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12/29/13 COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS

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This website will provide the most useful technical information about COAL BASED THERMAL POWER STATIONS
particularly for power engineers those are working in thermal power plants-Designed by Er.VENKAT DJ
COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
18 AUGUST 2012
AVAILABILITY BASED TARRIF(ABT)
Availability Based Tariff (ABT) is a frequency based pricing mechanism
for electric power. The ABT falls under electricity market mechanisms to
charge and regulate power to achieve short term and long term network
stability as well as incentives and dis-incentives to market participants against
deviations in committed supplies as the case may be.
ABT Mechanism (Energy policy of India) is adopted in India (ABT Order
dated January 2000 of CERC) and in a few other countries for pricing bulk
power across various stakeholders. ABT concerns itself with the tariff structure for
bulk power and is aimed at bringing about more responsibility and
accountability in power generation and consumption through a scheme of
incentives and disincentives. As per the notification, ABT was initially made
applicable to only central generating stations having more than one
SEB/State/Union Territory as its beneficiary. Through this scheme, the Central
Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) looks forward to improve the quality
of power and control the following disruptive trends in power sector:
Unacceptabl y rapi d and hi gh frequency devi ati ons (from 50 Hz)
causi ng damage and di srupti on to l arge scal e i ndustri al consumers
Frequent gri d di sturbances resul ti ng i n generators tri ppi ng, power
outages and power gri d di si ntegrati on.
**The ABT scheme has now been expanded to cover the I ntrastate systems as
well.
What is availability?
'Availability', for the purpose of the ABT Order means the readiness of the
generating station to deliver ex-bus output expressed as a percentage of its
related ex-bus output capability as per rated capacity.
How is availability calculated?
Availability of thermal generating station for any period shall be the
percentage ratio of average SOC for all the time blocks during that period and
rated Sent Out Capability of the generating station
Each day of 24 hours starting from 00.00 hours be divided into 96 time
blocks of 15 minutes each.
Each generating station is to make advance declaration of its
capacity for generation in terms of MWh delivery ex-bus for each
time block of the next day. I n addition, the total ex-bus MWh which
can actually be delivered during the day will also be declared in
case of hydro stations. These shall constitute the basis of generation
scheduling.
SCHEDULING
NAINI'S SLIDE SHOW
2012 (10)
August 12 - August 19 (1)
AVAILABILITY BASED TARRIF(ABT)
August 5 - August 12 (1)
April 8 - April 15 (4)
January 29 - February 5 (4)
2011 (23)
CFPP ARCHIVE
CFPP INDEX
POWER GENERATORS
THERMAL BOILERS
AIR PRE-HEATER
BOILER AUXILLARIES
BOILER DRUMS
TURBINE AUXILLARIES
GENERATOR TRANSFORMERS
Types of Safety Valves and its features
THERMAL GALLERY
http://www.apepdcl.gov.in
http://www.apgenco.gov.in
http://www.apnpdcl.in
http://www.apspdcl.in
http://www.aptransco.gov.in
http://www.cea.nic.in
http://www.ntpc.co.in
http://www.powergridindia.com
http://www.recindia.nic.in
POWER WEBSITES
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12/29/13 COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
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By venkatdj at Saturday, August 18, 2012
While declaring the capability, the generator should ensure that the
capability during peak hours is not less than that during other hours.
The Scheduling as referred to above should be in accordance with
the operating procedures in force.
Based on the above declaration, the Regional Load Dispatch
Centre(RLDC) shall communicate to the various beneficiaries their
respective shares of the available capability.
After the beneficiaries give their requisition for power based on the
generation schedules, the RLDC shall prepare the generation
schedules and drawal schedules for each time block after taking
into account technical limitations and transmission constraints.
The schedule of actual generation shall be quantified on ex-bus
basis, whereas for beneficiaries, scheduled drawals shall be
quantified at their respective receiving points.
For calculating the drawal schedule for beneficiaries, the
transmission losses shall be apportioned in proportion to their drawals.
I n case of any forced outage of a unit, or in case of any transmission
bottleneck, RLDC will revise the schedules. The revised schedules will
become effective from the 4th time block, counting the time block in
which the revision is advised by the generator, to be the 1st one.
I t is also permissible for the generators and the beneficiaries to revise
their schedules during a day, but any such revisions shall be effective
only from the 6th time block reckoned in the manner as already
stated.
ABT brings about enhanced grid discipline
Economically viable power with right pricing
Promote competition and efficiency
Encourage use of Merit Order Dispatch / Economic Dispatch in I ndia
Addressing grid disturbance issues
Gaming and avoiding the same
Requires special meters, remote metering with open protocols and
communication mechanisms to read meters timely
Software that is comprehensive to do calculations, address
regulatory issues and modifications as per different Regulatory
Commission requirements.
I nterface options to various stakeholders in the ABT mechanism
online to enable effective implementation and benefits to all
Capability of power producers to be able to control their cost of
production as well as flexibility in operations
ABT FEATURES
9 AUGUST 2012
ENERGY & POWER CONVERSIONS
Power & Heat Units
1 MW = 1,000 kW
1 kW = 1,000 Watts
1 kWh = 3,412 Btu
1 kWh = 1.340 Hp hours
1,000 Btu = 0.293 kWh
12/29/13 COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
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By venkatdj at Thursday, August 09, 2012
1 Therm = 100,000 Btu (British Thermal Units)
1 Million Btu = 293.1 Kilowatt hours
100,000 Btu = 1 Therm
1 Watt = 3.412 Btu per hour
1 Horsepower = 746 Watts
1 Horsepower hr. = 2,545 Btu
Heat & Energy Units
1 KJ = 1,000 Joules
1 MJ = 1,000 KJ
1 MJ = 1,000,000 Joules
1 KJ = .239005 Kilocalories
1 Joule = 0.23901 Calories
1 Calorie = 4.184 Joules
1 Kcal/Kg = 1.8 Btus/lb.
1 Million Btu = 252 Megacalories
1 Btu = 252 Calories
1 Btu = 1,055 Joules
1 Million Btu = 1,055 Megajoules
1 Btu/hour = .2519 Kilocalories/hour
1 Btu/lb. = 2.3260000 KJ/KG
1 Btu/lb. = 0.5559 Kilocalories/KG
Power Generation Units
1 MWe = 1,000 kW
1 MWh = 3,600 MJ
1 MWt (thermal energy) = Approximately 1,000 kg. steam/hr.
Natural Gas Units
1 Cubic foot of natural gas = 1,020 Btu (approx)
1 Therm = 100,000 Btu
1 Decatherm = 10 therms
1 Decatherm = 106 Btu
1 Decatherm = 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas (approx)
1 Decatherm = 0.974 Mcf at 1,026 Btu per cubic foot
1 Mcf = 1.026 MMBtu (approx)
1 Mcf = 1.026 Decatherm (approx)
1 MMBtu = 106 Btus
Mass Units
1 Metric ton = 1,000 KG
1 Metric ton = 0.9071847 short tons
1 Metric ton = 1.016047 long tons
1 Metric ton = 2,204.622 pounds (lb.)
Temperature
C = (F 32)5/9
F = (9/5)(C)+32
11 APRIL 2012
12/29/13 COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
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By venkatdj at Wednesday, April 11, 2012
SUPERCRITICAL BOILER
Supercritical Boiler
1. Operating Pressure > 225 Kg/Cm2, It Is Called A Supercritical Boiler.
2. The Most Techno-Economical Parameters For Supercritical Plants
Envisaged Are:
Main steam Pressure @ SH outlet is 250 Kg/Cm
540 Deg.C Main Steam Temperature At Sh O/L.
566 Deg.C Hrh Temperature At Rh O/L.
3. Improvement In Cycle Efficiency for above Parameters Is Of The Order Of
3%.
4. There Are Two Types Of Water Walls Arrangements In The Case Of Once
Through Boiler:
A) Spiral Wound WW.
B) Vertical Ribbed WW.
5. Most Of The Once Through Boilers In The World Are With Spiral Wound
WW. This Arrangement Has The Advantage Of Equal Heat Absorption
By All The Steam Generating Tubes.
The Disadvantage Of This Arrangement Is That The Tubes Are Not
Self-Supporting. Hence, Extra Supports Are Provided To WW For This
Arrangement.
Typical Materials Used For Super critical Boiler
Elements Of Boiler Material
Economizer
Carbon Steel
Water Wall Low Alloy Ferritic Steel
Pressure Vessels
(Separator, Drain Tank)
Low Alloy Ferritic Steel
Sh Tubes (Heating Area) Austenitic Steel
(Tp347h / Tp321h)
Sh Tubes (Non-Heating Area) Medium Alloy Steel
(T91)
Main Steam Pipe Medium Alloy Steel
(P91)
HRH Pipe Medium Alloy Steel
(Scmv28)
START UP IN THERMAL PLANTS
COLD START
1) After Capital overhaul.
2) After Annual overhaul.
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By venkatdj at Wednesday, April 11, 2012
3) After any major rectification work like H2 leakage / T-G Bearing High Vibrations
/ Stator winding fault / Rotor earth fault.
WARM START
1) After LTSH, SH Re heater tube leak rectifications.
2) After H2 leakage - Rectification, After Auxiliaries like PA Fan / CW
pump motor rewinding.
3) Reserve shutdown due to High frequency, CW Sump level (River
level) problem.
4) Electrical faults like Surge Capacitor failure / Rotor earth fault /
Stator Earth fault / GT Buchholzs.
5) Coal shortage.
HOT START
1) Economizer tube failure.
2) Water wall tube failure.
3) Turbine impulse line leakage.
4) MS-Valves heavy gland leak.
5) Generator X-r bushing oil leaks.
6) Gland cooler gasket failure (leakages in condensate flow path) ,
Turbine lube oil cooler leaks.
7) Cable flash over of Unit bushes / UAT etc.
8) Small maintenance works on feed water line, de-Aerator etc. /
small fire hazard
9) Start up after fictions tripping (Governing System trouble / I&C
trouble.
10) Start up after trip out due to Mal-operation human error /
Instrument error or relay / Protection, Momentary drum level / draft
/ vacuum.
10 APRIL 2012
The Health Risks of Burning Coal for Energy
Nitrogen oxides (NOx):
Nitrogen oxide plays a major role in the formation of ground-level ozone
(or smog) in summer and contributes to fine particulate matter (or soot). Both
smog and soot are linked to a host of serious health effects. Nitrogen oxide also
harms the environment, contributing to acidification of lakes and streams (acid
rain) and the haze that often shrouds our national parks and scenic vistas.
Mercury (HG):
Mercury can cause severe nervous system problems in humans and
wildlife. Especially vulnerable are developing fetuses, babies and children.
Eating fish is one of the primary ways people ingest mercury, which
accumulates in the tissues of fish and other animals. Texas is home to five of the
nation's top 10 mercury emitting power plants.
12/29/13 COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
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By venkatdj at Tuesday, April 10, 2012
Sulfur dioxide (SO
2
):
Sulfur dioxide contributes to the formation of microscopic particles
(particulate pollution or soot) that can be inhaled deep into the lungs and
aggravate respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic bronchitis,
increasing cough and mucous secretion.
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) and Global Warming:
Carbon dioxide does not directly impair human health but is the most
significant greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. The dangers of
global warming include disruption of global weather patterns and ecosystems,
flooding, severe storms and droughts. A warming climate will also extend the
range of infectious diseases.
DUST REDUCTION METHODS IN THERMAL PLANTS
The major methods used in coal mines and thermal plants to control dust
pollution are
Ventilation
Water sprays
Dust collectors
I). Ventilation:
The ventilation methods provide the best use of air in the vicinity of
workers and in the vicinity of dust sources. There are different methods
1. Dilution Ventilation:
In this method it is used to provide more air and dilute the dust.
Most of the time the dust is reduced roughly in proportion to the
increase in air flow, but not always.
2. Displacement Ventilation :
In this method it is used to use the airflow in a way that confines the
dust source and keeps it away from workers by putting dust downward of
the workers.
II).Water Sprays :
There are 3 methods
1. Wetting :
By wetting of the coal adequate dust pollution can be controlled. Due to
wetting the dust particles stay attached with surface of coal material.
2. High pressure sprays:
This method improves spray by raising the water pressure which may
further causes to raise the efficiency per unit use of water. In this case there is a
chance to get reduced 30 to 40% dust pollution?
12/29/13 COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
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By venkatdj at Tuesday, April 10, 2012
3. Foam:
For dust control foam may be better than water. It provides dust
reductions upto 20% to 60% compared to water. Foam also can produce
similar results at lower water use that is the amount of water needed to make
the foam is less than the equivalent water spray. Only drawback is high cost.
III).Dust Collectors :
The dust collectors play a vital role in dust reduction in mining and
coal plants of thermal power plants. Dust collectors range from low-volume
filtration to high volume wet collectors is used in various locations such as
conveyor areas, tunnels, crusher areas and bunker areas. For dust collectors
properly designed to trap respirable dust, the filtration efficiency is usually
quite high in the range of 90-95%.

Methods generally implemented in thermal plants

Location Method implemented
Coal transportation Wagons covered with tarpaulins
Wagon tippling Spraying water
Conveyor streams Dust collectors and sprinkling water
Crusher houses Dust collectors
Bunkers Dust collectors
Coal yards Sprinkling water
COMPARISON OF VARIOUS SYSTEMS:
DUST CONTROL METHOD
Effectiveness
(Low is10-30%, Moderate
is 30-50%, High is 50-75%)
Cost and draw
backs
Dilution Ventilation Moderate High
Displacement ventilation Moderate to high Moderate
Wetting Moderate Low
Foam Moderate High
Water high pressure
sprays
Moderate Moderate
Dust collectors Moderate to high Moderate to
high
4 FEBRUARY 2012
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR CHP
The sizing and selection of the vital equipment i.e.,
crushers,screens,paddle feeders etc. covered under the system shall be
based on the following characteristics of coal and operation conditions :
1. Two conveyors must be established (1W,1S) for smooth running
of plant.
2. Simultaneous running of both conveyors at rated capacity is
essential.
12/29/13 COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS
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By venkatdj at Saturday, February 04, 2012
3. Round the clock operation of coal handling plant is essential.
4. Coal delivered to the power station shall be of size :300 mm &
below (Occasionally 1-2% coal of 400 mm lumps may be allowed.
5. H.G.I of the coal shall be between 45 to 65.
6. Moisture content in coal will vary between 12% to 15% (For design
purpose 20% is considered)
7. The coal may have max of 20% of shale and sand stone.
8. For volumetric computation the bulk density of coal shall be taken
as 800 Kg/M3
9. All hoppers and tunnels provided with 2 No. sump pumps
(1W+1S)
10. The coal unloading ysystem shall be capable of unloading the rake
within time.
11. The wagon tipplers shall be "ROTA SIDE " type and the angle of
tippling is 150deg by giving 60 deg angle to the side of the wagon
for emptying the coal contents into the hopper.
12. The tippler designed to allow passage of BROAD GAUGE (1676
mm) track over tippler table.
13. The Wagon tippler hopper shall have capacity of 3 wagons i.e.180
tons .
14. The steel grating of mesh size 300mm X 300mm over wagon
tippler hopper.
15. Belt Weigher shall be designed for a range of 20% to 120% of
rated capacity.
16. RING GRANULATORS type crusher shall be provided for sizing the
input coal to (-) 20mm (from 300mm).
31 JANUARY 2012
COAL CONVEYOR BELT-PROTECTION
The coal conveyor belts in coal handling plant of thermal plants are
protected by following ways
1). PULL CHORD (Manually Reset type) :
This is a emergency stop switch shall be located on both sides of
belt conveyors at a a spacing of 20 Mtr. along the walkways for the entire
length of conveyor for emergency stopping of conveyor.
2). SWAY SWITCH :
This switch is of self resetting type and it shall be provided at a
spacing of 45 Mtr to limit belt sway to permissible extent.
3).ZERO SPEED SWITCH:
This switch is non-contact 9Proximity ) type electronic switch.
4). CHUTE BLOCKAGE SWITCH :
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By venkatdj at Tuesday, January 31, 2012
This switch is of proven type and it shall be provided at a suitable
height on each leg of the conveyors discharge chute, Vibrating Screens
by pass chutes ,Crusher feeding chutes ,Tripper discharge and feeding
chutes nearest skirt boards.
Chute blockage switch shall trip the feeding conveyor in case of
chute blockage and protect the feeding conveyor equipment.

By venkatdj at Tuesday, January 31, 2012
DESIGN OF STOCKPILES
The stockpiles of coal will have adequate storage power plants for few days and the coal
consumption shall be based on the Heat rate and Average GCV of coal received.
PLANT LOCATION COAL STOCK (Requirement)
PIT HEAD 15 Days
LOAD CENTERS 30 Days
COASTAL 30 Days
By venkatdj at Tuesday, January 31, 2012
BELNDING OF COAL
In any coal fired power plants the blending of "Ingenious coal" and
"Imported coal" can be done in following ways
A).We can convey Indian coal through one stream and Imported coal
through another stream which will get mixed while falling into coal
bunkers.
B). We can stock Indigenous and Imported coal layers in
stockyard.Before feeding by using dozers we can blend and feed to the
bunkers.
C).We can use one mill is separately for Imported coal and then adjust
the mill parameters to achieve the optimum heat load of the burners.
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TANISHA AQUA
venkatdj
i am an Electrical engineer having an 11 years of real time experience in power generating company and i opt to create own knowledge base
whenever i get new areas of technical experience.
View my complete profile
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