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High-Strength and Highly Weldable Rolled Sections and Plates
for Modern Steel Construction

Georges Axmann
Arcelor International Shanghai

KEYWORDS

high strength, steel, weldability, rolled section, plate, construction

ABSTRACT

For many years, the use of high-strength steels in construction is increasing due to weight and cost
considerations. Modern high-strength steel qualities are now available with better ductility and
improved weldability. These properties make buildings safer and further reduce fabrication cost and
time. To make good use of the advantages of these modern steels, their weldability was extensively
evaluated.

This paper presents the weldability evaluation of rolled H-shapes and plates in modern high
performance steel grades for use in steel construction. Also, an overview of the production process,
product properties, practical applications and recent references are provided.

The investigations give clear evidence of a high toughness -- even at low temperatures, a very low
hardenability and an outstanding resistance to weld cold cracking. These excellent product properties
are a consequence of the lean chemical composition. Indeed, these modern steels are characterized by
a lower carbon content, low alloying and hence lower carbon equivalent values than traditional
high-strength steels. As a consequence, welding procedures can be simplified by avoiding or reducing
preheating.
ABSTRACT




INTRODUCTION.

For several years now, the structural steel market has been moving towards an increasing use of
products with greater thickness, higher yield strength, increased toughness and improved ductility.

The traditional methods of producing high-strength steels consist of adding alloying elements to the
steel melt and by rolling at reduced temperatures. But the limited allowable alloying elements and
mechanical power limits of the mills restrict the achievable product thickness and quality. The existing
limitations have been overcome since the development of advanced manufacturing processes, giving
birth to modern high-strength steel qualities presented hereafter. The worlds leading steel shape and
plate mills of top steelmaker Arcelor were the first to market and are still leading in these high
performance structural products.

Heavy plates from Dillingen (Germany) are available in steel grades with yield strengths up to 1100
MPa, known as DILLIMAX. Rolled H-shapes from Differdange (Luxembourg) are available with
yield strengths up to 500 MPa, better known as HISTAR. These steels belong to a group of steels that
combine even for very large material thicknesses very high yield strength with excellent
weldability, high ductility and outstanding toughness down to very low temperatures in an
economical way.

PRODUCTION PROCESS

The above mentioned limitations of traditional steels grades in terms of strength, toughness and
weldability have been overcome by the development of an advanced TMCP process (Thermo
Mechanical Controlled Process), known as the QST (Quenching and Self-Tempering) process. This
process considerably increases the yield strength and the toughness of the steel. Simultaneously, due
to much lower carbon equivalent values, it significantly improves the weldability of the beams. Below
diagram compares carbon equivalent (CE) values of traditional steels and modern HISTAR grades as a
function of material strength and thickness. The area with very high CE values is uneconomical or
hardly weldable.

Since 1993, ASTM A913 is the Standard Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Shapes of
Structural Quality, Produced by the Quenching and Self-Tempering Process, (QST). The QST
process was invented and brought to industrial maturity in the late 1980s at Arcelors heavy section
mill in Differdange, Luxembourg, in cooperation with Arcelors Research Center and the
Metallurgical Research Center in Liege, Belgium. In the QST process, which is still the most
advanced TMCP (Thermo-Mechanical Controlled Process), an intense cooling with water is applied to

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WELDABILITY EVALUATION OF STEEL ASTM A913
To take full advantage of the lower carbon equival A913, its weldability has

To begin with, hardness is measured across the section of the welded area. Below diagram shows on

ross-weld tensile tests have been carried out to ascertain whether welded joints meet the required
the whole surface of the section immediately after rolling. Cooling is interrupted before the core is
affected and the outer layers are tempered by the flow of heat from the core to the surface. Below
picture shows the QST process in operation. At the exit of the last rolling stand, directly at the entry of
the cooling equipment the temperature is 850C and after cooling a self-tempering temperature of
600C is achieved.



ent values of steel ASTM
been extensively investigated. Many comprehensive weldability evaluation programs have been
performed covering the entire range of material thicknesses, strength levels, weld processes, welding
energies and weld connection geometries.
the left side no excessive hardening in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) at low heat input (8-10 kJ/cm).
The right side shows no unexpected softening in the HAZ at high input (35 kJ/cm).

HISTAR 355 L HISTAR 460 L
D
u
r
e
t
?
H
V
1
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Position, mm
Mal
de base
ZAT Mal
d'apport
ZAT Mal
de base
D
u
r
e
t
?
H
V
1
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Position, mm
Mal
de base
Mal
d'apport
Mal
de base
ZAT ZAT
C
strength of the base metal. Below diagram shows on the left side the yield strength of different
weldments compared to the un-welded steel. The right side of the diagram shows the tensile strength.
All welds were done without preheating. The welded conditions cover low (8kJ/cm), medium
(12kJ/cm) and high (35kJ/cm) heat inputs and all commonly used processes like Flux-Cored Arc
Welding (FCAW), Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) and Submerged Arc Welding (SAW). All
tests revealed that the properties after welding are similar to the un-welded steel and that the
specimens always fracture, as intended, in the base metal and neither in the HAZ nor the weld metal.
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
200
300
Re (MPa)
400
500
600
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
Mal
de base
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
Rm (MPa)
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
Mal
de base
630 MPa max EN 10025-4
700
300
400
500
600
700
Limite d 'asticit Ristance ? la rupture
470 MPa min EN 10025-4
345 MPa min EN 10025-4
2 1
200
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
HISTAR 355

Note: # 1 and #2 represent each one specimen having half of the total steel thickness, for test machine reasons.
ending tests (180 around 40mm pin) on cross-weld specimens (10mm x full-thickness) always

order to avoid brittle fractures in the welds and adjacent areas, the toughness of deposited metal and

B
confirmed the ductility of the welds by absence of any cracks as shown on below photos.





SMAW - E = 12 kJ/cm FCAW - E = 8 kJ/cm SAW - E = 35 kJ/cm










In
the HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) needs to be good -- usually the parent metal min. toughness applies.
The following three diagrams show the impact test results at a low temperature of -20 C. Each
diagram is for one of three sampling positions, as indicated; top of weld (=sous-peau), mid-thickness
(=mi-epaisseur) and root (=racine). Specimens were notched at different positions in the HAZ --
shown in sketch at bottom right -- are not adversely influenced Heat inputs ranged from a low 8
kJ/cm, as occur in manual welding, to a high of 35 KJ/cm, common for automatic SAW.

georges.axmann@arcelor.com Page 4 of 13
Impact toughness of steel, weld metal and HAZ at -20 C
100
200
300
0
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
S 355 M / EN 10025-4
100
200
300
0
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
100
200
300
0
FCAW
E=8 kJ /cm
C
h
a
r
p
y

V

(
J
)
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
SL
F
L
F
+
2
L
F
+
5
Sous-peau Racine
Mi-aisseur
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
SMAW
E=12 kJ /cm
SAW
E=35 kJ /cm
356
S 355 M / EN 10025-4
S 355 M / EN 10025-4
C
h
a
r
p
y

V

(
J
)
C
h
a
r
p
y

V

(
J
)
Mal
de base
Mal
de base
Mal
de base
Nuance
Localisation
S
LF
: HISTAR 355
: longitudinal - 1/6 aile
: soudure, mal d'apport
: ligne de fusion
LF+5mmLF+2mmLF S
Sous-peau
Mi-aisseur
Racine
Ep.
2mm
2mm
Sens de laminage



WELDABILITY EVALUATION PERFORMED IN CHINA

The Welding Research Institute of Central Research in Beijing, Institute of Building and Construction,
MCC, (China Metallurgical Construction Group Corporation) completed in 2005 an evaluation of the
material properties and weldability of steel ASTM A913 Gr65. The base metal was the heaviest rolled
H-shape HD400x1086kg/m, having a flange of 125mm and a web of 78mm thickness. A large extent
of this study is described hereafter.

Steel Shape -- Chemical composition
C Si Mn P S Cu Ni Mo Nb V Cr C
eq
(IIW)
Std. Max 0.16 0.40 1.60 0.030 0.030 0.35 0.25 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.25 0.43
Product 0.079 0.25 1.55 0.014 0.015 0.20 0.11 0.04 0.001 0.06 0.12 0.402

Steel Shape -- Tensile properties
Test piece sectional
dimension mm

Yield strength

S
(MPa)
Tensile strength

b
(MPa)
Elongation
(%)
Remarks
-- 450 550 15 Standard requirement
125.036.7 475 602 27 Whole thickness sample
Note: sampling direction in rolling direction, the sample location is at 1/6th of flange width BB440mm.


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Steel Shape -- Impact toughness test at 0
Direction Sampling position A
kv
(J)
Standard - Flange
requirement
Longitudinal At 1/6
th
flange width and 1/4
th
thickness 134141143
Alternate Core
requirement
Longitudinal At 1/2th flange width and 3/4
th
thickness 140142146
Note: Required toughness: min. 54J at +21 C in flange and 27 J at +21 C in core position

Weld metal -- chemical composition
Brand C Si Mn P S Mo Cu Ni Cr V
Metal-core wire JM60 0.07 0.75 1.81 0.011 0.006 0.42 0.26 0.06 0.10
Electrode CHE 557 0.076 0.45 1.34 0.015 0.014 0.334 0.009 0.024 0.010
Electrode CHE 507 0.070 0.34 0.92 0.012 0.012 0.001 0.038 0.007 0.021 0.010

Weld metal -- mechanical properties
Model Nr. Brand
S
(MPa)
b
(MPa)
5
(%) A
kv
(J) Impact test T ()
ER55-G JM60 630 730 25 525856 -29
E5515-C CHE 557 495 605 28 669092 -40
E5015 CHE 507 430 545 30 138139168 -30

Weld cold cracking sensitivity tests
To assess the weld cold cracking sensitivity, 4 methods were used: the carbon equivalent method, the
HAZ maximum hardness test, the Y-groove welding crack test (Tekken test)and the welding cold
crack implant test.

Carbon equivalent method
The carbon equivalent equation of the International Institute of Welding (IIW) was used:
CEQ = C + Mn/6 + (Mo+Cr+V)/5 + (Cu+Ni)/15. This concept is used to estimate the steels
hardening and cold cracking sensitivity. The higher carbon equivalent C
eq
(IIW) is, the higher the
hardening and sensitivity to cold cracking in the HAZ. The C
eq
(IIW) of the tested A913-65 steel is
0.40, which very low considering the yield strength of over 460 MPa strength of and the large product
thickness of 125 mm. Consequently, the C
eq
(IIW) of 0.40 indicates that the weldability of the steel is
excellent and the probability of weld cold cracking is very low.

HAZ maximum hardness test
The HAZ maximum hardness test is another indirect method to assess the tendency of weld cold
cracking due to hardening. The test followed specification GB4675.5-84. The GMAW (Gas shielded
Metal Arc Welding) was made with CO
2
and solid wire JM60 of 1.2mm diameter. Full thickness of
steel was used.

A total of six welds were made and tested to study low heat input (10-12 kJ/cm) and high heat input
(22-24 kJ/cm) each with no preheat (20 C), 50 C preheat and 100 C preheat.

Hardness (HV10) measuring points are shown in following sketch.


georges.axmann@arcelor.com Page 7 of 13







All measured hardness values showed that the tendency of weld cold cracking is small, as the highest
recorded hardness value of 336 HV in the HAZ is lower than 350 HV the maximum value permitted
in common standard specifications. This very good behavior results from the steels low carbon
content despite its high strength. As expected, the highest hardness was recorded without preheating.
In case of applying preheats, the steel s HAZ hardened even less because of reduced cooling speed,
expressed by increased t
8/5
values (t
8/5
= cooling time period between 800 C and 500 C).


Y-groove weld cracking test (Tekken test)
Y-groove weld cracking test, also known as Tekken test, is another way to evaluate the tendency of
weld cold cracking. The test was carried following specification GB4975.1-84 test method of Y-
groove weld cracking test. Details are shown in below figure. The thickness of the tested steel was
125mm and 78mm. As required, weld surfaces were inspected after 24 hours, then blued and cut to
observe section crack.



a. Welding method: CO
2
gas shielded arc welding
b. Welding wire and diameters: JM60steel thickness =125mm1.2mm
c. Welding electrode and diameters: CHE557thickness =78mm4.0mm
d. Test temperature: Room temperature (20 C)
e. Assembly: groove gap = 20.2mm.

Results of Y-groove weld cracking test (=125mm)
No. Wire
Current
A
Voltage
V
Weld
Times
Crack
size (mm)
Crack position Remarks
11 JM60 278-300 33-33.7 14 no / No preheat (20 C)
12 JM60 278-300 33-33.7 15 8 root in centerline No preheat (20 C)
13 JM60 278-300 33-33.7 15 no / No preheat (20 C)
21 JM60 278-300 33-33.7 15 15 root in centerline Preheat 100
22 JM60 278-300 33-33.7 15 no Preheat 100
23 JM60 278-300 33-33.7 15 17
root centerline
weld end
Preheat 100


Result of Y- groove weld cracking test (=78mm)
No. Wire
Current
A
Voltage
V
Weld
Times
Crack
size (mm)
Crack position Remarks
21 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / No preheat (20 C)
33 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / No preheat (20 C)
22 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / Preheat 70
23 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / Preheat 70
31 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 10
Fusion Line
weld end
Preheat 100
32 CHE557 160-180 24-26 30 no / Preheat 100

There were only few cracks at weld centerline or at the end of the weld. This was explained by the
large size of the weld gun -- CO
2
gas shielding which prevented the welder to respect fully the
standard, and the weld-bead start and end locations were not in the root of the groove. Preheating had
no evident influence on the tendency of cold cracking under the tested conditions. The results show
that steel ASTM A913 Gr65 is good at preventing cold cracking. In case of weld metal with limited
cracking sensitivity, some preheating is advisable.

Weld cold cracking implant test
Test standard: GB9446-88 methods of weld cold cracking implant test
Welding processManual arc welding. Welding conditions as follows:

Wire Diameter Current Voltage Speed Heat input
CHE557 4 mm 160 A 25 V 15cm/min 16kJ/cm
Note: electrodes are dried at 350x1.5h.

Test temperatures: 1) Room temperature: 15, Preheating temperature: 70
The bottom plate was common steel with dimensions 30020020mm.
The dimension of the inserted pin is shown in below figure.
Test criterion: Fracture

At room temperature (15), the weld cold cracking implant test by manual arc welding with no
preheat and postheat showed that critical fracture stress of the steel is 629MPa; If preheating
temperature is 70, it becomes 656MPa. This clearly showed that the steel is very good at preventing
cold cracking because yield stress of the steel is 475MPa and tensile strength is 602MPa.

georges.axmann@arcelor.com Page 8 of 13


Effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT)
a. Welding parameters: GMAW, CO
2
, wire JM601.2mmsteel thickness =78mm
c. Test temperature: Room temperature (20 C)
d. Requirement of assembly: test pieces groove is 35with a gap of 8mm.
e. Checking condition: 8
#
and 9
#
are checked just after welding;
8R
#
is checked after a PWHT (post-weld heat-treatment) of 5302.5h and
9R
#
is checked after a PWHT of 5502.5h.

Hardness (HV5) was measured across the section of the 1/2 V welded butt joint. The test results are
summarized in below figure.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
H
V
5
where
9
#
8R
#
9R
#
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
200
205
210
215
220
225
230
235
240
245
250
H
V
5
mm
where
9
#
8R
#
9R
#
straight edge
bevel edge
Hardness variation across butt welded joint

As expected, the hardness results across the weld became more homogeneous after stress-relieving
PWHT and the hardness was slightly reduced by increasing temperature of the PWHT.

Welded joints impact toughness test results at 0
Impact energyJ
No. Test no.
Test result Average
Remarks
1 8X-13 118 118 116 117.3 Notch Positionfusion-line (=FL)
2 8RX-13 102 138 142 127.3 Pos.: FL, after PWHT
3 9RX-13 124 92 92 102.7 Pos.: FL, after PWHT
4 8R13 102 160 96 119.3 Pos.FL
5 8RR-13 140 130 140 136.7 Pos.: FL, after PWHT
6 9RR-13 140 142 146 142.7 Pos.: FL, after PWHT

As shown in above table, impact toughness was tested at temperature 0 C on samples notched at the
fusion line of the weld. The results indicate that toughness is slightly improved by PWHT. It was also
noted that higher PWHT temperature (5502.5h) does not lead to any better toughness.



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WELDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STEEL ASTM A913

Since 1998, ASTM A913 / Grades 345 and 450 MPa are prequalified steels in the Structural Welding
Code AWS D1.1 (American Welding Society) in category weldable without preheating, when
welded with low hydrogen (< 8 ml/100g) electrodes and when the outside temperature is above 0C.
The low maximum allowable CE (Carbon Equivalent) value of 0.38 for Grade 345 respectively 0.43
for Grade 450 required in ASTM A913 warrants the outstanding weldability.

Below table shows an excerpt of the welding code comparing the minimum preheating temperatures
for traditional steels ASTM A572/50, ASTM A992 and for modern steels ASTM A913 Grades 345
and 450.



ASTM A913 Grade 345
and Grade 450
ASTM A572 Grade 345
and ASTM A992
Thickness of thickest part at
point of welding (mm)
Min. Preheat and
interpass Temp. (C)
Min. Preheat and
interpass Temp. (C)
3 to 20 incl. 0* 0
Over 20 through 38 0* 10
Over 38 through 65 0* 65
Over 65 0* 110
* If welded with electrodes capable of depositing weld metal with a maximum diffusible hydrogen
content of 8 ml/100g (H8), otherwise to be preheated like ASTM A572/50 and A992.

The code requirements mean in practice that steel ASTM A913 can be welded without preheating in
most cases. This is a considerable advantage over traditional steels, needing high preheating
temperatures for large thicknesses. For example, it takes about 4 hrs and lots of gas for preheating to
110 C a weld splice area of a 125 mm thick rolled H-shape column (W410x1086 kg/m).

In terms of weld consumables, the welding code AWS D1.1 requires no special electrodes for steel
ASTM A913 Grades 345 and 450. Thus, modern steels are welded in workshop and on jobsite using
the same electrodes and weld procedures as for conventional steels. The only exception is of course
that for complete joint penetration (CJP) welds subjected to tension, an E80-type electrode must be
used when welding Gr.450, in order to match the steels strength, as required by AWS D1.1. All other
welded joints, ie. partial penetration welds, compression CJP, fillet welds, or welds to lower strength
material (355), can be performed with the same electrode used for Gr.355, meaning an E-70 type.


APPLICATIONS OF STEEL ASTM A913

Rolled H-Shapes in steel ASTM A913 should be used whenever preheating is required. As mentioned
earlier, steel ASTM A913 will generally allow the steel fabricator to save the time and propane needed
for preheating.

A stronger steel meaning 450 MPa respectively 345 MPa, than the initial steel grade for instance
345 MPa or 235 MPa, should be considered to be used when the structural design of a member is not
governed by drift or vibration concerns. For instance, ASTM A913 Gr.450 used in gravity columns
with normal buckling lengths (typically less than 5.5 m) allows the engineer to reduce the weight and
the cost of the structure. Indeed, the use of Gr. 450 instead of Gr. 345 or even Gr. 235 allows the
structural engineer to reduce dramatically the size of the column. On average, the weight of the
columns can be reduced by 15 % compared to 345 MPa and more than 45 % compared to 235 MPa
steel. Almost all buildings designed with a concrete core taking all the lateral loads can thus be
designed with Gr. 450 columns. It is also the case for gravity or high loaded columns used in power
plants.

In addition to steel weight savings, fabrication efficiency, transportation, handling, erection and
foundation costs of the structure are also reduced. Also, in particular for heavy shapes, the gains in
electrodes and weld time resulting from reduced weld volumes by using thinner steel members are
considerable.

New Poli Building in Beijing Shanghai World Financial Center
H-columns ASTM A913 Gr.420 H-shapes in ASTM A913 Gr.345
H-beams in ASTM A913 Gr.345 Heavy plates in DI-MC 460


Power plant Lanxi: Highly loaded columns in A913/gr. 450



georges.axmann@arcelor.com Page 11 of 13

The best use of A913/Gr.450 is in tension members such as the typical bottom chord of a truss or in
compression members with short buckling length such as the top chords of a truss. A913/Gr. 450 in a
truss generally allows a reduction of minimum 15 % compared to classical solution in Gr. 345. This
weight reduction is a function of the span of the truss and the importance of the dead loads on the
design. For the new assembly plant of the Boeing 777 -- close to Seattle on the US West Coast, the
weight savings was 35 % compared to grade 345 due to the long span (108 m ) of the trusses. This
project, built in 1991, was the first project in the US using QST steel, even before the approval of
ASTM A913. Another advantage is the weldability without preheating of all the splices as mentioned
earlier.


HEAVY PLATES IN HIGH STRENGTH STEEL GRADES DILLIMAX

The bearing capacity of steel structures, such as large bridges, hydro-power construction, flood gates,
and mobile heavy machine equipment is increasingly designed for improved weight efficiency. As a
result, heavy steel plates from Dillingen Arcelor Group have been developed and successfully used
with yield strength 460 MPa in thicknesses up to 200 mm, yield strength 690 MPa in thicknesses up to
150 mm and yield strength 1100 MPa up to 30 mm. Known under the trade name DILLIMAX, these
plates belong to a class of steels high-strength, weldable, fine-grained that are accepted
internationally and recognized in EN standards. In fact, along with the increase of strength, toughness
and fabrication properties have also been considerably improved. With appropriate preheating these
high strength steels can safely be welded.

CONCLUSIONS


georges.axmann@arcelor.com Page 12 of 13
can be activated in case of extraordinary loadings like earthquakes, blasts and fire.
High performance structural steel qualities, produced by the mills of the worlds top steelmaker
Arcelor are stronger, easier to use and more economical than ever before achievable. These modern
steel qualities combine in an economical way even for very large material thicknesses very high
yield strength with excellent weldability, high ductility and outstanding toughness -- to very low
temperatures. Their outstanding strength and toughness provide also additional safety reserves which

georges.axmann@arcelor.com Page 13 of 13
hese excellent product properties are achieved through advanced production processes which
igh-strength plates from Dillingen (Germany), known as DILLIMAX recognized in EN standards,
igh-strength steel rolled H-shapes from Differdange (Luxembourg), known as HISTAR recognized
any structural engineers already understood the potential of these modern steels. They have been

T
warrant high tensile strength despite of much lower alloying contents than in traditional steels. As a
consequence, fabrication procedures, in particular welding can be much simplified and made more
efficient by using no or reduced preheats.

H
are available with yield strength 460 MPa up to 200 mm, YS 690 MPa up to 150 mm and even YS
1100 MPa up to 30 mm.

H
in ASTM A913 and EN standards, are available with yield strengths up to 450 MPa with max. flange
thickness of 125 mm.

M
used in several hundred projects around the world, among others, several powerplants in China, the
new Poli building in Beijing and Chinas tallest building the Shanghai World Financial Center.

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