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Traction Control System

By
Mr. Mayuresh Sagar Likhite
(Student, AISSMS Collage of engineering, Pune 411001)

ABSTRACT:

Car accidents dominate the transportation industry in regards to the number of deaths that
occur on the road, accounting for 94 percent. With over half a million car wrecks every year,
safety aspects, such as traction control, are being constantly developed to keep drivers safer. By
understanding modern day safety features, drivers can stay well-informed of potential after
market options for their vehicles to keep them safe. Traction Control Systems is the modern day
solution to the problems such as unnecessary skids power loss due to less traction and railway
track traction control. Whilst the old methods such as limited slip differentials are getting
inefficient to handle the critical driving situations, need for a more advanced traction control
system arises and henceforth comes into picture the Electronic Traction Control System or the
TRAC System.
This report puts light to the modern Traction control system basics, working,
benefits and applications while appreciating the history of the traction control systems and
present world utilizations.




INTRODUCTION:

Traction refers to the maximum frictional force that can be produced between surfaces
without slipping. In auto mobiles traction is responsible for the movement of vehicle. In the
design of wheeled or tracked vehicles, high traction between wheel and ground is more desirable
than low traction, as it allows for more energetic acceleration without wheel slippage. Traction
control is a technology designed to help your vehicle maintain traction, no matter how slippery the
road surface. Technically, it is a mechanical, hydraulic, or electric system that maintains or
controls traction to any wheels driven by the engine. Unlike mechanical traction control systems of
the past such as limited slip differentials, todays systems are nearly all computer-controlled as
they actively watch wheel slip. An option formerly reserved for performance, you can find
traction control on all types of vehicle today.
The purpose of the traction control system is to prevent wheel spin from occurring due to
acceleration. The maximum torque that can be transmitted to the wheel is determined by the
coefficient of friction generated between the roads and tires. If torque exceeds that level, the
wheels are likely to spin. Conditions for traction operation may include slippery road surfaces,
acceleration while cornering and hard acceleration.
The basic idea behind the need of a traction control system is the difference between the
slips of different wheels or an apparent loss of road grip that may result in loss of steering control
over the vehicle which leads to slipping of the vehicle and loss of power which results in
uncontrolled cruising. Difference in slip may occur due to turning of a vehicle or differently
varying road conditions for different wheels and thus need to be controlled for a safer way to
cruise.

SUMMERY:

Traction control helps limit tire slip in acceleration on slippery surfaces. Powerful rear-
drive cars from the sixties often had a primitive form of traction control called a limited slip
differential helping to reduce, but not eliminate wheel spin. While limited slip rear axles are still
in use in many front and rear drive vehicles today, the device can't completely eliminate wheel
slip. Hence, a more sophisticated system of needed.
Enter electronic traction control. In modern vehicles, traction-control systems utilize the
same wheel-speed sensors employed by the antilock braking system. These sensors measure
differences in rotational speed to determine if the wheels that are receiving power have lost
traction. When the traction-control system determines that one wheel spinning more quickly than
the others, it automatically applies brake to that wheel to reduce its speed and lessen wheel slip.
In most cases, individual wheel braking is enough to control wheel slip. Therefore for drivers
who routinely drive in snowy and icy conditions, traction control is a must-have safety feature.

REFERENCES:

Reports, Handbooks etc.
1. Development of a new traction control system for vehicles with automatic
transmissions. (Shanghai Marine Equipment Research Institute, Shanghai 200031,
China School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai
200240, China)
2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) manuals
3. Improved directional stability in traction control system by Hunsang jung (affiliated to
Center for Noise and Vibration Control (NoViC), Department of Mechanical
Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Science
Town, Taejon 305-701, South Korea)
4. Experimental Identification of Engine-to-Slip Dynamics for Traction Control
Applications in a Sport Motorbike Matteo Corno, Sergio M. Savaresi
Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci
32, 20133 Milano, Italy

Internet
1. auto.howstuffworks.com (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/28000-traction-control-
explained.htm)
2. en.wikipedia.org (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traction_control_system)
3. cartech.about.com(http://cartech.about.com/od/Safety/a/Traction-Control-Abs-
Evolved.htm)