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ABstraJias IBstitute of Family Ststlits

Research Plan 2006-2008

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IrfJ his plan describes the areas in which the Institute intends to undertake research over the three year
period 2006-2008. The development of these directions has been gUided by the Institute's 2006-2008

L Strategic Plan and the National Research Priorities. The National Research Priorities provide avision
of how research can contribute to Australia's future prosperity and wellbeing. The Institute's research
falls mainly under the National Research Priority area Promoting good health and wellbeing for all Australians.

The Research Plan is structured around the framework Families Through Life. This framework provides afocus
on transitions and changes experienced by families. Examples include relationship formation and dissolution,
moves into or from paid work, retirement decisions and changes in parental responsibilities. Many government
policies and interventions are targeted at families experiencing transitions. In addition, the framework will help
the Institute examine contextual factors that impact upon the wellbeing of families across the lifespan.

By adopting this framework, the aim is to contribute research to assist in the development of policy that is
responsive to the diversity and change facing Australian families and takes account of the different contexts that
influence families. While the plan provides aframework for research activities over the next three years, it also
allows the Institute to be responsive to changes in the policy environment.

The development of this plan has involved extensive formal consultations and informal discussions with a
wide range of key stakeholders. A detailed report of the research consultations appears in this edition of Family
Matters (No. 73, pp. 4-12).

This research plan builds upon and extends the research undertaken as part of the 2002-2005 Research Plan.
The Institute's performance against the previous Research Plan is reported in the Institute's Annual Reports.

Principles underlying the Institute's Some of the Institute's research is Institute-initi-

ated, while other research is commissioned or
research program contracted. Institute-initiated reseal-ch is generally
The Institute's program of research is based upon funded from the annual appropriation from Pm"lia-
three broad principles that underpin the selection ment. The principles apply equally to all Institute
of research topics, design and conduct of the research, regardless of the funding sources.
research and communication of the results. These
three principles are closely related to the Institute's Rigour
values as set out in the Strategic Plan 2006-2008: The Institute aiHls to undertake research that is of
excellence, collaboration, integrity, leadership, ini- a high quality, crediqle and proVides a solid evi-
tiative, professionalism, and accountability. The dence base. This requires that the research take
Strategic Plan 2006-2008 is available online from account of the latest theoretical developments, and
http://www.aifs.gov.au. adopts the most appropriate methodologies. The
Institute will adopt a range of research methods.

The Institute's research program should involve
research that is relevant to the development of
National policy interests, both currently and on an
emerging basis. It should also be relevant to aca-
demic researchers, and to the interests and needs of
the general community. This includes research that
addresses issues affecting families in a wide range of
social and economic situations across Australia. It

Australian Institute of Family Studies

Australian Institute of Family Studies Research Plan 2006-2008
is important that much of the work is at the fore- Australia, the National Child Pmtection Clea1ing-
front of science and there is a role for research that house, and the Australian Family Relationships
does not inform current policy in an immediate and Clearinghouse.
obvious way, but that is instrumental in setting the
The Austmlian Family Relationships Clearing-
future policy agendas. The research should be use-
house seeks to assist in the promotion of family
ful, timely and provide value for money.
resilience and positive relationships by imprOVing
Responsiveness understanding of factors contributing to relation-
ship wellbeing and by informing service proVision
The Institute's research program should be respon-
in the areas of prevention, early intervention and
sive to the policy environment. To achieve these
goals, the Institute will be consultative in the devel- post-separation support.
opment of new research projects; form partnel-ships The Communities and Families Clearinghouse
and other collaborative relationships; seek external Australia seeks to improve acoess to ourrent infor-
review of new projects and publications; and com- mation and other resources to assist those working
municate clearly to the target audience. in the field of early childhood and community
development. The primary audience for the Com-
Types ofresearch munities and Families Clearinghouse Australia is
While some of the research will involve the develop- the projects funded under the Stronger Families
ment of new datasets, other work will be based and Communities Strategy. The clearinghouse
on further analyses of those that already exist. resources also have wider application to communi-
An important development in family research in ties throughout the country.
Australia has been the establishment of large-scale The National Child Protection Clearinghouse con-
longitudinal surveys. The Institute is at the forefront ducts researoh, and distributes information and
of this advance, being responsible for the develop- other resources, including specialist advice on the
ment and management of Gmwing Up in Australia: latest developments in child abuse prevention,
the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children child protection and associated family violence.
(LSAC) and being one of three partners in the con-
sortium conducting the Household, Income, and The Australian Cent1-e f01- the Study of Sexual
Labour Dynamics in Australia (I-IILDA) survey. Assault aims to improve access to current informa-
tion on sexual assault in order to assist service
The Institute is also responsible for the Australian providers, policymakers and others worlting in the
Temperament Project, a longitudinal survey of field of sexual assault to develop evidence-based
Victorian children now in its 23rd year. These strategies to respond to, and ultimately reduce the
and other existing datasets, including those incidence of, sexual assault.
developed by the Australian Bureau of Statistics,
represent valuable resources for research on Aus-
tralian families.
Planned research
The Institute's planned research program, Families
It is important that international research findings Through Life, will focus on the following themes:
and policy solutions are not imported uncriticaUy
to Australia. Nevertheless, international develop- • family relationships;
ments will continue to be analysed and reviewed in
11 ohildren, youth and patterns of care;
order to identify lessons for Australia. The Institute
also helps support research undertaken in other IilI families and work; and
countries, especially in the East Asia region.
IBl families and communities.
The Institute has four clearinghouses that play an
The relevance of the Institute's current research
important role in identifying, gathering, synthesis-
projects to eaoh of these themes is described in
ing and publishing information that is relevant to
Table 1.
the development of policy and provide useful infor-
mation to practitioners. The clearinghouses are the All themes relate in some way to the primary func-
Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assault, tions of families: (a) providing for the health and
the Comnmnities ct'Ild Families Clearing house wellbeing of all family members and (b) raising

Australian Institute of Family Studies Family Matters 2006 NO.73 15

children to be healthy, well-adjusted and produc- Change
tive members of society. Both people and contexts can change. Families are
Research in these areas will take account of the affected by broad patterns of social change.
diversity of Australian families, the contexts within Research into the relationship between social
which they live and operate, and periods of change change, values and wellbeing contributes to the effi-
or transition for families. The Institute will con- cacy of prevention and early intervention programs
tinue to monitor and analyse broad social, and services.
economic, and demographic trends and examine
responses at the individual, family and local com-
munity levels that feed into these trends. Contexts can change (for example, children can
move from a two-parent to sole parent household),
As noted above, the projects seek to take account of and can be diverse in terms of physical environ-
issues related to diversity, change and context. A ment and geographic location, health, disability or
blief explanation of the relevance of each of these wellbeing of family members, their economic cir-
dimensions to the Institute's work is provided below_ cumstances, the resources available within their
communities, and the government policies that
Diversity have a direct impact upon them.
Australian families are diverse. Dimensions of
diversity include socio-demographic differences In relation to the physical environment, issues
(such as ethnicity, age, gender, socio-economic sta- affecting families in regional, rural and remote Aus-
tus, family type), and geographic location (for tralia will be considered in a number of the
example, major city, regional, rural, remote), as Institute's research projects. Some projects will
well as differences in the beliefs, attitudes values focus on topics of particular importance to families
health an.d subjective wellbeing of family m'embers: outside of the major cities, such as the impact of
Such elements of diversity tend to interact. The changes in population, social networks, labour mar-
research will seek to identify the nature of these ket opportunities and/or access to services and
interactions. community infrastructure.

Indigenous Australians continue to be among the Theme 1. Familyrelationships

most disadvantaged groups in Australia. The Insti-
tute has gradually been increasing the range of
The Institute's research projects that focus on
research it conducts that focuses on Indigenous
family relationships examine relationship transi-
Australians, and will further develop its capacity
tions and wellbeing. These transitions may be a
to undertake research on the particular issues
function of maturation (for example, leaving home,
Indigenous families face, and the policies that have
retirement) as well as changes in relationships
the best chance of meeting their needs. The Institute
themselves (such as couple and family formation,
is acutely aware of the need to work in partnership
dissolution and re-fonnation). Projects within this
with Indigenous Australians and undertake appro-
theme will explore:
priate consultation about l-esearch questions and
approaches. (i) the quality of relationships at different points
in time (including intergenerational relation-
(H) factors that help explain diverse relationship
pathways (including attitudes and sooio-demo-
graphic correlates); and
(iii) the impact of relationship quality and transi-
tions on the wellbeing of family members.
Central to this work is the evaluation of the influ-
ence on families of the Family Law Act 1975,
particularly in relation to the recent reform of
the Act.

Australian Institute of Family Studies

Australian Institute of Family Studies Research Plan 2006-2008
The outcomes of this research will represent a addition to monitoring fertility trends, the Institute
valuable resource for the Australian Family Rela- recently examined links between age, partnership
tionships Clearinghouse. In turn, information status, education and employment status on views
provided by the other three clearinghouses will be about having children. Further work in this area
clearly relevant to research focusing on family rela- will explore the impact of a couple's financial cir-
tionships, given the profound impact of child abuse cumstances and each partner's fertility aspirations
and sexual assault on relationships, and the impor- along with the quality of the relationship in shaping
tance to relationships of high quality services that fertility expectations and planning.
promote child wellbeing and parenting practices.
Some of the proposed work will capitalise on the
Over the next three years, a great deal of attention increasingly rich Australian longitudinal datasets
will be given to: (i) relationship and family forma- now available (such as the HILDA and GTowing Up
tion pathways; (ii) ageing, intergenerational in Austmlia: the Longitudinal Study of Australian
relationships and cm-e; (iii) supporting relationship Children). Such studies help us to identify the
wellbeing; and (iv) family law. impact of particular factors and policies on families.
Relationship and family formation pathways Ageing, intergenerational relationships and care
The Institute has a long-standing interest in moni- Over the next 30 years Australia's population will
toring and examining the factors contributing to age. To date, the main emphasis of policy makers
patterns of leaving home, couple and family forma- and researchers has been on the economic and
tion, family stability, the ending of relationships, health consequences of an ageing society. While the
and "new beginnings", and the wellbeing of individ- roles of families have been acknowledged in discus-
uals follOWing different pathways. Over the next sions of research and policy priorities (mainly in
three years, the Institute intends to build on and the context of care provision), less attention has
extend this body of work by monitoring attitudes, been given to the links between family issues and
values, and aspirations about the different relation- ageing issues. The roles of older people within fam-
ship and family pathways in Australia today. ilies, as well as in the broader society, have also
The monitoring of relationship and family pathways been under-examined.
has played an important role in shaping the There are several key topics related to ageing on
research agenda. Traditionally, the family forma- which the Institute will conduct research over the
tion process began when young adults left home to next three years. These include the contributions
marry, and concluded when the last child was born. of older people to their families and the role of fam-
However, family formation processes are now ilies in supporting older people, the costs and
diverse. The Institute will examine in more detail benefits of grandparenting, and the difficulties that
the characteristics and circumstances of some of grandparents may have in gaining access to their
these diverse pathways, including the level of con- grandchildren.
tact and support that is exchanged between young
adults and their parents when they leave the Supporting relationship wellbeing
parental home.
In recent years some of the Institute's research has
With the rise in cohabitation, marriage and divorce focused on the factors that support the creation and
statistics have become progressively less useful maintenance of strong and healthy couple relation-
indicators of partnership formation and dissolution ships. It has also become more directly involved
trends. This is particularly the case for partnered with the field of marriage and relationship educa-
individuals under the age of 2S years, most of tion and is currently exploring opportunities
whom are cohabiting. The Institute's research will for collaborating with practitioners on Institute
examine the meaning of cohabitation for each part- projects, and for assisting service providers to
ner, ways these meanings might change over the conduct research and evaluation activities within
course of the cohabiting period, and partnership their agencies.
traj ectories.
Much of the existing policy related to ageing
The decline in the fertility rate represents another assumes that older families function reasonably
area of continuing research for the Institute. In well. However there is little evidence to support this

Australian Institute of Family Studies Family Matters 2006 No.73 17

assumption. We need to know more about marital The Institute is also undertaking a scoping project
quality in later life and to identify ways in which to explore the value of, and potential interest in,
such marriages can be strengthened and supported compiling a database on the types of family law data
- issues that will be addressed by the Institute in (that is metadata) held by key agencies in Australia.
2006-2008. In addition, the Institute is undertaking a study into
allegations of violence in the context of family law
Through the Austmlian Family Relationships proceedings.
Clemingho'Use there will also be an emphasis on
collating and translating research outcomes into In sum, family law research by the Institute over
matelial that is accessible to practitioners in the the next three years will target four main areas: (i)
field of marriage and relationship education as post-separation parenting; (ii) improved under-
well as in other related areas of couple- and family- standing of the psycho-social dynamics of parental
focused service delivery. connict after separation, and ideas for ways in
which this conflict can be reduced; (iii) improved
Family lawsystem understanding of key aspects of the "new family
This is an area in which the Institute intends to law system" as it begins to unfold, and (iv) the
increase its research capacity. High priority aTeas development of conceptual tools that can help mon-
for new research include the perceived fairness of itor the impact of any policy change on the
any child support policy reform; a process evalua- wellbeing of families who are in contact with the
tion of separating parents' chOices and experiences family law system.
of different family law pathways in the new family
law system; an evaluation of aspects of Family Rela- Theml? 2. Children, youth and
tionships Centres; the development of resources patterns ofcare
and tools to support separating parents and their
children; and property division and post-separation Over the next three years, research will be con-
economics. ducted into:
There are three major ongoing projects that will be (i) family influences on children's development;
completed during the period 2006-2008, two of
(H) non-parental care for children; and
which involve collaborations with other universities
(see Table 1 in the appendLx). The Cmingfor Chil- (Hi) family influences on the extent to which chil-
dl"en after Pm-ental Sepamtion Project, which dren and young people engage with society.
maps diverse patterns of parent-child contact and
financial support after separation; the Understand- These three areas all stem from the recognition that
ing Contact Disputes Project, 'lvhich investigates children's development is influenced by the family
environment. The family influences how children
parenting disputes about parent-child contact and
develop. Children's lives, however, are not limited
the context in which they occur; and the Expeli-
ences of Parents and Children after Family Court to family. They spend time in places where others
Decisions about Relocation, which examines the are responsible for their care and influence their
experiences of parents and children after judicially- lives: child care centres for example, and schools.
determined relocation decisions. Children are influenced also by the areas and the

communities in which they live. If all goes well
again, they also become active, involved and pro-
ductive members of the society in which they live.
" ,
1 . . .'. , Understanding the influences of child and family
characteristics, parenting practices, family struc-
tures and factors in the broader community and
social environment on children's development is
crucial information for the development of policy
and the provision of services to families.

Children's views are increasingly recognised as

important, yet their voices are seldom heard. The

Australian Institute of Family Studies

Australian Institute of Family Studies Research Plan 2006-2008
Institute has previously gathered the views of chil- grandparents, the role grandparents play in ohil-
dren and adolescents on a range of issues. The dren's lives, the impact of child care duties on
Institute will continue to seek the views and per- grandparents, and how these duties may be bal-
spectives of children and young people on such anced with the increasing imperative fOl- older
issues, as well as other potential topics such as what people to remain in the worlUorce. Other types of
is important for their wellbeing, what they value in care arrangements such as foster and other fOWlS of
family life, their family and care arrangements, and out-of-home care, and their impact on ohildren and
their attitudes towards relationships and family young people, remain issues of significant policy
formation. interest and represent key opportunities for future
Institute research. The Institute plans to examine
Family influences on children's development each of these issues during 2006-2008.
Research into family influences on children's devel-
opment will form part of the Institute's research Familyinfluences on children andyoung people
agenda. Important questions include (i) how par- engaging with society
enting skills or difficulties are transferred from one Families can have a profound influence on the
generation to the next; (ii) the extent to which par- progress and adaptation of children as they move
enting skills can be improved; (iii) the impaot that into other social environments such as child care
increasing rates of employment of mothers, paItic- and school. Findings fr0111 the Austruliun Tempem-
ularly those with young children, has on the role of ment Project have highlighted the consequences of
fathers in raising children; and (iv) the impact of children's transition experiences for their later
changes in fathers' roles on the long-term wellbeing adjustment and wellbeing - and thus the impor-
of children and parents. tanoe of a smooth transition. However, the family
and community environments that promote suc-
The Institute is also keen to examine outcomes of cessful transitions remain poorly understood, and
children groWing up in disadvantaged or adverse there is growing interest in this emerging issue.
circumstances, together with the factors that
Family influences on young people's decisions
promote resilience and allow some children to over- about life pathways, including their educational and
oome disadvantage. In relation to these matters, employment choices, are also not well understood
factors that contribute to some children's experi-
aIld present an opportunity for future research.
ence of child abuse or neglect will continue to be a
focus for the Institute. Another area of interest oov- Another emerging issue is the role that families play
el'S the challenges and requirements of families in in the development of young people as active,
which a family member has partioular needs, and involved and productive members of society.
the experiences and diffioulties of families raising Understanding how patterns of social and oivic par-
children and young people in rural and remote ticipation among young Australians differ according
communities. to personal, family and other circumstances and
ways in which these factors may influence engage-
Continuing Institute projects in this area are the ment in such activities remains sketchy, and will
Children and Family Life study, the Austmlian continue as an ongoing topic of research.
Temperament Project and GroWing Up in Aus-
t1'uliu, the longitudinal study of Australian children.
Theme 3: Families and work
Non-parental care for children
This theme focuses on the effects of non-parental There have been substantial changes in the pat-
caring on children's development and wellbeing. terns of laboUl- supply for men and women over the
last three decades that have affected family life;
Child care arrangements and children's experienoes including how children are cared for and the time
continue to be issues of high priority for the Insti- faniily members spend together. Of particular sig-
tute. The core issues here are, first, the importance nificance is the substantial increase in the rate of
of quality, affordability and access; and second, the labour force participation of mothers. This has led
influence of child care and its differing types On to a large increase in the proportion of families in
children's wellbeing and development. There is which both parents are working, although often one
also growing interest in the child care activities of parent (usually the mother) works part-time. At the

Australian Institute of Family Studies Family Matters 2006 No.73 19

same time there has also been an increase in the supply decisions. Projected labour force shortages
proportion of children who live in households in as tlle population ages in coming decades will mean
which no adult is in'paid employment. that allOWing participation in paid employment for
those with caring responsibilities is likely to be of
Research in this theme will focus on two broad
high policy relevance.
The Institute will continue to focus on working
(i) how families combine caring responsibilities parents' access to, and take-up of, parental leave
and paid employment and what assists families conditions. Part of this work will be based on data
in successfully combining both sets of respon- from Gmwing Up in Australia: the Longitudinal
sibilities; and Study of Australia Children that proVides unique
(H) the relationship between labour market transi- data on the pre- and post-birth employment
tions and family factors. arrangements of Australian parents with young
Combining family life andpaid employment
Families and work transitions
Research in this area will have a focus on the ways
in which family members combine their family Work in this area will focus on the relationship
responsibilities and paid employment and the between family change and labour force status.
impacts of these arrangements on family relation- Research will focus on:
ships and the wellbeing of family members. (i) the return to work decisions of mothers fol-
Particular attention will be given to child care lOWing child bearing and the ways in which
arrangements, elder care responSibilities, and the families manage this transition;
take-up of parental leave conditions.
(H) the effects of differences in access to paid
Our understanding of the effects of availability, parental leave and a range of family-friendly
quality and costs of child care on labour supply employment arrangements on labour supply
decisions is incomplete and so research will be decisions;
conducted into the effects of these factors on
family labour supply decisions. An important (iii) the implications of labour supply decisions on
aspect of this research will be on documenting in children, parental and family wellbeing.
detail the varied ways in which parents use child An important transition is from reliance on govern-
care and arrange their working hours to allow paid ment income support payments (such as Parenting
employment. Payment, unemployment related benefits and the
Families are by far the most significant sources of Disability Support Pension) to paid employment.
care for the elderly, with women providing greater The family factors affecting this will be researched.
levels of care than men. Incl-eased employment It is important to also consider and understand
rates of women have resulted in a growth in the the dynamics of the transitions from paid employ-
proportion of workel's with adult care responsibili- ment to receipt of income support payment.
ties. Relatively little is lmown about the types of Ongoing research using data from the Institute's
work arrangements that best allow paid employ- Family and Work Decisions study has highlighted
ment and adult care to be combined and about the varying decisions that partnered and single
the effects of adult care responsibilities on 'labour mothers make
with respect to employment and the ways in which
these decisions are influenced by financial incen-
tives generated by interactions between the income
support and taxation systems (Effective Marginal
Tax Rates). This information is directly relevant to
the current welfare reform policies aimed at
increasing workfmce participation. Research in this
area will continue.
Another area of research will be on the interaction
between ohild support obligations and contact

Australian Institute of Family Studies

Australian Institute of Family Studies Research Plan 2006~2008

arrangements on workforce participation of resi- Neighbourhood andresidential mobility effects

dent and non-resident parents. Growing Up in Australia: the Longitudinal Study of
Australian Children, is specifically designed to
Theme 4. Families andcommunitylife enable investigation of neighbourhood effeots on
children's development and family life. In addition
to identifying these effects, the Institute will exam-
The fourth research theme, Families and Commu- ine the impact of residential mobility on children
nity Life, focuses specifically on the connections and their families.
between the health and wellbeing of families and
their residential communities. This link is funda- Community attitudes/ values and beliefs
mental, for families are ~he building blooks of
An appreciation of the attitudes, values and beliefs
oommunities and rely on oommunity resouroes for
in communities, including those that relate to use of
meeting the family's needs. As the oft-quoted
prevention and early intervention programs, is
proverb states: "It takes a village to raise a child".
essential for a proper understanding of the relation-
While this fundamental connection between the ships between the health and wellbeing of families
health and wellbeing of families and that of their and their communities. As noted above, the Insti-
oommunities is self-evident, there are gaps in our tute will be undertaking a national study of these
knowledge regarding three closely connected phenomena - a study that will provide information
issues: (a) the characteristics of strong and vibrant of relevance to each of the research themes. In
communities, whatever their type; (b) the ways addition, as part of the SFCS, the Institute will
in which children, adolescents, young adults, par- examine the views of parents 'vith young children
ents and elderly people are affected by the about the quality of their neighbourhood, including
communities in which they live; and (c) the atti- its inclusiveness and child-friendliness.
tudes, values, beliefs and needs of Australian
Families and community services
families in different contexts, and the most effective
means by which these can be met. These issues are There are many services that exist to address the
important for the development of policy at all needs of families. The Institute plays a role in map-
levels of government. Work in this theme will be ping and evaluating services and in promoting
supported by the Communities and Families service systems that are based on sowld research.
CleaTinghouse AustTalia. As part of the evaluation of the SFCS, the Institute
will examine promising practices regarding service
Strong and vibrant communities provision for families with young ohildren and
young families' access to, and use of, various types
The Institute, along with the Social Polioy Research
of services.
Centre at the University of New South Wales, is
undertaking the national evaluation of the Aus- In addition, the Institute will continue to support
tralian Government's StTongo' Families and service provision for families and children through
Communities Strategy (SFCS). This evaluation will its clearinghouses that not only communicate
provide quantitative evidence on the extent to research findings regarding the effectiveness of
which the SFCS programs result in stronger com- service provision to practitioners, but also feed into
munities with better outoomes for children and this process by engaging in practice-based research
their families. Identification of strong and vibrant in collaboration with service proViders.
oommunities will form a key part of this evaluation.
Particular attention will be given to inclusiveness, Concluding comment
for this oharacteristic appears to be a key defining
feature of strong and vibrant communities. While thiS research plan is ambitious, it contains an
element of flexibility, for it is essential that the
As part of the SFCS National evaluation the Insti- Institute is responsive to emerging issq8s· relevant
tute is managing the design and collection of the to the wellbeing and stability of Australian families.
longitudinal study StmngeT Fwnilies in AustTalia. The Institute therefore welcomes feedback on the
This study will proVide evidenoe of the impact of above planned areas of research and suggestions
the Communities for Children initiative on out- for further areas of research on emerging issues of
comes for young children and their families. concern to Australian families.

Australian Institute of Family Studies Family Matters 2006 No.73 21

Building HeaJthyGouple Relationships
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University of Technology.;>'
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Health Research; Social Policy

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. . Australian Centre forthe Study ot Commissioned ~.' FaCSIA,
.•. Research Centre, University of .
'N~w South Wales. .,.

", Sexual Assault

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. National Child Protection Commissioned <FaCSIA .' ",
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, Indigenous Out-.of"Home Carei:',Com.missionedcAustralian .:: Secretariat of National .
. . .. . ::Coun,cilfor,Children and,' Aboriginal and Islander

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.' '.' . . i/General's::De art'ment' ' Archives, Australian
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'. . National University
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Research Utilisation by Child :.Commissioneid-,·Australian Australian Centre for Child
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'.' Prot~(;tlqr!U nJversity,. of South Australia
;of South Australia, '. ' .
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, AiJsti~I'i~~+~m'p~~ament P~oject' :,Joint, funding Australian Prot Prior, Prot Oberklaid,
:. Research Council (ARC).. Associate Prof Sanson and
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:j~:Th€Ex'i:lgri~nc~s of Parents"iihd ;. College of Law, Australian .•..
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22 Family Matters 2006 No. 73 .. Australian Institute of Fa~i1y Studies .. '