervention delivery strategies. Recognizing that people have different preferences and learning styles, and differing access to technology, programs should use a mix of internet-based, direct mail, email, telephonic, and in-person strategies to communicate about the program and deliver interventions. Health mentoring or coaching to help participants develop skills and improve health. Population-based educational resources and self-management tools. Distinct from resources provided as part of personalized interventions, these resources are aimed at the full population and focus on skill development, lifestyle change, and awareness building (e.g., articles on healthy eating in employee newsletters). Employee Assistance Programs that can help to Address social and emotional factors that impact wellbeing. Preventive services, including screenings and immunizations and a personalized prevention plan.

Leadership engagement and supportive organizational culture and work environment, including corporate values that promote employee wellbeing, a healthy physical environment, and an emphasis on wellness from senior, mid-level, and even frontline management. Injury prevention. Programs could include initiatives to enhance workplace

safety and ergonomics as well as more general injury prevention efforts targeted to time spent outside the workplace. Return to work / absence and disability management efforts to restore sick or injured workers to full functional status and productivity.

Consumer medical decision support, such as through nurse hotlines.

• Involvement of participants’ health care providers, designed to make the providers partners in improving employees’ health.

Program integration. The best programs combine the diverse wellness program components into a unified and coherent program that is also integrated with other benefits and related programs offered by the employer as well as incorporated into the

organization’s structure.

Ongoing program assessment and improvement. Good programs will monitor program performance regularly (ideally in relation to realistic goals for what could be expected at a given time) and use the interim results to

modify programming as needed to achieve long-term goals.

WHAT ADDITIONAL RESEARCH DO WE NEED?

For the task of specifying the research questions that merit additional attention in future research, we assigned meeting participants to one of four small work groups organized around the following topic domains: (1) Structure, (2) Process, (3) Health and Other Non-Financial Outcomes, and (4) Financial Outcomes. The Structure Work Group was to focus on questions related to wellness program components and their integration into the organizational environment and culture. The Process Work Group was to develop questions regarding program implementation, including incentive mechanisms to encourage participation and engagement. The two Outcomes Work Groups were charged with thinking about research to understand the impact of wellness programs, with questions about financial outcomes considered separately from all other outcomes given the importance often accorded to this outcome by those considering investments in employee wellness programs. We recognized at the outset that this framework was somewhat artificial and that there

would likely be some overlap in what groups discussed. In fact, that was the case, with groups sometimes honing in on similar research questions from their different starting points. We also noted that this approach was not the only possible way of structuring the

group’s thinking about research questions, but adopted this framework simply as a

starting point for soliciting more organized input from participants. Subsequent discussions with meeting participants brought up an alternative approach that emphasized

a pathway from the initial wellness interventions though intermediate (Or proximate) outcomes to ultimate (or distal) outcomes. Each link in the pathway offers opportunities for research and program improvement. For example, one would first want to understand how different interventions can be designed and put into practice, then

explore how specific interventions affect workers’ participation in the program and the

strategies that can be used to maximize engagement. These types of questions fit into the

Structure and Process domains we adopted for the work groups. Other steps along the wellness pathway consider the outcomes realized once participants are engaged in the program - moving through stages such as changes in health risk factors and behavior, changes in worker productivity and, ultimately, changes in direct medical and other costs. Questions related to these pathway steps are covered in the two Outcomes domains we used.

Results of the work group discussions are presented below. Although there is variation across groups in the level of specificity for suggested research, participants felt comfortable that the key areas of inquiry have been identified and that the illustrative questions are sufficiently detailed to guide development of and response to requests for proposals for employee wellness research.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS RELATED TO THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAMS

The Structure Work Group opted to develop a broad framework for thinking about

research questions related to wellness program structure. Their two-pronged framework

gave somewhat less emphasis to research on the specific “program components” that comprise worksite wellness initiatives, and more emphasis to the “foundational elements” that lay the groundwork for successful programming.

Echoing a common theme that was heard from participants throughout the meeting, members of this work group stressed the critical importance of having a corporate

environment and committed senior and mid-level leadership that support wellness efforts. The group also felt that while some research is surely still needed to improve program components, much is already known in this area and that even best practice components will not be successful if they are implemented in a non-supportive environment. Conversely, a mediocre program still may achieve good outcomes if the environment is primed for success.

In addition to further research around various aspects of the environmental foundation and how they affect program success, the work group also noted the importance of research to better understand what program components work best in different types of environments. Several existing tools might be helpful for studying the relationship between environmental characteristics and program outcomes. The Environmental Assessment Tool developed by DeJoy et al. can be used to assess environmental supports for health management, and the “Leadership Engagement” section of the HERO Scorecard4 focuses on cultural and environmental factors. This group organized illustrative research questions within the following framework.

  • I. Foundational Elements

    • A. Organizational Objectives

    • B. Performance Metrics

    • C. Alignment with Business Strategy

How can the job expectations for mid-level managers be made more consistent with encouraging wellness for the employees who report to them? What strategies and incentives are effective at encouraging mid- Level managers to play a wellness leadership role for the employees they supervise?

  • D. Culture of Organization

What aspects of the organizational environment or culture affect program success (positively or negatively)?

What changes can employers make to create a more supportive wellness culture within their company? In particular, what changes could be made fairly easily and at a relatively low cost yet still affect the wellness culture in a positive way?

  • E. Targets and Scope of Wellness Programming

What conditions and risk factors (individually or in combination) are the top priorities to address through wellness programs? o Which are the biggest drivers of medical spending? o Which contribute significantly to absentee-ism, presenteeism, and/or disability? o Which are most amenable to achieving favorable outcomes?

What is the minimum level of investment that worthwhile benefit/outcome (or a “good” return)?

will

lead

to

a

measurable

and

• What is the optimal level of investment?

• How much of the total benefit dollar should an employer invest in wellness? What is the “payoff” for an investment in wellness relative to spending for other types of benefits or to other uses of the corporate dollar? What wellness programs are feasible and most effective for smaller employers? What is “small” for purpose of program design? Are there effective models for coalitions of small employers?

What wellness programs are feasible and most effective for different demographic populations or subcultures within a company (including global / international populations)? What approaches best address literacy or language issues?

  • F. Organizational Integration

What are the most effective strategies for integrating wellness programs with other benefits?

Are there opportunities for wellness programs to

employees’ physicians?

build

effective

links

with

What wellness programs are feasible and most effective for highly dispersed populations with no/few large worksites?

  • G. Community Integration

How do overarching cultural trends regarding Health and wellness influence employers’ corporate cultures? How can employers capitalize on these larger trends to foster a wellness culture within their organizations? What can workers do to bring these influences into their work environment?

How can employers foster a culture of community health at the local, state and federal levels?

RESEARCH QUESTIONS RE-LATED TO THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING EMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAMS

The work group charged with developing research questions related to wellness program

process issues centered its discussions on the overarching question, “What processes are most effective at changing behavior and achieving desired outcomes?” Within that

framework, work group members and subsequent input from other participants during the full group discussion identified the following priority areas for future research:

What is the role of financial incentives in encouraging engagement and participation and in motivating behavioral change? o How effective are different ways of structuring financial incentives (i.e., comparative effectiveness research on different incentive approaches, including benefit design alternatives)? o Are penalties or rewards more effective as incentives?

o Does effectiveness of incentives vary by population subgroups? What approaches are most effective for specific populations? o What incentive designs are most effective for producing the various outcomes the program is trying to achieve (e.g., compliance, participation, engagement, behavior change, health improvements, etc.)? o How do different incentive designs affect the experience of the user? o What is the long-term impact of using financial incentives and other engagement strategies? Over time, do the incentives work against intrinsic motivation? Are larger incentives required over time to achieve a similar response?

How much individual tailoring of program components and program delivery is optimal? What is the right balance between individual versus group interventions? How should various program components be put into practice so that they are most likely to achieve favorable outcomes for specific targeted populations? What program processes are most appropriate and effective for different populations (e.g., defined by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics)? For employers with global operations, what processes work best for different populations globally? How do answers about most effective program processes differ depending on what outcome is of interest? What is the optimal roadmap and timeline for developing and implementing a comprehensive wellness program? What should employers undertake as first steps? What activities should be added later? How do answers to these questions vary by type of employer (e.g., small vs. large)? How should wellness programming connect to employee benefits (health and other insurance benefits as well as other benefits such as leave time, child care, etc.)? Does better integration across benefits enhance the results achieved by wellness interventions? What communication strategies are most effective at engaging program participants? How is the outreach process best customized to reach specific populations? What is the influence of social and emotional variables on the target population’s behavioral response to wellness initiatives? How these factors are appropriately captured on the health risk assessment? How are they best incorporated into programming to enhance the likelihood of program success? • What processes are effective at establishing and maintaining a commitment to wellness among senior, mid-level and frontline management? • How can incentives be used to align managers’ performance goals and their team members’ wellbeing? Do these incentives help to achieve better program results overall? • Independent of the coaching model used, what characteristics of wellness coaches (e.g., skill set, life experience) affect their ability to motivate behavior change for different types of clients? What processes are effective for creating a sustainable wellness program?

RESEARCH QUESTIONS RELATED TO FINANCIAL OUTCOMES OF EMPLOYEE WELLNESS PROGRAMS

Return on investment (ROI) was the key focus of the deliberations of the work group charged with identifying research questions related to the financial outcomes of wellness programs. Group discussion included not only questions meant to improve understanding

of the financial impact of program investments, but also identified several methodological issues related to ROI analyses. Regarding methodological issues, the group noted the following areas for future work:

• How should the ROI measurement and computation be standardized? What programs costs (in particular) and savings should be included in ROI calculations so that programs are assessed in the most consistent manner possible? Should the direct cost of (employer-paid) incentives be included in ROI calculations?

• Should factors such as absenteeism and presenteeism be included in the quantification of financial benefits when calculating ROI? What measures and data should be used how should improvements in productivity be monetized? How do decisions about monetization of productivity gains vary according to the type of employee (e.g., hourly vs. salaried)? How does the fact that employers often insure against losses due to worker injury and disability affect decisions about how to account for workers’ compensation and disability spending/savings in the calculation of ROI? Research questions about the financial outcomes of wellness programs included the following:

Does improved health for employees translate into positive financial impacts for employers? What is the ROI (or total dollar financial impact) of employee wellness programs? How do returns vary according to program design? What features of wellness programs contribute the most to a positive return? o How do the financial returns vary by type of employee? Are some groups of employees more motivated and easier to reach than others? What interventions are most effective at changing outcomes and achieving positive returns for hard-to-reach populations? o How do financial returns vary by size of employer? Can smaller employers achieve a positive return and, if so, what factors affect the likelihood of doing so? o How do ROI estimates vary depending on what specific costs and benefits are included? o How do ROI estimates vary according to the evaluation design and research methods used? What level of program investment is needed to achieve the level of returns employers are seeking from wellness programs?

What is the upper limit to what can be achieved from wellness investments?

How do returns on wellness program investments compare to returns on investments in other types of benefits for employees (e.g., comparative effectiveness analyses of how to best spend the benefit dollar)? o How would the employees’ implicit valuation of various benefits factor into this analysis? o What is the impact of investing in organized wellness programs vs. using the same investment to pay employees for achieving targeted outcomes (where the employee can decide how to achieve the outcome)? • How do the company’s workplace culture, its policies, and its leadership affect its returns on investments in wellness programs? What are the most effective ways to communicate the results of ROI analyses to corporate leadership?

o Can the wellness research community develop a “Moody’s health score” to reflect how the employer is doing with respect to the health and wellbeing of its employees? How could this score be linked to financial outcomes? How could this type of measure be made most helpful and acceptable to senior management?

How do wellness programs affect use of and spending for health care services? Do wellness programs slow the growth of health care costs or achieve absolute reductions in spending? How do impacts vary by employee characteristics, by type of medical service, by wellness program attributes? To whom (employer or employee) do any savings in medical costs accrue?

How do wellness programs affect absenteeism and presenteeism (and how can this be translated into financial returns - see methodological issues, above)?

How do wellness programs affect employee retention? What is the financial impact for the employer of improved worker retention? How does this impact vary by type of worker? For example, how are calculations of financial return affected if older/sicker employees are retained vs. younger/ healthier employees?

• How do employee wellness programs affect employer spending on workers’

compensation and disability?

• What is the timeline for realizing various program impacts and financial returns? How

do program costs and returns (and, thus, the resulting ROI) vary over time? How long does it take to realize an ROI that is high enough to warrant program investments? Are program returns sustained over time?

BUILDING A STRONGER BODY OF EVIDENCE

Following the discussion of ways to improve the rigor of individual program evaluations, the group engaged in a lively discussion of possible ways to improve the collective body of evidence and make it more accessible and meaningful to stakeholders. The underlying theme woven through this discussion was how to make a stronger case for wellness programs, such that it would resonate with private-sector decision makers (convincing and helping them to implement evidence-based programs) and government policymakers (encouraging them to adopt policies favorable to widespread adoption of workplace wellness initiatives). Many of the ideas discussed in the prior section were relevant to this discussion, too, since improving individual evaluations is a necessary building block

to delivering a more robust and credible body of evidence. A multi-pronged approach to improving the strength and usefulness of the evidence base emerged from these discussions. The suggested strategies aim to cull lessons from existing research, fill knowledge gaps through new high-quality research, and effectively disseminate information to key stakeholders and help them to act upon the information.

Knowledge synthesis.

Participants felt that while much is already known about best practices in worksite wellness, this learning is not organized and readily accessible to those who might wish to

implement evidence-based programs or support their adoption through policy.

Additionally, because findings from negative program assessments are generally not published (publication bias), there is little public knowledge about what does not work. The evidence base could, therefore, be strengthened through coordinated efforts to synthesize and disseminate information about wellness approaches that are effective (and not effective) at achieving desired outcomes. As new evidence is generated, it would need to be regularly and systematically incorporated into these syntheses. Evidence gaps would also be identified through the syntheses, guiding future research efforts. The government could help to fill identified knowledge gaps by addressing specific research questions or testing innovative ideas through wellness pilot programs put in place for local, state, or Federal employees.

Messaging and communication.

Throughout the meeting there was continued discussion about who the target audiences for wellness research and evaluation information are and the best ways to reach each

audience with the information it needs. The key audiences identified by participants are

program managers and senior leadership at employers, health plans and wellness vendors who are designing and implementing programs, and government policymakers. Accordingly, participants indicated that the ideal body of research will be a mix of rapid

feedback studies that can guide program implementation (termed a “learning agenda”)

and longer-term evaluations capable of establishing the high-caliber scientific evidence policymakers seek. These are not necessarily mutually exclusive approaches, however, as real-time feedback loops can be incorporated into rigorous program assessments. Mechanisms for communicating with the target audiences will also be mixed.

Congressional Budget Office analysts and policymakers, for example, will be looking for peer-reviewed articles published in top professional journals when they think about

“scoring” the probable impact of legislation to promote worksite wellness programs.

Corporate leaders, on the other hand, are more likely to rely on business publications and

the mainstream media for their information. Participants suggested that having the right messenger is key and that peer-to-peer

communication using someone of like stature is most effective for reaching business leaders. They also felt that researchers must work hard to pull out essential messages and

draft “marquee statements” that will catch the attention of busy top managers. Several

participants also pointed out that these communication approaches are not mutually exclusive either; rigorous research that is vetted through the peer-review process and published in leading journals will have greater external credibility and will be more likely to be reported in the mainstream press.

Technical assistance and other resources.

A common theme throughout the meeting was that willing employers need more information on how to implement effective programs. Participants agreed that smaller, mid-size, and even some larger employers could benefit from technical assistance, consulting services, and other resources intended to help them design, implement and evaluate their wellness programs. Offered resources could include things like evaluation instruments, financial modeling software and cost calculators. Many of these tools already exist and some are publicly available. Centralizing information about, and access to, these tools through a single access portal - such as a Worksite Wellness Resource Center or Clearinghouse -may be helpful. Access to one-on-one technical assistance and consulting services could also be provided through this gateway.

Participants agreed that an effort such as this would likely involve both the public and private sectors.

Standardization of methods and enhanced transparency. Yet another theme that came up several times during the meeting was the need to establish greater standardization and transparency for research methods. For example, studies should consistently use established scientific methods for dealing with challenges such as skewed data, selection bias, small sample sizes, inflation and discounting, and for computing financial performance measures. these steps would enhance the credibility of the work to external reviewers and facilitate comparison and synthesis of results across multiple studies. Recognizing the role of case studies in program evaluations, participants suggested that this methodology would be more valuable if a standardized framework could be developed and widely adopted, so that all case studies employ similar methods.

Reflections on the experience

We learnt by experiences that allow us to absorb (read, hear, feel), do (activity) and interact (socialize). In addition, we also learn by reflecting on such experiences. Reflection is thinking for an extended period by linking recent experiences to earlier ones in order to promote a more complex and interrelated mental schema. The thinking involves looking for commonalities, differences, and interrelations beyond their superficial elements. The goal was to develop higher order thinking skills.

We learned to frame and reframe complex or ambiguous problems, test out various interpretations, and then modify our actions consequently. Our thoughts have been extended and systematic by looking back upon our actions some time after they have taken place. Certain activities labeled as reflective, such as the use of journals or group discussions following practical experiences, are often not directed towards the solution of specific problems. We have consciously account for the wider historic, cultural, and political values or beliefs in framing practical problems to arrive at a solution. This is often identified as critical reflection. However, the term critical reflection, like reflection itself, appears to be used loosely, some taking it to mean no more than constructive self-criticism of one's actions with a view to improvement.

Analysis of Current Practices

  • Our intervention finished few days back so the reflection is yet to be seen.

  • After intervention when the issues were brought to the surface, the higher management which was dependent on the supervisor’s report now became aware that such problem actually existed.

  • It was and external intervention and we convinced it would be unbiased. The subordinate level seemed to be “hopeful and secure” as such beforehand they were kind of suppressed and they were not being able to take their voice to the higher management.

Comparison

of

Theoretical Concepts

Organizational

Practices

and

In practice due to influence from different factors, there occurs the gap between the higher management and the work force level and their problem go unheard creating an unhealthy environment.

Comparison of Theoretical Concepts Organizational Practices and In practice due to influence from different factors, there

Chapter IV

Major Findings

  • 1. The subordinate level voice was unheard.

  • 2. The subordinate’s turnover was higher compared to supervisor level.

  • 3. Most of the demands of the supervisor level were fulfilled.

  • 4. The higher management itself was too busy to analyze and address the problems.

  • 5. The growth of the organization had reached to stagnant level.

Conclusion

  • 1. Transparency is a must for the healthy and proper growth of the organization.

  • 2. The subordinate level is extremely important for the existence of the company and they cannot be ignored.

  • 3. There should not exist a very huge gap between the higher hierarchy and lower one, it weakens the ground level of the company.

Recommendation:

  • 1. Since the organization consists of not very large no. of employee a weekly meeting or meeting in 2 weeks discussing the achievement and problem being faced by each employee should be discussed in the earlier stages.