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BIOL 1114 Unit 3 Notes

Evolution; Mechanisms of Change

Darwin, Natural Selection

406 A 88%
360 B 78%


Gradual change
Biological Definition: Changes in allele frequencies within populations over time
o Alleles = alternative forms of a gene
o Time: Vast amounts: 100s of generations

Natural Selection in Action [11.2A-D, 12.7]

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
1831-1836 Voyage of the Beagle (naturalist)
1837 begins notes on the origin of species
1844 writes essays on origin of species
1859 The Origin of Species is published

Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)
Developed similar hypotheses to Darwin on mechanisms of evolution
Credited Darwin

As the Beagle set sail

Ideas around as the Beagle set sail..

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)
Founded paleontology, the study of fossils
Catastrophism: disaster that wipes out an area, taken over by those that
Superposition: rock layers reveal history
o Grand Canyon (11.2)
Top rocks are younger than the rocks on the bottom

Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
Model to explain how life evolved (1809)
o Evolution during ones lifetime
Proposed mechanism:
o Use and disuse
o Inheritance of acquired characteristics

Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Principles of Geology (1830)
Realized Earth must be much older than 6000 years

What Darwin Saw (11.3)
Many unique Galapagos species
But they resembled South American mainland species
Collected 14 types of finches

Artificial Selection
Darwin realized that artificial selection was observable
o e.g. the selective breeding of various types of pigeons
An artificial Example
o A chicken and egg story
White eggs ($1.00) vs. brown eggs ($1.40)
Mate brown egg hens with rooster
Produce hens that lay brown eggs

Natural Selection
Observation 1: Members of a population vary in form and behavior. Much of this
variation is heritable.
Observation 2: In any population there is the potential to produce more
offspring than can survive to reproductive age.
Observation 3: Individuals compete for resources
Inference 1: Individuals with traits best suited to prevailing conditions tend to
leave more surviving, fertile offspring
Inference 2: Therefore, certain heritable variations will be favored in the next
generation (Differential Reproduction).
Natural Selection: Differential reproductive success of individuals in a population
based on genetic differences among them
o Survival of the fittest that go on to reproduce.
o Individuals dont evolve, Populations do.

An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation
of bacteria: to be more resistant to that antibiotic

Natural selection in Action

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem [11.3AB, 11.5, 11.6A-D]
Factors Affecting Allele Frequencies

Natural Selection in Action
Guppy study in Trinidad & Venezuela
o (John Endler, UCSB)
Evolution of infectious diseases (p.236-237)
o Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Peppered Moths in England
o Change in light/dark forms
Early 1800s: tree trunks covered with lichen
Light form was predominant
Late 1800s: air pollution kills lichen, exposing dark bark
Now: air quality better, lichens returns
Light form predominant (better camouflage)
Changes in beak depth of ground finches
o Daphne Major
Measure size of beaks
Beak depth (thickness)
Number of birds

Survival of the Fittest (w/reproduction)
Populations evolve, not individuals
Worry about statements like:
o The birds sprouted wings in order to fly
o The snails evolved shells to escape predation
o The scorpions needed stronger venom to subdue their prey

If you are taking antibiotics for a bacterial infection, it is very important that you finish
the entire prescription; otherwise not all of the bacteria will die. Why is this bad?
A greater proportion of the next generation of bacteria will be resistant to that

Factors Affecting Allele Frequencies

The gene pool and microevolution
Population: localized group of individuals that belong to the same species; can
potentially interbreed or share a common gene pool
Gene pool: all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals of a population (all possible
genes in the room right now)

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem

Relevance to the study of evolution:
Gives expectation for a nonevolving population (a null model) [expectation of
NO change over time]
Baseline for comparing actual populations
Valid only when five assumptions are met:
o No selection
o Large population (1,000+)
o No immigration/emigration of individuals (none enter/leave the
o No net change in mutation (A to a = a to A) [Assume no mutations]
o Random mating (assume everyone can mate with any other person)
Consequence = Evolution

Given: a population of 100 ferrets that have either dark or tan fur. Assume that fur color
is governed by only two alleles and the allele for dark fur (D) is dominant to the allele for
tan fur (d). Nine of the ferrets have tan fur

What is the genotype of these 9 ferrets?

How many of the ferrets have dark fur?
100 9 = 91 (Dd or DD)

If 49 of the dark furred ferrets are homozygous, how many are heterozygous?
91 (Dd or DD) - 49 (DD) = 42 (Dd)

How many D alleles are there in this population?
2(DD) x 49 + 42(Dd) =140

What is the frequency of the D allele in this population?
140/200 = 0.7

How many d alleles are there in this population?
(2(dd) x 9) + (1 x 42(Dd)) = 60

What is the frequency of the d allele in this population
60/200 = 0.3

What about the next generation if our assumptions apply?
Same make-up genotypically and phenotypically over time.

FF (3)
Ff (2)

What is the frequency of the allele for free ear lobes?
FF FF FF Ff Ff = 8 (F)

What is the frequency of the allele for attached ear lobes?
Ff Ff = 2 (f)

Assuming the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem applies, about how many people will have
attached ear lobes when the planets population reaches 100?

F = .8
F = .2

FF .64 = 64
Ff .16 = 16
Ff .16 = 16
ff .04 = 4/100

In a hypothetical population of 100 people, tests of blood type genes show that 16 have
the genotype AA, 48 have the genotype AB, and 36 have the genotype BB, What is the
frequency of the A allele?

16 x 2 = 32
48 x 1 = 48

32+48 = 80

Two Siamese cats and three Persians survive a shipwreck and care carried on driftwood
to a previously uninhabited tropical island. All five cats have normal ears. Four of the
cats are homozygous dominant, but one carried the recessive allele for folded ears (Ee).
Assuming Hardy-Weinberg, about how many cats would you expect to have folded ears
when the island population reaches 1000?

EE(2 x 4) + 1 = 9
Frequency 9/10 = 0.9
Ee(1) x 1 = 1
Frequency 1/10 = 0.1

EE .81
Ee .09
Ee .09
ee .01
= 0.1 (ee) x 1000 = 10

Mechanisms of Change [13.1AB, 13.2AB, 13.3A-D]

In a population of 100 British hermit crabs, 9% are homozygous recessive (ee). If the
population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, how many would you expect to be
heterozygous (Ee)?

EE = .7 x .7 =.49
ee .09
e = .3
Ee = .7 x .3 = .21

Mechanisms of evolution
Natural Selection
o No selection
Insecticide resistance
Genetic Drift
o Large population (1,000+)
Consequence of a small population (luck of the draw)
Change in gene pool due to chance
Eg. Disaster kills individuals nonselectively (bottleneck effect)
Variability in original population
Different kinds of balls popped by knives -> reduced
Eg. Colonization of new location by few individuals (founder
Tennis and volleyballs float to new island. -> repopulate
island with only tennis and volleyballs
o No immigration/emigration of individuals (none enter/leave the
o No net change in mutation (A to a = a to A) [Assume no mutations]
Change DNA to create new allele
Average rate is around one DNA sequence change per 10^9 base
You have about 120 new mutations in your sperm and eggs not
present in your parents
Nonrandom Mating
o Random mating (assume everyone can mate with any other person)

Reproductive Barriers [11.5,13.1AB, 13.2AB, 13.3A-D, 12.1, 12.2AB]
Tracing Phylogeny

A breeding population of 1000 rock pocket mice, 200 with tan fur and 800 with dark fur,
is held under laboratory conditions. 400 of the 800 mice are heterozygous. How many
dominant alleles are present in this population?

DD = 400, Dd, = 400, dd = 200 = 1000 total

# of D = 400(DD) x 2 + 400(Dd) = 1200

Dominant allele Frequency?
1200/2000 = 0.6

How many recessive alleles?
# of d = 200(dd) x 2 + 400 (Dd) = 800

Recessive Allele Frequency?
800/2000 = 0.4

Assuming Hardy Weinberg, what proportion of this later population would you predict
has dark fur
DD .36
Dd .24
Dd .24
dd .16

.36 + .24 + .24 = 0.84

Sexual selection: a form of selection characterized by a struggle between
individuals of one sex that increases the chance of mating with the other sex
o Ex. Elaborate feathers, large horns, courtship songs
o Non-Random Mating
o Males with flashy colors, females with dull colors
o Peacocks: Better immune system = bright colors + eyespots

How do new species form?
What defines a species?
o Appearance alone?
o Sexual reproduction is the key
Biological species: population whose members have potential to
produce fertile offspring

What barriers keep a human from forming hybrid with a squirrel?
Mating -> Fertilization -> Birth -> Viable fertile offspring
Prezygotic: before fertilized egg
Postzygotic: after fertilized egg

Ecological Isolation
Temporal Isolation
Behavioral Isolation
Mating (1
Mechanical isolation
Gametic isolation: sperm cant find the egg
Fertilization (2
Hybrid Inviability: baby never gets born
Birth (3
Hybrid infertility: baby cant grow up to make babies (mules cant make more mules)
Hybrid Breakdown: second generation offspring has problems mating
Viable, Fertile Offspring (home base)

By observing the trees for several days you find that one species of reed warbler is
active in the upper parts of the canopy while another species of reed warbler is active in
the lower parts of the canopy. Both species are active during the day. What
reproductive barrier keeps these species separate?
Ecological Isolation

How do new species arise?
How does population get divided?
o Geographical (physical) barriers
New mountain ranges
Rising seas isolate islands
Flood land bridges
Allopatric Speciation: speciation induced when the ancestral population
becomes segregated by a geographical barrier
o Same fish are separated into different conditions, changing the
phenotype of offspring over time, forming new species
Salt Creek pupfish (Death Valley, CA)
Live in spring isolated water from other water ~50,000
years ago
Cant breed with pupfish from other springs
Sumatra tigers separated 6,000-12,000 years ago
Cannot breed with the Siberian tiger, Bengal, South China,
Indochina, etc.
Darwins finches
Sympatric Speciation: characterized by new species forming within the range of
parent populations; reproductive isolation evolves without geographical
o Drought causes mutation in flowers, forming a new species, even though
they are in the same geographic location

A mountain range separates a population of gorillas. After many generations the gorillas
on different sides of the mountain range cannot produce viable, fertile offspring. What
has happened in this gorilla population?
Allopatric Speciation

Tracing Phylogeny

Fossil: any preserved remnant or impression left by an organism that lived in the
Dating fossils
o Relative dating:
Sequences of occurrence in strata (layers of the earth)
Older fossils are deeper
o Absolute (radiometric) dating:
Based on known decay rates of radioactive atoms
Carbon 14
o After death, no more new C 14 coming in
o Had only of the C14 of a living organism
o How many half -lives? 2
o When did it die?
o 2 x 5730 = 11,460 years ago

Tracing Phylogeny [12.3AB, 12.4A-C, 12.5, 12.6AB, 13.6A-D. 14.1AB]
Highlights in the History of Earth

If a fossil contains 1/8
the amount of C14 as a live organism, the animal probably died
about (___) years ago. (Half life = 5,730 years)
1/8 = 3 half lives = x x = 8
3 x 5,730 = 17,190

A fossil is 60,000 years old and you find it has the isotope of a living organism. What is
the half-life of this isotope?
60,000 = 2 half lives = x =
60,000 / 2 = 30,000

Continental Drift
Movement of great plates of crust and upper mantle floating on Earths molten
North America & Europe are drifting apart at ~ 2 cm/year

Continental Drift & Marsupial Distribution

Sorting Homology from Analogy
Homology: likeness attributed to shared ancestry
Homologous structures: same anatomical elements
o Same structures in different animals (arm bones)
Analogy: similarities due to convergent evolution, not common ancestry
Convergent Evolution: acquisition of similar characteristics in species from
different evolutionary branches [ ex. Bat wings & butterfly wings]
Bat wings are analogous to butterfly wings, but not homologous (both have
wings, but not same bones)
Bat wings are homologous to bird wings, (bones)

Vestigial Structure
Vestigial Organ: homologous to functional organ in another species
o Appendix, coccyx, goose bumps
o Snake legs
o Pelvic bone in whales

Comparative Embryology
Homology is often obscured; embryonic development can expose homology not
apparent in adult structures
o Comparing embryos of animals of different species to find similarities

Molecular Comparisons
20.2 Animal Diversity. Red dots

Monophyletic: a group of organisms consisting of a common ancestor and all of
its descendants (a clade)
Paraphyletic: group contains its most recent common ancestor, but does not
contain all the descendants of that ancestor (does not include ALL parts of a
Polyphyletic: group excludes the most recent common ancestor of all members
of the group; not based on homology
o Ex. Swimming animals

Defining Animals; Overview of Animalia [14.1AB, 20.1A-D, 20.2, 20.3]
Sponges & Cnidarians

The proportion of Carbon-12 to Carbon-14 _____ after an organism dies

What was the early earth like?
No O

UV radiation
Big seas

Evolution doesnt have anything to say about how life started

Animal Diversity and Body Plans

Defining Animals
Features shared by most animals:
o Multicellular, eukaryotic
o Heterotopic via ingestion (dont make our own food to eat; must get it
from other sources [eat other things])
o Carbohydrate reserves stored as glycogen
o No cell walls
o Nervous tissue & muscle tissue
o Diploid stand dominates the life cycle
o Gastrulation after blastula stage

Parazoa vs. Eumetazoa
Parazoa: beside the animals
o Lack true tissues
o 1
appearance of organized animal body
o contains only Phylum Porifera
o Tissue level of development
o Embryo undergoes gastrulation (where first tissues start)
o Development of germ layers
o Ectoderm & endoderm
o Contain all other animal phyla

Radiata (radial symmetry, diploblastic)
Branch Radiata
Have radial symmetry
Have oral & aboral but no front, back, left, or right sides

Bilateria (bilateral symmetry, triploblastic)
Branch Bilateria
Have bilateral symmetry
Have dorsal (top), ventral (bottom), anterior (head), posterior (tail), left & right
Cephalization (trend toward concentration of sensory structure at anterior end)

Blastocoel inside of blastocyst
Blastula whole figure of blastocyst
Gastrulation: migration of cells that form an opening (blastopore [the opening]);
(archenteron [the tissue])

Sponges undergo Gastrulation?

Platyhelminthes to Arthropoda [20.4-20.7, 20.8AB]

Mesoderm layer between ectoderm and endoderm

Proto: first blastopore becomes anus
Stome; mouth Deutero: second
Stome: mouth

New 4 cells or off-set New 4 cells lie on top of the previous 4 cells
Spiral Cleavage (worms, snails, insects) Radial Cleavage (chordates + starfish)
Determinate cleavage Indeterminate cleavage
The fate of the cells is already the function of each cell is not yet
determined determined
Branch Bilateria
o Lophotrochozoans (Annelids, Mollusks, Flatworms)
rRNA gene similarities
Embryonic similarities
Unique pattern of developmental genes
o Ecdysozoans (Arthropods + Roundworms)
Different rRNA gene similarities
Periodic molting (ecdysis)
Absence of ciliated cells in embryo (no hair cells in embryo)
Different pattern of developmental genes

Coelom: fluid-filled body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm





Phylum Platyhelminthes

Incomplete digestive system

Phylum Mollusca
Snails, clams, mussels, octopus, cuttlefish
o Mantle: secretes the shell
o Foot: muscle used for movement
o Visceral Mass: collection of organs
Protostome (becomes mouth)
Spiral Cleavage

Phylum Annelida
Earthworm, leeches
o Segmented
o Closed circulatory system (heart + arteries)
o Hermaphrodites


Phylum Nematoda
Pinworms, heartworms, trichina worms
o Not segmented

Phylum Arthropoda
o Horseshoe Crab
o Arachnids (spiders, ticks, scorpions)
o Millipedes + Centipedes
o Crustaceans (Crabs, Lobster, Crayfish, Shrimp, Barnacles, Rollie Pollies)
o Insects
Bilateral symmetry

Echinoderms (starfish)

Begin the Chordates


Phylum Echinodermata
Starfish, sea urchin, sand dollars, sea cucumbers
o Bilateral (embryo) -> radial adult
o Tube Feet
o Eumetazoa
o Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata
Mammals, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish, Sharks, Snakes
o 4 unique characteristics:
Present in all chordate embryos
o Absorbed by the backbone
Phylum is named for this
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
Develops from a plate of dorsal ectoderm
Dorsal to notochord
Becomes brain & spinal cord
Pharyngeal slits
Present in chordate embryos
Filter-feeding in early chordates
Extensive modifications
o Become jaw, maxilla, parts of inner ear, etc.
Muscular Postanal tail
Tail extends beyond anus
Found in most chordates
Provides propulsion in many aquatic species

o Ectoderm
o Dorsal Hollow nerve cord
o Notocord [mesoderm]
o Pharyngeal slits
o Postanal tail (in posterior)

Development of Neural Tube
Ectoderm (Neural Plate)
o 19 days: neural groove
o 20 days: neural tube
o 22 days: neural crest (developing spinal cord -> brain)
Induced by chemicals in the notochord
Change color schemes (melanin)
Migrate into adrenal glands (release shots of adrenaline)
Mesoderm (notochord)

Chordates Without Backbones
Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicates [sea squirts])
o Metamorphosis
Excurrent siphon
Incurrent siphon
Adhesive papillae

Subphylum Cephalochordata (Lancelets)
o Deuterostome
o Bilateria
o Cephalization
o Eumetazoan

[20.12-20, 15A]
Chordates with Backbones and/or Craniums

Hagfishes (Craniates) [Agnathans Jawless fish+
Secrete a sticky slime and scavenge dead animals, including whales

Lampreys (Vertebrates) *Agnathans Jawless Fish+
Jawless fish
Distinctive sucker mouth
o Cranium and cartilage

Placoderms (extinct)
Have jaws
Armored plates

Jaws (Gnathostomata)
(Cartilaginous Fishes Chondrichthyes)
Sharks, manta rays
Cartilaginous skeleton
Swim to stay in water column
Sharp vision (no color), olfaction (smell)
Electric sensory regions on the head
o Jaws
o Vertebrates
o Cranium
o Chordates
Dorsal Nerve Cord
o Deuterostomes
o Bilateria
o Eumetazoa
o Eukaryotes

Lung Precursors
(Bony Fishes Osteichthyes)
~30,000 extant species; most of vertebrates
Skeleton reinforced with calcium phosphate
Color vision
Water actively drawn over gills
Swim Bladder (balloon to help float)
Two major groups
o Ray-finned
o Lobe-finned
Coelacanth, catfish, flounder, puffer fish,

Frogs, salamanders, caecilians
chordates on land (~365 million years ago)
Need water for early development
Ectotherms (subject to change of temperature of the environment) [cold-
Breath with lungs, skin, and/or gills
Eardrums, complex vocalizations
o Legs
o Lung precursors
o Jaws (Gnatostomata)
o Vertebrates
o Cranium
o Chordates
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
Pharyngeal slits
Muscular Postanal tail
o Deuterostome
o Bilateral
o Eumetazoan
o Multicellular
o Animal

[20.15B, 20.16AB]

Lizards, snakes, tortoises, crocodiles, dinosaurs, birds
truly terrestrial vertebrates
efficient lung
Dry skin retards water loss
Limbs (snakes secondary loss of limbs)
Most are ectothermic; behavior adaptations regulate temperature
Feathers modified scales, replaceable, important in insulation
Efficient lungs; no diaphragm
Light, hollow bones
Acute vision
Complex behaviors

Endothermic (endo = inside);
Efficient respiratory system; diaphragm
Mammary glands produce milk
Differentiated teeth

Three major groups of extant mammals:
o Monotremes (platypuses and echidnas)
Egg laying
o Marsupials (opossums, kangaroos, koalas)
Young complete development in marsupium
o Placental Mammals (all others, including us)
Embryo joined to mother by placenta

Which of the following phrases best defines the term evolution (in the biological sense)?
Gradual changes in allele frequencies in populations over time

Evolution by natural selection requires
Heritable variation
Certain individuals to produce more offspring than other individuals of the same

A population of organisms can change over time as a result of individuals with certain
heritable traits leaving more offspring than other individuals. This is known as:
Natural Selection

DNA can code for mRNA, which in turn can code for protein. There is no way that this
process can be reversed so that altered proteins in an individual can code for genetic
material. If this reversal were possible, it would make much more plausible the theory of
evolution proposed by

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can only be in effect when _____ is present
Random mating

In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is
0.3. What percentage if the population is homozygous dominant(i.e. AA)?
o 1.0 0.3 = 0.7
o 0.7 x 0.7 = .49 x 100 = 49%

In a population of wild flowers, the frequency of the allele for red flowers is 0.8. Assume
the only other allele is the white flower allele. The population is in Hardy-Weinberg
Equilibrium. What is the frequency of the heterozygotes in the population?
o 1.0 0.8 = 0.2
o 0.8 x 0.8 = 0.64
o 0.2 x 0.2 = 0.04
o 0.64 + 0.04 = 0.68
o 1.00 0.68 = 0.32

Which of the following is an example of the Bottleneck Effect?
A forest burns down, and only a few squirrels survive

Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier?
Hybrid offspring of two species of jimsonweeds always die before reproducing

Which of the following is an example of a prezygogtic reproductive barrier?
Cat sperm are unable to fertilize dog eggs
Different firefly species use different flash sequences to attract mates
Two species of frogs live on opposite sides of the Grand Canyon
The male genitalia of one beetle species cannot fit into the female genital
opening of a different beetle species

Allele frequencies in a gene pool may shift randomly and by chance. This is called:
Genetic Drift

Speciation induced when a geographical barrier segregates ancestral populations is
Allopatric speciation

Given that the half-life of isotope X is 10,000 years. IF a fossil is found that has 1/8 the
amount of a living organism, then we can estimate the fossil to be about ___ years old.
o Half-life = 10,000 years
o 1/8 = x x = 3
o 10,000 x 3 = 30,000

A fossil is determined to be 100,000 years old. It has 1/16 the amount of isotope Y in a
living organism. What is the half-life of isotope Y?
25,000 years
o 1/16 = x x x = 4
o 100,000 / 4 = 25,000

Similarities that are due to convergent evolution, but are not due to common ancestry
are known as:

Which of the following is an example of homology?
Seal flippers and lizard front legs

A body cavity completely encased in mesoderm is called a(n)

True or false the rectangle below represents a monophyletic grouping?

Jellyfish list all that apply:
Nervous tissue

Spiral Cleavage